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920-338 BCM50 Rls. 3.0, BCM200/400 Rls. 4.0 & BCM450 Rls. 1.0 Installation, Configuration & Maintenance guide |

920-338 guide - BCM50 Rls. 3.0, BCM200/400 Rls. 4.0 & BCM450 Rls. 1.0 Installation, Configuration & Maintenance Updated: 2024

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Exam Code: 920-338 BCM50 Rls. 3.0, BCM200/400 Rls. 4.0 & BCM450 Rls. 1.0 Installation, Configuration & Maintenance guide January 2024 by team
BCM50 Rls. 3.0, BCM200/400 Rls. 4.0 & BCM450 Rls. 1.0 Installation, Configuration & Maintenance
Nortel Installation, guide

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920-338 BCM50 Rls. 3.0, BCM200/400 Rls. 4.0 & BCM450 Rls. 1.0 Installation, Configuration & Maintenance
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BCM50 Rls. 3.0, BCM200/400 Rls. 4.0 & BCM450 Rls.
1.0 Installation, Configuration & Maintenance
D. Reuse the BCM50 Rls. 2.0 keycode because it is still a valid file.
Answer: B
Question: 62
Which statement about installing a Nortel Business Communications Manager 50
(BCM50) expansion unit is true?
A. An authorization code to enable the expansion unit is not required.
B. A BCM50 expansion unit can only be installed in an equipment rack.
C. Before installing the BCM50 expansion unit, first install the MBM in it.
D. A 20 m cable can be used to connect the expansion unit and main unit.
Answer: C
Question: 63
You are installing a Nortel Business Communications Manager 50 (BCM50) system at a
customer's site. You are currently in the process of configuring a DTM in an expansion
unit, but you are unable to do so. What is required to do this?
A. The DTM connected to the network
B. A keycode that includes the expansion port authorization code to enable the expansion
C. The expansion unit connected to the Nortel BCM50 with a cable no longer than one
D. The expansion unit connected to the Nortel BCM50 with a cable no longer than three
Answer: B
Question: 64
A Nortel Business Communications Manager 50 (BCM50) installation requires music
and paging.The Nortel BCM50 has a music jack. Rather than using the music jack, what
is another way in which music and paging can be connected?
A. Set screws
B. The front panel
C. RJ11 jack on chassis
D. RJ21 telephony connector
Answer: D
Question: 65
Which statement about the BCM450 capacity expansion card (CEC) is true?
A. A BCM450 with a CEC can support a maximum of 300 trunks.
B. A BCM450 with a CEC can support a maximum of 130 stations.
C. You can remove the CEC if the customer capacity needs drop.
D. The CEC is a standard card that comes installed with every BCM450.
Answer: C
Question: 66
What is the function of the BCM450 chassis interface board (CIB)?
A. The CIB increases IP trunk capacity.
B. The CIB connects the base function tray to the chassis wiring.
C. The CIB connects the media services card to the media bay modules.
D. The CIB in the BCM450 can be used in a BCM400 main unit.
Answer: B
Question: 67
You are configuring VoIP access between two Business Communications Manager 50
(BCM50) systems. When configuring the remote gateway, which value must you choose
from the MCDN Protocol field?
D. Other
Answer: B
Question: 68
What is the maximum number of IP trunks you can have on a BCM450 with a capacity
expansion card?
A. 48
B. 80
C. 130
D. 300
Answer: C
Question: 69
In a network configured for a Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) fall back,
there are two connections between a Nortel Business Communications Manager 50
(BCM50) and a remote system. Which connection is required?
A. A VoIP trunk and a PSTN line
B. A PBX trunk and a PSTN line
C. A WAN connection and a PSTN line
D. A LAN connection and a PSTN line
Answer: A
Question: 70
A Nortel Business Communications Manager 50e (BCM50e) has been relocated to a new
site.Element Manager can retrieve, view, and manage keycodes. The keycode
information is in a folder in the Configuration Task Navigation panel. Which folder in the
Navigation Tree has the information?
A. Resources
B. System
C. Applications
D. Administration Access
Answer: B
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Nortel Installation, guide - BingNews Search results Nortel Installation, guide - BingNews How to Install a Garage Door: Step-by-Step Instructions No result found, try new keyword!But if you're handy, you may want to know how to install a garage door yourself. Installing a manual door is much easier than installing an automatic one because a manual one is so much lighter ... Tue, 28 Nov 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en-us text/html Heat Pump Cost Guide: Installation and Replacement
A black and green graph showing that typical range for heat pump costs is $4,206 to $7,688 with a national average of $5,947.



  • The typical range for heat pump costs is $4,206 to $7,688 with a national average of $5,947.
  • Cost factors for installing a heat pump include the unit size, type, and efficiency; labor and permits; and geographic location.
  • There are many benefits to installing a heat pump, such as increased energy efficiency, better use of space, environmental benefits, improved air quality, versatility, and increased safety.
  • Installing a heat pump is a complex project that could be dangerous for DIYers. It’s highly recommended that homeowners leave this job to a professional.

Need a heat pump?

A pro can install it for you. Get free, no-commitment estimates from experts near you.


Heat pumps are less expensive to operate than furnaces in regions where winter temps don’t get bitterly cold. According to Angi, the price to have one installed typically ranges from around $4,206 to $7,688, with a national average cost of a heat pump is $5,947. However, a homeowner’s individual cost (and energy savings) will vary.

Installing a heat pump is often considered an eco-friendly way to heat and cool a home because it saves electricity or gas costs. Homeowners will want to learn more about this energy-saving way to keep their home comfortable and find out how to locate a heat pump installer if they decide a heat pump is the right choice.

What is a heat pump?

A furnace uses gas or electricity to power a heating element and then blows forced air over the hot element and into the home to warm it. But what is a heat pump? A heat pump pulls heat from surrounding natural sources (air, soil, or water) and uses it to produce heat to warm up a home. In addition, a heat pump also acts as an AC to keep a home cool by drawing heat out of warm indoor air during the summer. So, instead of needing two units—a furnace and an air conditioner—a heat pump does the work of both.

Some heat pumps are dual fuel units, meaning that they can run on electricity or gas at different times. “[Homeowners] could … work with their contractor to make the decision based on their local utility rates and what their local climate looks like, when it makes sense to run that system in electric mode, and when it makes sense to run it using gas,” says Heidi Gehring, director of residential HVAC product management at Carrier, a manufacturer of HVAC systems. “For instance, when it gets super super cold it makes sense to run it in gas, but if you’re at 30 degrees, it might make sense to heat your home with the heat pump.”

Factors in Calculating Heat Pump Cost

While a heat pump system costs $5,947 on average, the final heat pump cost varies widely. A heat pump cost calculator factors in the size of the unit, the type of heat pump purchased, and its level of efficiency.

Need a heat pump?

A pro can install it for you. Get free, no-commitment estimates from experts near you.


Heat Pump Size

Like an HVAC system, for a heat pump to efficiently warm and cool a home, it must be sized to the home’s living space. According to Gehring, the right heat pump capacity “can be based on the size of the home, the location, the direction the home is facing, how many windows [it has], what trees are in the area—even the layout of the home can play into it. It’s really important to make sure that [homeowners] don’t just guess or look at the size they had previously, but bring in a professional to do that full analysis to supply them a quote for what is the right system for their home.”

In discussions about heat pumps, “tonnage” refers to the amount of heat the heat pump can move into and out of the home in a given time. In addition to living space, a professional installer will factor in the climate in the region when determining size. A 2-ton heat pump runs $3,500 to $5,500 and can heat 1,000 square feet. A midsize 3.5-ton unit for a 2,500-square-foot home averages $3,900 to $6,400, and a large 5-ton unit that heats up to 3,500 square feet can cost $4,500 to $8,800, not counting heat pump installation costs.

Heat Pump Type

The type of unit, meaning whether it’s designed to pull heat from the air, water, or soil (or whether it’s designed to run on solar energy) also factors in. A geothermal ground-source heat pump can run as little as $6,000 (installation included), while a solar heat pump can run as much as $39,000, primarily due to the expense of the solar panels.

Heat Pump Efficiency

A Seasonal Energy Efficiency Rating (SEER) is how heat pump efficiency is measured. The higher the SEER rating a heat pump has, the more efficient (and typically more expensive) it is. Heat pumps are very efficient in warmer regions where the unit’s refrigerant lines can draw from abundant ambient heat. This means heat pumps are most efficient in southern states in the U.S. and also in Hawaii. While they become gradually less efficient as regions become cooler, they can be supplemented with an electric or gas furnace.

Labor and Permits

The labor expense is a substantial part of the cost to install a heat pump—each worker is charged at a rate of between $75 to $125 per hour. If a permit is needed, homeowners can expect to pay around $50 to $300.

Geographic Location

The climate is also a factor in determining the price of a home heat pump—in warmer locations, such as Miami, Florida, having a heat pump installed costs an average of $2,200 to $3,700 because the temperatures are mild and a smaller air-to-air unit is all that’s usually needed. In contrast, having a heat pump installed in a home in Denver, Colorado, could cost as much as $10,000 because refrigerant lines may need to be buried, and a larger unit may be called for. It’s also worth noting that SEER requirements vary by state, with residents of southern states typically requiring units with a SEER rating of at least 15 and those in northern states benefiting from units with a rating of 14 or higher.

City  Heat Pump Cost (Materials and Labor)
Chicago, Illinois $4,500 to $5,500
Denver, Colorado $2,800 to $10,000
Houston, Texas $3,800 to $7,100
Miami, Florida $2,200 to $3,700
Minneapolis, Minnesota $3,200 to $5,400
New York City, New York $3,300 to $7,300
St. Louis, Missouri $4,200 to $8,000

Additional Costs and Considerations

The materials and quality in a heat pump vary from average to high-end, and homeowners can expect to pay more for a unit from a nationally known manufacturer. Some additional costs may apply; for example, it may be necessary to purchase a special heat pump thermostat for $140 to $350. Whether or not ducts need to be installed is another cost consideration.

Need a heat pump?

A pro can install it for you. Get free, no-commitment estimates from experts near you.


Tax Credits

Homeowners whose geothermal heat pump installation falls between 2021 and 2033 are eligible to receive a 30 percent federal tax credit. The same credit percentage is available for air source units installed between 2023 and 2032. State and local heat pump tax credits may also be available, and a heat pump installer is likely to know if any are available locally.

Heat Pump Brand

In addition to the size of the unit and efficiency level, the brand name can make a difference in heat pump prices. While a typical air-source heat pump starts at around $1,000, some well-known, high-end brands will run as high as $11,200. Before going with a lower-end brand, it’s worth checking out the warranty the various units offer. A well-known brand may be more likely to back up the quality of its product to preserve its good reputation.

Heat Pump Brand  Average Cost (Unit Only)
Amana $1,800 to $2,800
American Standard $2,000 to $3,200
Bosch $1,300 to $8,200
Bryant $1,600 to $2,700
Carrier  $2,300 to $3,900
Coleman $1,300 to $3,200
Daikin $1,000 to $10,000
DuctlessAire $1,000 to $1,800
Goodman $1,500 to $3,900
Lennox $2,700 to $4,500
Mitsubishi $1,700 to $11,200
Panasonic $1,300 to $2,700
Rheem $1,600 to $3,200
Ruud $1,600 to $3,200
Trane $2,600 to $4,200
York $1,300 to $2,300

Duct System

A heat pump can replace a home’s existing HVAC system and—in some cases—make use of the existing ductwork. If this isn’t feasible due to the ducting configuration or the ducts not being in good shape, homeowners can opt for a mini-split system that doesn’t require ducting. During heat pump replacement, having new ducts installed could add $3,000 to $7,500, depending on the project’s complexity.

Maintenance and Repairs

It’s a good idea to have a heat pump inspected and serviced annually, and this service will cost $50 to $180 per visit. If the heat pump needs to be repaired, costs are about $150 to $600 on average. Failing to maintain a heat pump or other type of HVAC system is one of the biggest home heating mistakes that can spike energy bills.

Heat Pump vs. Furnace

For those who are torn between a heat pump vs. a furnace, it’s worth noting that heat pumps typically have a higher initial cost. A new heat pump will run an average of $5,947, and the cost to install a new furnace typically runs from $2,800 to $6,800. Still, homeowners stand to save a substantial amount on utility bills with a heat pump. Homeowners will want to keep in mind that a furnace only heats the air, while a heat pump not only heats but also cools the air, so it removes the need to buy a separate AC unit.

Heat Pump Cost by Type of System

All heat pumps have one thing in common: They all draw heat from their surroundings and use it to create either warm or cool air. But that’s where the similarities end. The best heat pumps can be installed in the ground, underwater, or sit out in the open. Some require electricity from a home’s wiring to power an air handler, while others depend on energy from solar power. The best one for an individual household will depend on a homeowner’s needs and budget.

Heat Pump Type Average Cost (Materials and Labor)
Air source $4,500 to $8,000
Geothermal $6,000 to $20,000
Hybrid $2,500 to $10,000
Mini-split $1,300 to $8,000
Solar $18,000 to $39,000

Air Source

Slightly less expensive than geothermal, an air-source heat pump costs $4,500 to $8,000. This type of heat pump costs less because it’s cheaper to install. With an air-to-air unit, there’s no need to excavate to bury refrigerant lines.


Designed with refrigerant lines buried in the ground or located beneath the water in a pond, geothermal heat pump costs (including heat pump installation costs) range from $6,000 to $20,000 on average.


A heat pump can be used to supplement a separate electric furnace, which allows the homeowner to run the heat pump when the temperatures are suitable, yet still have the comfort of a furnace when it gets colder. Hybrid heat pumps can run $2,500 to $10,000.


A mini-split heat pump is just as efficient as a central system, and it often includes multiple air handlers that serve different zones of the home. The difference is that the air does not run through ducting. Expect to pay between $1,300 to $8,000 to install a mini-split system, depending on how many zones are necessary.


This type of heat pump requires the installation of solar panels that power the unit’s compressor. Some solar heat pumps do double duty and heat fluid in the lines to supplement the unit’s efficiency. Solar heat pumps are pricier than other types and range in cost from $18,000 to $39,000. Much of that cost is due to the price of the solar panels.

Benefits of Choosing a Heat Pump

As the price of electricity keeps going up, some homeowners decide to put in a heat pump to save on energy costs. Still, there are other benefits, including potential tax credits and conserving essential floor space in the home.

Need a heat pump?

A pro can install it for you. Get free, no-commitment estimates from experts near you.


Improved Energy Efficiency 

Homeowners will save more on utility bills if they live in a moderate climate—in fact, they can save up to 50 percent, making heat pumps an eco-friendly way to reduce a carbon footprint. In the past, heat pumps were less effective in colder climates. However, “You can run these heat pumps in some of the coldest climates. Dual fuel systems make it so that heat pumps can make sense in pretty much any area where you might have a couple of days here and there where it’s the coldest,” says Gehring. “[When you think about] our parents’ and grandparents’ heat pump of the past, we’ve improved from there, and they can really make sense in most regions at this point.”

Better Use of Space

The cost of building a house today is much higher than just a decade ago, so homeowners want to put every square foot to good use. A 3-foot by 3-foot furnace will take up 9 square feet of real estate in the home, and it could potentially stand up to 6 feet high. Replacing a furnace with a heat pump frees up space for a utility closet, storage, or other suitable uses. Heat pump lines run outside the house, and their air handlers install out of the way on the upper portion of exterior walls.

Environment Benefits

When less energy is used to heat and cool a home, there’s less demand on the electric grid, making heat pumps an environmentally friendly option. Heat pumps come with a seasonal energy efficiency rating (SEER), and the higher the rating, the more energy-efficient the unit. Higher ratings also come with bigger price tags. A 14 to 15 SEER unit runs about $1,600 to $5,900, not counting installation, while a high-efficiency unit over 20 SEER runs $3,600 to $9,500.

Improved Air Quality and Decreased Humidity

In addition to temperature control, heat pumps are great for controlling air quality and humidity levels. They have powerful filters that remove allergens such as dust and pollen from the air. They can also regulate a home’s humidity levels, which is vital to residents’ health and comfort.


Heat pumps both cool and heat a home. During the winter, they draw heat from the soil, water, or air and use it to warm the home’s interior. In the summer, they draw warmth from the heated air inside the house, and via the use of refrigerant lines, they produce cooler air. In summer, a heat pump works similarly to a traditional air conditioner. For those comparing the heat pump vs. AC costs, it’s worth noting that while heat pumps are pricier, they eliminate the need to purchase a furnace.

Improved Safety

A heat pump that runs on electricity is safer than a gas-powered furnace because there’s no fuel combustion involved and no potentially toxic fumes. In addition, a mini-ductless heat pump, which costs $1,300 to $8,000, is less likely to produce airborne allergens, so residents who are sensitive to dust and other allergens will breathe more freely.

Heat Pump Installation: DIY vs. Hiring a Professional 

The labor costs to have a heat pump installed are substantial, and they often exceed the cost of purchasing the unit. That said, installing a heat pump isn’t something even enthusiastic DIYers are set up for.

Gehring advises that this is a job that’s best left to professionals who have a license to work with the refrigerants required and says that because there’s often electrical work to be done, “this is definitely something that makes sense to have a professional come in and do.” In addition, combo units that feature dual-fuel gas lines must usually be connected by a licensed plumber to ensure no gas leaks.

In general, due to the complexity, it’s a good idea to have a heat pump installer or one of the best HVAC companies (such as Aire Serv) take care of this project. “One of the benefits … with a professional is that you get warranty coverage on it, and a professional can make sure that airflow and other things that are hugely important to the overall function of the unit are set up correctly on that piece of equipment so that the homeowner is getting the best efficiency and comfort out of it as possible,” Gehring adds.

Need a heat pump?

A pro can install it for you. Get free, no-commitment estimates from experts near you.


How to Save Money on Heat Pump Cost

Installing a heat pump can be a pricey prospect, typically ranging from $4,206 to $7,688. It’s only natural to want to save some money on the cost of heat pump installation and still receive the benefits of this energy-efficient way to heat and cool a home. The following tips can help homeowners save money on the cost of a heat pump system.

  • Opt for a lower SEER rating. A 20 SEER-rated heat pump will cost $3,600 to $9,500. In comparison, a 14 SEER-rated unit will cost $1,600 to $4,900. Homeowners can save by opting for a unit with a lower SEER rating.
  • Choose an air-source heat pump in warmer climates. A ground-source unit can cost up to $20,000 to have installed, while an air-source model usually won’t exceed $8,000, including installation fees.
  • Select a less expensive brand. Homeowners who live in a warm region may not need to spend the extra money to get a high-end heat pump. Installation charges likely will not change.
  • Shop around. Homeowners can get multiple quotes to ensure they’re getting the best deal.
  • Wait for the off-season. If possible, homeowners can get the heat pump system installed in the off-season. They may save on some price surging and installation costs. The off-season will vary by region, but it’s likely in milder seasons like fall and spring.
  • Consider financing options. If paying for a heat pump out of pocket isn’t feasible, it may be worth getting a loan. If a homeowner has a series of projects to complete, it may make sense to take out one of the best home improvement loans. It’s also worth considering one of the best home equity loans from a provider such as U.S. Bank or Flagstar Bank.

Questions to Ask About Heat Pump Installation

It’s a good idea to get more than one quote when looking to have a heat pump installed, but there are a few other essential questions to consider asking the installer.

  • How long have you been in business?
  • Can I have a bid instead of an estimate?
  • Will you itemize your bid?
  • Do you offer financing?
  • How long will the installation take?
  • How many workers will this job take?
  • Are you licensed and insured? (Some states require this, while others will not.)
  • Do you have references?
  • How often do I need to have this unit serviced?
  • What are annual operating costs on this unit?
  • Will you let me know if any repairs or changes to the existing ductwork are necessary?
  • What is the average lifespan of the heat pump you’ve suggested?
  • Do you warranty your work?


Heat pump technology has been around for a few decades, but because heat pumps are so much more efficient than a furnace in mild climates, they’re steadily gaining in popularity. For those who are considering having a heat pump installed, a few questions are likely.

Q. How much money can I save with a heat pump?

Those weighing heat pump vs. furnace costs will want to note that, despite the higher initial cost of a heat pump, they could save up to 50 percent on their utility bills by switching if they live in an area with high electric rates and they’re currently running an electric furnace.

Q. How often should I replace my heat pump?

The average lifespan of a heat pump is between 10 and 15 years. Many homeowners find heat pump replacement costs offset utility costs.

Q. What size heat pump do I need for a 1,500-square-foot house?

Depending on the climate, the number of windows in the house, and the amount of insulation, you may need a 2.5-ton or 3-ton heat pump.

Sources: HomeAdvisor, Angi, HomeGuide

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Fri, 15 Dec 2023 23:22:00 -0600 en text/html
How To Install Gutter Guards: Step-by-Step Guide

Homeowners can choose from several different types of gutter guards, each with its own pros and cons. To find the right gutter guards for your home, consider factors such as ease of installation, life span, performance and maintenance.

Micro-Mesh Gutter Guards

Micro-mesh gutter guards use a fine metal mesh to filter out debris as water flows into your gutters. Some brands, such as Raptor and Amerimax, can be purchased at Lowe’s or Home Depot and installed by the homeowner. Others, such as LeafFilter, require professional installation but are backed by a lifetime warranty. A few brands, including Gutterglove, offer both DIY and professional options. 

Here are some key features of micro-mesh guards:

  • Installation: DIY or professional, depending on the brand
  • Life span: 20+ years
  • Performance: Block large and small debris and pests
  • Maintenance: Require minimal maintenance

Reverse-Curve Gutter Guards

Reverse-curve gutter guards, also known as surface tension gutter guards, extend over the top of your gutters before curving back into them. Surface tension allows water to follow the curve while debris rolls off. LeafGuard is the most well-known brand but not the only option. 

Here are some key features of reverse-curve guards:

  • Installation: Professional required
  • Life span: Varies, but can be 5–10 years
  • Performance: Block most debris and deter pests
  • Maintenance: Require minimal cleaning

Screen Gutter Guards

Some screen gutter guards resemble wire fencing or mesh, while others are a solid material with holes punched through. They can be made of plastic, stainless steel, aluminum or vinyl. Their performance depends on how large the holes are. Those with smaller holes or a tight weave keep out more debris but can clog easily. A looser weave is less effective but easier to clean. 

Here are some key features of screen guards:

  • Installation: Intermediate DIY
  • Life span: Varies, but can be 5–10 years
  • Performance: Block large debris but may allow insects and small debris through
  • Maintenance: Require cleaning when holes become clogged

Foam Gutter Guards

Foam gutter guards, also known as gutter sponges, fit snugly in your gutters. Because they absorb water and trap smaller debris, such as seeds, these guards can support algae and vegetation growth. They also tend to shrink in the sunlight and freeze in the winter. The best-performing models are treated with germicide and a UV coating to extend their life span. 

Here are some key features of foam guards: 

  • Installation: Easy DIY
  • Life span: 1–2 years
  • Performance: Block large debris but clog quickly in heavy rainfall
  • Maintenance: May need to be removed in winter and cleaned periodically

Brush Gutter Guards

Brush gutter guards resemble giant pipe cleaners or bottle brushes with stiff bristles. These round brushes fit inside your existing gutters to prevent large debris from falling inside and forming clogs. They also keep rodents and birds from making nests in your gutters. However, small debris may still make its way through or get lodged in the bristles. 

Here are a few key features:

  • Installation: Easy DIY
  • Life span: 5+ years
  • Performance: Block large debris and deter pests
  • Maintenance: Require regular cleaning to remove debris stuck in the bristles

Mon, 28 Nov 2022 05:12:00 -0600 en-US text/html
DIY solar panels: pros, cons and installation guide

ConsumerAffairs is not a government agency. Companies displayed may pay us to be Authorized or when you click a link, call a number or fill a form on our site. Our content is intended to be used for general information purposes only. It is very important to do your own analysis before making any investment based on your own personal circumstances and consult with your own investment, financial, tax and legal advisers.



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Consumers Unified, LLC does not take loan or mortgage applications or make credit decisions. Rather, we display rates from lenders that are licensed or otherwise authorized to work in Vermont. We forward your information to a lender you wish to contact so that they may contact you directly.

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Tue, 11 Jul 2023 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html
OS X Lion: Installation Guide, Boot Discs and Q&A

Apple today released Mac OS X 10.7 Lion and it is the first release of OS X to be distributed primarily through a digital channel. That digital channel, the recently released Mac App Store, is the main way in which Apple is selling Lion.

To help you (or perhaps a family member or friend who may need a little guidance) with the various installation methods, and how the Mac App Store changes things, we’ve prepared the following post. In this article we include a step-by-step guide for the typical Lion upgrade process, explain what the new Recovery Partition is, how to make your own bootable Lion Installation media, how to do a clean Lion installation and a helpful Q&A section.

So jump after the break to see the full article and learn more than you would want to know about the Lion installation process.


To make things as simple as possible we have split this article into several sections so you can jump right to the section you most want/need to learn about. So as a side note to those who wish to read the whole article, be warned some parts and information is repeated multiple times.

  1. Introduction to Mac App Store Distribution of Lion
  2. The Simple Upgrade Installation (from Snow Leopard)
  3. The Recovery Partition, What Is It?
  4. Making Your Own Bootable Media
  5. The Quasi-Clean Installation
  6. The Completely Clean Installation
  7. Q & A

1. Introduction to Mac App Store Distribution of Lion


First things first, as we noted in our post earlier today, Apple has decided to offer Lion for just $29.99. Astute readers may recognize that this is identical to the cost of the previous version of OS X, Snow Leopard. What is new however is that Apple is focusing the distribution of Lion mainly through the Mac App Store - although they have backtracked and will be offering Lion on a USB drive for $69 sometime in August.

Note: Apple is also discontinuing the OS X Server version, opting instead to offer a separate obtain that includes the server elements for $49.99

Basic Requirements

The first implication of primarily distributing Lion through the Mac App Store is that it means users must be running Snow Leopard (because it is the only version of OS X which can run the Mac App Store). A side issue is that to ensure a smooth upgrade, Apple released a software update for Snow Leopard, meaning users must also be running 10.6.8 – the most up-to-date version of Snow Leopard.


Distributing Lion through a digital platform does pose some problems for a subset of users that have sub-standard internet connections. At roughly 4GB (it is slightly less) Lion is undoubtedly a very large obtain for anyone on dial-up or slow broadband and those with minimal obtain caps of 15GB or less. For those of you that are affected by this there are a few potential solutions. Now that Apple has released Lion they have also revealed that for those who cannot obtain Lion, they will be offering a $69 USB drive that contains the Lion installation files.

Jump to the Q&A section for some other solutions so you don’t have to pay $40 more for Lion.

2. The Simple Upgrade Installation (from Snow Leopard)

Casting aside the problems mentioned above, for the majority of users the installation process of Lion will likely be the simplest of any operating system they have installed before. This section will nonetheless go step-by-step through the process of doing an upgrade installation of Lion, also pointing out some customization options. This section might also be worth sharing with anyone who is hesitant of doing the upgrade themselves.

Step 1: Can Your Mac Run Lion?

Lion has some requirements that might mean your Mac cannot run it, although generally, if your Mac is running Snow Leopard you won’t have a problem. To check all you need to do is click the Apple icon () on the top left corner of your display. It will open up a menu, from there select the first option ‘About This Mac’ and it will open a small window.

Here you need to check two things, first is that in the processor field you have one of the following: Intel Core 2 Duo, Core i3, Core i5, Core i7, or Xeon. Unfortunately if you do not have one of those, you will not be able to run Lion and the only option for you will be to purchase a new Mac with one of those processors.

The second requirement is that you are running the latest version of Snow Leopard. Looking at the same window, check that the version stated is 10.6.8. That is the version required to upgrade from Snow Leopard. If you do not have this version go into the ‘System Preferences’ app, click the ‘Software Update’ icon, select ‘Check Now’ and follow the prompts.

Step 2: Purchasing And Downloading Lion

Purchasing and downloading Lion is as simple as going into the Mac App Store, finding Lion (it is featured on the front page, but a search will also find it) and clicking the purchase button.

As soon as you click to obtain Lion, down flies the Installer icon which has a little progress bar. Once the obtain is done, the Lion Installer will automatically open - ready for instructions from the user.

Step 3: Pre-Installation Preparation

Now comes the part where you have to go through some steps, with some (minimal) options on how Lion installs. Let’s go through each of those steps:

1. The ‘welcome’ screen

This is the screen that greets you when you Lion finishes downloading. Not much to see here, just press ‘Continue’.

2. Software License Agreement

Yes, this is that inevitable, pages-long license that you must agree to before continuing on your Lion installation journey.

3. Which drive

Most users just need to press continue on this step, but the Installer does supply you the opportunity to Install Lion to another disk if you so choose. For this section we won’t be changing the drive, but this option becomes useful when we discuss Clean Installations in Section 6 below.

4. It begins

Choosing which hard drive to install to is the last pre-installation step you need to go through, now the Lion Installer gets to work in ‘preparing’ the computer for your Lion installation. This process is relatively quick and once done will restart the computer.

Step 4. The Installation

Once your Mac has booted into the full Mac OS X Installer, Lion is literally installing itself - this process doesn’t require any interaction from you. Depending on your computer this could take anywhere from 15 minutes to 40 minutes.

Step 5. You are done!

Login and enjoy your new operating system! If you want to learn more about the operating system be sure to check out our review of Lion too.

3. The Recovery Partition, What Is It?

Part of the problem with digitally distributing an operating system is that if something goes terribly wrong with your installation, perhaps to the point were you cannot even boot into the installation, you are stuck without a disk to re-install the operating system. To fix this, you would have to find another Mac to obtain a new copy of Lion and then copy it to a USB Drive or DVD to re-install Lion - a lot of hassle. Fortunately however, Apple has had the foresight to recognize this problem and has come up with a simple and fairly painless workaround.

When you install a copy of Lion to your hard drive, part of the installation process involves a new recovery partition being created. This recovery partition contains a portion of the Lion installer, but more importantly some tools that will help troubleshooting and repairing installations.

To enter the recovery partition all you need to do is hold the ‘option’ button on your keyboard (Alt on a non-Mac keyboard) and wait for a list of bootable drives to appear, once they do, simply select the recovery partition. supply it a minute or so to load and you will be presented with the Mac OS X Utilities window which gives you four tools to help recover your Lion Installation. These include restoring from a Time Machine backup, reinstalling Mac OS X, getting help online and using Disk Utility.

Note: There are other (more advanced) options available from the menu bar within the Mac OS X Utilities screen.

These four options are fairly self-explanatory but there are some interesting points to note. If you do choose to reinstall Lion from this recovery partition, Apple does require you to send your Mac’s serial number back to them. At this stage it is not known whether this is being used to prevent users who did not purchase Lion from re-installing, but the could well be the case.

If you choose to get help online, the Utilities application will literally open up an instance of Safari, which is fully-functional, so that if you are having a particular problem you might be able to easily find a resolution without re-installing Lion or booking an appointment with your local Genius Bar. In case you are wondering, yes you can easily connect to the Internet in this mode by setting up WiFi or using Ethernet - the experience is nearly identical to the ‘full’ OS X.

Whether you just want peace of mind knowing that you have a copy of Lion if you ever need to re-install it or are wary of a complete hard drive crash which would render the recovery partition useless, making your own Lion DVD or USB Drive is fairly simple.

Step 1. Save the Lion Installation Files

The first thing to do is to make sure you get those Lion installation files - Apple automatically deletes it once you do an installation of Lion, so make sure you do this step before you try installing Lion.

The Mac App Store downloads the Lion Installer into the /Applications folder and it is named ‘Mac OS X Installer’. Copy this file to somewhere else for now, preferably an External HDD or separate partition.

Step 2. Find the InstallESD.dmg Image

What you copied over was an application, but technically all you need to create a bootable drive or disc is the Lion Installer image. This is located inside that application.

Go to the Mac OS X file, right click and select ‘Show Package Contents’, open the ‘Contents’ directory and then the ‘SharedSupport’ directory. Inside ‘SharedSupport’ is that all important file named ‘InstallESD.dmg’.

Now you can go on to the next step and either create a bootable DVD, or bootable USB drive for installing Lion.

Step 3A. Create a Bootable Lion USB Drive Installer

You’ll need a USB drive that is larger than 4GB - a 6GB or larger drive is a requirement. The first thing to do is insert the USB drive, launch Disk Utility (just do a search in Spotlight for it) and select the thumb drive. From there you will want to click the ‘Erase’ tab (make sure you don’t have anything important saved, everything will be deleted), check that the Format is ‘Mac OS Extended (Journaled)’ and click erase.

The next thing to do is right click that thumb drive and select ‘Restore’, a window will pop up asking for a source - this is where the InstallESD.dmg comes into play. Locate that image and press Restore, supply Disk Utility a little while and there you have it, your own Lion USB Drive.

Step 3B. Create a Bootable Lion DVD Installer

Using the DVD medium instead of a USB Drive is also an option and the process is similar. Insert a blank DVD and open Disk Utility, this time click on the DVD and select ‘Burn’ from the toolbar.

Find that same InstallESD.dmg image, select it and press ‘Burn’. This will take a while, depending on how fast your DVD drive is. Once done you have your own, home-made, Lion Install DVD.

5. The Quasi-Clean Installation

Whilst I know a number of pro and power users will frown upon this suggestion, I have decided it is worth briefly explaining a ‘quasi-clean’ installation of Lion where you do a clean install of Snow Leopard and then do an upgrade installation of Lion. There are two reasons for this:

  1. Doing a completely clean installation of Lion unfortunately requires you to re-download a significant portion of Lion to install it - despite the fact you have a bootable image which contains everything.
  2. Despite taking longer, it is a far simpler process than the completely clean installation.

This installation is fairly simple, firstly make sure you have all your documents backed up because you will be wiping your hard drive (or partition) to make way for a new installation.  This can be anything from a Time Machine backup to just copying everything you need to an external drive or using something like Dropbox or SugarSync to back your files up to the cloud.

The best way to begin this installation is to insert your Snow Leopard disc (or USB drive if you got a new MacBook Air) and reboot. On that gray boot screen press ‘option’ (Alt on a Windows keyboard) and select the Snow Leopard Disc. Now you need to wipe the hard drive or partition to which you want to install Snow Leopard (and later, Lion). I strongly recommend disconnecting any external drives that may be connected to the Mac in case you accidently choose the wrong one!

To wipe the drive, just select the particular hard drive you wish to install Lion on to and then select the ‘Partitition’ tab, from there change the Volume Scheme to 1 partition (or whatever else you want). You can change the name and then press ‘Apply’. Once this is done you can close Disk Utility and run the Snow Leopard installation as normal.

As soon as you are done with the installation of Snow Leopard, do not install anything. Go straight to Software Update and get all the necessary updates, all the way up until you have version 10.6.8. At this stage, you are all ready to start the upgrade installation of Lion. You can just go straight to the App Store to obtain and then run the Lion installation. Alternatively, if you copied the installation files (the Mac App Store downloads it to the Applications folder) you can just run that straight away.

So now that you’re all set to install Lion, jump back to Section 2 and follow the steps there - they’re literally identical.

6. The Completely Clean Installation

Unfortunately, Apple has made the clean installation a far tougher process with Lion and the way it works will differ depending on the method you choose to do a clean installation. I shall start off with the simplest method - this where you install it from Snow Leopard and install Lion to a different partition.

Method One: Installing Directly On To Another (Clean) Partition From Snow Leopard

All you have to do is follow the steps in Section 2 but in the step where the Installer asks which drive to Install Lion to, select “Show other disks” and select a clean partition to which to install to. Apart from this one difference, you can follow the steps outlined in that section.

Note: Use Disk Utility to create a new partition.

Using this method, you would be able to subsequently copy your data from the Snow Leopard Installation (either manually or through a Time Machine backup) and then delete the Snow Leopard partition and resize the Lion partition. Finally because you are creating a new installation, there are some set-up steps in addition to what is outlined in Section 2. They are fairly self-explanatory so I have just used screenshots:

Method Two: Starting Fresh

Note: This guide was written based on experiences with the GM and other developer builds. Although we are fairly confident that this post is accurate, we had some conflicting experiences with this following method of doing a clean installation - in particular, although this section notes that the Installer will re-download a large portion of Lion, we asked some people on their experiences and some did not experience this. We will update this section once we can clarify what indeed is the case.

This next method is admittedly less ‘hackish’ but does require you to partially re-download Lion again. The first thing you need to do is create a bootable disc or USB drive, which I explain in detail in Section 4. Next, make sure you have all your documents and data backed up because you will be wiping hard drives (or an individual partition if you choose).

Once you have everything backed up and have your home-made Lion disc/USB drive (see Section 4 for how to do this) inserted into your Mac you are ready to roll. Restart your Mac and when you reach the gray boot screen, press and hold the ‘option’ key (Alt on a Windows Keyboard) and select the Lion installer.

The next step is to wipe your hard drive in preparation for a fresh installation. Disk Utility is again the helpful tool for this, which you can find from the Menu Bar in Utilities. Generally you will just want to wipe your entire hard drive which you can do by selecting your internal hard drive, clicking the ‘Partitions’ tab, changing the volume scheme to ‘1 Partition’ and clicking ‘Apply’.

You now have an empty hard drive, all prepared for a fresh Lion installation. Exit Disk Utility and you will be taken back to the Lion Installer. Now you go through the same steps that would greet someone doing a typical upgrade installation (as detailed in Section 2). However there is one final point to note about this installation.

This form of a clean install works in a nearly identical way to the Recovery Partition - meaning that the Lion Installer will not use the data included on your bootable Lion image. It will re-download a large portion of Lion before it lets the installation to continue. Yes, this is incredibly frustrating when you know you already have everything the Installer needs. There may be a workaround that will be discovered, but unfortunately at this stage you will have to sacrifice some of your internet bandwidth (and if you have one, your obtain cap). If this is a problem for you, I strongly suggest using Method One which is as effective, just with a few more steps.

7. Q&A

If I want to do a clean install do I have to do a clean install of Snow Leopard first and then do an upgrade installation of Lion?
No. Whilst you will have to obtain a copy of Lion from a Snow Leopard installation, you can do a completely new installation of Lion from a blank hard drive without Snow Leopard. To do so you simply need to create a bootable USB drive or DVD that contains the Lion installation image that was downloaded from the Mac App Store. This method is covered in Section 6 above.

I have multiple Macs that are running Snow Leopard, do I have to obtain Lion again on each one of these computers?
No, this is not necessary. The simplest way to avoid re-downloading Lion on all your Mac computers is to simply copy the Lion Installation app, that you obtain from one computer, to all the other computers.

The installation app is just downloaded into the /Applications folder and is named Mac OS X Installer. Simply copy this file to your other computers and run it for the Lion Installer - it will be just as if you had downloaded it onto all of your Macs. If you want some more information on this, or want to create your own bootable Lion DVD or USB drive, jump to Section 4 above.

Note: The Lion Installer does actually delete this file once it starts the Lion Installation so make sure you copy the Installation files before you run the installation otherwise you will have to re-download it all.

I purchased a copy of Lion on the Mac App Store, how many computers can I install it on?
The software license agreement (SLA) permits you to “download, install, use and run” one copy of Lion on all Mac’s that you “own or control”. So effectively if you own 10 Mac computers you can purchase just one copy of Lion from the Mac App Store and you are good to install it on all 10 of those.  Below is the genuine section from the SLA relevant to this question:

2B(i) to download, install, use and run for personal, non-commercial use, one (1) copy of the Apple Software directly on each Apple-branded computer running Mac OS X Snow Leopard or Mac OS X Snow Leopard Server (“Mac Computer”) that you own or control;

Do new Mac’s come with Lion installation Media (a DVD or USB Drive)?

No, based on information from Apple’s website the new Mac mini and MacBook Air does not come with any installation media. At this stage it isn’t clear if MacBooks, iMacs or Mac Pros will come with Lion installation media, at the moment they apparently do, but this may just have been overlooked.

I just bought a new Mac that came with Lion, am I allowed to use that copy of Lion to upgrade my other (non-Lion) Macs?
No, whilst a copy of Lion from the Mac App Store does supply you license to install it on all your Macs, a copy that came with a new Mac does not. You can only use that copy (which came with a new Mac) for installation and use on a single Apple computer at any time. The relevant section of the SLA is below.

Whilst it may be feasible to use that copy to install Lion on other computers because of Apple’s lack of enforcement of license agreements, it is not permissible under the software license agreement that you are required to abide by.

2A … you are granted a limited, non-exclusive license to install, use and run one (1) copy of the Apple Software on a single Apple-branded computer at any one time. For example, these standard single-copy license terms apply to you if you obtained the Apple Software preinstalled on Apple-branded hardware.

I have a very restrictive obtain cap, I cannot feasibly obtain Lion. What are my options for obtaining Lion?

Fortunately Apple has realised this problem may plague a certain subset of users and will be offering a $69 USB drive that contains the Lion installation media. If you feel that is too expensive or want to get Lion now, you have a few (but annoying) potential options:

  1. Go to an Apple Store/Library/place with fast Internet with your Mac and obtain it there
  2. Get access to another Mac with the Mac App Store, log in to your Apple account and obtain it - copying the installation files to your Thumb Drive (see Section 4 for details on how to do this).
  3. Buy a new Mac, this sounds harsh but it may actually be a fairly logical option for many. Apple is loading all new Macs with Lion pre-installed.

I am still using Leopard, I’ve decided I want to upgrade to Lion, do I really have to upgrade to Snow Leopard and then do an upgrade to Lion?

This is a complicated answer, but in short, no you do not need to upgrade to Snow Leopard first. These are your options:

  1. Do a Snow Leopard upgrade, run Software Update to make sure you get to 10.6.8, obtain Lion, do an upgrade installation.
  2. Do a clean installation, but because you don’t have Snow Leopard you will be forced to use Method Two in Section 6. You will also have to figure out a way to get your hands on the Lion installation files - which requires the Mac App Store on Snow Leopard.

As for licensing issues, this does seem to be frowned upon. The Lion SLA does state that whilst you can use one copy of Lion to install onto all of your Macs, it is specific in that it needs to be a “computer running Mac OS X Snow Leopard or Mac OS X Snow Leopard Server”. However given that it may be difficult to attain Snow Leopard installation media in order to upgrade to Snow Leopard so that you can abide by the SLA, this becomes somewhat of a gray area.

Note: Trying to install Lion from Leopard (even if it is in an attempt to do a Method One clean installation) will not work as it throws up an error. There may be workarounds that are discovered but this would be a risky option.

I am a developer and have the Lion GM build installed, is it the same as the version in the Mac App Store?

Although early reports said that the Mac App Store version of Lion is a lower build number (11A494) than the GM build (11A511) it turns out that once installed the Mac App Store version is identical to the GM build (11A511). That lower build number simply correlated to the Lion Installer, not the genuine Lion installation once completed.

Therefore if you have the GM build installed already, you need not do anything - you are completely up to date with OS X.

I have Lion installed but I want to obtain it again (for back-up/clean installation on another Mac) how do I do this, the MAS is giving me errors.

If you try downloading Lion when you are already on Lion it throws up the above error. To bypass the error simply hold the Option/Alt key when you press obtain and it will let you obtain Lion.

Can I still use MobileMe on Lion? Do I need to upgrade to iCloud?

Yes, you can still use MobileMe on Lion, and unless you’re a developer, you can’t upgrade to iCloud yet. We have detailed the transition to iCloud from MobileMe in a previous article, but right now OS X Lion has full support for MobileMe syncing. In fact, we’re using it right now. Just open System Preferences, head over MobileMe, log in and start syncing your data.

Help! I get Error 100 from the Mac App Store. What can I do to fix it?

We’ve detailed this error in a past article, too.


Have you got a question surrounding the installation of Lion? We will be updating this Q&A over the next few days. Just ask a question in the comments section below or on Twitter with the hashtag #AskMCSTR

Wed, 20 Jul 2011 07:45:00 -0500 en-US text/html
How to install Android 14 on your phone right now

Google has finally released Android 14, despite continuing to offer betas that showcase new features. Here’s the Pixel Feature Drop, in case you want to know about everything that’s been added to Pixel devices. If you want to supply it a shot, you might be wondering how to install Android 14 on your smartphone. This guide can supply you all the info you need!

Should I install Android 14?

Since the stable version of Android 14 is now out, you most likely won’t have to deal with any of the issues that come with a beta. So, if you’re a general user, you don’t have to be afraid to obtain and install the update. But if you’d like to stay on Android 13 for whatever reason, more power to you, but you’ll be missing out on all the new goodies packed into the latest OS.

What devices can install Android 14 today?

Google Pixel 6a in Sage color, seen from the back, next to a Pixel 5 and Pixel Buds Pro, on a navy background

Rita El Khoury / Android Authority

Below, you’ll find the list of supported phones for the latest update:

  • Google Pixel 4a (5G)
  • Google Pixel 5
  • Google Pixel 5a
  • Google Pixel 6
  • Google Pixel 6 Pro
  • Google Pixel 6a
  • Google Pixel 7
  • Google Pixel 7 Pro
  • Google Pixel 7a
  • Google Pixel Fold
  • Google Pixel Tablet

Unfortunately, if you have a Pixel phone launched before the Google Pixel 4a (5G), you will not be able to install the stable build of Android 14.

How do I install Android 14?

There are three ways to install Android 14: manual, assisted, and over-the-air (OTA). Manually installing is for advanced users only, while the assisted method is easy enough that pretty much anyone can do it. If you go with the manual or assisted methods, installing Android 14 will require you to unlock the phone’s bootloader, which completely erases the phone. There is no way around this. Keep this in mind if you’re thinking about installing Android 14 on your main device!

The OTA method, however, does not require you to factory reset your phone. This seamlessly jumps you from stable Android 13 to Android 14. However, going back to Android 13 would require a factory reset. Keep this in mind before you make the jump!

With all three methods, once you install Android 14, you will not need to factory reset to receive future updates. Once you’re in, you’ll get future updates automatically as an OTA update. In other words, you only need to factory reset once to get in on Android 14 if you used the manual or assisted method.

Prepare to install Android 14

Unless you use the OTA method, you will need the following materials and prerequisites to get started:

  1. A Windows, macOS, Chrome OS, or Linux computer with access to the internet and the latest Chrome browser.
  2. A short, thick USB cable for connecting your phone to the computer. The original USB cable that came with the phone is best for this.

Before you move on to the next steps, double-check that you have everything you need. You don’t want to get into the process of installing Android 14 and discover you aren’t fully prepared! Once you’re ready, continue on by using either the assisted or manual installation methods below.

Install Android 14 using the assisted method

Android Flash Tool website

Hadlee Simons / Android Authority

FINAL WARNING: This process will unlock your bootloader and completely erase all your phone’s data.

  1. Ensure your computer has the proper drivers for your phone, which you can grab from Google’s Pixel drivers page. This is an essential step — if you skip this, flashing will not work!
  2. Plug your phone into your computer using the USB cable.
  3. In your phone’s Settings, go to System > Developer options. If you don’t see Developer options, go to Settings > About phone and scroll all the way down to the Build number. Tap on the Build number seven times until your phone says you are a developer. Developer options should be available now.
  4. In Developer options, enable OEM unlocking and USB debugging.
  5. Visit the Android Flash Tool page for installing Android 14.
  6. Select the version of Android 14 you’d like to install. For some models, there’s a 64-bit-only version and a version that also supports 32-bit software. Either one works. If you don’t know which one to pick, choose the one that just says “(signed),” which supports both 64-bit and 32-bit software.
  7. Follow along as the flashing tool takes care of everything for you. Simply follow the instructions and remember not to touch your phone unless specifically instructed to do so by the flashing tool.

That’s it! You should now have Android 14 installed on your Pixel smartphone.

Install Android 14 using the manual method

Google Pixel family with the Pixel 5, Pixel 6a, Pixel 6 Pro, and Pixel 7 Pro on top of each other

Rita El Khoury / Android Authority

If the simpler assisted method mentioned above does not work for you, you can try the manual methods. Primarily, there are two manual methods:

  1. Sideloading OTA packages through ADB and Recovery: This method is useful for Pixel devices with a locked bootloader, and for users who want to preserve data moving from Android 14 to Android 14. This is not recommended if you are moving from Android 13 to Android 14.
  2. Flashing Factory Images through Fastboot: This requires an unlocked bootloader but is the recommended path for upgrading from Android 13 to Android 14. Unlocking the bootloader will completely wipe your device. The Fastboot installation will wipe your device again, but you can alter this behavior.

Irrespective of the method you choose, there are some common steps that you need to get in place:

  • Install ADB on your computer by following our guide for the same. The process also installs Fastboot on your computer, as Fastboot is part of the Android SDK Platform Tools alongside ADB.
  • Ensure that you have USB Debugging enabled on your smartphone:
    • On your smartphone, go to Settings > About Phone.
    • Locate the Build Number entry. Tap seven times on it. You will see a toast popup saying, “You are now a developer” or “No need, you are already a developer.” This means that Developer Options has been unlocked on your device, and you will see a new entry in your Settings menu.
    • Now navigate to Settings > Developer Options > Enable USB Debugging. Confirm your selection when prompted in the warning.
  • Ensure your computer has the proper drivers for your phone, which you can grab from Google’s Pixel drivers page.
  • Connect your phone to the computer. Presuming this is the first time you are connecting your phone to your computer, you will get a prompt on your phone requesting authorization for the connection. Grant it.

With this, you will have your common steps in place. You can now move forward with the rest of the tutorial, depending on the install path that you choose.

Sideloading OTA packages through ADB

  • Download the official OTA update zip file on your computer for your phone. Ensure that you obtain the file for your specific phone only, as flashing the file intended for a different phone model may mess with the installation process and render your device useless.
  • Optional but recommended: Once the file has finished downloading, rename it to a simpler name, like for example. This will save you from typing out the long name that the file originally downloaded with.
  • Optional but recommended: Verify the SHA-256 checksum of the file you have downloaded. This reassures you that the file has been downloaded completely and correctly. Google mentions the SHA-256 checksum next to the obtain link.
  • Place the file in the directory where ADB is located on your computer.
  • Connect your phone to your computer.
  • Open up a command prompt on your computer and run the command adb reboot recovery. This will reboot your phone to recovery mode.
    • In case your phone does not reboot into recovery, you can also manually reboot into recovery by shutting down your device and then pressing and holding the power button and volume up button.
  • Use the volume keys to navigate to the Apply Update from ADB option in the Recovery menu. Press the power button to select it.
  • On the command prompt on your computer, run the command adb devices. This will return a device serial number with “sideload” written next to it. This indicates that your phone is connected in sideload mode and is ready to receive further installation commands.
  • On the command prompt on your computer, run the command adb sideload You will need to replace “” with the filename that you have chosen.
  • ADB will install the update zip file on your phone.
  • Once installation is complete, choose the Reboot system now option on your phone, and your device will reboot into the freshly installed Android 14 build.

Flashing Factory Images through Fastboot

FINAL WARNING: As part of this process, your phone will be completely wiped. Please ensure you have taken adequate backups before proceeding.

  • Download the official Factory Images on your computer for your phone. Ensure that you obtain the file for your specific phone only, as flashing the file intended for a different phone model may mess with the installation process and render your device useless.
  • Optional but recommended: Verify the SHA-256 checksum of the file you have downloaded. This reassures you that the file has been downloaded completely and correctly. Google mentions the SHA-256 checksum next to the obtain link.
  • Unzip the file to a convenient location. For ease of installation, you can copy the contents to the directory where ADB and Fastboot are located on your computer.
  • Connect your phone to your computer.
  • Open up a command prompt on your computer and run the command adb reboot bootloader. This will reboot your phone to Fastboot mode.
  • Unlock the bootloader of your phone: You do this by running the Fastboot command fastboot flashing unlock. Note that this will erase all data on the device.
    • If your device reboots into the OS after a data wipe, you will need to skip all the setup steps and enable USB Debugging again. Once you do, reboot back into the Fastboot mode.
  • On Windows PC, double-click on the flash-all.bat file. This will run the batch installation file and execute all the necessary commands by itself. On Mac/Linux PC, you will need to run flash-all.
    • In case you want to preserve your system and app data between installations, you will need to open the flash-all script in a text editor program and delete the “-w” attribute from the command. This attribute denotes a wipe, so remove it if you do not want a wipe.
  • Once the script finishes, your device will reboot into the new OS.
  • Optional but recommended: Relock the bootloader of your phone by rebooting your phone into Fastboot mode and running the command fastboot flashing lock.

That’s it! You should now have Android 14 installed on your Pixel smartphone.

Frequently asked questions

After a delay, Google released Android 14 on October 4.

If you own a Pixel, the OTA update should be available now. If you have a phone from another manufacturer, stable Android 14 will probably come to you in Winter 2023 or early 2024.

Certain manufacturers might roll out their own early Android 14 releases. However, that is up to the manufacturers to decide, so you’ll need to wait until they announce something. To be clear, you cannot install early versions of Android 14 on a non-Pixel phone unless that release comes directly from your phone’s manufacturer.

No, as long as you’re updating through the OTA method. If you use the manual or assisted methods mentioned above, you will need to factory reset (erase) your phone.

Your phone will automatically get the new over-the-air (OTA) Android 14 update. If you have a phone from Samsung or some other brand, there is no way to get the Android 14 update before the stable launch without joining a beta program.

Mon, 25 Dec 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html
Installing your Personal Weather Station

The location of your weather station is the most important part of installation. If your weather station is located under a tree or an overhang, the rainfall data measured by the station will not be correct. If you place your weather station in an alley, you could very well get a wind tunnel effect on the anemometer, resulting in erroneous wind data. Your weather station should have good "fetch", or distance from any other tall object.

Installation Guide

In order to report accurate weather information you must take care in deciding where to place your weather station. The process of deciding how and where to install your weather station is called "Siting". Siting is the single most important factor in ensuring accurate readings. In fact, siting influences the accuracy of weather readings much more than the quality of the weather instruments themselves.


The most common error in installing a weather station is associated with misplacing the thermometer sensor. Meteorologists define temperature as the temperature in shade with plenty of ventilation. When placing your weather staion, make sure:

  • The thermometer sensor never receives direct sunlight.
  • The thermometer receives plenty of ventilation and is not blocked from the wind.
  • If the thermometer is placed on a roof-top, make sure it is at least 5 feet above the roof-top.
  • If the thermometer is placed above grass, again, it should be at least 5 feet above the grass surface.
  • The thermometer is at least 50 feet from the nearest paved surface.

Suggestion - use a radiation shield for your thermometer. This way, your weather station can be placed in direct sunlight, with the thermometer located inside the radiation shield.


Humidity measurements should reflect the humidity of the general atmosphere in your location. Plants and bodies of water influence humidity measurements. Hence, make sure the humidity sensor is at least 50 feet away from the nearest tree or body of water.

Rain Collector

You want the Rain Collector (or, Rain Gauge) to receive rainfall as if it were in the middle of a large field. Nearby buildings create "shadows". Imagine if there's a building nearby to the west, and it is raining with a west wind. In such an event, your station's rain collector is bound to miss a lot of falling rain because of the "shadow" cast by the building. As a rule of thumb:

  • The rain collector should be placed with at least 5 feet horizontal clearance from the nearest obstruction.
  • If a nearby obstruction is just over 5 feet away, that obstruction should be no more than 10 feet tall.

Wind Speed and Direction

Similar to a rain collector, the anemometer should reflect the wind patterns as if the instrument was placed in a large field.

  • The standard wind measurement should be taken at 10 meters (33 feet) above the ground. A roof-top works the best. Try to place the anemometer as high as is convenient.
  • Try to make the anemometer the highest object around. 7 feet or more above the surrounding obstructions is best.

Frequently Asked Questions

I don't have a flagpole or fencepost to mount my station on. What should I do?

Does it matter what type of surface is underneath my weather station?

Yes, the surface type affects the temperature measured at your station. Generally speaking, black surfaces (asphalt, black shingles) measure warmer temperatures than lighter colored surfaces (gravel, grey shingles). Ideally, your weather station should be placed 5 feet over short grass or low shrubs.

Does the weather station need to be near the receiver for data to be flowing?

Every weather station has different distance limitations. Please check your weather station for set up guidelines.

Sun, 30 Dec 2018 17:07:00 -0600 en text/html
How Much Does a New Air Conditioner Cost? (2024 Guide)

By Alex Hawkins January 3, 2024

air conditioner near the new house cold fan install supply outdoor electric climate

Affiliate Disclaimer: All products and services featured are independently selected by our editors. However, when you buy something through our retail links, we may earn an affiliate commission.

A typical central air conditioner costs $5,650 on average but can range from $3,800 to $7,500* depending on how much cooling power your home needs. Air conditioners turn your home into a welcoming respite from the summer heat and humidity. However, they often come with a substantial up-front investment. You might need a whole-house system, or something smaller if you only have a few rooms to cool. Whether you’re looking for a window air conditioner or a central AC unit, we’ll explain what kinds of systems are available and their average costs. We’ll go over different price factors in more detail below.

*All cost data via Angi and

Air Conditioner Cost Factors

The larger the space you want to cool, the larger and more powerful a system you’ll need, and the more it will cost. Here are the primary factors that impact AC price ranges.

  • System type: A central air conditioning system costs more than units meant to cool individual rooms.
  • System size: The larger the unit or system, the more it will cost.
  • Home size: Larger homes require more powerful cooling systems.
  • Labor: Systems that are more complex or difficult to install have the highest installation costs.

Cost by Air Conditioner Type

Different types of air conditioning systems come with different unit and labor costs. Here are some average costs for different air conditioners and how they work.

Air Conditioner Type Cost

Portable unit


Window unit


Ductless split


Central air conditioner


Heat pump


Gas pack system


Window AC Unit

The smallest and least expensive type of air conditioner is a window unit. All of the system’s components are housed in a single unit, which is meant to sit in an open window sill so it can vent heat outdoors. A window unit is only powerful enough to cool one room, but it can be indispensable in a small space that gets a lot of natural light in the summer. Window-mounted air conditioners can cost anywhere from $150 to $550 depending on their size and cooling capacity. Many can be installed without professional assistance.

Portable AC Unit

Like window units, portable air conditioners only cool one room at a time, but they’re able to be moved from room to room and stored during the cooler months. These units are typically mounted on wheels and come with tubing that must be attached to an open window. They may cool anywhere from 100 to 1,000 square feet and don’t require professional installation. You can expect to pay between $90 and $500 for this type of air conditioning unit.

Note that a portable air conditioning unit is different from a swamp cooler. A swamp cooler isn’t technically an air conditioner, as it uses evaporation and humidifies the air instead of removing moisture from it. Swamp coolers are not as effective in humid climates, but they do well in dry, desert heat.

Ductless Split System

A split system can cool one room or multiple rooms depending on how many air handlers the system has. These air handlers are typically wall-mounted, and all connect to one or more condenser units located outdoors. This allows you to cool an entire home without needing to install new ductwork, which is an expensive and invasive process if your home doesn’t already have it. A mini-split air conditioner usually costs $2,000 to $14,500, depending on the extensiveness of the system and how many units you install.

Heat Pump

Instead of cooling the air or creating heat, heat pumps work by transferring heat indoors in the winter and outdoors in the summer. Thus, a heat pump is a high-efficiency cooling and heating system that can be used year-round. Although heat pumps were previously most useful in moderate climates, the technology has advanced enough that they can now provide heating and cooling in more extreme temperatures. Heat pumps are becoming more popular thanks to their low cost of operation and high energy efficiency and are available in several configurations—mini-split heat pumps, multi-split heat pumps, and centrally ducted heat pumps. These systems can cost anywhere from $4,200 to $7,600, depending on the energy source they use.

Central Air Conditioner

By far the most popular type of air conditioning unit in hot climates, central AC systems are the most expensive to install and run. However, they do an excellent job of cooling and dehumidifying indoor air. These systems have an indoor air handler that pushes cooled air throughout a home’s ductwork and an outdoor condenser that houses the compressor, evaporator coils, and other key mechanical components. This type of system typically costs $3,800 to $7,500 to install.

Gas Pack HVAC System

A gas pack system contains both an air conditioner and a heater, usually a gas furnace, in a single unit that’s typically located outdoors. These aren’t the most efficient systems, and the components are subject to extra weathering since they’re outside, but they can be a good choice for small homes in moderate climates that want to maximize interior space. Though expensive ($5,000 to $12,000), they’re often more cost-effective to install than a separate heating and cooling system, at least up-front.

Cost by AC System Size

Air conditioners are typically measured in either tons or British Thermal Units (BTUs). Tons refers not to the unit’s weight but to the volume of air it can cool—a one-ton system can cool a ton of air in an hour. Central air conditioners are typically measured in tons, and smaller or portable AC units are measured in BTUs. A ton of cooling is equal to about 12,000 BTUs. The AC unit size you need will be determined by the size of the space you want to cool. 

Finding the right system size is important to keeping your utility bills reasonable. A system that’s too small will have to work too hard to cool the space, but a system that’s too big may waste electricity, driving your energy costs up. In general, you’ll need about 20 BTUs for every square foot of interior space, though homes in sunny, warm climates may require more. Here are some basic load calculations for common single-room or whole-home sizes.

  • 100 to 200 square feet: 2,000 to 4,000 BTUs
  • 250 to 300 square feet: 5,000 to 6,000 BTUs
  • 400 to 500 square feet: 8,000 to 10,000 BTUs
  • 1,000 to 1,200 square feet: 20,000 to 24,000 BTUs
  • 1,500 to 1,800 square feet: 30,000 to 36,000 BTUs
  • 2,000 to 2,500 square feet: 40,000 to 50,0000 BTUs

Here’s how BTUs and tonnage relate to price for central air conditioners, which typically start at around 1.5 tons.

AC Size (Tons) BTUs Unit Cost Cost with Installation





























Labor Costs

In addition to buying the AC unit, you’ll need to pay for installation. Unless you get a portable or small window unit, you’ll need to hire professional HVAC contractors to put in your new system. These contractors typically charge $75 to $250 per hour depending on the contractor’s experience level and the job’s complexity. For example, installing a large window unit will cost much less than installing a new geothermal heat pump.

Cost by Brand

Some air conditioner brands are more expensive than others, though most manufacturers offer several lines ranging from budget to luxury units. Here are average costs for a new AC unit from some of the most popular brands, excluding installation. All prices are for a central AC.

Air Conditioner Brand Cost







American Standard








Additional Cost Considerations

Materials and labor for a new system aren’t the only cost factors. Here are some additional expenses that may come into play.

Existing System Removal

If you’re replacing an old AC, you’ll need to remove and haul away the old unit. Refrigerant and other components of the system are environmental hazards and need to be disposed of properly. This may be part of the installation cost, or you may need to pay separately at a price of $25 to $200.

Permits and Potential Fines

Most states require permits for HVAC installation, so be sure to check what your city and state require. You may be fined if you don’t and your system isn’t up to code. The cost of a permit as well as potential fines vary by location.

Plumbing and Electrical Work

Installing a new AC unit, especially in an older home, may require alteration to your home’s existing plumbing and electrical systems. Central air conditioners require drain lines, which must be installed or repaired by licensed plumbers for $100 to $150. Additionally, your home’s electrical panel needs to be able to handle the load from a central air conditioner and its thermostat, so it may require an upgrade. Licensed electricians typically charge $100 to $150

Repairing Existing Ductwork

If your home’s ductwork is old or leaky, it may need to be repaired so that your new air conditioner can function properly. This can cost $200 to $1,000, depending on the extent of the damage. If mold or asbestos are discovered during the repair process, you’ll likely have to pay more for specialty abatement. However, this is well worth the cost to ensure the health safety of you and your family.

SEER Rating

Seasonal energy efficiency ratio, or SEER rating, measures an HVAC system’s energy efficiency. High-efficiency systems have higher SEER ratings—usually 18 or above. As of January 2024, the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) has determined that all air conditioners must have a SEER efficiency rating of at least 14 in the northern United States and 15 in the southern United States. Some maximum-efficiency air conditioners have a SEER rating of up to 24.

A system with a high SEER rating will cost more up-front, but it will ultimately save you money on energy bills because it consumes less electricity. To help homeowners choose wisely, the government offers ENERGY STAR certifications to air conditioners with high SEER and other efficiency measures.

DIY vs. Professional Air Conditioner Installation

In most cases, homeowners should hire HVAC professionals to install air conditioning systems. However, there are a few instances when this may be a do-it-yourself (DIY) project.

Professional Installation

All central air conditioners, heat pumps, and mini-split systems must be installed by professionals. These are complicated systems that often combine ductwork, plumbing, and electricity. They should be installed by an expert to work properly. A professional will be able to get the job done quickly and completely, as well as show you how to properly operate and maintain the system. The drawback is a higher overall cost that includes labor, but this is often worth it.

DIY Installation

DIY AC installation is only appropriate for portable air conditioners and some smaller window units. These systems come in kits that are often meant to be installed by non-experts and require few tools. However, the units can be heavy, and large or permanent window installations should usually be done by a professional. All states require that HVAC technicians maintain a current license because it’s a highly skilled trade. Attempting to install any kind of central system yourself may allow you to save on labor costs, but you’ll likely have problems that will require you to call an expert anyway.

How to Save on Air Conditioner Installation

Even if you opt for professional installation, here are some ways to save money on your new air conditioner investment.

  • HVAC companies are busier in winter and summer when demand is higher. Have your air conditioner installed during the off-season of fall or spring when possible.
  • Consider a mini-split system instead of a central air conditioner if you need to cool only certain parts of your home, particularly if you don’t already have ductwork.
  • Ask local contractors about possible rebates or tax credits for upgrading to a high-efficiency system.
  • Keep up with maintenance to ensure your new system stays functional for as long as possible. This includes regularly changing filters and cleaning coils as well as getting annual inspections.
  • Consider getting a home warranty that covers your HVAC system. These residential service contracts will help cover repair costs for issues resulting from everyday wear and tear on your air conditioner.

Our Recommendation

We recommend professional installation for all but portable and small window air conditioners. Though you’ll pay more, you’ll have peace of mind that your system is installed correctly and working at peak efficiency. Make sure to get quotes from at least three local HVAC contractors, and be wary of any who charge much more or much less than the others. Research air conditioner size, brand, and efficiency rating to find the best unit to keep you cool during the hottest months.

Air Conditioner Cost FAQ

What is the average cost for a new AC unit?

The average cost of a new AC is $5,856, but it can range from $3,800 to $7,500. This price is for a central AC unit. Other types of air conditioning systems, such as a window or portable unit, cost less.

What size AC unit do I need?

Most HVAC professionals recommend 20 BTUs of cooling capacity for every square foot of your home. That means an average home of 2,000 square feet needs about 40,000 BTUs of power, or a 3.5-ton central air conditioner.

Which AC is the most cost-effective?

Window AC units cost the least up-front and are the cheapest to run, but they only cool one room at a time. For whole-house systems, heat pumps typically cost more to install than central AC, but they’re much more energy-efficient, making them more cost-effective in the long run.

Tue, 02 Jan 2024 09:59:00 -0600 en-US text/html
How Much Does Gutter Installation Cost? (2023 Guide)

The Cost of Gutter Installation for 200 Linear Feet

Installing 200 linear feet of gutters costs $800 to $6,000 on average, or $4 to $30 per linear foot. The national average is around $2,300 for a single-story home but differs based on gutter material. 

Vinyl gutters cost $800 to $1,400, while high-end copper gutters range from $3,000 to $6,000. Larger homes cost more because they need more linear feet of gutter. You’ll also need to consider labor costs if you hire a professional installer.

Gutter Installation Cost Factors

Various factors influence your gutter installation cost, from home size to gutter style. Read a detailed breakdown of these factors below.

Home Size

Gutters are measured in linear feet, or the length of the material. Since gutters are installed along your roof, the measurement is significantly less than the square footage of your home. Most one-story homes need 100 to 200 linear feet of gutters. Two-story installations require more gutters and accrue additional labor costs. Homes with steep or complicated roof designs also cost more. 

Gutter Style

There are two types of gutters for residential installations: K-style and half-round (or U-style). Each style provides different benefits. 

K-style gutters are the most common. They’re recognizable for their stylish crown molding-like design. They provide excellent drainage and have half-pipe troughs. Though more expensive than half-round gutters, K-style gutters can catch twice as much water. Half-round gutters are typically easier to clean and often found on older or historic homes. Both styles come in standard 5- to 6-inch widths. 

Gutter Size

The standard gutter size is 5 inches wide, though larger sizes are available. A 5-inch K-style gutter works on most homes and is large enough to handle the annual rainfall in most regions of the United States. You can get custom gutters if you need a much larger or smaller size, but this will cost more.

Climate and Region

Regional climates can affect the type of gutters or rain gutters your home needs. For example, homes in regions with heavy rain benefit from higher-capacity gutters, while vinyl gutters are best for warm climates since cold temperatures can make them crack. 

Downspouts and Accessories

Rain gutter installation involves more than the gutters themselves. Here’s a breakdown of the additional parts needed to keep your gutters working properly:

  • Downspouts: Downspouts guide water from the gutters down the sides of your home and away from your property. Downspout costs vary based on material but can range between $4 and $25 per linear foot. 
  • Downspout extensions: These attachments add extra length to downspouts and cost $15 to $60. They direct water either above or below ground and prevent landscape erosion.
  • End caps: These attach to the end of each gutter to seal them closed. K-style gutters require separate right and left end caps, while half-round end caps are universal. End cap pricing differs based on gutter material but typically costs $2 to $6 each. 
  • Flashing: These extended strips of plastic or aluminum sit behind your gutter to protect your roofline from water damage. Flashing costs $0.50 to $3.00 per linear foot. 
  • Heat tape: Heat tape prevents ice from forming on gutters in cold climates. It costs around $0.60 per linear foot. 
  • Splash blocks: These carved channels are added at the end of a downspout to help guide water away from your foundation. Splash blocks cost around $10 each. 

Labor Costs

Labor costs are included in any professional installation quote. The size of your home, gutter materials and style of gutters all add to your total gutter installation project cost. Labor costs increase with multi-story homes, roof accessibility and climate-specific add-ons and upgrades. Pricing also varies based on your geographic location and cost of living.

Types of Gutter Material

Gutters come in various materials, from low-budget to high-end. Material costs can significantly increase your total installation price, so select the best gutters for your needs and budget. Below is a breakdown of the gutter materials available. 

Aluminum Gutters

Aluminum gutters are lightweight and rust-resistant, lasting up to 20 years. Their maneuverability makes them great for do-it-yourself (DIY) installations, but they’re more susceptible to cracking and bending. Aluminum gutters typically cost $8 to $15 per linear foot.  

Copper Gutters

Copper is one of the rarest and most expensive gutter materials, costing around $15 to $30 per linear foot. These gutters won’t mold, mildew or rust. However, they can develop a patina, or a thin film that changes the metal’s color to a greenish hue. When properly maintained, copper gutters last up to 50 years. Copper installation requires welding and must be completed by a professional.  

Galvanized Steel Gutters

These gutters are stronger but heavier than aluminum. They work well in heavy rain but are more prone to rust. With proper maintenance, they can last 20 to 30 years. Galvanized steel gutters cost $6 to $12 per linear foot. They require soldering and must be professionally installed.

Vinyl Gutters

Vinyl gutters are the most popular and budget-friendly option, costing $4 to $7 per linear foot. They’re made of plastic or polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and are not as durable as other gutters, so they don’t work well in climates with excessive snow, rain or high temperatures. These gutters last between 10 to 20 years, depending on your environment. They also work well for DIY installation.

Zinc Gutters

Pre-weathered zinc is an excellent option for those who want low-maintenance gutters. The material is durable, rust-proof and outlasts aluminum. Zinc gutters form a self-healing patina that conceals surface scratches and cracks. They’re more expensive than other options, costing between $12 and $25 per linear foot, but can last 80 years or longer. They require welding and should be professionally installed.

Sectional vs. Seamless Gutters

Sectional gutters are the traditional style of gutters found on most homes. They’re purchased in lengths of 5, 10 or 15 feet and assembled in sections around your home. Sectional gutters are affordable, costing $4 to $20 per linear foot. The downside is that their attachment points weaken over time, leading to corrosion or leaks. 

Seamless gutters are custom-built to match your home’s dimensions. A professional gutter company makes them on-site with special machinery. Prices range from $6 to $30 per linear foot.

Gutter Replacement Cost

New gutter installations are recommended for new homes or homes with deteriorating gutter systems. If your existing gutters are in fairly good condition but have a few trouble spots, a gutter replacement could be more cost-effective than a repair. DIY gutter replacements cost $700 to $1,500. Professional installations cost around $4 to $10 per linear foot and include labor costs. 

Below is a list of telltale signs you need gutter replacement:

  • Gapping, cracking or sagging gutters: These physical defects can destroy your drainage system’s efficiency.
  • Pooling or overflowing water: Water flow interruption indicates a major debris buildup or misaligned gutters. 
  • Peeling paint or rusted sections: This indicates excess moisture due to heavy rain or seeping water. 
  • Basement mold or foundation cracks: These are indicators that your gutters aren’t moving water away from your house properly. 

If you have one or more of these problems, have a professional inspect your gutters to determine if you need a partial or full system replacement.

Gutter Guard Costs

Gutter guards filter debris from rainwater to keep gutters clear of clogs. They also reduce how often you need to clean your gutters. Many companies can install gutter guards along with your new system. 

The average cost of gutter guards is $950 to $2,100. You can install plastic or PVC gutter guards yourself for about $95 to $200 per linear foot. Higher-quality gutter guards require professional installation, costing between $1,200 and $1,500.

DIY vs. Professional Gutter Installation

Homeowners can use DIY gutter installation for lighter materials such as vinyl or aluminum. However, these gutters have shorter lifespans and must be cleaned and maintained regularly. Gutter installation also requires you to work on a ladder for long periods, which can be dangerous. If you’re uncomfortable taking on such a precarious project, consider hiring a professional.

Professional installers use more durable metal gutters, including galvanized steel, zinc and copper. These installations require advanced skills such as soldering and welding. The gutter company will install all system components, including downspouts, downspout brackets and gutter guards. Material and labor costs are included in the professional cost estimate. Contractors will remove and dispose of your old gutters if you’re replacing an existing gutter system.

The Bottom Line: Is Gutter Installation Worth the Cost?

Investing in a well-made gutter system protects your home from costly water damage. Homeowners should budget for the best system they can afford and find a reliable gutter company to complete the project. You can save money by completing your own installation, but it won’t last as long as a professionally installed gutter system. 

You should also consider investing in gutter guards to keep your system running efficiently. Below are our recommendations for top gutter guard providers. 

Top Providers


  • Our rating: 4.7
  • Material: Stainless steel
  • Style: Micro-mesh
  • Installation: Professional


LeafFilter offers a three-piece stainless steel micro-mesh gutter guard system. The 275-micron filter catches even the smallest debris, including pollen and shingle grit. Each guard is installed at the ideal angle to catch debris. LeafFilter includes a transferable limited lifetime warranty that guarantees your gutters will remain clog-free. 

Read more: LeafFilter review


  • Our rating: 4.2
  • Material: Stainless steel
  • Style: Micro-mesh
  • Installation: Professional


HomeCraft Gutter Protection offers a three-piece micro-mesh gutter guard with a unique raised diamond design. It’s made of 304-micron marine grade stainless steel, making it durable and long-lasting. The HomeCraft system is protected by a transferable lifetime warranty covering gutter defects and manufacturer malfunctions. 

Read more: Homecraft Review

Our team created a comprehensive ratings system to rank gutter guard companies and products. We researched gutter guards’ functionality, specifications, installation process and more, as well as read customer reviews to understand the customer experience and longevity of the products. After researching, we scored gutter guard providers in these categories: gutter guard materials and product options, installation options, payment options, communication, additional benefits and reputation. The BBB ratings included in this guide are accurate as of May 2023.

Fri, 01 Jul 2022 09:27:00 -0500 en-US text/html
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