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Killexams : AMA Professional syllabus - BingNews Search results Killexams : AMA Professional syllabus - BingNews Killexams : Hoskinson Addresses A Variety Of syllabus In His latest AMA Video
  • Charles Hoskinson hosted an AMA session on YouTube to chat about what is currently happening in the crypto space.
  • Hoskinson expressed his dislike for ETC.
  • The ADA flounder elaborated about a bad Twitter experience.

Yesterday, Charles Hoskinson hosted an AMA session on YouTube to chat about what is currently happening in the crypto space. J. J. Siler joined Hoskinson to co-host the discussion.

Yesterday, Charles Hoskinson hosted an AMA session on YouTube to chat about what is currently happening in the crypto space. J. J. Siler joined Hoskinson to co-host the discussion.

One of the first issues that was brought up during the video is Hoskinson’s trouble with (ETC). The founder expressed his dissatisfaction for the direction the project is going into and went as far as to say that he believes ETC is becoming more and more like a scam.

Hoskinson then went on to explain that he would much rather support Ergo because it is doing “really interesting things” and because it is not the child of an incident or event.

He also blew off some steam about a bad Twitter experience where he reported a bot account, but was basically brushed off with an email stating that Twitter does not see anything wrong with the reported account.

A bit later on in the video, Hoskinson was asked about his opinion about what is happening with where people are finding ways to avoid royalties behind NFTs. He replied by stating that developers have to be extremely careful with how systems are created because people will always try to find ways around the rules.

The “impending nuclear war” was also mentioned in the video and Hoskinson was asked how an event like this will impact Cardanbo or the economy as a whole. He replied that he believes that the stock markets could drop by 30% to 40%.

These issues were just some of the syllabus that were brought up throughout the video. Other syllabus included new Cardano developments, war, and , to name a few.

The post Hoskinson Addresses A Variety Of syllabus In His latest AMA Video appeared first on Coin Edition.

See original on CoinEdition

Fri, 07 Oct 2022 23:35:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Reddit Leads the Way for STD Information Seeking

Oct. 7, 2022 Where do teens and young adults go to talk about sex, sexual health, and sexually transmitted diseases? 

The obvious – routine medical checkups, hanging out with friends or partners – are possibly becoming less common than social media platforms for information and advice. And it appears that researchers and doctors  alike are starting to pay close attention by meeting users where they are – both to observe and take part in real-time exchanges around sexual health syllabus that occur in more leveled, stigma-free playing fields. 

For patients and doctors, it’s a win-win situation, one that provides a chance to address and prevent the spread of STD misinformation and, at the same time, help to reverse skyrocketing rates of some of these infections in younger people. 

Ina Park, MD, an STD doctor and professor of family and community medicine at the University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine, says that almost all of her and her colleagues’ patients – especially within a certain age range – are on social media. 

“Many have had negative experiences when they’ve disclosed their sexual practices to their clinicians, when they felt that they were being judged for how many sexual partners they had, or [felt] that getting an STD meant getting punished for bad behavior” she says. 

This is especially true of sexual minority youth (LGBTQ), whose clinical encounters are all too often marred by doctors who lack an understanding of gender identity issues, or by those who aren’t comfortable discussing sexual health and STDs with their patients.

Perhaps this explains, at least in part, why platforms like Reddit and its smaller, moderated community forums, known as subreddits, are getting more popular. At last count, there were more than 3.4 million subreddits dedicated to specific topics, including the ‘Ask Me Anything (AMA)’ subreddits r/AMA and r/IAmA/, which hold regular online question-and-answer sessions on a variety of topics. There is also a subreddit specifically dedicated to discussions around STDs (r/STD) among a community of 23,000 users.

Discovering and Leveraging r/STD

In 2019, a group of researchers from the University of California, San Diego, did a small study to find out if people were getting medical diagnoses on social media platforms. They chose STDs as a case study, in part because these infections were getting more common.

“Our goal was to introduce the concept of crowd diagnosis, where you go to obtain a diagnosis on social media for a clinical outcome from your peers,” explains John Ayers, PhD, vice chief of innovation in the Division of Infectious Diseases and Global Public Health at UCSD and one of the study’s authors.

“When we looked at the data, we saw that 100s of people were going on Reddit and a large plurality were posting pictures, and asking for a diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases,” he says.

The team’s findings were published later that year in JAMA and highlighted that 58% of roughly 17,000 posts were requests for a crowd diagnosis, 31% of which also included an image of physical signs of infection. Only 20% of posts asking for a crowd diagnosis were made to obtain a second option after receiving a diagnosis from a doctor. 

Ayers says the main takeaway is that many doctors have a "field of dreams" perspective, “you know, if we build it, they will come. But they’re not coming, so why don’t we go and help them where they already are?”

He also explains that it’s not enough to simply discover that a phenomenon exists (people going online to get a diagnosis), but that by discovering or revealing a problem (possible misinformation), doctors have a chance to intervene.

That is exactly what the American Sexual Health Association (ASHA) aimed to explore when it when it hopped onto the r/IAmA forum  forum armed with two experts – Park and a sexologist – and hosted a discussion about STDs. Their goal was to learn what types of information people were seeking, and ultimately drive sexually active people to seek testing through its Yes Means Test public awareness campaign.

The session generated 254 comments, and Park and her co-host addressed 42 questions, most commonly on STD transmission (24%) and STD testing (22%). Other common questions focused on sexual difficulties (15%) and sexuality (15%), although the AMA also included posts discussing contraception, partner communication, research, prevention, and treatment.


“Can oral herpes be spread to your partner as genital herpes during sex. How long should a person wait after an oral herpes breakout before giving oral sex?”

This question received 50 upvotes, indicating approval or support for the post from other participants.

Notably, the first response to the question was from a fellow user who recommended that the poster check out a herpes organization site in the U.K. 

Park then followed with information on how oral herpes is spread between partners during oral sex, the need to wait until the sore is healed before resuming oral sex, and when shedding is most active.

If scores and click-throughs indicate outcomes, then The ASHA AMA resulted in the best possible results. The session received a 5 out of 5 Reddit AMA score (the benchmark is 4), three community awards, and a click-through rate back to the ASHA site (and its STD testing campaign) of 45% (which surpassed the 10% Reddit benchmark).

Not All That Glitters Is Gold 

Reddit AMAs don’t come without risk, and it's best for those who want STD information to be aware of the pitfalls and red flags.

“One of the things to think about is that an approach like the subreddit adds to the false narrative that STDs in particular have to be symptomatic to be problematic, which we know is not the case,” explains Dennis Li, an assistant professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences, and sexual and gender minority health and well-being, at Northwestern Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago. 

“We also have to be careful not to misdiagnose and potentially cause harm,” he says, emphasizing that many young people – especially those with equity issues don't have experience in navigating health systems or reputable websites for information. 

Ayers concurs.

“One of the outcomes in our study was people saying that they had a positive HIV test and were asked to come back and get a confirmatory test,” he explains. “But then someone in the community said don’t worry about it; you’re OK.”

So, “it’s OK to seek out advice but look for confirmation of that advice,” he says. “Make sure to follow [up] with a physician or go to a forum where you can actually engage with a physician.” 

Although she took part in the ASHA AMA session, Park has strong words of caution for people seeking advice on social platforms, especially when it comes to Reddit, which carries with it the baggage of hosting a lot of trolls.

“Reddit has the highest risk in terms of accepting advice because oftentimes, the person responding back to you is anonymous. They can say that their credentials are x, y, and z, but you really don’t have any way of proving that” Park says. 

“You don’t know who’s answering your question.”

Personally, she says that she uses her real name, on the few Reddit forums she’s taken part in as well as on her Instagram page, where she shares STD information.

Park also cautions users to avoid someone trying to sell something, as the information is, by nature, likely to be somewhat biased. Like Ayers, she recommends taking the information and verifying it before making health decisions. 

Reputable sources include ASHA, the CDC, Scarleteen (an LGBTQ-positive, graphic-forward site), Planned Parenthood, and, of course, WebMD.

Health Experts Call for New Prevention Strategies 

In September, the CDC held the 2022 STD Prevention Conference, resulting in an Associated Press news report that warned of an out-of-control "STD situation" in the U.S. In addition to dire news about rising infection rates for STDs such as gonorrhea, the CDC also reported that 2021 syphilis cases reached a high not seen since 1948 and that HIV cases were likewise on the rise.

The key takeaway from this conference was that prevention is key, especially among at-risk populations like young people, men who have sex with men, Black and Hispanic Americans, Indigenous Americans, and women.

According to Li, testing should be the best outcome.

“What online resources can really help with is reducing stigma around testing, getting people comfortable asking questions to a medical or health care provider, and helping to bolster trust in the medical system – not just trusting that people are doing the right thing, but trust that you’ll be taken care of in a way that respects you as a person,” he says. 

Li sees sites like Reddit as bridging the gap between doing things on one’s own and knowing when to go to a qualified health professional.

But there may be a need for doctors to take the leap onto social media, if only to start following user accounts and learning what people are talking about. 

By doing so, "we can minimize the harm,” says Ayers. 

Fri, 07 Oct 2022 09:10:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Bad Bunny leads AMA 2022 nominations with Taylor Swift, Drake and Beyoncé close behind

The 2022 American Music Award nominees have been announced and the artist to look out for this year is Bad Bunny, who is leading with the most nominations. 

Bad Bunny has a total of eight AMA nominations this year, which includes his first nomination for artist of the year. If he takes home the title for all eight of his nominations, he could tie with Michael Jackson and Whitney Houston for the most wins in a single year. Last year, BTS won the coveted artist of the year award. 

Beyoncé and Taylor Swift are the most nominated female artists this year and each have six nominations. Of these six, the two will go head-to-head in three categories, artist of the year, favorite female pop artist and favorite pop album. 

Swift holds the record for most AMA wins of all time with 34 wins and has the record for most wins in the artist of the year category with six. Also with six nominations is Drake, who is also up for artist of the year. 

Bad Bunny leads the way in nominations this year for the American Music Awards. He has eight nominations, including his first for artist of the year.  ( Gladys Vega/Getty Images)


With five nominations each are Harry Styles, The Weeknd and Adele. All three artists gained a nomination for artist of the year. For any of the three nominees, they could be taking home their first ever win in that category. Styles won artist of the year twice while he was part of One Direction, but this could be the "As it Was" singers first win as a solo artist.  

While there are a lot of veteran AMA nominees on the list, there are also a lot of first time nominees getting some attention, including Jack Harlow with four nominations, Tems, also with four nominations, Latto with three and BLACKPINK with one. 

Along with first nominees come some first time categories. New categories that have been added to this year's AMAs are favorite k-pop artist, favorite afrobeats artist, favorite rock song and favorite rock album. 

The AMAs will be held at Microsoft Theater in Los Angeles. They will air live on November 20 at 8 p.m. EST/PST. Fans can vote for their favorites in every category except for favorite k-pop artist, which will open for voting on November 1. 

Taylor Swift has the most American Music Award wins of all time, and this year she continues to dominate with six nominations. (Photo by Amy Sussman/Getty Images)


Below is a full list of the 2022 American Music Award nominees: 

Artist of the year


Bad Bunny



Harry Styles

Taylor Swift

The Weeknd

New artist of the year

Dove Cameron




Steve Lacy

Collaboration of the year

Carolina Gaitán, Mauro Castillo, Adassa, Rhenzy Feliz, Diane Guerrero, Stephanie Beatriz & "Encanto" Cast "We Don’t Talk About Bruno"

Elton John & Dua Lipa "Cold Heart – PNAU Remix"

Future ft. Drake & Tems "WAIT FOR U"

Lil Nas X ft. Jack Harlow "INDUSTRY BABY"

The Kid LAROI & Justin Bieber "STAY"

Favorite touring artist

Bad Bunny


Ed Sheeran

Elton John

The Rolling Stones

Favorite music video

Adele "Easy On Me"

Bad Bunny ft. Chencho Corleone "Me Porto Bonito"

Harry Styles "As It Was"

Lil Nas X ft. Jack Harlow "INDUSTRY BABY"

Taylor Swift "All Too Well: The Short Film"

Favorite male pop artist

Bad Bunny


Ed Sheeran

Harry Styles

The Weeknd


Favorite female pop artist



Doja Cat


Taylor Swift

Favorite pop duo or group



Imagine Dragons



Favorite pop album

Adele "30"

Bad Bunny "Un Verano Sin Ti"

Beyoncé "Renaissance"

Harry Styles "Harry’s House"

Taylor Swift "Red (Taylor’s Version)"

The Weeknd "Dawn FM"

Favorite pop song 

Adele "Easy On Me"

Carolina Gaitán, Mauro Castillo, Adassa, Rhenzy Feliz, Diane Guerrero, Stephanie Beatriz & "Encanto" Cast "We Don’t Talk About Bruno"

Harry Styles "As It Was"

Lizzo "About Damn Time"

The Kid LAROI & Justin Bieber "STAY"

Favorite male country artist

Chris Stapleton

Cody Johnson

Luke Combs

Morgan Wallen

Walker Hayes

Favorite female country artist

Carrie Underwood

Lainey Wilson

Maren Morris

Miranda Lambert

Taylor Swift

Favorite country duo or group

Dan + Shay

Lady A

Old Dominion


Zac Brown Band


Favorite country album

Carrie Underwood "Denim & Rhinestones"

Luke Combs "Growin’ Up"

Cody Johnson "Human: The Double Album"

Taylor Swift "Red (Taylor’s Version)"

Walker Hayes "Country Stuff: The Album"

Favorite country song

Chris Stapleton "You Should Probably Leave"

Cody Johnson "’Til You Can’t"

Dustin Lynch ft. MacKenzie Porter "Thinking ‘Bout You"

Jordan Davis ft. Luke Bryan "Buy Dirt"

Morgan Wallen "Wasted on You"

Favorite male hip-hop artist



Kendrick Lamar

Lil Baby

Lil Durk

Favorite female hip-hop artist

Cardi B



Megan Thee Stallion

Nicki Minaj

Favorite hip-hop album


Gunna "DS4EVER"

Kendrick Lamar "Mr. Morale & The Big Steppers"

Lil Durk "7220"

Polo G "Hall of Fame 2.0"

Favorite hip-hop song

Future ft. Drake & Tems "WAIT FOR U"

Jack Harlow "First Class"

Kodak Black "Super Gremlin"

Latto "Big Energy"

Lil Nas X ft. Jack Harlow "INDUSTRY BABY"

Favorite male R&B artist

Brent Faiyaz

Chris Brown


Lucky Daye

The Weeknd

Favorite female R&B artist


Doja Cat

Muni Long

Summer Walker



Favorite R&B album

Beyoncé "Renaissance"

Drake "Honestly, Nevermind"

Silk Sonic (Bruno Mars & Anderson .Paak) "An Evening with Silk Sonic"

Summer Walker "Still Over It"

The Weeknd "Dawn FM"

Favorite R&B song


Muni Long "Hrs And Hrs"

Silk Sonic (Bruno Mars & Anderson .Paak) "Smokin Out The Window"

SZA "I Hate U"

Wizkid ft. Tems "Essence"

Favorite male Latin artist

Bad Bunny


J Balvin


Rauw Alejandro

Favorite female Latin artist


Becky G

Kali Uchis



Favorite Latin duo or group 

Banda MS de Sergio Lizárraga

Calibre 50

Eslabon Armado

Grupo Firme

Yahritza Y Su Esencia

Favorite Latin album

Bad Bunny "Un Verano Sin Ti"

Farruko "La 167"

J Balvin "JOSE"

Rauw Alejandro "Vice Versa"


Favorite Latin song 

Bad Bunny ft. Chencho Corleone "Me Porto Bonito"



Rauw Alejandro "Todo de Ti"

Sebastián Yatra "Dos Oruguitas"

Favorite rock artist

Imagine Dragons

Machine Gun Kelly


Red Hot Chili Peppers

The Lumineers

Favorite rock song

Foo Fighters "Love Dies Young"

Imagine Dragons x JID "Enemy"

Kate Bush "Running Up That Hill (A Deal With God)"

Måneskin "Beggin’"

Red Hot Chili Peppers "Black Summer"

Favorite rock album

Coldplay "Music of the Spheres"

Ghost "Impera"

Imagine Dragons "Mercury – Act 1"

Machine Gun Kelly "mainstream sellout"

Red Hot Chili Peppers "Unlimited Love"


Favorite inspirational artist

Anne Wilson


Katy Nichole

Matthew West

Phil Wickham

Favorite gospel artist

CeCe Winans


Dewey Smith

Maverick City Music

Tamela Mann

Favorite dance/electronic artist



Swedish House Mafia

The Chainsmokers


Favorite soundtrack



"Sing 2"

"Stranger Things: Soundtrack from the Netflix Series, Season 4"

"Top Gun: Maverick"

Favorite afrobeats artist

Burna Boy


Fireboy DML



Favorite k-pop artist






Thu, 13 Oct 2022 05:40:00 -0500 Fox News en text/html
Killexams : AMA reveals soya bean, sunflower contract packages

The Herald

Edgar Vhera-Agriculture Specialist Writer

IN a move meant to Excellerate professionalism and transparency between farmers and contractors, the Agricultural Marketing Authority (AMA) has revealed the minimum soya bean and sunflower inputs packages for the 2022/23 cropping season.

AMA chief executive officer Mr Clever Isaya recently when explained that the Statutory Instruments, which govern cotton and grains and oilseeds farming had provisions for minimum packages under contract farming arrangements.

“Though contract farming agreements vary in nature, the minimum input package outlines the basic inputs that need to be provided by the contractor to the farmer so that the expected output is achieved,” said Mr Isaya during the registration of contractors recently.

This has a dual purpose of protecting the investments by the contractor, as well as allowing the farmers to be liable to the level of support rendered to them.

“This serves the purposes of protecting the investments by contractors while ensuring that farmers’ obligations are limited to the level of support given by the contractor,” further explained Mr Isaya.

The following tables depicts the minimum soya bean input package:



Input Rate per ha  Unit
Soyabean Seed 80-100 Kg
Inoculant 1 Sachet
Thiram 80WP 0.25 kg
Fertilizer & Lime
Soya Blend 300-350 Kg
Foliar Spray 1.5 Litres
Gypsum 150 Kgs
Agricultural Lime 700 Kgs
Ammonium nitrate 100 Kgs
Herbicides- Pre-emergent
Metribuzin 480SC /Sencor 1 Litre
Dual Magnum 960EC 1 Litre
Lasso/Alachlor 48EC 3 Litre
Bateleur gold 1 Litre
Herbicides Post -emergent
Insecticides (Any of the following)
Lambda-cyhalothrin 0.15 Litres
Carbaryl 85WP 1 Kg
Dichlorvos 0.5 Litres
Thunder 0.3 Litres
Opera/Folicur/Shavit/Tilt 0.5 Litres
Packaging Bags 80 Bags
Twine 1 kgs

Source: AMA

The sunflower minimum input package is depicted in the table below.

Input Rate per ha  Unit
Sunflower Seed 8 Kg
Fertilizer & Lime
Compound L 150 Kg
Ammonium Nitrate 200 Kg
Agricultural Lime 250 Kgs
Endosulfan 50WP 2 Litres
Molasses 2 Litres
Packaging Bags 20 Bags
Twine 0.4 kgs

Source: AMA

AMA has also brought to light that there is a compliance administration framework that contractors should adhere to in the execution of their contracting operations.

“Contractors and other stakeholders agree on a minimum input package before the start of the season. This culminates in the signing of a memorandum of understanding between AMA and the contractors. There are also provisions for the authority to carry out inspections of the warehouses of the contractors to check the inputs before they are distributed to the farmers.

“In the same vein, contractors provide proof of input support to the authority once they have finished contracting farmers. This allows for reconciliations to be done in the background with the input suppliers. Validation exercises are carried out to verify the information provided by the contractors on contracted hectarage using the AMA database,” disclosed Mr Isaya.

Farmers have complained that contractors provided them with inputs late and as a result their yields are compromised rendering them unable to repay loans.

“The dates for the last inputs distribution are clearly stated in the Statutory Instrument 118 of 2022. Hence, the first tranche and second tranche for cotton input distribution ends on December 31 and February 28 of each year respectively,” said Mr Isaya.

In a related matter AMA has extended by two weeks the registration of all institutions wishing to participate in the provision of agricultural inputs and contracting services to October 15.

“AMA advises that the registration by all institutions or individuals involved in contract farming, manufacturing, buying or selling of agricultural inputs for the 2022/2023 agricultural season has been extended to October 15.”

The authority also revealed that self-financed farmers were required to register within that same stipulated period with late registration attracting penalties in terms of the relevant regulations.

Tue, 04 Oct 2022 09:13:00 -0500 en-GB text/html
Killexams : AMA Examines PBM Market Competition And Integration With Insurers

CHICAGO, Illinois, Oct. 14 (TNSres) -- The American Medical Association issued the following news release:

A new analysis by the American Medical Association (AMA) finds a widespread lack of competition in local markets across the United States where prescription drug middlemen known as pharmacy benefit managers (PBMs) provide services to commercial health insurers. The AMA analysis is the first to shed light on variations in market shares and competition among PBMs at the state and metropolitan levels.

Based on 2020 data for individuals with a commercial drug benefit tied to a medical benefit and the PBMs used by insurers, the AMA's competition analysis presents national and local market insight on five different PBM services performed for insurers: rebate negotiation, retail network management, claim adjudication, formulary management, and benefit design. It presents the two largest PBM market shares and concentration levels for all states and metropolitan areas.

"The American Medical Association already has serious concerns ( about PBM business practices that can have a detrimental impact on patients' access to and cost of prescription drugs," said AMA President Jack Resneck Jr, M.D. "PBM markets require careful scrutiny as less competition and more vertical integration can embolden anti-competitive business practices to the detriment of patients. The novel data presented by the AMA analysis is intended to help regulators, lawmakers, researchers, and policymakers better evaluate merger proposals in the future that may harm patients by raising prices, lowering quality, reducing choice and stifling innovation."

The analysis found significant portions (37%) of the national markets for two services, formulary management and benefit design, were managed in house by health insurers rather than buying those services from the PBM market. In contrast, commercial insurers largely use a PBM for three services: rebate negotiation, retail network management and claims adjudication, rather than conducting them in house. The analysis thus assessed market competition for those three PBM services.

At the national level, the analysis found that a handful of PBMs have a large collective market share for the three PBM services most used by insurers:

* The 10 largest PBMs had a collective share of 97%.

* The four largest PBMs had a collective share of roughly 66%.

* Six PBMs are used exclusively by one insurer or a set of Blue Cross Blue Shield affiliates.

At both the state and metropolitan levels, the analysis found a high degree of market concentration for each the three PBM services assessed by the study:

* More than three of four (about 78%) states had highly concentrated PBM markets.

* More than four of five (85%) of metropolitan areas had highly concentrated PBM markets.

The analysis also quantified the extent of vertical integration between health insurers and PBMs. An insurer is vertically integrated with a PBM when a PBM service is performed in house or supplied by a PBM that shares ownership with the insurer.

* Health insurers that were vertically integrated with a PBM covered 69% of all people with commercial drug insurance.

* Although the average vertical integration shares across states and metropolitan areas were slightly lower (63% and 65%), there was wide variation across states and metropolitan areas.

* Some states have almost no vertical integration between insurers and PBMs, while others are almost entirely vertically integrated. South Dakota has the smallest vertical integration share (6%) and North Carolina has the highest vertical integration share (97%).

According to the analysis, "even though the largest health insurers and PBMs are vertically integrated, there is still a significant portion of the market that remains not vertically integrated, particularly at the local level." Vertically integrated insurers may not allow non-vertically integrated insurer competitors to access their PBMs, or they could raise the cost of those PBM services. This could adversely affect non-vertically integrated insurers and ultimately patients through higher premiums.

The analysis of competition in commercial PBM service markets adds to the AMA's work to shine a light on market consolidation in the health insurance industry. Protecting patients and physicians from anticompetitive harm will continue to be a vital issue of public policy for the AMA, the federation of medicine, and the nation's physicians. The AMA website offers additional information on the AMA's efforts against anti-competitive mergers.

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Fri, 14 Oct 2022 01:38:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : New AMA report calls for state regulation of drug price middlemen

The American Medical Association (AMA) released a new report Thursday that puts pharmacy benefits managers (PBMs) back in focus as a key player in high drug costs.

The role of PBMs in the health care ecosystem has been a hotly debated topic in latest years, as the so-called "middle managers" of prescriptions — between insurers and pharmaceutical companies — have integrated with major insurers.

The blurring of the lines adds to an opaque process of drug rebates and impacts the final cost of drugs that patients pay.

The AMA argues that over time, PBMs have morphed and are now acting like insurance companies — which are regulated at the state level.

"PBMs were created in the 1960s to help health insurers contain drug spending. PBMs can stimulate price competition among drug manufacturers by shifting demand among competing substitute drugs. In turn, manufacturers offer rebates to PBMs for their drugs to be placed favorably in a drug formulary, which PBMs are then supposed to pass on to insurers or employers," according to AMA's report.

AMA President Dr. Jack Resneck, Jr., told Yahoo Finance that these entities are "now really, fully, administering drug benefit plans. Whether it's creating formularies or making coverage decisions or doing utilization management or creating the pharmacy networks or negotiating reductions and dispensing fees."

Woman pharmacist wearing surgical face mask checking out customer's medication prescription. African female chemist standing behind the counter with a screen partition and using computer in medical store.

And with so few players in the market — of which some are exclusive to one major health insurer —competition is slim.

Drug companies have complained that they raise list prices because of the increased rebates paid to PBMs — an issue the FTC has begun to address — and are themselves facing scrutiny over the pricing.

While the Inflation Reduction Act sought to curb high prices largely impacting Medicare, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has said in calculating penalties for price increases it will consider the commercial market price hikes.

Meanwhile, the AMA, and groups like it, have been lobbying for more oversight and curbing of the power of PBMs. It is part of a blame game the industry has been engaged in over who is responsible for the high cost of America's health care.

"There's no single source of escalation (in cost) of health care, or we would have solved this a long time ago. But this is...where we've seen a lot of dramatic change in the last decade. This is an area where cost has just increasingly been a barrier for our patients," Resneck said.

"As physicians, we expect new discoveries and new medications that have a lot of R&D to be somewhat expensive when they first come out. But the reality of what we're seeing for our patients is that even those targeted drugs and biologics, 10 years after they come out, they seem to be doubling and tripling and quadrupling in price" and the generic marketplace isn't working as it should with offering lower costs, Resneck added.

Which is why AMA is turning to state governments, and the role they play in regulating insurers, to address the issue.

The report highlights the various markets that PBMS operate in, and how much of the market is served by each PBM. It is limited in scope in that it is based on the commercial insurance market and does not include employer-sponsored programs — which could work with the same or a different PBM than the one owned or affiliated with the insurance company used.

AMA's report shows that the four largest PBMs have 66% of the national market, and all 10 major PBMs have 97% of the market.

The biggest ones are Express Scripts, owned by Cigna (CI), OptumRx, owned by United Health Group (UNH), Kaiser Pharmacy, owned by Kaiser Permanente, IngenioRx which serves Anthem's markets as well as some CVS (CVS) markets, and Caremark, owned by CVS.

The report covers states and Census metro areas and identifies the top two PBMs in each market for the services they provide, including price negotiations, retail pharmacy networks, and claims adjudication.

Densely-populated areas, like New York City and Boston, tend to have lower concentrations of a single PBM. But less populated areas like Gadsden, Ala,. have 90% penetration from a single PBM — Blue Cross Blue Shield Association's Prime Therapeutics.

Those areas are especially concerning for AMA, because of the impact on patients. And as pressure for transparency increases in health care, PBMs remain opaque by comparison, and without specific oversight.

Some states have begun to create laws and regulations to control some services, but there is still more work that needs to be done to rein in costs, Resneck said.

"There's just a lot of things that can happen if this space gets non-competitive," he said.

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Thu, 13 Oct 2022 01:26:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : AMA urges Chicago’s civic, business leaders to invest in health equity

The American Medical Association is calling on Chicago’s business and civic leaders to join it in funding initiatives that Excellerate the health and economic vitality of some of the city’s most vulnerable neighborhoods.

At an event Friday morning hosted by the City Club of Chicago, the AMA announced a new $3 million multiyear investment in Chicago’s West Side neighborhoods, building on the organization's initial $2 million investment in 2020. The funds are aimed at addressing health disparities and improving economic opportunity on the West Side, and the AMA is urging others to join it in supporting progress in the area.

"The investment from business and organizations such as ours is paralleled by really careful planning and deep coordination with civic leaders, faith-based leaders and we’re looking for a partnership with everyone in this room,” Dr. James Madara, CEO of the Chicago-based physician's group, said at the event.

West Side United, a health equity organization spun out of Rush University System for Health, will help the AMA allocate the funds across health care providers, small businesses and community development financial institutions.

The idea is to revitalize neighborhoods to foster affordable housing, healthy food options, job creation and education programs. Funding will also support grants and career pathway scholarships in partnership with Malcolm X College.

“The vitality of a neighborhood is intrinsically related to its health outcome,” Madara said in an interview, adding that the new West Side investment is part of a national strategy the AMA is instituting to advance racial justice and equity in medicine.

“The inequities in medicine were really highlighted during the pandemic,” Madara said.

The life expectancy for all Chicagoans dropped almost two years on average, to 75 years, during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, according to data from the Chicago Department of Public Health. And Chicago's Black and Latino residents saw even steeper declines, with the gap between Black and white Chicagoans widening to 10 years, up from 8.8 years in 2017.

A panel at Friday’s event was moderated by Deborah Kasemeyer, senior vice president and director of community development and investments at Northern Trust, which deploys capital through grants and loans to underserved areas in Chicago.

Panelists included Dr. Diana N. Derige, vice president of health equity strategy and development at the American Medical Association’s Center for Health Equity; Ayesha Jaco, executive director at West Side United; Richard Townsell, executive director at the Lawndale Christian Development Corporation; and Alex Wiggins, vice president and chief investment officer with Rush University Medical Center. Each organization is working with the AMA on health equity initiatives.

Addressing the audience, Jaco also encouraged attendees to help West Side United in its mission to support small business, build affordable housing and address health disparities for West Side residents.

“Acknowledging and addressing the life expectancy gap and the role of structural racism and historical disinvestment is a tall order, and we cannot do it alone,” Jaco said.

Fri, 14 Oct 2022 01:18:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : AMA Report Evaluates PBM Competition and Vertical Integration With Insurers

While a majority of national lives are covered by vertically integrated insurers, the proportion varies widely at the state level from as low as 6% to as high as 97% of covered lives, according to a new American Medical Association (AMA) report about competition in the pharmacy benefit manager (PBM) sector and insurance.

In local markets in the United States where pharmacy benefit managers (PBMs) provide services to commercial health insurers, there is a widespread lack of competition, according to a new report from the American Medical Association (AMA).

The analysis uses 2020 data for individuals with a commercial drug benefit tied to a medical benefit, as well as the PBMs used by insurers, to provide insight on PBM services performed for insurers. Five PBM services are reviewed: rebate negotiation, retail network management, claim adjudication, formulary management, and benefit design.

“The American Medical Association already has serious concerns about PBM business practices that can have a detrimental impact on patients’ access to and cost of prescription drugs,” AMA President Jack Resneck Jr, MD, said in a statement. “PBM markets require careful scrutiny as less competition and more vertical integration can embolden anti-competitive business practices to the detriment of patients.”

PBMs were first created in the 1960s and manage the drug insurance benefits for the majority of Americans today. When PBMs were created, the goal was to contain drug spending by creating competition among substitute drugs. Manufacturers provide rebates to PBMs for favorable placement on the drug formulary, and PBMs are supposed to pass those rebates on to the insurer or employer.

“It is not clear whether PBMs are (fully) passing on those rebates,” the report notes. “Perhaps in response to this incomplete pass-through of rebates, health insurers have been vertically integrating with PBMs. As a result, the largest insurers in the country and even some smaller ones already have their own PBM or share the same owner with one.”

The analysis looked at enrollment in commercial drug insurance obtained directly from health insurers through health plans combining the medical and drug benefit. The analysis did not include carved-out lives.

More than a third (37%) of the national markets for formulary management and benefit design are managed in house by insurers rather than through PBMs.

Across the remaining 3 functions—rebate negotiation, retail network management and claims adjudication—the report found little difference in market shares. The 4 largest PBMs collectively have a 66% share of the national PBM commercial market, according to the report. Furthermore, 10 PBMs control 97% of the market share.

The largest PBM in the commercial drug coverage market is Express Scripts with a 22% share, followed by OptumRx with 17% and Prime Therapeutics with a 15% share. The data used reported on CVS/Caremark and Aetna separately, but their merger was approved at the end of 2019. When they are combined, CVS has a market share of 17%.

In addition, the report highlights “a significant degree of vertical integration between health insurers and PBMs.” The 8 largest insurers have a collective national market share of 61% and are affiliated with the 8 biggest PBMs.

Looking at PBM market concentration at the local level, the results show that 78% of state-level markets and 85% of metropolitan statistical areas–level markets are considered highly concentrated for rebate negotiation. Results were similar for the retail network management and claims adjudication markets.

While there is a large extent of vertical integration at the national level, the same is not necessarily true at the local level, according to the report. “In fact, most health insurers don't have a national presence and instead operate at the local level as they are typically licensed to operate in a single state,” the report explains.

While 69% of drug lives are covered by a vertically integrated insurer on the national level, there is wide variation at the local level. On average, 63% of state-level lives are vertically integrated, but this varies from South Dakota with only 6% of lives and North Carolina with 97% of lives vertically integrated.

“The novel data presented by the AMA analysis is intended to help regulators, lawmakers, researchers, and policy makers better evaluate merger proposals in the future that may harm patients by raising prices, lowering quality, reducing choice and stifling innovation,” Resneck said.

Fri, 14 Oct 2022 03:58:00 -0500 Laura Joszt, MA en text/html
Killexams : Bad Bunny Leads 2022 AMA Nominations

Duration: 01:30

Bad Bunny , Leads 2022 AMA Nominations. Bad Bunny , Leads 2022 AMA Nominations. Fox News reports that Bad Bunny has received eight American Music Awards nominations. Among them is his first nod for artist of the year. BTS took home that title last year. Beyoncé, Taylor Swift and Drake follow Bad Bunny with six nominations each. Beyoncé, Taylor Swift and Drake follow Bad Bunny with six nominations each. Beyoncé, Taylor Swift and Drake follow Bad Bunny with six nominations each. Artists with five nominations each include Harry Styles, The Weeknd and Adele. Artists with five nominations each include Harry Styles, The Weeknd and Adele. Artists with five nominations each include Harry Styles, The Weeknd and Adele. Adele, Swift, Beyoncé, Drake, Styles and The Weeknd are also contending for artist of the year. Adele, Swift, Beyoncé, Drake, Styles and The Weeknd are also contending for artist of the year. Adele, Swift, Beyoncé, Drake, Styles and The Weeknd are also contending for artist of the year. Adele, Swift, Beyoncé, Drake, Styles and The Weeknd are also contending for artist of the year. Adele, Swift, Beyoncé, Drake, Styles and The Weeknd are also contending for artist of the year. Adele, Swift, Beyoncé, Drake, Styles and The Weeknd are also contending for artist of the year. Artists who've received their first-ever nominations this year include Jack Harlow, Tems, Latto and BLACKPINK. Artists who've received their first-ever nominations this year include Jack Harlow, Tems, Latto and BLACKPINK. Artists who've received their first-ever nominations this year include Jack Harlow, Tems, Latto and BLACKPINK. Artists who've received their first-ever nominations this year include Jack Harlow, Tems, Latto and BLACKPINK. New categories this year include favorite rock song, favorite rock album, favorite k-pop artist and favorite afrobeats artist. The American Music Awards will air on Nov. 20 at 8 p.m. EST. Swift holds the AMA record for most wins of all time, 34

Thu, 13 Oct 2022 10:30:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Ama Slay releases new single Far Away

This post was published by the content creator and not GhanaWeb, its affiliates, or employees.

Reporter Post of Friday, 7 October 2022

Source: Yaw Boadu-Ayeboafoh


Ghanaian singer Ama Slay is back again with a new single titled Far Away.

The new single follows her collaborative single featuring Ko-Jo Cue titled Ebi You.

In ‘Far Away’, Ama Slay shows her dominance as she tells naysayers to stay away from her as she is concentrating on getting the bag and staying fly.

Under her Record label, Sutton Records Ama Slay has proven to be one of the fastest-rising female artists from Ghana.

She has worked with Fameye, E.L, Joey B and others

Far Away is a single produced by Laxio Beatz.

Thu, 06 Oct 2022 20:14:00 -0500 en text/html
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