Control systems are exactly what you think they are: systems designed to control something. Perhaps a better way to put it is systems design control the behavior of something. The term “control systems” does an excellent job of being vague and most of us (originally) don’t think too much about it until its brought to our attention or we crash a robotic armature into itself and investigate how that horrifying event was allowed to happened. Usually during this investigation our internal dialog has a loop running that goes something like: “why the hell will the system allow me to manipulate it in a self-destructive way!?!”
What I found was my own ignorance, I hadn’t implemented a proper control system. One could make a case claiming that I hadn’t taken ANY control system into account whatsoever. I jumped in too deep, too fast (sound familiar?) and paid the price of crashing a rotating arm into another part of the system. Luckily, a friend stepped in and repaired the arm for me and metaphorically pointed to a large neon sign on the wall and said “you can’t ignore this”. He walked over to pull the chain dangling beneath the sign, the high voltage energized the gas in the tubes blinding me with the now unavoidably obvious words: Control Systems.
There is evidence of control systems all around us, we use them all day without giving them any thought. I get up in the middle of the night in a daze, I shuffle down the hallway like a zombie for a glass of water and I never miss the handle of the cupboard with my outstretched arm. I swing open the door to the cabinet the appropriate distance without any problems and grasp a glass with my other hand. I do these things without actively focusing on them but nevertheless, these are control systems. I don’t squeeze the glass until it shatters in my hand as I grab it from the cupboard. I also have the ability to turn on the water from the faucet, fill the glass, turn the water off, and the only thing wet is the inside of the glass, not my hand or even the sink basin below the water faucet. This is an example of many complex control systems working towards a glass of water.
Rockets ignite and propel satellites into earth’s orbit, an elevator delivers us to the desired floor, control systems are everywhere. They have been around since forever and can be seen in some of our STEM forefathers’ (I think I just coined that phrase) most notable work.
300 B.C. the Greek mathematician and inventor Ktesibios creates a water clock that uses a control system with water as an input and time as an output. Everything in between water and time is the control system.
Improving on previous windmill designs, in 1809 William Cubitt created windmill sails with automatic shutters that were adjusted by wind-speed and a counterweight, this is a control system. Wind is the input and constant rotational energy is the output.
To observe an existing system and point at the input and output stating “water in, time out, everything in between them is a control system” doesn’t explain how a control system works or is designed but we’re getting there. These inventions require some fairly complex mathematics and we’ll get to that in a subsequent article but for now we’re laying a base of understanding. We have looked at a few examples of control systems in nature and a few man-made control systems. I shared my ignorance of control systems and then tried to redeem myself by telling you that I can fill a glass of water.
We will also have a look at some block diagrams and I should warn you that at some point we’ll encounter some mathematics you’ll never want to see again. Luckily the first thing we’ll do when we see these dreadful maths is devise a plan to get the hell outta there. Once we are safely out of harms way we will take care of some simpler operations i.e. we’ll do a bit of algebra instead of calculus and differential equations. Now come with me, friend, for after the break the real fun begins.
For our purposes I have drawn up an oversimplified version of a single input, single output (SISO) control systems. The block diagram is the control system. We can manipulate it with algebra and introduce new components as needed to get the desired output. We will however quickly replace these generic labels with labels that better describe the elements of the system. We will also break the “Control System” block into multiple blocks that make up the system. You can think of this diagram as the high level description you would provide to a child, remember “water in, time out, everything in between them is a control system”. The next bit is a little more detailed yet still symbolic in that we aren’t looking at the mathematical components of each block quite yet.
Lets create an example of a specific control system we hypothetically want to design. How about a large satellite dish? Good, its done. So we have a large satellite dish that is rotated by a geared motor. The desired position of the dish is input with a potentiometer which the controller uses to determine the magnitude and direction of required movement to achieve desired output. Also taken into account is the motor itself, the load we are moving (large satellite dish), and the gearing required to do so. The output of this system should be fed back to the input by something called (wait for it), feedback. The feedback path contains a second potentiometer that is adjusted as the dish rotates and goes into a summing junction with the input.
We can now draw a new block diagram to represent the more detailed description of what we have going on in this system.
We have discussed the function blocks and the basic flow of the system, let’s have a look at the signals, which are in blue in the above diagram. The initial angular input is an angle which the potentiometer (Input Transducer) converts into a voltage. At the summing junction there are two signals coming in and one going out, the two coming in are the voltage proportional to input and voltage proportional to output. If you notice the polarity markings on the input signals we have the input minus the output which results in the error signal. The angular output is in fact an angle that corresponds to the direction that the dish is pointing. In order to use the angle in our control system the potentiometer on the right (Output Transducer) converts that angle to a voltage that is sent to the summing junction. That junction is responsible for comparing the user control, and making sure action is taken until the genuine position matches it.
If we know that the behavior of the system is to drive the error signal to zero then we have two ways to measure the output of the system. Transient response and steady state error can both be measured to analyze the outcome of our control system and modify it accordingly.
Transient response is the signal’s reaction to a change in the system, which can be seen in the Step Response plot to the right. There are 3 types of transients which can be classified by the type of damping ratio used: over-damped, under-damped, and critically damped. The goal being a response as close to critically damped as possible.
We can visualize the importance of both the transient and the steady state error if we look at the plot response as a representation of an elevator going from the basement to the first floor. The under-damped oscillation is obviously going to be a problem and possibly cause some uneasy stomachs along the way as the speeding elevator overshoots the floor and overcompensates in the opposite direction, repeatedly. The over-damped elevator will get us there in a very smooth fashion, eventually. The critically damped response is shown in red and defined to be the fastest settling signal without oscillation.
In regards to the robotic arm that I crashed and wondered why this was possible, we can see one answer to that question in the step response plot. It’s possible that I was controlling an under-damped system and the arm crashed in the overshoot of the first half cycle of oscillation as seen by the blue line in the plot.
In this example there is not any steady state error introduced. Steady state error in the elevator scenario would result in the elevator doors opening somewhere between floors 1 and 2. Had this been the case we would deal with the steady state error by changing our controller so that the doors open at floor 1.
Clicking the antenna simulation screenshot to the left will take you to the interactive simulator in a new tab (requires flash). You can play with the value of the gain to see how it changes the output response. Hint: you have to hit the rewind button to start a new simulation.
A transfer function is similar in concept to the gain of a system and is defined as the ratio of output to input. We use the term transfer function instead of gain in reference to a control system as it implies the use of the s-domain (I realize that I have not introduced what the hell an “s-domain” is but lets overlook this for now as it will be explained in a separate article) to get a desired response from a system.
The block diagram as we have drawn it contains a lot of information about the control system, the main thing it lacks is the maths required to model the system. The transfer function is where the math could be found and in our system is the combination of the controller (math) and the plant (more math).
The controller contains the mathematical models of amplifiers for the signals and the power to drive the large motor. The plant contains mathematical models that represent the specs of our motor which would be readily available in a real world situation and include things such as the motor’s RPM at a certain voltage, and the resistance of the motor. We would also need information about the gear ratio between the motor and the satellite (this is a mechanical amplifier). The motor will have a mechanical load during operation and we can predict what this will be with an equivalent mechanical load equation which uses: equivalent viscous damping of the load, and the equivalent load inertia. In keeping with our math-less theme of this introduction we’ll skip what that means mathematically for now.
The intent of this article is to shed some light on what control systems are and a basic idea of how they work. I think control systems are interesting and exciting in that we can calculate some of the variables to use in complex systems rather than take wild guesses at non-trivial unknowns (which used to be my jam).
We, as hackers and engineers learn on a curve as does the rest of the population and just like everyone else we sometimes reach a plateau in our ability to make the improvements on our own designs. I think a basic understanding of control systems could help a lot of us get through this slump. I will attempt to do you the same favor my friend did for me in opening my eyes to what a control system is, how to analyze what is going on in a system, and we will all get a little better at designing our own systems along the way.
In the next edition of Beyond Control we will look at some examples of electrical systems in the time domain. We’ll talk about their transfer functions in the s-domain, why we need the s-domain, and what it takes to go from the time domain to the s-domain (and back). That’s two sentences of me saying math, without saying math. See you next time!
The Parliamentary Commission of Inquiry (CPI) of the Chamber of Deputies, which investigates the manipulation of results in football matches, approved this Wednesday (16th) the extension of the period of operation of the CPI for another 60 days.
Yohann Sade, specialist in Administrative Law and CEO of Sade & Gritz Advogados, points out that any CPI, when created, must be based on two main requirements: (i) determinability of the fact to be investigated; (ii) that said fact is endowed with public interest.
“As was expected from the beginning, the object of the CPI went far beyond the mere investigation into the manipulation of results (as can be seen in the last meeting that heard representatives of the Brazilian Institute of Legal Gaming and the National Association of Games and Lotteries, in which the deputies' questions were actually aimed at investigating the companies operating sports betting, known to be victims of the manipulations that took place),” explains the lawyer.
According to the expert, it is noted in the applications that will be voted on that the potential players called up are not just players or representatives of clubs involved in alleged schemes revealed by the country, nor representatives of confederations or institutions concerned with the integrity of the games, which demonstrates the misrepresentation of the initial investigative object.
“It must be made clear that if the object of the CPI is the investigation of private activities without any connection with the public interest – mainly that involved in the act of its creation – its continuation is unfeasible, under penalty of violating the basic principles of the Federal Constitution, which may even suggest legal measures for the investigated companies,” says Sade.
In early September, the company Sportradar, which was hired by the Brazilian Football Confederation (CBF) to monitor the results of football games, will be heard.
HARTFORD, Conn. -- The U.S. Department of Justice has taken over an investigation into allegations that hundreds of Connecticut state troopers may have submitted false information on thousands of traffic infractions to a racial profiling board, data that made it appear police were pulling over more white drivers than they were, the state's top prosecutor said.
Chief State's Attorney Patrick Griffin told WTNH-TV on Thursday that the DOJ asked his office to suspend its investigation, which was ordered by Gov. Ned Lamont, because it is doing its own probe.
“I agreed with that decision," Griffin said in a taping for the station's weekend news show “This Week in Connecticut.”
“I think DOJ brings the tools and the resources necessary to conduct this investigation, on the one hand,” he said. "On the other, I think that the investigation will be thorough. I think that it will be independent.”
Griffin confirmed the information in a statement sent to The Associated Press on Friday.
Civil rights groups had raised questions about the objectivity of the investigation being conducted by Griffin's office, which works with the state police on criminal cases.
In addition to the Justice Department inquiry, an independent investigation ordered by Lamont is already being led by former Connecticut U.S. Attorney Deirdre Daly, who now works in private law practice.
The Justice Department did not return an email message seeking comment. The Connecticut U.S. attorney's office and state police officials declined to comment Friday.
Adam Joseph, Lamont's communications director, said the governor's office has not been notified of any DOJ investigation.
“We would welcome any law enforcement investigation in order to get to the bottom of this matter,” Joseph said in a statement.
In an audit released in June, data analysts with The University of Connecticut said they had a “high degree of confidence” that more than 300 of 1,300 troopers reviewed submitted false and inaccurate information on at least 26,000 — and as many as 58,500 — traffic stop infractions between 2014 and 2021. The researchers believe the infractions were never actually given to drivers.
The alleged false information was submitted to a statewide police traffic stops database, which the analysts use to prepare reports on the race and ethnicity of drivers stopped by all Connecticut police agencies under a 1999 law aimed at preventing racial profiling. Those reports have shown that police statewide have been pulling over Black and Hispanic drivers at disproportionate rates.
The reputed bogus data was more likely to identify motorists as white than as Black or Hispanic, skewing the data used for the reports, the audit said. Civil rights groups say the bogus data could mean those disproportionate rates are worse than the reports have indicated.
Analysts, however, cautioned that they did not try to determine whether the records were intentionally falsified or were wrong due to carelessness or human error.
The auditors said the falsified infractions were entered into the state police's internal system but not submitted to the state court system, which adjudicates all traffic infractions issued statewide — supporting the belief that troopers reported stops that never happened and infractions never issued.
The audit was spurred by a Hearst Connecticut Media report last year that said four state troopers in an eastern Connecticut barracks intentionally created hundreds of bogus traffic stop tickets to boost their productivity numbers. After internal affairs investigations, one trooper was suspended for 10 days, another was suspended for two days and the other two retired before the probe was completed.
State lawmakers also have been looking into the questioned data. And state police also have received a subpoena related to the traffic stop data from the Office of Inspector General of the U.S. Department of Transportation, which is looking into whether false data was used to secure federal money, the state's public safety commissioner, James Rovella, has said.
Rovella has said he is angry about the false-data allegations, while the state police union has been urging against a rush to judgment about the claims.
The American Civil Liberties Union of Connecticut said the Justice Department takeover of the investigation was a welcome step. It is calling for the decertification of all state police troopers and supervisors involved in submitting false information, which would cause them to lose their jobs.
The police have summoned Buwekula County MP Pascal Mbabazi along with Mubende District chairman Michael Ntambi Muhereza to assist with ongoing investigations into the lynching to death of two individuals last month.
Both politicians have become persons of interest after police said information which surfaced suggest that they allegedly encouraged some of the suspects ahead of the brutal attack over a land dispute in Kirwami Village, Kiruma Sub-county in Mubende District.
Police spokesman Fred Enanga yesterday said the two senior public officials will appear before a joint taskforce investigating the violence, which led to the July 31 death of Milly Namutebi, 54, a land owner, and her husband, Mr Abdullah Kayizi, 53.
Already, police have taken statements from another local politician in connection to the murder. The LC3 chairperson of Kiruma Sub-county, Mr Steven Ahimbisibwe, recently recorded a statement about the killing.
“We have been getting information that there were some local politicians who were fuelling the land conflict. So, we have summoned the area Member of Parliament, Pascal Mbabazi, and LC5 chairperson Michael Ntambi Muhereza over allegations that they fuelled and incited acts of violence that led to the gruesome murder of this couple,” Mr Enanga said at his weekly media briefing in Kampala.
“…The evidence we have so far indicated that some of these local leaders had their relatives who were subsisting on this land that is under dispute,” he added.
Police said the dispute was between administrators of the estate of the original land owner, who was related to one of the murdered individuals, and several squatters living on the three-square mile property. The contested land is on Block 60, Plot 1 in Buwekula and covers the villages of Kirwani, Kayunga, Kyamuzi and Bulega in the sub-counties of Kiruma and Madudu, both in Mubende District.
Describing how the couple met their death, Mr Enanga said on July 13, that Namutebi’s workers were stopped by a one Tumusiime from tilling their land.
“When they were blocked by a one Tumusiime, they went and informed their landlady Namutebi. They told her that Tumusiime had summoned her to see how they can come to an understanding on how they can go ahead with their gardens,” Mr Enanga said.
He added: “So, on July 31 at 7:30 am, the deceased persons and their two sons went to meet Tumusiime but unfortunately the group had already prepared for them. What Tumusiime did… he made an alarm and made phone calls inviting other squatters, who emerged from the bushes with spears, pangas, sticks and stones. They aggressively assaulted to death Namutebi and her husband and injured their two sons.”
Five suspects have since been arrested and were charged with the crime in court last week and remanded to Kawere Prison until September 15. Eleven other suspects are on the run. Mr Enanga indicated that some of the suspects on the run are believed to be blood relatives of the politicians.
Attorney General Merrick Garland on Friday appointed U.S. Attorney David Weiss a special counsel in the Hunter Biden probe, as well as any other matters that arose or may arise from that investigation.
"I'm here today to announce the appointment of David Weiss as a special counsel consistent with the Department of Justice regulations governing such matters. In keeping with those regulations, I have today notified the designated members of each House of Congress of the appointment," Garland said at a press conference in Washington, D.C.
Weiss is the federal prosecutor who has investigated the business dealings of Hunter Biden and brought charges against him in Delaware. His appointment as special counsel indicates that, contrary to Hunter's defense lawyers' claims, the Justice Department investigation into President Biden's son is not over.
Garland said Tuesday that Weiss told him that "in his judgment, his investigation has reached a stage at which he should continue his work as a special counsel, and he asked to be appointed."
‘MONEY GUY’: THIS HUNTER BIDEN BUSINESS PARTNER COULD BLOW THE LID OFF BIDEN FAMILY'S BUSINESS DEALINGS
"Upon considering his request, as well as the extraordinary circumstances relating to this matter, I have concluded it is in the public interest to appoint him as special counsel," Garland said.
A senior Justice Department official said the White House was not informed of Garland's decision before the announcement.
In July, Weiss announced a probation-only plea agreement for Hunter in which he'd plead guilty to tax evasion charges. However, U.S. District Court Judge Maryellen Noreika, a Trump appointee, rejected the agreement after expressing several concerns over its provisions.
Republicans had criticized the agreement as a "sweetheart" deal and have pursued their own investigation into the Biden family's business dealings, with an eye towards impeaching the president.
Talks between federal prosecutors and Hunter's defense team subsequently broke down after the government acknowledged he was still under federal investigation.
JOE BIDEN LETTER TO DEVON ARCHER UNDERSCORES HIS CLOSENESS TO HUNTER BIDEN'S BUSINESS ACTIVITIES
Garland confirmed Friday that investigation is still ongoing. In a press release, the Justice Department said Weiss will serve as special counsel "for the ongoing investigation and prosecutions referenced and described in United States v. Robert Hunter Biden, as well as for any other matters that arose or may arise from that investigation."
That language leaves open the possibility that other members of the Biden family, including President Biden, could be part of this investigation. When asked if President Biden is being investigated as part of this probe, a Department of Justice official declined to comment.
House Judiciary Chairman Rep. Jim Jordan, R-Ohio, blasted Weiss' appointment in a statement issued through a spokesman.
"David Weiss can’t be trusted and this is just a new way to whitewash the Biden family’s corruption. Weiss has already signed off on a sweetheart plea deal that was so awful and unfair that a federal judge rejected it. We will continue to pursue facts brought to light by brave whistleblowers as well as Weiss’s inconsistent statements to Congress." said Jordan spokesman Russell Dye.
BILL BARR SAYS HUNTER BIDEN PROBE LEGITIMATE, BUT HIS ACTIONS ‘CAN BE SHAMEFUL WITHOUT BEING ILLEGAL’
House Oversight Committee Chairman Rep. James Comer, R-Ky., accused the DOJ of attempting to "cover up" the Biden family's alleged crimes.
"This move by Attorney General Garland is part of the Justice Department’s efforts to attempt a Biden family coverup in light of the House Oversight Committee’s mounting evidence of President Joe Biden’s role in his family’s schemes selling ‘the brand’ for millions of dollars to foreign nationals. The Justice Department’s misconduct and politicization in the Biden criminal investigation already allowed the statute of limitations to run with respect to egregious felonies committed by Hunter Biden. Justice Department officials refused to follow evidence that could have led to Joe Biden, tipped off the Biden transition team and Hunter Biden’s lawyers about planned interviews and searches, and attempted to sneakily place Hunter Biden on the path to a sweetheart plea deal," Comer said.
He continued: "Let’s be clear what today’s move is really about. The Biden Justice Department is trying to stonewall congressional oversight as we have presented evidence to the American people about the Biden family’s corruption. The House Oversight Committee will continue to follow the Biden family’s money trail and interview witnesses to determine whether foreign actors targeted the Bidens, President Biden is compromised and corrupt, and our national security is threatened. We will also continue to work with the House Committees on Judiciary and Ways and Means to root out misconduct at the Justice Department and hold bad actors accountable for weaponizing law enforcement powers."
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Weiss' appointment as special counsel will grant him broad authority to conduct a sweeping investigation of Hunter Biden without interference from the Biden administration. Fox News Legal Editor Kerri Kupec Urbahn, a former spokesperson for Attorney General Wiliam Barr, said Friday the appointment also provides Weiss and Garland "some protection and coverage."
"It protects [Weiss] and allows him to keep looking at things," Urbahn told Fox News. "It also allows Attorney General Garland to create some distance between Main Justice and this investigation as well, which is at a minimum politically expedient for him."
The Associated Press contributed to this report.
The Argentine Agency for Access to Public Information (AAIP) has initiated an investigation targeting Worldcoin to ascertain the legality of its data collection practices within the South American country, the agency said on Tuesday.
The AAIP outlined its objective of scrutinizing the security protocols in place to safeguard the privacy of Worldcoin users in Argentina.
The agency stated that the case has gained “public notoriety in recent weeks due to the procedure of scanning the faces and irises of numerous individuals in exchange for financial compensation at different locations in Buenos Aires City and the provinces of Buenos Aires, Córdoba, Mendoza, and Río Negro.”
According to the AAIP, an entity like Worldcoin must register with the AAIP, provide information about its data processing policy, and indicate the purpose for collecting sensitive data and the retention period for such data. Additionally, the agency requires details of the security and confidentiality measures applied to safeguard personal information. The AAIP did not confirm whether Worldcoin complies with the standards.
Worldcoin told CoinDesk in an emailed statement that “the project complies with all laws and regulations governing the processing of personal data in the markets where Worldcoin is available, including but not limited to Argentina's Personal Data Protection Act 25.326.”
Worldcoin has recently come under the scrutiny of various governments. Last week, Kenya's Ministry of the Interior suspended the operations of Worldcoin, and later, the Kenyan police raided the Nairobi warehouse of Worldcoin on Saturday, confiscating documents and machines.
UPDATE (Aug. 8, 20:34 UTC): Adds comment from Worldcoin.
Vatican investigators looking into sexual abuse allegations at a Roman Catholic society in Peru have completed the first stage of their audit and will issue a report in the coming months, Vatican spokesman Matteo Bruni told CNN Friday.
“The first stage, gathering information, was concluded last Saturday. Now they will be working on the documentation they have, in order to present a report in the coming months,” Bruni said.
Asked last Wednesday about the investigation, Pope Francis said: “We are working on this. We are trying to bring the situation to light.”
Pope Francis’s special envoys, Archbishop Charles Scicluna and Monsignor Jordi Bertomeu, arrived in Peru’s capital Lima at the end of July to investigate sexual abuse allegations at Sodalicio de Vida Cristiana, or Sodalitium Christianae Vitae (SCV). The visit was announced by Peru’s Episcopal Conference on July 22.
SCV said its members, who were summoned by the Vatican’s envoys, have “collaborated diligently” and reiterated its commitment to working with the Vatican. It added that the society has provided updated documentation on a reparation process for the victims.
SCV, which has chapters across Latin America, has been mired in scandal since allegations emerged that its founder, the layman Luis Fernando Figari, had sexually abused several young male recruits.
In 2016, Figari denied the allegations publicly for the first time. “I’m innocent, totally innocent. I come here to tell the truth because the authorities have not allowed me to speak,” Figari told reporters in Rome. He also claimed SCV authorities banned him from speaking and traveling to Lima.
A few months later, in 2017, a criminal case against him and other SCV members – for sexual abuse, kidnapping, serious psychological injuries, and illicit association to commit a crime – was dropped by Peru’s prosecutor’s office.
Peruvian prosecutors said in the case of sexual abuse, none of the alleged victims came forward and the crime fell under the statute of limitations.
A criminal case against Figari and other SCV members, alleging kidnapping, serious psychological injuries, and illicit association to commit a crime, is still ongoing.
In 2017, SCV published a two-part report by international experts that found that more than a dozen men and three women had reported of being sexually abused when they were young adults by SCV members.
“None of those accused of abusing a minor remain attached to the Sodalitium, except for Luis Fernando Figari, who by determination of the Holy See has been separated from community life,” SCV’s superior general at the time said at the start of the report.
SCV said in 2017 Figari had been removed from the community, banned from contacting members, and prohibited by Vatican authorities from returning to Peru.
“Fulfilling the order of the Holy See, Mr. Figari will be provided with the adequate conditions for a restrained life, of seclusion and prayer, due to the serious acts committed,” it added at the time.
Catholic leaders in Peru have welcomed the Vatican’s inquiry. “I think it is excellent that this matter is investigated in depth, that the people involved are listened to and I am sure that the report will be fair and objective for the good of all,” Peru’s Archbishop Miguel Cabrejos said in a statement.
By Madeline Holcombe and Chris Boyette, CNN
(CNN) — Details of the investigation leading to the charges against Lori Vallow in the death of her former husband show he feared for their children’s safety, police say, citing a mental health petition Charles Vallow filed.
Arizona police released a probable cause statement Thursday with information on what led them to charge Lori in the death of her former husband, Charles Vallow. She is already facing charges in the deaths of two of her children, Tylee Ryan, 16, and Joshua “JJ” Vallow, 7.
The probable cause statement released by Chandler Police recounts how on July 11, 2019, Lori’s brother, Alexander Cox, called 911 to report he had shot and killed his former brother-in-law, and the investigation that led police to question Cox’s timeline of what happened and the events that led to that day.
Lori Vallow was charged by a Maricopa County grand jury with one felony count of conspiracy to commit first-degree murder in the death of her former husband, the Maricopa County Attorney’s Office said in a news release Tuesday.
CNN has reached out to Lori’s attorney for comment.
Charles Vallow had communicated with another of Lori’s brothers to plan an intervention for her out of fear for their children’s safety, and had mentioned what police described as her “radical beliefs,” according to the statement. Those beliefs included that she was an “exalted Goddess” and that she and the man she would later marry, Chad Daybell, were “directed to lead 144,000 people in preparing for the end of the world,” according to the police statement – though it’s unclear whether Charles was aware of those specific beliefs.
Charles Vallow and Lori Vallow had been separated and, according to the probable cause statement, he had filed a mental health petition asking for an evaluation. In the petition, he said Lori had told him that he was possessed by a “dark spirit” named Ned Schneider and referred to him as Ned, police said.
Lori Vallow found out about the intervention, according to the statement, and texted her brother, Cox, the day before her former husband’s murder, “Thank you for standing by me. It’s all coming to a head this week.”
Investigators said in the statement that they found more correspondence that pointed to Charles’ death being premeditated.
One of those messages was from Daybell to Lori that said, “I got the inspiration to go back to my original death percentages that helped us track Charles, Ned, etc. Tammy is very close. Her percentage has fallen steadily since Hiplos (a reference to Charles as a dark spirit) left. It is encouraging!”
Daybell has not been charged in Charles’ death, but he is facing a murder charge in the death of his wife Tammy Daybell. Daybell has pleaded not guilty. Lori is facing a charge of conspiracy in her death.
Charles Vallow arrived to pick up their seven-year-old son, and found that Cox was also there, according to the statement.
Cox later told investigators he shot and killed Charles in self-defense after a physical altercation, police say.
Police estimate that Charles Vallow would have laid dead or dying for 43 minutes between the gunshot and when Cox called 911, but phone records indicated that he called Lori in the interim.
During this time, police say Lori Vallow took her former husband’s rental vehicle and cell phone. GPS data from the phone indicated she went to Burger King to get food for their son JJ and Walgreens to get flip-flops for herself and Tylee, according to the statement.
When Cox did call 911, the probable cause statement said he insinuated the shooting had just happened and was provided with CPR instructions.
Cox acted as if he was performing CPR, but “It was not until emergency personnel began life saving measures that they saw blood coming from Charles’ body. This would indicate that Alex ( Alexander Cox) performed no emergency aid,” the probable cause statement said.
Cox died in December 2019, prosecutors said.
Tylee and JJ went missing in September 2019. Two months later, Lori Vallow and Daybell were married.
In June 2020, law enforcement officials found the children’s remains on Daybell’s property in Fremont County, Idaho.
Lori and Daybell were indicted on murder charges in May in connection with the deaths of the children.
After a court-ordered psychological evaluation, Lori Vallow was declared “not competent to proceed” with trial by an Idaho judge last month.
This decision affected Lori’s trial in Fremont County, where she is charged with two counts of conspiring to destroy, alter or conceal evidence of her two children’s buried bodies.
It isn’t clear if the psychological evaluation will affect her trial on the murder charges involving her children.
Correction: A previous version of this story gave the wrong age for Tylee Ryan. She was 16 at the time of her death.
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CNN’s Amir Vera, Dave Alsup and Raja Razek contributed to this report.