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HCE-3700 exam contents - Hitachi Vantara Certified Expert - Performance Architect Updated: 2024

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Exam Code: HCE-3700 Hitachi Vantara Certified Expert - Performance Architect exam contents January 2024 by team
Hitachi Vantara Certified Expert - Performance Architect
Hitachi Performance exam contents

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HH0-560 Hitachi Data Systems Certified Specialist - Content Platform
HH0-580 Hitachi Data Systems Certified Specialist Virtualization solutions implimentation
HH0-350 HDS Certified Specialist - NAS Architect
HCE-5710 Hitachi Data Systems Certified Expert - Replication solutions implementation
HCE-5420 Hitachi Data Systems Certified Specialist - Content Platform
HQT-4210 Hitachi Data Systems Certified Professional - NAS installation HAT
HQT-4180 Hitachi Vantara Qualified Professional VSP Midrange Family Installation
HQT-4120 Hitachi Vantara Qualified Professional VSP G200 to VSP G800 Storage Installation
HCAHD Apache Hadoop Developer
HCE-3700 Hitachi Vantara Certified Expert - Performance Architect
HCE-5920 Certified Specialist: Pentaho Data Integration Implementation

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Question: 167
What are two appropriate criteria for evaluating a batch job performance? (Choose two.)
A. elapsed time and/or throughput (MBs, IOPS)
B. storage response time
C. customer requirements
D. host initiators utilization
Answer: A,B
Question: 168
You are evaluating storage system performance for an interactive workload.
What are three appropriate criteria in this situation? (Choose three.)
A. customer requirements
B. throughput (MBs)
C. elapsed time
D. storage system response time
E. resource utilization (% busy)
Answer: B,C,D
Question: 169
A 10K RPM Small Form Factor 600 GB disk drive has a 3 ms average rotational latency and a 4 ms average seek
How many random read IOPS would you expect from a 4D+4D RAID group using these drives before any
consideration for cache hits or queuing optimization benefits?
A. approximately 570 IOPS
B. approximately 1,140 IOPS
C. approximately 1,530 IOPS
D. approximately 2,280 IOPS
Answer: D
Question: 170
Which two environments are suitable for cost effective use of Hitachi Accelerated Flash disk media? (Choose two.)
A. Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) data warehouse
B. Online Transaction Processing (OLTP) with HDT
C. large scale Consumer Video on Demand (CVOD)
D. Virtual Desktop (VDI)
Answer: A,B
Question: 171
How many back-end disk operations are normally required to complete a small block random write operation to a
LUN on a RAID 5 group?
A. 2
B. 3
C. 4
D. 6
Answer: C
Question: 172
In a VSP G200 system, what are two advantages of RAID 1+0 compared to RAID 5/6 for random write workloads?
(Choose two.)
A. RAID 1+0 provides more useable capacity per for the same number of drives.
B. RAID 1+0 has less processing overhead.
C. Disk virtualization is lower.
D. RAID 1+0 has more efficient pre-fetch operation.
Answer: A,C
Question: 173
Which three functions are performed by a VSP G1000 Virtual Storage Director (VSD)? (Choose three.)
A. It executes host I/O requests.
B. It calculates parity.
C. It manages cache segment usage.
D. It moves data to/from cache.
E. It executes software such as HDP or copy products.
Answer: A,C,D
Question: 174
Which two statements are true about the Active Flash feature on the VSP Midrange? (Choose two.)
A. The Active Flash feature of Hitachi Dynamic Tiering monitors page access frequency in real-time, and immediately
promotes pages that suddenly become busy.
B. The Active Flash feature can be enabled on any HDT pool as long as Tier 1 of the Dynamic Tiering pool is
composed of SSD or FMD drives.
C. The Active Flash feature can be enabled on any HDP pool as long as the pool is comprised of SSD or FMD drives.
D. The Active Flash feature of Hitachi Dynamic Tiering monitors page access frequency in real-time, and promotes
pages based on a predefined schedule.
Answer: A,B
Question: 175
Which two port options are bi-directional on a VSP G800? (Choose two.)
A. Replication-Target (RCU)
B. Open Target (TAR)
C. External Target (eLUN)
D. Mainframe (FICON)
Answer: A,B
Question: 176
On a VSP G1000, the maximum I/O Request Limit for an external initiator port has been exceeded.
What are two consequences of this activity? (Choose two.)
A. New writes will back up into the VSP G1000 cache.
B. The host will see rapidly rising response times per request.
C. The host will see a minor change in response times.
D. The host will not be able to process new I/O requests.
Answer: C,D
Question: 177
You are partitioning a VSP G1000 with eight VSDs and 1024 GB cache, and are creating an 80 GB CLPR.
In this scenario, how much cache does each VSD blade initially reference in the CLPR?
A. 10 GB
B. 80 GB
C. 640 GB
D. 1024 GB
Answer: D
Question: 178
You are sizing a VSP G4000 for a customer who requires good performance but has a very limited budget. You now
must select a cache size between 64 GB and 128 GB.
Which three conditions will affect your selection in this situation? (Choose three.)
A. The customer plans to use Cache Logical Partitions (CLPRs)
B. The customer environment is mainly VMware.
C. The number of LDEVs that are available.
D. The customer will use Shadow Image.
E. The number of connected hosts.
Answer: A,C,E
Question: 179
A customer using a small block interactive workload on a VSP G200 complains about poor application performance.
They use an FC SAN which consists of 8 Gbps and 16 Gbps FC switches.
What are two causes of the performance issue? (Choose two.)
A. Front-end ports of the VSP G200 are connected to the 8 Gbps FC switch.
B. The front-end FC ports are used by another bandwidth-intensive application.
C. The host HBA has an insufficient queue depth setting.
D. The multi-pathing software uses round robin balancing algorithm.
Answer: B,C
Question: 180
You are designing a VSP G1000 solution for a customer and you need to determine the appropriate disk type and
RAID level.
What information do you need to design the solution? (Choose three.)
A. type of workloads
B. workloads read-write ratio
C. operating systems used in the environment
D. fan-in and fan-out ratios
E. expected I/O rates
Answer: A,B,E
Question: 181
A customer is considering buying a new VSP Midrange system with iSCSI front-ends. The system will be used to
support existing Oracle databases and a new MS Exchange mail system. The existing customers LAN has enough
resources to handle the iSCSI traffic. They have provided the required storage for Oracle and MS Exchange.
What I/O profile information is required to size the VSP system in this scenario? (Choose two.)
A. transactions per second collected from the Oracle databases
B. the planned amount of MS Exchange mailboxes and IOPS per user
C. the planned amount of e-mails per second the MS Exchange system will send and receive
D. IOPS and R/W ratio collected from the Oracle databases
Answer: B,D
Question: 182
Which two statements are true regarding HDP pools? (Choose two.)
A. Using the largest possible pools is a recommended practice.
B. Exposure to failure and recovery from failure must be considered when recommending the maximum size of a pool.
C. HDP pools can be used for sizing HDT pools.
D. Tier migration is based on performance and space capacity.
Answer: A,C
Question: 183
A VSP G800 HDT pool contains FMDs, NL-SAS drives, external storage with 15K 600 GB SAS drives, and external
storage with 10K 900 GB SAS drives.
Which tier level contains the NL-SAS drives in this configuration?
A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4
Answer: A

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Read our editorial policy to learn more about our process.

Sun, 03 Dec 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html
Performance Summary

The charts below show your cumulative results based on all tests taken to date, in addition to how well you performed on each individual test. Click on the test number to review a snapshot of how you fared in each board category and subtopic for that individual test, in addition to how well you performed compared to your colleagues.

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Wed, 09 Aug 2017 22:14:00 -0500 text/html
Can food Excellerate your exam performance?

by Dr Alex Richardson

When you're faced with a pile of revision, feeding your body as well as your brain may be the last thing on your mind. But can you deliver yourself an advantage simply by eating certain foods? And does drinking plenty of water really increase your chances of getting good grades?

Whether you're a student or the parent of a child sitting school exams, there are quick and easy food tips to help maintain those all-important energy levels and Excellerate concentration and memory.

What's the best breakfast on exam days?

Research shows that pupils and students who eat breakfast perform better in exams. For the best breakfast, include slow-release carbohydrates, such as whole rolled porridge oats, whole grain bread or low-sugar muesli, as they provide slow-release energy. Add a protein food, such as milk, yoghurt or eggs, to keep you feeling full for longer. On exam day aim to include a portion of a food rich in long-chain Omega-3 fats, such as smoked mackerel, as they are believed to have brain-boosting properties. Take a look at our collection of exam-day breakfast ideas for some inspiration.

Got only 2 minutes to make breakfast? Go for yoghurt, banana and seeds for a good mixture of protein and carbs.

How can drinking water Excellerate your grades?

One of the best ways to maximise your focus is to stay hydrated. Even mild dehydration can lead to tiredness, headaches, reduced alertness and diminished concentration.

Take a bottle of water into the exam if you’re allowed to; a study of university students found that those who brought drinks, especially water, with them into the exam performed on average 5% better than those who didn't.

Start the day with a big glass of water or fruit tea. The European Food Safety Authority recommends women drink about 1.6 litres of fluid a day and men 2 litres. That's eight to ten 200ml glasses. Water is ideal, but healthy drinks such as milk and small amounts of fruit juice count.

Tea and coffee count too, but are high in caffeine. It's best to avoid sweet fizzy and energy drinks, which are high in sugar, as they'll lead to energy peaks and troughs.

Donal Skehan shows you how to make drinking water more interesting.

Which foods will help you focus?

Eating a balanced diet can help you focus and avoid illness. No single food is nutritionally complete, so you need variety. Try not to skip meals or your blood-sugar level will drop.

Good fats

In the West we eat far too much Omega-6, found in vegetable and seed oils, and too little Omega-3 (which is important for brain power), found in oil-rich fish and seafood. It is important to limit your Omega-6 consumption. This means limiting products made from these oils, such as some margarine, as well as the oils themselves.


Vegetables contain fibre, which slows down digestion, causing energy in food to be released more slowly and so helping you to avoid energy peaks and troughs. Good sources of fibre include carrots and broccoli. Iron is particularly key during exam time, as a deficiency (identified in over 40% of teenage girls) leads to tiredness and lack of focus; dark leafy greens are a source.


Fibre slows down digestion and so causes energy in food to be released into the body more slowly; apples, pears, raspberries and bananas are good sources. Try sprinkling frozen berries or dried fruit on to porridge. Vitamin C is needed for your immune system, and is found in fruit and vegetables; oranges and kiwi fruit are particularly good sources.


Oil-rich fish and seafood are important for brain health and concentration, thanks to their ‘long-chain Omega-3s’. About 8% of the brain is comprised of Omega-3 fats, and we should eat a portion of Omega-3-rich foods at least 2 days a week. It’s condensed in salmon, sardines, fresh tuna (not canned), trout and mackerel; even fish fingers contain some. Supplements may be considered, especially in exam periods. Short-chain Omega-3s, found in nuts and seeds, are less effective as we can struggle to convert them into long-chain ones. Young women may benefit from boosting their iron with red meat.

Whole grains

Slow-release carbohydrates such as whole grain bread, wholemeal pasta, brown rice and porridge help keep your blood-sugar level stable, averting dips in concentration and brain power. Research indicates only 17% of adults and 6% of children are eating enough whole grains. Eating three slices of whole grain bread or one bowl of whole grain cereal with one slice of the bread per day will provide all the whole grains you need. Some whole grains, including wheat, are a good source of zinc, and zinc deficiency in children is associated with hyperactivity.

What should you eat for a good night's sleep?

Not getting enough sleep may negatively affect your memory and slow your responses. Experts believe memory neurons that are responsible for converting short-term memories into long-term ones work most effectively when we are asleep. There's evidence that students who sleep for seven hours a night do on average 10% better than those who get less sleep. But what should you eat and drink at bedtime to promote sleep?

A heavy meal too close to bedtime can interfere with sleep, so try to have your last meal at least three hours before you go to bed. Then have a small snack such as a bowl of high-fibre cereal like porridge just before bedtime. If you need sweetener with cereal, go for dried fruit rather than sugar.

Avoid foods and drinks that contain caffeine, such as tea, coffee, cola and chocolate, for least four hours before going to bed. Some people who are very sensitive to caffeine can still feel the effects 12 hours later. A warm glass of milk at bedtime can help you sleep better.

Mon, 29 Apr 2019 01:49:00 -0500 en text/html
Hitachi Metals has now become Proterial

Soaring demand for low-impact, energy-efficient technologies is far from the only megatrend which Proterial is addressing. The company makes products for many of the technologies integral to the Fourth Industrial Revolution, from robotics and 3D printing to artificial intelligence.

Take factory automation as an example. Proterial makes high-performance magnets, linear motors and cables for the industrial robots that are helping industry deal with a global labor shortage. Using its materials know-how, Proterial has created uniquely flex-resistant cables for the moving parts of robots which have the capability to withstand repeated bending and twisting that is part and parcel of machines performing complex tasks at superhuman speeds.

Nowhere is the same combination of durability and reliability more crucial than in aerospace, where lives are at stake. Here, Proterial has deployed its metallurgical mastery to create structural components for landing gear that can withstand repetitive heavy loads, and for aero-engines that can withstand high-temperature, high-pressure combustion gasses and high-speed revolutions. As the pandemic recedes and air travel gets back to normal, demand is starting to take off.

Coming back to Earth, we live in a world where electronic devices such as smartphones and tablets permeate our lives 24/7. Here too, Proterial has a crucial role to play, creating materials for the metal masks of organic electroluminescent displays, and clad metals that help reduce the thickness, weight and number of components in mobile devices, making them more portable and user-friendly.

Sun, 21 May 2023 09:26:00 -0500 text/html
Doctoral Candidacy Examination Instructions

All students participating in a Master of Science or Doctor of Philosophy degree program must complete a thesis or dissertation proposal for approval by the members of the student's steering committee. The major professor and each of the graduate steering committee members must approve the proposal using the Graduate School's proposal approval form. MS thesis proposals should generally be completed two semesters prior to defense of the thesis; PhD dissertation proposals must be completed to achieve candidacy (in concert or in parallel with the candidacy examination process). Each Department/Program may have requirements that exceed those specified broadly in this policy; however, they must be consistent with the Graduate School's requirements. Departmental requirements beyond the minimum stated here must be specified in writing and submitted to the Graduate School as well as listed in departmental web pages. It is the responsibility of the student to be aware of, and comply with, all Graduate School and Departmental dissertation proposal requirements.

The objectives of this examination are to confirm the student's breadth and depth of knowledge in their chosen field of study as well as the student's understanding of the scientific process. The doctoral candidacy examination should be administered upon completion of the majority of coursework, and successful completion of the exam signifies readiness to undertake the research and dissertation component of the doctoral program. This examination must be taken within three years from the first date of matriculation, and at least one year prior to the dissertation defense.

Upon the recommendation of the appropriate Department Chairperson, the Associate Provost for Instruction and Office of the Graduate School appoints the doctoral candidacy examination committee consisting of the student's major professor, the student's steering committee and an additional faculty member from an appropriate area. Additionally, the Associate Provost for Instruction and Office of the Graduate School appoints a committee chair who is not from the department of the student's degree program. The role of the examination committee chair is to manage the examination, ensure its integrity and represent the interests of the faculty and student.

The examination must have both written and oral components, described below.

Written Examination

The purpose of the written exam is to assess the readiness of the student to move beyond the coursework stage of the doctoral program, into the development of a substantial research project and dissertation. Traditionally, questioning should verify sufficient breadth and depth of knowledge to successfully undertake such research, and then communicate the results in a scholarly manner appropriate to the discipline.

To initiate the examination process, the examining committee shall convene at a planning meeting with the student. During the first part of the planning meeting, the committee determines the form and schedule for the process and establishes the date for the oral component (reported on form 6E). The student is then excused from the meeting and the committee develops and discusses the exam content. There are three alternative forms for the written component, as follows:

  • Form 1: Each member of the committee (excluding the chair) submits one distinct question, set of questions, or problem related to the objectives of the exam. The questions are discussed and agreed upon at the planning meeting. The major professor administers the written examination. Typically, each question or set of questions must be completed within a prescribed period of time, not to exceed approximately 8 hours each, with additional time permitted for reasonable breaks, meals, etc.. No more than one question or set of questions should be administered per 24 hours. Upon completion by the student, the examination questions are reviewed and graded by the committee members who prepared them. The committee then collectively reviews the entire examination.

  • Form 2: The student prepares a written report on a syllabu or problem assigned collectively by the examining committee as a whole. The syllabu or problem must meet the objectives of the examination and its content cannot be directly related to the student's dissertation research topic. The student has approximately one month to develop a thorough understanding of the assigned syllabu and prepare a written report. The report is reviewed by the committee members and committee chair.

  • Form 3: The student prepares and defends a written proposal of future research likely to be carried out during their Ph.D. project. This research prospectus must be presented to the examining committee two weeks prior to the oral candidacy exam and should include preliminary studies supporting the feasibility of the proposed research. The exam will test the candidate's understanding of concepts directly related to his or her immediate area of research, knowledge of prior related research that has been conducted by others, their ability to design and interpret experiments in this area, and capacity to think and write independently and to present work plans orally in a clear and rational manner. The report is reviewed by the committee members and committee chair. Form 3 is available only to doctoral students in the Department of Chemistry and Environmental Resources Engineering.

At least 3 business days prior to the oral exam, the major professor shall confirm with the chair of the examining committee that the oral examination should proceed as scheduled. The written exam is thus considered to be "provisionally successful." If the written examination component does not meet the standards established for the candidacy exam, the committee has two options.

  1. If the deficiencies are relatively minor, or in the case of Form 1, limited to a minority of the written questions, the oral exam may be postponed by the Office of the Graduate School at the recommendation of the chair of the exam committee. The student may then be provided with an additional time period, the length of which should be determined by the full examination committee in consultation with the chair, to address deficiencies identified in the written examination. This time period should be no less than 8 hours (typically for Form 1), and may extend up to 5 business days for Forms 2 and 3. This action is treated as a suspension and extension of the written exam "in progress," and, if ultimately successful, does not constitute a failure of the entire exam, nor count toward the limited number of attempts prescribed by Graduate School policy below.

  2. If the deficiencies are severe, the major professor, in consultation with the examination committee may decide to fail the candidate without performing the oral component. This latter action does constitute a failure of the candidacy exam in its entirety, and does count toward the limited number of attempts prescribed by Graduate School policy below.

Oral Examination

The purpose of the oral examination is to further confirm the fitness of the student to apply the skills and knowledge acquired to date toward a successful and significant research project. The oral examination provides the opportunity for the student to demonstrate their ability to think synthetically and critically in a manner conveying their readiness to commence the dissertation project.

The oral component of the candidacy examination is typically scheduled for a period of approximately two hours, and is broken in to two distinct rounds of questioning. The first round, lasting approximately 60 minutes, consists of questions from each of the members of the examination committee, including the chair should they choose to contribute questions. Time should be shared equitably among the questioners, with interjections or interruptions by other questioners prohibited during the first round. The second round of questions may be more flexibly structured, with broader discussion and interchange among questioners is encouraged.

Any member of the faculty may be a silent observer for the oral component. The candidate may also invite a silent student observer to attend the oral examination. At the completion of the oral examination, the candidate and observers are excused from the room and the examination committee determines whether the student has successfully completed the oral component of the exam and achieved the status of "doctoral candidate." The committee chair has the option to vote. Unanimous agreement is required to pass the student on the first attempt. If less than unanimous agreement is reached, the student is considered to have failed the first candidacy examination. A student who fails the first candidacy exam may request a second exam, which must take place no more than one year from the date of the first examination. The second candidacy examination may, or may not include a new written component, at the discretion of the student's major professor and examination committee, in consultation with the examination chair. At the second exam, the student has passed if there is not more than one negative vote. A student who is determined to have failed the second candidacy examination is terminated from the doctoral program.

Scheduling the Candidacy Exam

To schedule a doctoral candidacy examination, the student should complete the following steps:

  1. In consultation with your major professor, complete Form 6B for your Department Chairperson to review, sign, and forward to the Office of Instruction and Graduate Studies. Form 6B should be submitted according to the academic year deadlines for defense exams.

  2. The Associate Provost for Instruction and Office of the Graduate School will assign a faculty member outside of your degree program to serve as chair of your examination committee. When you receive a copy of Form 6C which officially appoints your examination committee, you must consult with all members of your committee (major professor, steering committee, additional examiner, and defense chair) to arrange a mutually convenient date, time, and location for a planning meeting.

  3. You must inform the Office of Instruction and Graduate Studies of the agreed upon date, time, and location for your planning meeting at least two weeks in advance of the date. This Office will confirm in Form 6D these arrangements with all concerned individuals.

  4. At the planning meeting, your exam chair and the committee complete Form 6E, the committee chair will sign it and return it to the Office of Instruction and Graduate Studies, which will distribute copies to you and the committee.

  5. If you are using Form 1 of the examination, you and your major professor should arrange for a time and location to administer the questions.

  6. The last step is to meet with your committee and complete the oral examination at the designated date. At the end of the oral examination, your committee will ask you and any observers to leave the room while it determines if you have satisfactorily completed the doctoral candidacy examination. You will be invited back to receive the decision of the committee which will also be reported on Form 6F and returned by the exam chair to the Office of Instruction and Graduate Studies.

Thu, 25 Aug 2022 07:07:00 -0500 en text/html
NextGen Bar Exam: What to Know No result found, try new keyword!Gundersen, CEO and president of the not-for-profit National Conference of Bar Examiners, which develops bar exam content for 54 ... essay and performance test questions. But in the NextGen exam ... Wed, 15 Feb 2023 03:47:00 -0600 CyberGhost Vs. ExpressVPN (2023 Comparison)

The core function of a VPN is to hide a user’s real IP address while keeping data safe. Both CyberGhost and ExpressVPN achieve this goal. While both VPNs share some commonalities, they each have unique features.


VPNs encrypt user data by passing it through encryption tunnels to turn readable information into scrambled ciphertext that can only be understood if someone has the corresponding key. This process is important to the added security VPNs bring to customers and depending on the encryption technique used, it can make or break the security capabilities of a given VPN.

CyberGhost and ExpressVPN use AES-256 encryption—the gold standard for VPN encryption—because it is nearly uncrackable with current technology. Both VPNs also employ ChaCha20 encryption in their lightweight VPN protocols as it provides a significant increase in speed without sacrificing security.

VPN Protocols

When your device makes a connection to a VPN server, it does so based on a set of instructions to ensure speed, privacy and stability. These instructions are called VPN protocols and they can affect performance as much as they do security. Using a safe and fast VPN protocol is important for VPNs looking for an edge in the market.

CyberGhost and ExpressVPN both use OpenVPN and IKEv2 protocols, which are reliable and have their uses for different scenarios. OpenVPN is known to excel in security and its open-source nature allows its code to be monitored by savvy users to identify bugs or exploits. IKEv2 is primarily used on mobile phones or on devices that constantly switch networks and it provides decent security but much faster speed.

Users looking to maximize speed in their VPN usage have the option of the Lightway protocol with ExpressVPN or the open-source WireGuard protocol with CyberGhost. ExpressVPN created Lightway which offers similar speeds as WireGuard but with added security.

Lightway also supports obfuscation which can mask VPN usage and make it easier to bypass VPN blocking from companies or governments—giving ExpressVPN an advantage over CyberGhost for streaming or users in regions, such as China, where using VPNs are forbidden.

DNS Blocking

DNS blocking software is used by both ExpressVPN and CyberGhost to block known IP addresses that contain malware, trackers and ads. ExpressVPN users gain access to the Threat Manager tool for domain name server (DNS) blocking as long as they are on Android, iOS, Mac, Linux or using the ExpressVPN Aircove router. CyberGhost customers can activate the “block content” feature within security settings to block ads and malware. This feature is available only on MacOS, Windows, Android and the CyberGhost private browser.


CyberGhost provides Windows users with full access to Intego Antivirus software, which comes with all the features you would expect in a premium antivirus solution. Combined with the aforementioned DNS blocker, users could potentially treat CyberGhost as a full security solution which could be cost-effective for individuals or small businesses looking to beef up security at a competitive price—given they are on the Windows platform.

Kill Switch

Whenever an internet connection is interrupted, most devices or PCs are programmed to reestablish a connection automatically. This becomes a problem for VPN users if a VPN connection gets disrupted and the device decides to connect to an unencrypted source, possibly exposing your data and identity. This occurrence is known as a DNS leak.

Kill switches are designed to prevent DNS leaks by cutting your internet connection completely when your VPN connection drops until the VPN-protected connection is available again. CyberGhost and ExpressVPN each provide kill switches and also have built-in DNS leak protection.

Wed, 27 Dec 2023 21:00:00 -0600 Juliana Kenny en-US text/html
Driving through change: decarbonising fleets

With decarbonisation targets posing a serious challenge to fleet operators, Hitachi’s hands-on services promise to ease the transition to sustainable transportation and cut costs.

The internal combustion engine is reaching the end of the road leaving many commercial fleet owners in need of clear directions for the future. With the 2008 Climate Change Act requirement of an 80 per cent reduction in emissions by 2050, the UK government is aggressively pushing ahead with plans to phase out diesel and petrol engines, accelerating timelines to decarbonise mobility by 2035.

Regulation poses a huge challenge to commercial and public vehicle operators which have less than a decade to grasp the nettle of decarbonising their fleets. Strategic planning for these organisations is imperative, or costs will spiral, as congestion charges rise and balance sheets are burdened with legacy vehicles that can no longer legally take to the road.

With more than five million vans and HGVs on the road, the UK road freight sector contributes more than its fair share of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions including nitrous oxide (NOx). Just 0.5 per cent of all vehicles licensed in the UK are currently ultra-low emission.

Cost-effective conversion would be a significant challenge on its own, and the pandemic has dealt a blow to the finances of many businesses – with the exception of couriers and food delivery firms – squeezing capital and making investment hard to contemplate. Setting the issue to one side is tempting but would be a mistake, says Mike Nugent, Head of Intelligent Fleet Decarbonisation, Hitachi Europe.

“Fleet operators can’t put this on the back burner. They have no choice but to comply with legislation and it requires strategic action now,” he explains. “We have under-utilised public transport, a changing working landscape, an expansion of low carbon vehicles (LCVs) on the road to meet demand, and the residual value of all these vehicles is falling. But the business case for replacement has to hinge on the total cost of ownership (TCO). It’s a very complex field, which is where we support customers.”

Hitachi Europe and its sister company, Hitachi Capital Vehicle Solutions (HCVS), provide a route out of the operational cul-de-sac via Intelligent Fleet Decarbonisation, a renewal programme in the shape of a green-transport-as-a-service solution.

HCVS has been leasing, financing and managing vehicle fleets for more than 30 years and is responsible for some of Britain’s largest corporate and commercial vehicle fleets, including those of Network Rail, DHL and Defra. Converting those and others to electric requires a multi-layered approach.

“Our customers are very good at running fleet,” says Nugent. “But what they’re not experts in is total cost-of-ownership comparisons, electricity, grid connections and upgrades, charging points, optimisation and energy management. It takes them way out of their comfort zone and that adds risk.”

This view is echoed by Dale Eynon, Director of Group Fleet Services, at the government department Defra, which recently signed a new contract with Hitachi.

“We have a very complex and mixed fleet ranging from cars, vans and 4x4s through to plant and boats, which makes decarbonising our fleet challenging. There are currently limitations in terms of choice of vehicle availability, cost and charging network. When you overlay culture change on top of this, then we see it being several years before we break the back of it. That said, the work Hitachi is doing in this field is highly interesting and we hope it will support our ambitions on net carbon zero.”

Intelligent Fleet Decarbonisation is an end-to-end solution in which Hitachi guides the customer through an electrification and optimisation programme. This not only sources and finances vehicles but also reduces running costs by employing digital optimisation tools that deliver predictive maintenance and driver-behaviour modification.

“Our package de-risks the whole transformation process,” says Nugent. “We help customers build the business case, prioritise where to start, what to start on and what is the most optimal means by which they can run a fleet.”

Paulo Larkman, Head of Fleet Consultancy at Hitachi Capital Vehicle Solutions, explains how its programme provides a holistic view that supports operators through the entire process of transitioning to electric. It also enables operators to understand the new challenges that this transition involves, such as vehicle charging, converting depots and driver training, and that the real savings come when optimisation is applied to daily running costs.

“There isn't really anybody out there that's saying, ‘we'll put together the whole package and we'll run it for you and then we'll charge you per vehicle mile or per vehicle per month’, because it’s not cheap or straightforward,” he says. “The case for conversion becomes much more compelling when you present it as being built around an optimised fleet and optimised energy. That's where the digital element kicks in.”

Larkman adds: “In the past, we used to make fuel savings by moving to smaller vans and reducing journeys. But now, when you bring digital technology to bear, it just turbocharges the savings, through subsets of use such as journey efficiency, driver behaviour and early fault identification.”

Commercial fleets are often mixed-use and geographically spread, making flexibility an important feature. Hitachi tailors its solution to individual customer needs and budgets. For example, a phased approach could be taken for a mixed fleet, initially targeting those vehicles registering high costs in ultra-low emission zones (ULEZ).

There are approximately 40 very large fleets operating in the UK but thousands of SMEs that run a couple of hundred vehicles each. Nugent sees no reason why the cost savings of Intelligent Fleet Decarbonisation cannot be applied to all to achieve the overarching goal of protecting the planet.

“We make the case for financial benefit but, from a social innovation perspective, Hitachi’s aim is to achieve environmental, economic and social value wherever possible,” he explains. “This is how we make a very big difference as an organisation by bringing all of our skills and capabilities to the fore, to drive demand, drive acceptance and get people to switch.”

A green transport plan which achieves long-term cost reduction is no shortcut, but for fleet operators it’s the best route out of this jam.

Find out more about Hitachi

Thu, 03 Dec 2020 17:03:00 -0600 text/html
Hitachi Vantara Intros VSP 5000 To Push The Envelope On Storage Performance, Scalability, Reliability

The Virtual Storage Platform 5000 comes stocked with a full suite of data storage services as well as a new AI platform, the Hitachi Ops Center, to help simplify management and orchestration of storage on-premises and in the cloud.


Hitachi Vantara Wednesday unveiled the Hitachi Virtual Storage Platform 5000 series storage arrays and threw down the gauntlet at other storage vendors by calling it the fastest, highest-capacity and most reliable storage array on the planet.

The VSP 5000, previously code-named Project Jupiter, was introduced on stage during the opening of the Hitachi Next 2019 conference, held this week in Las Vegas.

It is the fastest NVMe array on the planet, said Dan McConnell, senior vice president of product management for enterprise infrastructure at Hitachi Vantara.

[Related: HPE Steals Major Storage Market Share, Dell EMC Still On Top: IDC]

"How fast is it?" McConnell said. "An industry-leading 21 million IOPS. Capable of sub-70-microsecond latencies, the VSP 5000 can accelerate any workload."

The VSP 5000 is also the most scalable NVMe array, and can be configured from two controllers to 12 controllers and over 69 petabytes of capacity, McConnell said. "That's over eight times [that] of our competitors," he said.

It also has a strong emphasis on reliability. McConnell said the VSP 5000 can provide eight nines, or 99.999999 percent, availability.

"So if you're keeping score, that's the biggest, that's the fastest, and that's the most reliable," he said. "That's one heck of a combination."

The VSP 5000 is aimed at businesses looking to find a way to keep up with the growth of their data and data lakes but do not have the resources to deal with the growing complexity to manage that growth, McConnell said.

"We don't think you have to sacrifice choice for complexity," he said. "At Hitachi, our approach to an intelligent core is unique, and is based on being flexible to meet the demands of all workloads with no trade-offs. AI-driven to drive simplicity, efficiency and reliability. Orchestrated to intelligently manage copies and data movement, both on-prem and off. And transformative, enabling our customers to get more from their existing assets. The VSP 5000 is designed to enable our customers to leverage the technologies that they need without trade-offs."

To do so, Hitachi designed a new architecture, the Hitachi Accelerated Fabric, which McConnell said is an innovative design leveraging FPGA (field programmable gate array) acceleration for maximum performance with maximum flexibility.

"Customers can take advantage of the high-performance, low-latency NVMe technologies like flash or SCM (storage class memory), as well as taking advantage of the lowest dollar-per-Gbyte of spinning media," he said. "We know you have a variety of workloads, from bulk data to high performance, from legacy applications to cloud-native applications, and all points in between. With full support and integration in a container and virtualization environments, as well as pulling forward support for mainframes, the VSP 5000 can ensure you can consolidate any workload from mainframe to containers."

The VSP 5000 can also orchestrate copies and data mobility on-premises with what McConnell called "drag and drop simple" integrated copy data management capabilities. It is also cloud-connected, with the ability to seamlessly tier file and object workloads to the cloud, with a variety of cloud-based software integration including management integration with Amazon Web Services, he said.

Hitachi Vantara has also integrated its patented AI engine to deliver the VSP 5000 root cause analysis, predictive recommended remediation actions, and AI-assisted resource placement and balancing and forecasting, McConnell said.

The VSP 5000's smart dedupe optimizer provides up to 7:1 total data reduction, McConnell said.

"What's smart about it?" he said. "It looks at the data streams in real time to determine whether to leverage in-line or post-process deduplication algorithm, giving you maximum efficiency with maximum performance."

The virtualization capabilities of the VSP 5000 let customers leverage its advanced data services across existing storage infrastructure to drive higher return on existing assets to, for instance, provide an NVMe layer on existing storage or use the smart dedupe capabilities to free up capacity, McConnell said.

With the VSP 5000, Hitachi Vantara also introduced the VSP Cloud Connect Pack, which adds an HNAS 4000 file storage gateway to move data to public clouds.

Also new is the Hitachi Ops Center, which is aimed at helping customers build an autonomous data center by applying AI to infrastructure management, as well as the Hitachi Storage Virtualization Operating System, the software behind the VSP 5000 that lets customers mix NVMe and SAS flash media in the same system and bridge to the latest storage technologies including storage class memory and NVMe over Fabrics, or NVMe-oF.

The VSP 5000 is an exciting offering, said Joe Kadlec, vice president and senior partner at Consiliant Technologies, an Irvine, Calif.-based solution provider and longtime Hitachi Vantara channel partner.

"Hitachi has leap-frogged in technology on all fronts, including performance, scalability and reliability," Kadlec told CRN. "It scales from two nodes to 12 with up to 69 petabytes of capacity, while claiming eight nines of reliability and a quadruple redundant fabric. This covers every area customers are looking to address."

The focus on the VSP 5000 seems to be on ease of use, Kadlec said. For instance, customers will be able to fold their existing infrastructure under the VSP 5000 to take advantage of NVMe while continuing to leverage their previous investments.

"Now customers don't have to worry about workloads," he said. "Today, customer workloads are all over the map, but can be managed with the VSP 5000."

Hitachi Vantara impressed Kadlec with its live demonstration of the Hitachi Ops Center.

"What resonated with me was how it can automate and simplify the management," he said. "It can analyze the data, and the automation will let businesses do a lot more with their data. This takes complexity out of the market."

The VSP 5000 is currently available.

Dylan Martin contributed to this story.

Wed, 09 Oct 2019 10:24:00 -0500 text/html
School pupils' exam performance falls by up to 10%

Opposition parties have criticised the Scottish government after an official report revealed a decline in the exam performance of school pupils.

The analysis was posted on the government's website at 20:00 on Thursday.

It reveals that the number of students achieving passes in core Higher subjects dropped significantly in 2019, in some cases by as much as 10%.

The Conservatives said there were "clearly major problems" in education.

Education Secretary John Swinney said the government "regularly monitors and analyses performance to inform decision-making".

'Snide and cynical'

He denied that the government was trying to "sneak out the report" and insisted it was fulfilling "commitments we had made to parliament".

Mr Swinney told BBC Radio's Good Morning Scotland programme: "We had a Freedom of Information request that had to be responded to.

"We felt it was appropriate (to release the exams report at the same time) because so much of that material was included in the report that I had promised we would publish."

The Freedom of Information request was made by a lecturer and former school teacher.

The timing of its release led to ministers being accused of a "snide and cynical" attempt to avoid scrutiny of its record on education.

Opposition parties said the figures highlighted a "worrying decline" in pupils' exam performance.

Scottish Conservative education spokesman Jamie Greene said: "This is a snide and cynical move by an SNP government which is increasingly in crisis across all of Scotland's public services.

"There are clearly major and systematic problems within our education system that the SNP simply refuses to acknowledge or take action on.

"John Swinney insisted there were no issues concerning the drop in pass rates, but this snuck-out report proves him wrong."

The drop in the numbers passing some key Highers begs important questions.

The rate of the fall in some of the most important subjects is far greater than the headline fall in the number of Higher passes overall.

But it is important not to jump to conclusions about what may be to blame.

There are a number of possible contributory factors.

There may be questions over how well prepared some young people are for their Higher courses.

  • Did their education in S1-S3 and their National 5 courses provide an appropriate bedrock?
  • Might the practice of teaching Nat 5 and Higher classes together in some schools have been a factor?
  • Could there sometimes be issues with resourcing or specific shortages of teachers?

But not all of the possible explanations are necessarily worrying.

Could some schools or teachers be encouraging more borderline candidates to attempt a Higher?

It is unlikely, though, that the exams system will be the reason for the drop.

The SQA adjusts pass marks and grade boundaries every year to allow for exams being a little easier or harder than anticipated.

The Scottish government has said it regularly analyses exam performance
  • 1,515 fewer pupils passed their Higher English exam
  • This was a reduction of 5.5% on the previous year and the lowest number since 2014
  • Passes dropped by 8.8% (178 students) for those sitting Advanced Higher exams in the subject
  • Higher maths saw the pass rate fall by 2.1% - the first decline since 2014
  • Higher history pass rates plunged by 14.6% overall and by 10% in A-C grades
  • Advanced Higher maths saw the number of passes increase by 1.6%
  • Passes in the sciences were up 1.6% at a Higher level
  • Those sitting the subjects at Advanced Higher - not including human biology - saw the number of passes fall by 14.1% (there was a 13% reduction in those sitting the tests)

'Drivers of change'

Speaking after the publication of the report, Mr Swinney said the Scottish government regularly monitored and analysed performance to inform decision-making.

"Taken together, this analysis demonstrates good progress in a number of areas and that it is challenging to identify significant drivers of change or to draw firm conclusions about some subjects due to small numbers of entries," he said.

"The analysis has, however, identified areas that justify further exploration and highlight actions that have been agreed.

"My key areas of focus are to ensure that curriculum and assessment are aligned, how to better support professional learning and development, and maintaining a clear focus on enhancing learning and teaching."

Larry Flanagan, general secretary of the EIS teaching union, said it was important to look at the wider context "including such variables as different pupil cohorts in each year" and to "balance dips against improvements in some qualifications and at various levels of presentation".

He added: "Focusing solely on Higher passes alone, for example, is an unhealthy and unhelpful fixation. The EIS would like to see an evaluation of the impact of longer exams on pupil performance but overall we believe that schools and teachers deliver well for students, especially in a period of ongoing austerity and budget cuts."

In January, First Minister Nicola Sturgeon agreed to a wider inquiry into Scottish education after opposition MSPs demanded one.

A study of the senior phase of schooling had already been ordered, but Holyrood voted to say this should be a "full review" of broader education.

SNP members opposed the move in the vote, but Ms Sturgeon said she would "abide by the decision of parliament".

The motion passed also said there were "key weaknesses in some key aspects of Scotland's school education" system.

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