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LFCS exam success - Linux Foundation Certified System Administrator Updated: 2024

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Exam Code: LFCS Linux Foundation Certified System Administrator exam success January 2024 by Killexams.com team

LFCS Linux Foundation Certified System Administrator

Overview

The Linux Foundation Certified System Administrator (LFCS) certification is ideal for candidates early in their Linux system administration or open source career. The exam consists of performance-based items that simulate on-the-job tasks and scenarios faced by sysadmins in the real world. Obtaining certification allows individuals to validate their skills to prospective employers, which is particularly valuable if you have little on-the-job experience.



Domains & Competencies

The Linux Foundation worked with industry experts and the Linux kernel community to identify the core domains and the critical skills, knowledge and competencies applicable to each certification. Performance-based exams were then developed based on the competencies that were identified.



- Essential Commands – 25%

- Operation of Running Systems – 20%

- User and Group Management – 10%

- Networking – 12%

- Service Configuration – 20%

- Storage Management – 13%



Essential Commands – 25%

- Log into local & remote graphical and text mode consoles

- Search for files

- Evaluate and compare the basic file system features and options

- Compare and manipulate file content

- Use input-output redirection (e.g. >, >>, |, 2>)

- Analyze text using basic regular expressions

- Archive, backup, compress, unpack, and uncompress files

- Create, delete, copy, and move files and directories

- Create and manage hard and soft links

- List, set, and change standard file permissions

- Read, and use system documentation

- Manage access to the root account



Operation of Running Systems – 20%

- Boot, reboot, and shut down a system safely

- Boot or change system into different operating modes

- Install, configure and troubleshoot bootloaders

- Diagnose and manage processes

- Locate and analyze system log files

- Schedule tasks to run at a set date and time

- Verify completion of scheduled jobs

- Update software to provide required functionality and security

- Verify the integrity and availability of resources

- Verify the integrity and availability of key processes

- Change kernel runtime parameters, persistent and non-persistent

- Use scripting to automate system maintenance tasks

- Manage the startup process and services (In Services Configuration)

- List and identify SELinux/AppArmor file and process contexts

- Manage Software

- Identify the component of a Linux distribution that a file belongs to



User and Group Management – 10%

- Create, delete, and modify local user accounts

- Create, delete, and modify local groups and group memberships

- Manage system-wide environment profiles

- Manage template user environment

- Configure user resource limits

- Manage user privileges

- Configure PAM



Networking – 12%

- Configure networking and hostname resolution statically or dynamically

- Configure network services to start automatically at boot

- Implement packet filtering

- Start, stop, and check the status of network services

- Statically route IP traffic

- Synchronize time using other network peers



Service Configuration – 20%

- Configure a caching DNS server

- Maintain a DNS zone

- Configure email aliases

- Configure SSH servers and clients

- Restrict access to the HTTP proxy server

- Configure an IMAP and IMAPS service

- Query and modify the behavior of system services at various operating modes

- Configure an HTTP server

- Configure HTTP server log files

- Configure a database server

- Restrict access to a web page

- Manage and configure containers

- Manage and configure Virtual Machines



Storage Management – 13%

- List, create, delete, and modify physical storage partitions

- Manage and configure LVM storage

- Create and configure encrypted storage

- Configure systems to mount file systems at or during boot

- Configure and manage swap space

- Create and manage RAID devices

- Configure systems to mount file systems on demand

- Create, manage and diagnose advanced file system permissions

- Setup user and group disk quotas for filesystems

- Create and configure file systems
Linux Foundation Certified System Administrator
Linux-Foundation Administrator exam success

Other Linux-Foundation exams

LFCS Linux Foundation Certified System Administrator
FOCP FinOps Certified Practitioner
KCNA Kubernetes and Cloud Native Associate (KCNA)

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Question #241
Given a file called birthdays containing lines like:
YYYY-MM-DD Name -
1983-06-02 Tim
1995-12-17 Sue
Which command would you use to output the lines belonging to all people listed whose birthday is in May or June?
A. grep '[56]' birthdays
B. grep 05?6? birthdays
C. grep '[0-9]*-0[56]-' birthdays
D. grep 06 birthdays | grep 05
Answer: C
Question #242
The script, script.sh, consists of the following lines:
#!/bin/bash
echo $2 $1
Which output will appear if the command, ./script.sh test1 test2, is entered?
A. test1 test2
B. test2 test1
C. script.sh test2
D. script.sh test1
E. test1 script.sh
Answer: B
Question #243
Which approach will provide a listing of the contents in a tar archive?
A. Use the tar command with -t.
B. Use the grep command.
C. Use the find command.
D. Use the zless command.
E. Use the zlist command.
Answer: A
Question #244
Which character starts a comment line in a shell script file?
A. ;
B. *
C. #
D. /
Answer: C
Question #245
What is the output of the following command sequence?
for token in a b c; do
echo -n "$token ";
done
A. anbncn
B. a b c
C. "a " "b " "c "
D. token token token
E. abc
Answer: B
Question #246
What is the correct command to extract the contents of the archive file download.bz2?
A. unpack download.bz2
B. unzip2 download.bz2
C. bunzip2 download.bz2
D. unzip download.bz2
E. uncompress download.bz2
Answer: C
Question #247
Which command chain will count the number of regular files with the name of foo.txt within /home?
A. ls -lR /home | grep foo.txt | wc -l
B. find /home -type f -name foo.txt | wc -l
C. find /home -name foo.txt -count
D. find /home -name foo.txt | wc -l
E. grep -R foo.txt /home | wc -l
Answer: B
Question #248
Which of the following command sequences overwrites the file foobar.txt?
A. echo "QUIDQUIDAGIS" >> foobar.txt
B. echo "QUIDQUIDAGIS" < foobar.txt
C. echo "QUIDQUIDAGIS" > foobar.txt
D. echo "QUIDQUIDAGIS" | foobar.txt
Answer: C
Question #249
Which of the following commands redirects the output of cmd to the file foo.txt, in which an existing file is
overwritten?
A. cmd || foo.txt
B. cmd | foo.txt
C. cmd && foo.txt
D. cmd >> foo.txt
E. cmd > foo.txt
Answer: E
Question #250
What does the exit status 0 indicate about a process?
A. The process ended without any problems.
B. The process was terminated by the user.
C. The process couldn't finish correctly.
D. The process waited for an input but got none.
E. The process finished in time.
Answer: A
Question #251
Which of the following commands will output all of the lines with the name Fred in upper or lower case but not the
word red from the file data_file? (Choose two)
A. grep -v fred data_file
B. grep '[f]red' data_file
C. egrep fred data_file
D. grep '[Ff]red' data_file
E. grep -i fred data_file
Answer: DE
Question #252
The output of the program date should be saved in the variable actdat. What is the correct statement?
A. actdat=`date`
B. set actdat='date'
C. date | actdat
D. date > $actdat
E. actdat=date
Answer: A
Question #253
SIMULATION -
What two character sequence is present at the beginning of an interpreted script? (Please specify the TWO correct
characters only)
Answer: #!
Question #254
How can the current directory and its subdirectories be searched for the file named MyFile.xml?
A. find . -name MyFile.xml
B. grep MyFile.xml | find
C. grep -r MyFile.xml .
D. less MyFile.xml
E. search Myfile.xml ./
Answer: A
Question #255
Which of the following commands will set the variable text to olaf is home? (Choose two)
A. text=olaf\ is\ home
B. text=$olaf is home
C. $text='olaf is home'
D. text=='olaf is home'
E. text="olaf is home"
Answer: AE
Question #256
Which of the following commands will create an archive file, named backup.tar, containing all the files from the
directory /home?
A. tar /home backup.tar
B. tar -cf /home backup.tar
C. tar -xf /home backup.tar
D. tar -xf backup.tar /home
E. tar -cf backup.tar /home
Answer: E
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Courses  &gt;&gt; Linux Administrator Online Course
Online Linux Administrator Course Content is designed by our working Linux Training professionals with a combined experience of nearly 10 years in Linux Administrator Training. These training professionals were brought together for this course development and once they started putting together their magical ideas, concepts, real life experience and problems, the end product was an exciting and highly relevant course. Come, Join our team and enter the world of Linux.

Our course is designed keeping three key things in mind; Simplicity, Efficiency and Syllabus.

  • Simplicity - The entire course is designed in a very simple way to ensure that you can master it without much difficulty. All you need to do is read, watch, and practice, and you can be an efficient Linux Administrator.
  • Efficiency- Our course takes you through a journey in which you will learn and experience a whole new world to its fullest. The course will help you attain an expert level knowledge and will help you be a class above your contemporaries.
  • Coverage - Our expert team knows what need to be learned in order to be a successful Linux Administrator, and they have put together a crispy syllabus that has it all. All the relevant Topics are covered in our course, with enough emphasis given to the most important bits.

This Linux Administrator course is an ideal platform for you to start learning and venturing into the vast ocean that Linux is. This will provide you the right boost you need to start building a career in the highly prospective Linux space.

This course has the potential change your career and to point you towards the right direction. We have designed this course such that a person with minimum or no prior knowledge will be comfortable working with our text tutorials and watching videos. Join this course and equip yourself with the right tools to make it big in the world of Linux.

The structure of this Linux Administrator course is simple; We have 3 sections- Text Section, Videos Section, and Project Modules Section.
  • Text Section - You will be introduced to all concepts in the text format in this section, all Topics will be discussed in detail with examples.
  • Videos Section - Videos of explanation of concepts with an example will be available for you to watch and learn.
  • Project Modules Section - In this section you will be given assignments on each course you have learnt. All assignment requirements will be based on the real life project model which will equip you with the real life Linux experience.

Hiring companies have access to all the assignments and projects done by students so they can select best overall Linux Administration expert for their jobs, just not the students who score well in exams or can talk well in interview.

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Our Linux Administrator Course is open to all working professionals, and graduates who have BSc, BCA, MCA or Engineering degree. It is also open to current students in MCA and Engineering. No previous experience is required.

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Linux Foundation announces new certification and courses in open source development

The Linux Foundation announced that it created three new training courses on the edX platform, which cover Linux, Git, and other open source development tools. 

The courses can be taken individually or combined to earn a Professional Certificate in Open Source Software Development, Linux and Git.

Open Source Software Development: Linux for Developers (LFD107x) covers concepts that are crucial in developing open-source software, as well as how to work productively in a Linux environment. Students will learn about Linux systems, including key concepts like installation, desktop environments, text editors, important commands and utilities, command shells and scripts, filesystems, and compiling software.

The second course, Linux Tools for Software Development (LFD108x) goes over the tools that one would use on everyday work in Linux development. It is intended for developers that are experienced with working on any operating system that want to learn the basics of open-source development. 

The final course, Git for Distributed Software Development (LFD109x), offers an introduction to Git and it will prepare participants to use Git to create new repositories or to clone existing ones, commit new changes, review revision histories, and more. 

To earn the professional certificate, participants must enroll in the program, complete all three courses, and pay a Verified certificate fee of $149 per course. 

Tue, 18 Jan 2022 10:00:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://sdtimes.com/os/linux-foundation-announces-new-certification-and-courses-in-open-source-development/
Microsoft, Linux Foundation Find Common Ground

Last week, Microsoft and the Linux Foundation sent a joint open letter to the American Law Institute to protest the group's draft Principles of the Law of Software Contracts. The ALI, a nonprofit group whose stated purpose is "to promote the clarification and simplification of the law and its better adaptation to social needs," published the draft last August as part of an effort to provide judges clearer guidelines for interpreting software licensing agreements.

The ALI is proposing that two new "non-disclaimable" warranties be added to best practice guidelines for software licensing. One warranty would make software developers liable for infringing on patents and copyrights, while the other would make contributors to open-source software liable for material defects in the software. The law currently allows contributors and licensors of open source to avoid liability by offering their wares on an "as-is" basis.

The GPL and many other free software licenses expressly state that the authors have no liability pertaining to the functioning--or non-functioning--of the software, said John Locke, principal consultant at Freelock Computing, a Seattle-based open-source consultancy.

"Legislation that imposes a burden of providing a warranty against defects would seem to go against the GPL, which would mean people couldn't use GPL software wherever this ALI principle was applied," Locke said.

The ALI's proposal would also take away commercial software vendors' ability to draw up End User License Agreements (EULAs) that distance themselves from any kind of warranty that their software is bug-free, Locke added.

In a Sunday post to the Microsoft On The Issues blog, Horacio Gutierrez, corporate vice president and deputy general counsel of Intellectual Property and Licensing, said certain provisions of the ALI's proposal "do not reflect existing law and could disrupt the well-functioning software market for businesses and consumers, as well as create uncertainty for software developers."

Jim Zemlin, executive director of the Linux Foundation, noted that the issue is one area in which the open-source community and Microsoft see eye to eye.

"The principles outlined by the ALI interfere with the natural operation of open-source licenses and commercial licenses as well by creating implied warranties that could result in a tremendous amount of unnecessary litigation, which would undermine the sharing of technology," Zemlin said in a Monday blog post.

Sun, 10 Dec 2023 22:35:00 -0600 text/html https://www.crn.com/news/applications-os/217500712/microsoft-linux-foundation-find-common-ground
Linux Foundation advances open source vision with Generative AI Commons

Join leaders in San Francisco on January 10 for an exclusive night of networking, insights, and conversation. Request an invite here.


In the world of generative AI, the role of open-source technologies is becoming increasingly important.

At Linux Foundation‘s AI dot dev event this week, the non-profit organization that is home to a vast array of open-source efforts across the technology landscape attempted to stake its claim for relevancy in the generative AI era. The Linux Foundation is an umbrella group for several open-source efforts including the Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF), the PyTorch Foundation and the LF AI and Data project. 

Among the newest efforts is the Generative AI Commons, which was quietly launched in September and has progressed steadily in the months since then, adding new members and detailing its direction at the AI dot dev event.

In the opening keynote for the event, Jim Zemlin, executive director of the Linux Foundation emphasized the critical role of open source for technology innovation.

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“Open innovation isn’t just a way to create interesting technology,” Zemlin said. “We believe it is a basic freedom of expression.”

Survey says: open is the way to go

To help better understand the AI landscape, the Linux Foundation’s research group surveyed enterprise views on generative AI.

“The world is rapidly adopting generative AI tooling, half of the organizations we talked to are already implementing these tools,” Zemlin said.  “In fact, the only thing holding people back right now are security and data privacy concerns as it relates to generative AI projects in their organizations.”

Not surprisingly, given the survey was conducted by the Linux Foundation, the majority of organizations want to use open-source generative AI technology as opposed to proprietary solutions.  Zemlin noted that being open to AI can help with understanding how models work and make decisions.

“We want to make sure that everybody understands, whether it’s regulators or industry, that openness will allow for transparency, trust attribution, will allow for competition and innovation,” Zemlin said.

What the Linux Foundation’s Generative AI Commons is all about

As part of the LF AI and Data Foundation at the Linux Foundation, the new Generative AI Commons is a growing effort.

In a keynote, Matt White, director of the Generative AI Commons, detailed the objectives, progress and future plans for the nascent effort. The group now has more than 100 active members and has a stated mission of helping to foster the advancement of ethical Generative AI open-source innovations. White said that what all the members have in common is they want to advance open-source generative AI and see open science embraced in AI research and development.

“In essence, the Generative AI Commons is where openness means action,” White said. “It is where we come together to ensure that the benefits of AI are shared, the knowledge is spread and the future of AI remains firmly in the hands of the many and not just a few.”

The Generative AI Commons is organized into four primary work streams: model and data, frameworks, applications, and education. One of the initial deliverables that the group is now working on is the model openness framework, which evaluates generative AI projects against the criteria of open science and open source.

“We will be growing the number of hosted generative AI projects whether they be models, datasets, or applications to grow a rich ecosystem of open source generative AI projects that are guided by a strong community with neutral governance that embraces the principles of responsible AI,” White said.

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Tue, 12 Dec 2023 22:17:00 -0600 Sean Michael Kerner en-US text/html https://venturebeat.com/ai/linux-foundation-advances-open-source-vision-with-generative-ai-commons/
Best IT Certifications for 2024

Earning specialized certifications is a surefire way to advance your career in the IT field, regardless of industry or current career level. The right certification validates your skills and knowledge, which makes you more desirable to future employers who want to attract and retain the best employees. Below, we’ll explore the top IT certifications and share how to examine your goals to choose the right path forward. 

We’ve narrowed IT certifications into specific categories to help IT professionals assess what’s available and pursue the best certifications to show their willingness to learn and develop the in-demand career skills employers want.

Best database certifications 

Database platforms have changed greatly over the years, but database technology remains important for various applications and computing tasks. Available certifications for IT professionals include those for database administrators (DBAs), database developers, data analysts and architects, business intelligence, and data warehousing specialists, and other data professionals.

Obtaining database certifications demonstrates an understanding of database concepts, design, implementation, administration and security. This can boost your credibility in the job market and show potential employers that you have the skills needed to work with databases. The best database certifications include the following:

Best SAS certifications 

SAS is one of the world’s leading firms for business analytics, data warehousing and data mining. Today, the SAS Global Certification Program offers 23 credentials across categories including foundation tools, advanced analytics, business intelligence, data management and administration.

SAS programmers remain in high demand, with a quick search of job boards showing thousands of open positions. Obtaining SAS certification shows employers that you are proficient in the company’s popular suite of tools. Some of SAS’s certification programs include the following: 

Many professionals earn certifications to help navigate their career paths. According to the IT Salary Report, 92 percent of information technology professionals have at least one certification.

Best Cisco certifications 

Cisco Systems is a market leader not only in networking and communications products, but also storage networking and solutions for data centers. Cisco offers a variety of certifications for IT professionals, ranging from entry level credentials to expert-level exams. 

These certifications prepare professionals for Cisco-related careers. A search of job boards reveals thousands of open positions for Cisco experts, underscoring the continued relevance of these skills. Some of Cisco’s certifications include the following:

Best Dell certifications 

Dell Technologies remains one of the world’s leading computing companies. In addition to its well-known hardware lineup, Dell also offers solutions for networks, storage, servers, gateways and embedded computing, as well as a broad range of IT and business services.

Becoming certified in Dell products can help make IT professionals competitive in engineering roles for server, virtualization, networking, systems, integration and data security. Additional roles include consultants, account executives, system administrators, IT managers and deployment managers.

Best mobility certifications 

In the mobile era, it has become increasingly important for network engineers to support local, remote and mobile users, as well as provide proper infrastructure. The focus on application and app development now leans more toward mobile environments, requiring security professionals to thoroughly address mobility from all perspectives.

Due to the fast-changing nature of mobile technology, not many mobility certifications have become widely adopted. However, a few of the top mobility certifications can help IT professionals stand out in this rapidly evolving field. 

If part of your job includes selling and implementing an IT solution, you may want to pursue the best sales certifications. You’ll show your organization that you’re willing to go above and beyond to reach sales targets.

Best computer hardware certifications 

As remote and computer-based work has become more common, it’s more important than ever that businesses and individuals be able to maintain their hardware. While discussions about potential computer-related jobs often revolve around software work and coding, jumping into the IT field by becoming a computer technician is an excellent starting point.

Today, thousands of hardware technician jobs are available across the country. Entering this industry becomes more accessible for those who acquire computer hardware certifications. These certifications can showcase your expertise and proficiency in the upkeep of computers, mobile devices, printers and other hardware components.

Best Google Cloud certifications 

IT pros with solid cloud computing skills continue to be in high demand as more companies adopt cloud technologies. Today, Google Cloud is one of the market leaders in the cloud computing space. 

Regardless of where you are in your IT career, engaging with certification programs can demonstrate your willingness to keep on top of rapidly evolving cloud technologies. To that end, Google has introduced a host of certifications for its cloud platform, including the following: 

Best evergreen IT certifications

In the fast-changing world of technology, it can help to focus on certifications that have stood the test of time. “Evergreen” refers to certifications that remain popular year after year. 

The top evergreen certifications are based on latest pay surveys in IT, reports from IT professionals about certifications they want or pursue the most, and those that appear most frequently in online job postings. Obtaining these credentials is one step toward ensuring that your skills remain relevant for a long time: 

Best IT governance certifications 

IT governance provides structure for aligning a company’s IT with its business strategies. Organizations faced with compliance rigors always need experienced IT pros who can see the big picture and understand technology risks. This means certified IT governance professionals are likely to remain in high demand.

Earning one of the following certifications proves a commitment to understanding the role of IT governance and its position in a company’s current and future success. Getting certified can validate your expert knowledge and lead to advanced career opportunities.

Best system administrator certifications 

An IT system administrator is responsible for managing and maintaining the information technology infrastructure within an organization. The position demands sought-after career skills, ranging from configuring and maintaining servers and clients to managing access controls, network services, and addressing application resource requirements.

If you’re in charge of managing modern servers, there’s a long list of tools and technologies that system administrators must master. Obtaining some of the most prominent system administrator certifications can demonstrate your mastery to potential employers. 

Best ITIL certifications 

ITIL, or Information Technology Infrastructure Library, was developed to establish standardized best practices for IT services within government agencies. Over the ensuing four decades, businesses of all types embraced, modified, and extended ITIL, shaping it into a comprehensive framework for managing IT service delivery. 

The ITIL framework remains the benchmark for best practices in IT service and delivery management, offering certification programs that cater to IT professionals at all levels. These training and certification courses ensure that IT professionals stay well-prepared for the ongoing evolution in IT service delivery management. There are four certifications in the ITIL certification program:

Best enterprise architect certifications 

An IT enterprise architect is responsible for designing and managing the overall structure and framework of an organization’s information technology system. Enterprise architect certifications are among the highest that an IT professional can achieve; fewer than 1 percent ultimately reach this level. 

Enterprise architects are among the highest-paid employees and consultants in the tech industry. These certifications can put IT professionals on a path to many lucrative positions. The average worker earns over six figures annually. Some top enterprise architect certifications are listed below:

To become an enterprise IT architect, you’ll need knowledge of systems deployment, design and architecture, as well as a strong business foundation.

Best CompTIA certifications

CompTIA is a nonprofit trade association made up of more than 2,000 member organizations and 3,000 business partners. The organization’s vendor-neutral certification program is one of the best recognized in the IT industry. Since CompTIA developed its A+ credential in 1993, it has issued more than two million certifications.

CompTIA certifications are grouped by skill set and focus on the real-world skills IT professionals need. Armed with these credentials, you can demonstrate that you know how to manage and support IT infrastructure. 

Best Oracle certifications 

A longtime leader in database software, Oracle also offers cloud solutions, servers, engineered systems, storage, and more. The company has more than 430,000 customers in 175 countries. 

Today, Oracle’s training program offers six certification levels that span 16 product categories with more than 200 individual credentials. Considering the depth and breadth of this program — and the number of Oracle customers — it’s no surprise that Oracle certifications are highly sought after. 

Vendor-specific certifications address a particular vendor’s hardware and software. For example, you can pursue Oracle certifications and Dell certifications to become an expert in those companies’ environments.

Best business continuity and disaster recovery certifications

Business continuity and disaster recovery keep systems running and data available in the event of interruptions or faults. These programs bring systems back to normal operation after a disaster has occurred.

Business continuity and disaster recovery certifications are seeing a healthy uptrend as new cloud-based tools grow in popularity. While business continuity planning and disaster recovery planning have always been essential, they’re becoming more critical than ever — and IT certifications are following suit.

Tue, 02 Jan 2024 09:59:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.businessnewsdaily.com/10953-best-it-certifications.html
Kernel security now: Linux's unique method for securing code
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The Linux Foundation's Greg Kroah-Hartman delivered a comprehensive talk this week on the current state and future challenges of Linux kernel security. Speaking at the Open Source Summit (OSS) Japan 2023, Kroah-Hartman -- Linux stable kernel maintainer and a prominent member of the Linux kernel security team -- shed light on the evolving landscape of open-source software security, regulatory challenges, and the Linux kernel's response to these issues.

Hardly a day goes by without a software security issue popping up, and governments are now trying to direct how companies and organizations should mitigate security issues. There's just one problem: Governments barely understand how to use software, much less how open-source developers create software.

Also: Linux might be your best bet for heightening your desktop computer security

For example, the European Union's proposed Cyber Resilience Act (CRA) is full of good intentions, but it's a bad fit for anyone who builds open-source software. While the most latest version is much better, as Kroah-Hartman pointed out, it still means that since "all the world sells their devices and products into the EU, this is going to define their security requirements."

Are we ready to deal with this new wave of regulation? No, we aren't. 

As for the Linux community, Kroah-Hartman has said that the Linux kernel security team is fundamentally reactive, contrary to other security teams that adopt a proactive stance. Since its formal inception in 2005, the team has operated informally, without corporate affiliations or contracts. This allows for neutrality and flexibility in addressing security issues. This approach has fostered trust among companies and effectively managed and triaged security problems.

"There are other groups, kernel security teams, and other projects," he added,  "that are proactive. But that's not what we do. We just react to problems."

And there are plenty of problems to go around. For instance, Kroah-Hartman highlighted the ongoing challenges with hardware security, particularly in the wake of vulnerabilities like Spectre and Meltdown. Indeed, as he pointed out, it's been more than three years since those serious CPU bugs appeared, and while "they keep trying to fix them in hardware, another one just got announced a few hours ago. So there's no end to this anytime soon." 

This underscores the complexities of dealing with hardware embargoes and the longer development cycles of hardware compared to software. Ideally, Kroah-Hartman wants the hardware companies to "get on the ball faster," a sentiment echoed by governments and regulatory bodies.

Kroah-Hartman also pointed out that, "a lot of people [today] don't realize that while the Linux commercial distribution model is not dead, it's not the majority anymore by far. 80% of the world's servers and systems run free and open source projects based on Debian, Fedora, or openSUSE" -- not Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) or SUSE Linux Enterprise Server (SLES)

Also: Want a simple, stable, and secure Linux distribution? Then SpiralLinux is for you

That reality has complicated security challenges because, Korah-Hartman explained, "the communities that work with these open-source projects can't sign a non-disclosure agreement (NDA) because their community members live in other countries or work for different companies." 

Instead, the Linux kernel developers' security team is an "ad hoc informal group" without a  contract. Kroah-Hartman continued, "And that was the best thing that could ever happen to set the stage for us doing this in a company- and government-neutral way. It's saved us so many problems."

How it works: People send security reports to the group's members. There's not even an email list. There's just a small group, which doesn't represent any companies. Kroah-Hartman added, "It's all kept quiet, and since 2005, we've never had any leaks."

What they do, Kroah-Hartman continued, "is triage the reports, figure out what's wrong, and drag in the proper developers, if they're not on the list already, to create the fix as soon as possible. This patch is then included in the stable branch of Linux. That's it."

When they say "as soon as possible", they mean it. "Once we have a fix, the most we'll hold on to is seven days. This is," Kroah-Hartman continued, "after we have a fix. When we get a report, we start working on it as soon as possible. We have had some fixes to take over a year. We've had some networking issues. I think we went on 18 months before we fixed it properly. But once we fixed it, the fix goes in." 

Also: Ubuntu Linux 23.10 is adding an important new security feature

The group also does not make announcements of security fixes. " We don't announce anything. We don't say anything special. We just push it in so that it looks like a normal bug fix."

Yes, that does make people angry. But, Kroah-Hartman explained, "to people on the security team, a bug is a bug is a bug. There's nothing special about security fixes. And if we call out security fixes as being special, that implies that other fixes are not special."

That's a mistake because, according to Kroah-Hartman, "any bug has the potential of being a security issue at the kernel level." A small bug fix he'd made years ago to TTY, a minor subsystem in Linux today, turned out to have a killer security hole. It enabled anyone to get root on RHEL systems.  You never know where or when a security problem will crop up.

Kroah-Hartman also observed that while the "Linux kernel has about 30 million lines of code, you only use about two million lines in your server, 4 million in your phone, and one and a half million in your TV. But we don't know what you're using. Linux is everywhere, in your cars, in satellites, and it's in cow-milking machines. We don't know your use case. We don't know how you're using Linux. We don't know what the security model is." Therefore, everything and anything must be considered essential.  

Also: 7 things even new Linux users can do to better secure the OS

So, what can you do about it to protect yourself? Kroah-Hatman stressed that you should always use the latest long-term stable (LTS) kernel. 

Unfortunately, very few Linux distributions do that. He criticized companies that fail to update their kernels regularly. Outdated systems, from where he sits, are inherently insecure. 

This isn't his opinion alone. After years of study, Kroah-Hartman cited the Google Android security team, which found that stable Linux kernels had fixed every known latest security problem before they were reported. They have documented proof that taking stable kernels always works and that your systems will be secure. As a Google Linux kernel engineer, Kees Cook said, "So what is a vendor to do? The answer is simple, if painful: continuously update to the latest kernel release, either major or stable."

Thu, 07 Dec 2023 03:16:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.zdnet.com/article/kernel-security-now-linuxs-unique-method-for-securing-code/
Linus Torvalds on the state of Linux today and how AI figures in its future No result found, try new keyword!But at the Linux Foundation's Open Source Summit Japan, Torvalds and his good friend Dirk Hohndel, the head of Verizon open source, talked about the current state of Linux. First up, the two ... Mon, 04 Dec 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en-us text/html https://www.msn.com/ The Linux Foundation Coupons December 2023

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Linux Foundation Projects Unite at COP28 to Showcase Open Source Action on U.N. Sustainable Development Goals

Linux Foundation community to discuss impact of open source in a live stream presentation at COP28, Dubai.

SAN FRANCISCO , Nov. 28, 2023 /PRNewswire/ -- The Linux Foundation, the nonprofit organization enabling mass innovation through open source, is excited to announce a one-hour live-stream presentation at COP28, Dubai that will explore the transformative power of open source and how it is being used to advance the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Featuring speakers from Linux Foundation Research, Linux Foundation Europe, OS-Climate, Hyperledger Foundation, AgStack Foundation, Fintech in Open Source Foundation (FINOS), Sustainable &amp; Scalable Infrastructure Alliance, and the ELISA and Zephyr projects, the presentation will take place on December 6th from 15:00 - 16:00 GST in the COP28 Blue Zone.

Linux Foundation at COP28 on December 6th

The Linux Foundation, home to more than 1,000 open source projects, aims to significantly scale up global, community-based open collaboration around solutions for climate change, sustainability, and environmental social governance (ESG). Presentation participants will call for the international community to broaden and deepen their open source efforts, with the aim to drive more resources toward developing the open source solutions needed to close the $5 trillion yearly gap in investment required for greenhouse gas mitigation, resilience, and adaptation.

The one-hour presentation on December 6th will include a series of talks about how Linux Foundation projects and communities are advancing the 17 UN SDGs. Sharing insights from the Linux Foundation's latest research, and important community projects and initiatives, speakers will highlight use cases and documented efforts that help drive sustainability, identifying where resources can be directed to broaden and deepen these efforts.

"I am thrilled to share new research at COP28 that illustrates the myriad Linux Foundation projects as transformative, digital public goods vital to the acceleration of the UN Sustainable Development Goals." - Hilary Carter, SVP Research &amp; Communications, Linux Foundation Research

"OS-Climate has led the awakening of the sustainable finance and business community to the power of open source, and the public utility approach for data it debuted at COP26 is now being adopted across multiple initiatives including the NZDPU, the recently announced Monetary Authority of Singapore facility, and the utility for biodiversity envisioned by the Task Force for Nature-Related Financial Disclosures (TNFD). There is much greater potential to tap open source in accelerating climate impact. Most players in the climate community have yet to embrace true community-based development, where peers and even competitors work jointly to build the pre-competitive layers of data and tools in full transparency, which can be used in widely adopted commercial solutions and advisory services."  – Truman Semans, Executive Director of OS-Climate

"Climate Accounting is a global, decentralized problem that we all share. This is why the Hyperledger Climate Action and Accounting Special Interest Group is working hard to explore how to deliver open source, decentralized ledger solutions to provide a shared account of our global carbon emissions. Our work is a critical component of the development underway across the Hyperledger community to address climate challenges." – Sherwood Moore, Chair, Hyperledger Climate Action and Accounting Special Interest Group, Hyperledger Foundation

"More than 1/2 of the world's labor force is engaged in Agriculture. More than 70% of all freshwater is used in Agriculture. Our ways of producing, supplying/processing and consuming our food are simply not sustainable today and as a result 1/3rd of the total food produced is wasted and 1/3rd of the people on the planet are hungry - while 1/3rd of all GHG emissions on the planet come from agriculture. But agriculture can also be the solution - aided in part by the digital economy. With the help of its passionate community of public- and private-sector actors, AgStack is building an open-science, open-data and open-source data infrastructure - that enables digital content creation and consumption - at scale. For both industrialized farms in the global north and smallholder farms in the global south, AgStack offers a permissively licensed set of sub-projects that enable the reusable, inclusive and non-vendor-locked infrastructure (the digital "road") for digital applications (or "vehicles") to unleash the power of data to benefit food ecosystems stakeholders worldwide." – Sumer Johal, Executive Director, AgStack Foundation

"Not only does open collaboration deliver incredible efficiency in mutualizing resources needed to build the high quality and longevity software, hardware and standards our digital infrastructure runs on, but in turn enables these to be made available as digital public goods for the entire world to leverage. And when you pair this positive-sum game, in which individuals can collaborate on a level playing field with private and public sector actors, with worthy causes like the UN SDGs, the impact we can have is simply exponential and gives us a vital chance to address pressing issues that frankly no single entity can solve in isolation." – Gabriele Columbro, ED Fintech in Open Source Foundation, GM Linux Foundation Europe.

"The population is growing but our resources aren't. We need to be more efficient with what we have, which means we need to focus on advancing the UN Sustainable Development Goals, and open source is one of the best ways of collaborating on the infrastructure products are based on for dependability on a global scale. Zephyr is working towards efficient power management in resource-constrained applications, bringing AI to the edge, as well as being able to be secure and efficient when there are safety considerations. ELISA is working to enable Linux in similar embedded applications where there are safety considerations for market segments like automotive, medical, industrial, and aerospace." – Kate Stewart, VP Dependable Embedded Systems, Linux Foundation

"Digital infrastructure powers our communities and must also positively contribute to them. The scale at which this will expand requires those that are developing this infrastructure do so in a way that is not only profitable but sustainable, equitable and beneficial to the world. This philosophy is core to the Linux Foundation's Sustainable and Scalable Infrastructure Alliance. Our open community has developed specifications to address the very physical aspects of our digital infrastructure. The Open19 V2 specification addresses the emerging power and cooling requirements of next-generation workloads in a consistent, reusable form. We're excited to build on this momentum and work with the community on renewable energy (use, storage, and re-use), expand reuse of existing infrastructure, and create novel approaches to sustainability challenges in digital infrastructure." – My Truong, Chair, Sustainable &amp; Scalable Infrastructure Alliance

The presentation will be hosted on December 6th in the COP28 Blue Zone from 15:00 - 16:00 GST. Participate in the free live-stream here. For more information about the Linux Foundation's sustainability efforts, visit LF Sustainability, and read the Open Source for Sustainability report.

About The Linux Foundation

The Linux Foundation is the world's leading home for collaboration on open source software, hardware, standards, and data. Linux Foundation projects are critical to the world's infrastructure including Linux, Kubernetes, Node.js, ONAP, PyTorch, RISC-V, SPDX, OpenChain, and more. The Linux Foundation focuses on leveraging best practices and addressing the needs of contributors, users, and solution providers to create sustainable models for open collaboration. For more information, please visit us at linuxfoundation.org. The Linux Foundation has registered trademarks and uses trademarks. For a list of trademarks of The Linux Foundation, please see its trademark usage page: www.linuxfoundation.org/trademark-usage. Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds.

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The Linux Foundation
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SOURCE The Linux Foundation

Mon, 27 Nov 2023 19:30:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://finance.yahoo.com/news/linux-foundation-projects-unite-cop28-143000914.html




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