LOGAN, Utah — Boeing has delayed the first flight of its CST-100 Starliner commercial crew vehicle with astronauts on board to no earlier than March 2024 as the company continues to work on issues with the spacecraft’s parachutes and wiring.
Boeing and NASA officials said in an Aug. 7 media briefing that they are making good progress on those issues, which they revealed more than two months ago, but that they still have several more months of work to complete before the vehicle will be ready to carry NASA astronauts.
One problem has been with “soft links” in the parachutes that were weaker than expected, preventing the overall parachute system from achieving the factor of safety required for crewed flights. “That has been redesigned by the team. They’re in the middle of testing that design,” Steve Stich, NASA commercial crew program manager, said on the call.
That testing will include a drop test scheduled for the latter half of November, said Mark Nappi, Boeing vice president and program manager for Starliner. That test will also verify an updated overall design for the parachute that had been intended for the first operational flight of Starliner, but will be pulled forward for this Crew Flight Test (CFT) mission.
Stich said a single test of the parachute will be sufficient, compared to a series of drop tests for a revision of parachutes during development of SpaceX’s Crew Dragon. “When we looked at the changes that we’re talking about, we felt like we only needed one test” to verify those changes, he said, which he described as much less significant than the earlier SpaceX parachute changes. “The design changes were, what I would say, minimal as opposed to what we had for Dragon, which was really a wholesale change in the canopy.”
Technicians have also been removing a tape used on wiring harnesses called P-213 that is flammable in some environments. Stich said that entries in a NASA database were “a bit inconsistent” about the tape’s flammability that led to its use in environments where it could pose a hazard.
Workers have removed about 85% of the tape in the upper part of the spacecraft. In the lower part of the spacecraft, some tape is hard to remove or could cause damage if its removed, said Nappi. Engineers have developed protective barriers and coatings, or can wrap the P-213 tape with acceptable tape, to mitigate the flammability hazard. “Based on the area, we’ll apply the right remediation technique.”
Neither NASA nor Boeing announced a new launch date for the CFT mission, which will send NASA astronauts Butch Wilmore and Suni Williams to the International Space Station for a brief stay. Before the parachute and wiring tape problems were announced, NASA had been targeting a late July launch of the mission, which has already suffered extensive delays.
Nappi said the critical path for getting Starliner ready for flight will be the parachute work. “Right now, based on the current plans, we’re anticipating that we’re going to be ready with the spacecraft in early March,” he said.
That does not, he added, mean that the CFT launch will take place in March. He said Boeing will have to work with NASA on ISS schedules, as well as United Launch Alliance on Atlas 5 launch schedules, to set a date. “We’ll work that throughout the next several weeks and see where we can fit in, and then we’ll set a launch date.”
Stich noted that March is typically when Roscosmos performs crew rotations using its Soyuz spacecraft, which could limit CFT opportunities that month. “We have not taken the vehicle readiness and mapped it into when we can find a date” that works with both the station and ULA, he said. “That’s really the next step.”
The delay of CFT into at least the spring of 2024 could push back the first operational, or post-certification, mission to 2025. Stich said it was too early to determine when Starliner could fly that mission. He suggested that mission could fly around the end of 2024, although crew rotation missions on Crew Dragon spacecraft are currently launching in February and August. “We would like to fly it as soon as we can.”
Boeing’s Nappi reiterated the company’s commitment to fly its contracted series of six post-certification missions, roughly once a year through late in the decade, even as the company’s losses on the Starliner program exceed $1 billion. The ISS is scheduled for retirement around 2030, but Nappi said there was time in that schedule to fit in the six flights by the end of the decade. “There’s no reason to change our plans.”
NASA, meanwhile, emphasized its desire to have a second commercial crew provider, with Starliner alternating with Crew Dragon. “We’ve got plenty of flights for Boeing to go fly, and we’re in good shape,” Stich said.
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We chose the best CBD capsules based on safety, quality, and transparency. Capsules from Social CBD, CBDFx, and NuLeaf Naturals are among the most highly rated picks; read on for a side-by-side comparison of options.
Healthline has sole editorial control over this article. Potential uses for the products listed here are not health claims made by the manufacturers. The information in this article is intended to be general in nature. It’s not intended to be a substitute for medical advice from a healthcare professional. Healthline encourages you to make any treatment decisions with your healthcare professional.
CBD oil is one of the most common types of CBD products, but it isn’t the only one. You can also take CBD in a pill or capsule. Pills and capsules are easy to use and can provide more consistent dosing than oils, as each dose is premeasured.
However, unlike CBD oils, CBD capsules and pills are subject to additional breakdown in your digestive tract via the first pass effect, which may change the potency.
Currently, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) doesn’t certain the safety, effectiveness, or quality of over-the-counter (OTC) CBD products. However, in order to protect public health, the FDA can take action against CBD companies that make unfounded health claims.
Since the FDA doesn’t regulate CBD products in the same way they regulate drugs or dietary supplements, companies sometimes mislabel or misrepresent their products. That means it’s especially important to do your own research and find a quality product.
We’re here to help with our top nine picks of some of the best CBD pills and capsules on the market today. We’ll also go over how to choose a product, as well as cover safety and side effect information.
Where available, we’ve included special discount codes for our readers.
We chose these products based on criteria we think are good indicators of safety, quality, and transparency. Each product in this article:
As a part of our selection process, we also considered:
Additionally, most of the products on this list contain full-spectrum CBD. Full-spectrum CBD, also known as whole-plant extract, has some advantages over isolate — namely, the entourage effect, a theory that states cannabinoids work better together than they do alone.
Navigating the CBD world can be overwhelming, even for more experienced users. Here’s what to look for when evaluating a product.
Look for a product that has a COA from a third-party lab. At a minimum, most brands will include the cannabinoid profile and potency. Check to make sure this matches what’s on the product label.
Some companies also test for contaminants, like:
Products that provide this information (and pass) are your best bets safety-wise.
If the company doesn’t provide a COA or provides one that’s incomplete or old, it probably isn’t the most quality company.
Look for products made with U.S.-grown hemp, which is subject to agricultural regulations.
Also consider the type of hemp. If you’re looking for a product that’s federally legal, look for a full-spectrum product with less than 0.3% THC, or an isolate or broad-spectrum product.
Watch out for red flags when shopping. These include:
You can learn more about how to read a CBD product label here.
When looking for a pill or capsule to suit your specific needs, consider:
For example, if you want something you can use before bedtime, look for a product that contains high levels of linalool, a terpene found in lavender and cannabis. Linalool has been shown to help with relaxation and anxiety, which may aid in sleep.
Consider other factors that may be important to you. For example, if you’re a vegetarian, you’ll want to read ingredient lists closely and look for a product that doesn’t contain gelatin — as many of these products do.
Depending on how easy it is for you to swallow pills, you may also want to consider capsule size and shape.
CBD oils are one of the most popular types of CBD products. They usually come in a bottle with a dropper, which you use to place the oil under your tongue.
CBD pills and capsules, on the other hand, come in a traditional softgel form. You take them as you would any other pill.
Some people prefer capsules to oils because they’re pre-dosed, and they don’t taste like anything. CBD oils can be flavored, but if they don’t have any added flavoring, they can have a sort of earthy taste.
Compared with oils placed under your tongue, capsules may take longer to produce an effect. That’s because capsules are subject to what’s called the “first pass effect.” This means that after you swallow them, they’re partially broken down in your digestive system and liver.
People take CBD capsules for a variety of reasons, including:
They’re a good choice if you’re looking for full-body effects. If you’re hoping for improvement in a localized area, you may want to consider a topical.
Dosing CBD can be tricky. There’s no one-size-fits-all dose, because everyone’s bodies respond differently to CBD. The clinical evidence we have for dosing CBD in humans is limited, and more research is needed before we can determine ideal safe doses.
With that in mind, the golden rule of dosing is “go low and slow.” Start at a low dose, see how it makes you feel, and adjust as needed. Some people find starting with 10 or 20 mg of CBD works, while others may need 40.
Adjusting by 5 to 10 mg at a time is a safe bet. It may take a few weeks of experimenting before you find your ideal dose. You’ll know a dose is just right if you begin to experience a reduction in symptoms.
Keep in mind that full-spectrum or broad-spectrum products can feel more potent than isolate.
Studies show that CBD is considered to be safe and generally well-tolerated in humans at doses of up to 1,500 mg per day. However, CBD users may still experience some side effects.
These can include:
One randomized clinical trial suggested that consuming CBD products with high fat meals can drastically increase CBD concentrations. This may increase the risk of side effects.
Talk with a doctor before taking CBD, especially if you’re taking any medications or supplements. CBD can have significant drug interactions, especially with medications that carry a grapefruit warning.
It can take up to 1 or 2 hours for the effects of a CBD capsule to kick in.
No. By itself, CBD doesn’t cause a “high.” However, many CBD products contain THC. If you take a high enough dose of a potent enough product, you may be consuming enough THC to feel the effects.
Full-spectrum and broad-spectrum CBD capsules may be more beneficial than CBD isolate capsules thanks to the entourage effect. However, CBD isolate may also offer benefits on its own.
CBD capsules typically contain CBD oil. They’re just a different delivery mechanism. Some people prefer capsules because they dislike the taste of oils. Others find that capsules are more convenient and less messy than CBD oils.
Yes, but make sure to pay close attention to the dosage of each product.
CBD pills are easy to use and offer reliable dosing. However, they may break down in the digestive tract, making them feel less potent.
You’ll need to experiment until you find your “just right” CBD dosage. Be sure to talk with a doctor before trying CBD.
Is CBD legal? The 2018 Farm Bill removed hemp from the legal definition of marijuana in the Controlled Substances Act. This made some hemp-derived CBD products with less than 0.3% THC legal at the federal level. However, CBD products containing more than 0.3% THC still fall under the legal definition of marijuana, making them illegal at the federal level. Some states have legalized CBD, so be sure to check state laws, especially when traveling. Also, keep in mind that the FDA has not approved nonprescription CBD products, and some products may be inaccurately labeled.
Risk Management & Insurance is a systematic strategic approach to minimizing an organization's exposure to risk.
A Risk Management & Insurance system includes various policies, procedures and practices that work in unison to identify, analyze, evaluate, address and monitor risk.
Risk Management & Insurance information is used along with other corporate information, such as feasibility, to arrive at a risk management decision. Transferring risk to another party, lessening the negative affect of risk and avoiding risk altogether are considered risk management strategies. Traditional risk management works to reduce vulnerabilities that are associated with accidents and lawsuits, among others. Financial risk management focuses on minimizing risks through the use of financial tools and instruments including various trading techniques and financial analysis.
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GREENFIELD — It’s been 18 months in the making, but a Monarch Waystation in Greenfield now serves as a welcome layover for the colorful butterflies making their annual pilgrimage to Mexico and back again.
Local master gardener Bruce Matter set the plan in motion in early 2022, reaching out to fellow gardeners for help creating a nurturing habitat for the endangered species.
He dubbed the project Monarch 911.
Now an assortment of milkweed, cone flowers, lavender and other beneficial plants attract the butterflies to a garden designed specifically for them, in the green space outside the Purdue Extension Hancock County office in Greenfield.
On Thursday, July 27, extension educator Lais McCartney will present Matter and his fellow volunteers with a plaque designating the space as a certified Monarch Waystation recognized by Monarch Watch, a volunteer-based organization that tracks the fall migration of the monarch butterfly.
“I am proud of the work the Master Gardener volunteers in creating this waystation,” said McCartney, who said the endangered butterflies can use all the help they can get.
“Monarchs are the poster child of other native pollinators, especially regarding habitat loss,” she said. Protecting them protects the local ecosystem, she added, which in turn helps local wildlife flourish.
Matter grew increasingly concerned about the monarchs when he noticed a number of large-scale industrial and warehouse buildings popping up on the west side of Greenfield in latest years.
“I felt really discouraged that all of a sudden Hancock County became urbanized, and there was no place for pollinators to go. The warehouses and urbanization didn’t leave any space for the bees and butterflies and all the insects to live,” he said.
Preserving the monarchs is essential to preserving the world as we know for future generations, said Matter, a Greenfield retiree with two grown children and two grandchildren.
“My kids attended Mt. Comfort Elementary (in the 1990s), and it was all open fields around there. Now it’s just a speck amid all the warehouses,” he said. “We have to strike a good balance between nature and progress, and unfortunately we didn’t do that over on the west side of Greenfield.”
According to Monarch Watch, sprawling development as well as the widespread use of herbicides on croplands, pastures and roadsides have been wiping out milkweeds and essential nectar sources since the monarch butterfly population was last thriving in the 1990s.
The nonprofit states development in the U.S. is taking over habitats for monarchs and other wildlife at a rate of 6,000 acres or 9.4 square miles each day — or 2.2 million acres each year
According to MonarchWatch.org, hundreds of millions of monarch butterflies throughout Northern American take to the skies and head to the mountains of Central Mexico each fall. They are most commonly spotted throughout Indiana in August and September.
“The monarch migration is truly one of the world’s greatest natural wonders,” the website states, “yet it is threatened by habitat loss at overwintering grounds in Mexico and throughout breeding areas in the United States and Canada.”
The nonprofit encourages groups and individuals to take matters into their own hands by creating Monarch Waystations to provide the nectar and nourishment monarchs need to survive.
Matter reached out to fellow master gardeners in early 2022 to create a local waystation, and Monarch 911 was born.
Last September, the group hosted a public education session at the Hancock County Public Library in Greenfield, where experts shared tips on how to create a natural habitat for monarch butterflies and gardens gave away milkweed pods to help guests start their own backyard butterfly habitats.
Rushville resident Helen Steussy shared how she and her husband manage 33 acres of native meadow plants to support local pollinators.
“We got a lot of ideas and tips from her,” said Matter, who has helped distribute roughy 2,000 packets of milkweed seeds since Monarch 911 began.
A monarch information station has been set up in the Purdue Extension Hancock County office to teach the public about the importance of creating local habitats.
Matter is hoping an increasing number of local residents take on the challenge of planting a few plants and giving monarch butterflies a helping hand.
For more information on how to create a backyard habitat, visit MonarchWatch.org/waystations.
The Math Center’s tutor training program is certified by the College and studying Learning Association’s (CRLA) International Tutor Training Program Certification (ITTPC).
The CRLA “is a group of student-oriented professionals active in the fields of reading, learning assistance, developmental education, tutoring, and mentoring at the college/adult level. Members supply practical application to their research and promote the implementation of innovative strategies to enhance student learning.”
The CRLA’s certification process requires that tutor training programs meet a set of internationally accepted standards and outcomes. Standards include subjects like:
The Math Center has developed a rigorous training program that is required of all tutors every semester. Our training curriculum focuses on methods and techniques to encourage and foster student independence, in addition to creating a welcoming environment in the Math Center lab.
“Very strong standards, outcomes, and assessment techniques to ensure high quality training sessions.”
“From the application, this appears to be an exceptionally run tutoring program and contains high quality hiring, training, and evaluating practices.”
“This program is so solid, clear, and well designed.”
“Another strength of this program is their careful vetting of job applicants—the interview format incorporates the results and experience of the skills test applicants take. This not only ensures that the applicant understands the necessary math content, but that they can tutor it as well.”
“The emphasis on group work and collaborative learning throughout the training program is very impressive, especially considering the structure of the drop-in tutoring program.”
CRLA's ITTPC has been endorsed by the Council of Learning Assistance and Developmental Education Associations (CLADEA), National Association for Developmental Education (NADE), and the Commission XVI of the American College Personnel Association.
In addition, other national organizations/programs who endorse CRLA's ITTPC program include: