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Question: 1
Which file in acgroupdirectory contains the list of processes belonging to thiscgroup?
A. pids
B. members
C. procs
D. casks
E. subjects
Answer: C
Question: 2
Which of the following are true regarding the CPU of a QEMU virtual machine? (Choose two.)
A. The CPU architecture of a QEMU virtual machine is independent of the host system's architecture.
B. Each QEMU virtual machine can only have one CPU with one core.
C. For each QEMU virtual machine, one dedicated physical CPU core must be reserved.
D. QEMU uses the concept of virtual CPUs to map the virtual machines to physical CPUs.
E. QEMU virtual machines support multiple virtual CPUs in order to run SMP systems.
Answer: A,E
Question: 3
Ifdocker stackis to be used to run a Docker Compose file on a Docker Swarm, how are the images referenced in the
Docker Compose configuration made available on the Swarm nodes?
A. docker stack builds the images locally and copies them to only those Swarm nodes which run the service.
B. docker stack passes the images to the Swarm master which distributes the images to all other Swarm nodes.
C. docker stack instructs the Swarm nodes to pull the images from a registry, although it does not upload the images to
the registry.
D. docker stack transfers the image from its local Docker cache to each Swarm node.
E. docker stack triggers the build process for the images on all nodes of the Swarm.
Answer: C
Question: 4
Which of the following resources can be limited by libvirt for a KVM domain? (Choose two.)
A. Amount of CPU lime
B. Size of available memory
C. File systems allowed in the domain
D. Number of running processes
E. Number of available files
Answer: A,B
Question: 5
What is the purpose of the commandvagrantinit?
A. It executes a provisioning tool in a running box.
B. It starts a Vagrant box.
C. It creates a Vagrant configuration file.
D. It installs Vagrant on a Linux host.
E. It downloads a Vagrant box.
Answer: C
Question: 6
What does IaaS stand for?
A. Information as a Service
B. Intelligence as a Service
C. Integration as a Service
D. Instances as a Service
E. Infrastructure as a Service
Answer: E
Question: 7
Virtualization of which hardware component is facilitated by CPUs supporting nested page table extensions, such as
Intel Extended Page Table (EPT) or AMD Rapid Virtualization Indexing (RVI)?
A. Memory
B. Network Interfaces
C. Host Bus Adapters
D. Hard Disks
E. IO Cache
Answer: A
Question: 8
Which of the following statements about the commandlxc-checkpointis correct?
A. It creates a clone of a container.
B. It doubles the memory consumption of the container.
C. It only works on stopped containers.
D. It writes the status of the container to a file.
E. It creates a container image based on an existing container.
Answer: D
Question: 9
After creating a new Docker network using the following command:
docker network create --driver bridge isolated_nw
Which parameter must be added todocker createin order to attach a container to the network?
A. --eth0=isolated_nw
B. --alias=isolated_nw
C. --ethernet=isolated_nw
D. --network=isolated_nw
E. --attach=isolated_nw
Answer: D
Question: 10
What LXC command starts a new process within a running LXC container? (Specify ONLY the command without any
path or parameters.)
Answer: D
Question: 11
Which of the following tasks are part of a hypervisorâs responsibility? (Choose two.)
A. Create filesystems during the installation of new virtual machine quest operating systems.
B. Provide host-wide unique PIDs to the processes running inside the virtual machines in order to ease inter-process
communication between virtual machines.
C. Map the resources of virtual machines to the resources of the host system.
D. Manage authentication to network services running inside a virtual machine.
E. Isolate the virtual machines and prevent unauthorized access to resources of other virtual machines.
Answer: C,E
Question: 12
How can data be shared between several virtual machines running on the same Linux-based host system?
A. By writing data to the file system since all virtual machines on the same host system use the same file system.
B. By mounting other virtual machines' file systems from /dev/virt-disks/remote/.
C. By setting up a ramdisk in one virtual machine and mounting it using its UUID in the other VMs.
D. By using a network file system or file transfer protocol.
E. By attaching the same virtual hard disk to all virtual machines and activating EXT4 sharing extensions
on it.
Answer: D
Question: 13
How does Packer interact with system images?
A. Packer has to be installed within the target image and is executed during the image's first boot in order to execute
preparation tasks.
B. Packer installs a client within the image which has to be run periodically via cron in order to retrieve the latest
template from the Packer server and apply it locally.
C. Packer periodically connects through the network to the Packer daemons of all running Packer images in order to
re-apply the whole template to the running instance.
D. Packer downloads and extracts an image in order to make changes to the image's file system, repack the modified
image and upload it again.
E. Packer creates an instance based on a source image, prepares the instance through a network connection and
bundles the resulting instance as a new system image.
Answer: E
Question: 14
Which functionality is provided by Vagrant as well as by Docker? (Choose three.)
A. Both can share directories from the host file system to a guest.
B. Both start system images as containers instead of virtual machines by default.
C. Both can obtain required base images.
D. Both can apply changes to a base image.
E. Both start system images as virtual machines instead of containers bv default.
Answer: A,C,D
Question: 15
Which directory is used bycloud-initto store status information and configuration information retrieved from external
A. /var/lib/cloud/
B. /etc/cloud-init/cache/
C. /proc/sys/cloud/
D. /tmp/.cloud/
E. /opt/cloud/var/
Answer: A
Question: 16
Which of the following kinds of data cancloud-initprocess directly from user-data? (Choose three.)
A. Shell scripts to execute
B. Lists of URLs to import
C. ISO images to boot from
D. cloud-config declarations in YAML
E. Base64-encoded binary files to execute
Answer: A,B,D
Question: 17
Which statement is true regarding the Linux kernel module that must be loaded in order to use QEMU with hardware
virtualization extensions?
A. It must be loaded into the kernel of the host system only if the console of a virtual machine will be connected to a
physical console of the host system
B. It must be loaded into the kernel of each virtual machine that will access files and directories from the host system's
file system.
C. It must be loaded into the Kernel of the host system in order to use the visualization extensions of the host system's
D. It must be loaded into the kernel of the first virtual machine as it interacts with the QEMU bare metal hypervisor
and is required to trigger the start of additional virtual machines
E. It must be loaded into the kernel of each virtual machine to provide Para virtualization which is required by QEM
Answer: C
Question: 18
Which of the following commands executes a command in a running LXC container?
A. lxc-accach
B. lxc-batch
C. lxc-run
D. lxc-enter
E. lxc-eval
Answer: A
Question: 19
What is the purpose of the packer inspect subcommand?
A. Retrieve files from an existing Packer image.
B. Execute commands within a running instance of a Packer image.
C. List the artifacts created during the build process of a Packer image.
D. Show usage statistics of a Packer image.
E. Display an overview of the configuration contained in a Packer template.
Answer: E
Question: 20
Which command within virsh lists the virtual machines that are running on the current host?
A. I view
B. list-vm
C. list
D. show
E. list-all
Answer: C

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Strategic Plan

Strategic Plan Narrative

We are pleased to present this plan, and proud of the work that went into it. We believe in the Green Party and the essential role that we can play in moving a progressive political agenda. We know that what we seek to do isn’t easy. But throughout history we have seen organized people beat organized money.

The creation of this plan is the beginning, not the end, of our thinking strategically about how to build our party. We’ve laid out a mission and vision statement, an analysis of our situation, goals and objectives, and an action plan to tackle. The rest is up to you.

We hope every reader of this plan will offer, not only ideas to make it better or more complete, but your personal commitment to work to make it a reality. We must also commit to re-visiting the plan on a regular basis, to make any necessary adjustments. We can’t predict the future. We do know that if you fail to plan, you plan to fail.

Read the Plan

Support Documents
International Greens 
State Leader Survey Report 

Objectives & Action Plan Proposals Passed by the NC
Goal 1: Membership Proposal 
Goal 2: Elections Proposal 
Goal 3: Raising Awareness 
Goal 4: Movements / Issues / Advocacy 

Tue, 05 Apr 2022 04:07:00 -0500 text/html
Profit-Sharing Plan: What It Is and How It Works, With Examples

What Is a Profit-Sharing Plan?

A profit-sharing plan is a retirement plan that gives employees a share in the profits of a company. Under this type of plan, also known as a deferred profit-sharing plan (DPSP), an employee receives a percentage of a company’s profits based on its quarterly or annual earnings. A profit-sharing plan is a great way for a business to provide its employees a sense of ownership in the company, but there are typically restrictions as to when and how a person can withdraw these funds without penalties.

Key Takeaways

  • A profit-sharing plan gives employees a share in their company’s profits based on its quarterly or annual earnings.
  • It is up to the company to decide how much of its profits it wishes to share.
  • Contributions to a profit-sharing plan are made by the company only; employees cannot make them, too.

Understanding Profit-Sharing Plans

So how does profit sharing work? Well, to start, a profit-sharing plan is any retirement plan that accepts discretionary employer contributions. This means a retirement plan with employee contributions, such as a 401(k) or something similar, is not a profit-sharing plan, because of the personal contributions.

Because employers set up profit-sharing plans, businesses decide how much they want to allocate to each employee. A company that offers a profit-sharing plan adjusts it as needed, sometimes making zero contributions in some years. In the years when it makes contributions, however, the company must come up with a set formula for profit allocation.

The most common way for a business to determine the allocation of a profit-sharing plan is through the comp-to-comp method. Using this calculation, an employer first calculates the sum total of all of its employees’ compensation. Then, to determine what percentage of the profit-sharing plan, an employee is entitled to, the company divides each employee’s annual compensation by that total. To arrive at the amount due to the employee, that percentage is multiplied by the amount of total profits being shared.

The most frequently used formula for a company to determine a profit-sharing allocation is called the “comp-to-comp method.”

Example of a Profit-Sharing Plan

Let’s assume a business with only two employees uses a comp-to-comp method for profit sharing. In this case, employee A earns $50,000 a year, and employee B earns $100,000 a year. If the business owner shares 10% of the annual profits and the business earns $100,000 in a fiscal year, the company would allocate profit share as follows:

  • Employee A = ($100,000 X 0.10) X ($50,000 / $150,000), or $3,333.33
  • Employee B = ($100,000 X 0.10) X ($100,000 / $150,000), or $6,666.67


The contribution limit for a company sharing profits with an employee for 2023 and $73,500 including catch-up contributions for those 50 or over during the year.

Requirements for a Profit-Sharing Plan

A profit-sharing plan is available for a business of any size, and a company can establish one even if it already has other retirement plans. Further, a company has a lot of flexibility in how it can implement a profit-sharing plan. As with a 401(k) plan, an employer has full discretion over how and when it makes contributions. However, all companies have to prove that a profit-sharing plan does not discriminate in favor of highly compensated employees.

As of 2023, the contribution limit for a company sharing its profits may not exceed the lesser of 100% of your compensation or $66,000. This limit increases to $73,500 for 2023 if you include catch-up contributions. In addition, the amount of an employee’s salary that can be considered for a profit-sharing plan is limited, in 2023 to $330,000.

To implement a profit-sharing plan, all businesses must fill out an Internal Revenue Service Form 5500 and disclose all participants of the plan. Early withdrawals, just as with other retirement plans, are subject to penalties, though with certain exceptions.

Is a Profit-Sharing Plan the Same As a 401(k)?

No, a profit-sharing plan is not the same thing as a 401(k). With a profit-sharing plan, a company gives employees a portion of the profit based on quarterly or annual earnings. With a 401(k), employees are making personal contributions. In some cases, a company will partially match an employee's 401(k) contribution.

What Are the Different Types of Profit-Sharing Plans?

With a cash plan, employees are given either cash or stock on a regular basis, such as quarterly or annually. The payouts are quick, relative to a retirement plan, but they are also taxed as regular income. A deferred plan sees profits set aside for a later date, usually when the employee retires. The employee is also not taxed until retirement. Some plans combine elements of both a cash and a deferred plan.

How Do Employers Determine Contribution Amounts to a Profit-Sharing Plan?

Employers typically use one of two methods to determine contribution amounts. With a comp-to-comp method, the total amount of compensation given to all employees is calculated. Next, each employee's compensation is divided by the total compensation, yielding a percentage that establishes each employee's portion of the profit. The higher an employee's salary, the greater the percentage of the profits that the person receives. Less commonly, a company may provide the same percentage of profits to every employee, regardless of that employee's salary. 

The Bottom Line

A profit-sharing plan is a way for employers to provide employees with a portion of the business's profits, based on quarterly or annual earnings. Contributions are given out on a regular basis, or are put into a fund that is made available at a later time, such as when the employee retires.

A profit-sharing plan is funded entirely by the employer, and is therefore different from a 401(k), which is primarily funded by the employee. Profit-sharing plans are generally seen as a meaningful way to motivate employees, by directly connecting the company's success to the employees' increased compensation.

Tue, 18 Jul 2023 19:35:00 -0500 en text/html
Writing A Restaurant Business Plan


If you're considering opening a restaurant, your first step should be writing a business plan. A well-written business plan can help you raise money, manage your restaurant and succeed. Here's what you need to know about writing one:

Executive Summary

An executive summary is a short but powerful document that can help you to get your point across quickly and effectively. Although it is usually the first section of a business plan, it should be the last piece written. It should be one page at maximum and clearly describe your business plan's critical points in a way that makes sense to anyone who reads it. The purpose of an executive summary is to convince potential investors or lenders that they will profit from investing in your restaurant idea, so avoid unimportant details or lengthy descriptions of how great your food tastes.

An excellent way to write an executive summary is by starting with an introduction paragraph that summarizes what the rest of your plan contains—this helps readers understand why they should continue reading further into the document. Then go into discussing why this particular project is worthwhile; why people need it. How will it benefit them? Next comes some background information about yourself: include any relevant experience or education related to running this business. Finally, end with future goals: where do you see yourself after opening the shop?

Here are some items to include in your restaurant business plan:

Concept Validation and Business Model Testing

Before you launch your business, it's important to validate your concept and test the viability of your business model. You can do this by conducting market research, talking with potential customers, and interviewing industry experts with similar business experiences. You can also test the viability of your plan by completing an "experience economy" analysis. That is, looking at ways people enjoy spending money on experiences rather than goods (such as dining out). For example, if people value experiences over material goods, opening a restaurant may be a good idea!

Labor Costs and Staffing Plan

Labor costs, including direct and indirect labor, are essential to your labor budget. Direct costs refer to wages paid directly to employees, while indirect expenses include benefits like healthcare coverage and payroll taxes. To calculate these figures, you'll need to estimate the number of full-time equivalents (FTE) positions you'll need and their average salaries. This calculation can be tricky because each restaurant has its unique staffing plan based on its size, location, cuisine type, and reputation among customers, not to mention any other factors that might affect staffing decisions (e.g., whether it's open 24/7).

The first step is deciding whether or not you want full-time staff or part-time workers who work only during peak times such as lunchtime rush hour or Friday night dinners out with friends at restaurants nearby yours. As tempting as it may seem, wait to write anything down until after reading through the following sections because several factors are explicitly related to determining how many people we'll need overall.

The Menu

You want your menu to be focused and simple. Try to add only a few items, as too many menu items may confuse customers, making it difficult for them to choose what they want.

If there are any "signature" items on your menu, include them first when listing off your offerings so that people know what kind of food you serve before even stepping inside the restaurant. Also, incorporating local ingredients into these specialties will help build community spirit around supporting local businesses.


Site selection is a critical factor in your success. After conducting a comprehensive market study, the site selection is based on the data you discover to determine if your customers are in and frequent that area. David Simmonds, Founder and CEO of ResolutRE, a Commercial Real Estate firm in Austin, Texas, states: "More than ever, entrepreneurs opening a restaurant need to analyze what their own customers look like on paper (demographics, psychographics, etc.), so then when they are examining a market, they can find the highest concentration of their customers within that market. From that data, they are able to determine the number of restaurants that the market could support, and from there, create the blueprint for their expansion."

Your plan should describe your ideal location. Your chosen location must be close to your target market and similar businesses, such as restaurants or cafes. The site should also have high foot traffic and be accessible by car, bike, and public transportation. Simmonds goes on to say: "Analytics reinforces or disputes instincts. It is a necessary part of the expansion process, whether the restauranteur has 1 unit or 37.

Marketing Strategy

When developing your business plan, think about the marketing strategy you will use. Your plan should consider and explain the following marketing tactics:

  • Advertising: You can use print or online ads on social media sites like Facebook and Instagram. Also, consider running commercials on local television stations.
  • Public relations: This can include writing articles about your restaurant in local newspapers or magazines, hosting events at your restaurant (such as wine tastings), speaking at community events like Chamber of Commerce meetings with other business owners in the area, participating in charity events related to foodservice industries like Feeding America—the possibilities are endless! The idea is to get people talking about what makes YOU unique so they think of YOU first when ready for their next dine-out experience!
  • Social media: Let's face it—most millennials don't even pick up the phone anymore; they prefer texting over talking face-to-face because it feels intimate somehow, and guess what? By interacting directly with customers through social media platforms like Facebook Messenger or WhatsApp (which allows users from all over the world access 24 hours per day, seven days per week), we can offer immediate customer service support during high-demand times such as weekend brunch hours without having employees sitting idle during slow periods throughout weekdays when traffic drops off significantly due the lack of demand generated elsewhere.

Profit and Return on Investment Analysis

  • Profit is the difference between your sales revenue and your costs. To calculate it, you need to know the following:
  • Sales revenue (how much money you expect to make from selling food)
  • Cost of goods sold (the cost of ingredients and supplies)
  • Other operating expenses (including labor, rent, and utilities)

The reader of your business plan should be able to find these numbers in your budgeting worksheet and financial projections spreadsheet.

Financial Plan

The financial plan is the most critical part of your business plan. It should clearly show how much money you need to start, run and grow your restaurant.

You will need to show a projected profit and loss statement. The projected profit and loss statement (P&L) shows how much revenue comes in, what expenses are incurred, and what profits are made over time. In addition, the P&L shows all revenue sources, including but not limited to sales of food/alcoholic beverages and income from private parties. It must also project all costs associated with operating the restaurant, such as Cost of Goods (raw materials) and salaries for employees - these include both front-of-house roles such as waiters or bartenders, as well as back-of-house roles like chefs who prepare food during off hours so it can be served fresh upon opening each day - cleaning supplies needed throughout each week, etc., depreciation costs associated with long term assets such as ovens that wear down over time and waste of unused food product.

Multi-Year Projections of Revenue and Costs

Accurate projections are the key to a successful business plan. They help you to understand how much money you will make and how much you will need to make it happen. Projections also help with understanding what your costs will be.

For example, if I were starting a restaurant today and wanted my business plan projections for opening day and going out one, three, and five years.

Then I would look at similar restaurants that serve similar foods, noting their prices, portion sizes, and any specialties they offer, such as breakfast all day or lunch specials every Friday during football season. This research of other restaurants will provide you a basis for your projections. Include the documentation of this research in the narrative of the plan.

A Business Plan Is Your Road Map To Success.

A business plan can help you raise money by demonstrating that you have a viable idea for a restaurant. In addition, investors want to see that others are interested in investing in your vision, so they'll be more likely to provide you money if they see other investors involved with it as well. An excellent example is when an investor wants to invest but only if another investor does first; this way, both parties feel comfortable investing because they know someone else believes in the project enough to put their own money into it too!

A well-written business plan helps manage restaurants by giving owners information about how much money will be coming in over time, so there aren't any surprises when bills come due every month - which could lead businesses into trouble if left unchecked."


This article has given some insights into how to write a business plan for opening a restaurant. Do your research and learn other aspects of good business plan writing. I know that it can be a lot of work, but I also know that the payoff is worth it. Not only will you have a better understanding of what it takes to open up shop and run it successfully but also potential investors will be more likely to fund your project if they see that you've done your research. And remember: don't be afraid to ask other restaurant owners for help or advice; many of them have been where you are now.

Thu, 23 Feb 2023 23:02:00 -0600 Gary Occhiogrosso en text/html
A 401(k) Plan for the Small Business Owner

What Is a Solo 401(k)?

The 401(k) plan has gained popularity among small business owners ever since 2001 when some changes to federal tax law made it a better and more flexible choice for their needs compared with some other retirement savings options. These 401(k) plans are known as solo 401(k) or self-employed 401(k) plans.

Key Takeaways

  • A solo 401(k) plan—also called a self-employed 401(k)—is for businesses whose only eligible participants in the plan are its owners (and spouses).
  • These plans are often less complicated and cost less to set up.
  • If you have non-owner employees, they must not meet the eligibility requirements you select for the plan.
  • There are two components to a solo 401(k) plan: employee elective-deferral contributions and profit-sharing contributions.
  • A solo 401(k)s may also offer loans, doesn’t require nondiscrimination testing, and allows for the deduction of plan contributions of up to 25% of eligible compensation.

How the Solo 401(k) Works

Solo 401(k)s are a retirement savings option for small businesses whose only eligible participants in the plan are the business owners (and their spouses if they are also employed by the business). It can be a smart way for someone who is a sole proprietor or an independent contractor to set aside a decent-sized nest egg for retirement.

Not content with the federal acronym, various financial institutions have their own names for the solo 401(k) plan. The independent 401(k) is one of the most generic. Other examples include:

  • The Individual(k)
  • Solo 401(k) or Solo-k
  • Uni-k Plan
  • One-Participant k
  • Self-Employed 401(k)

If you are not sure which name your financial service provider uses, ask about the 401(k) plan for small business owners. The IRS provides a handy primer on such plans.

Who Is Eligible for Solo 401(k) Plans?

A common misconception about the solo 401(k) is that it can be used only by sole proprietors. In fact, the solo 401(k) plan may be used by any small businesses, including corporations, limited liability companies (LLCs), and partnerships. The only limitation is that the only eligible plan participants are the business owners and their spouses, provided they are employed by the business.

A person who works for one company (in which they have no ownership) and participates in its 401(k) can also establish a solo 401(k) for a small business they run on the side, funding it with earnings from that venture. However, the aggregate annual contributions to both plans cannot collectively exceed the Internal Revenue Service (IRS)-established maximums.

How to Set Up a Solo 401(k) Plan

For small business owners who meet certain requirements, most financial institutions that offer retirement plan products have developed truncated versions of the regular 401(k) plan for use by business owners who want to adopt the solo 401(k).

As a result, less complex documentation is needed to establish the plan. Fees may also be relatively low. Make sure to receive the proper documentation from your financial services provider.

As noted above, the solo 401(k) plan may be adopted only by businesses in which the only employees eligible to participate in the plan are the business owners and eligible spouses. For eligibility purposes, a spouse is considered an owner of the business, so if a spouse is employed by the business, you are still eligible to adopt the solo 401(k).

If your business has non-owner employees who are eligible to participate in the plan, your business may not adopt the solo 401(k) plan. Therefore, if you have non-owner employees, they must not meet the eligibility requirements you select for the plan, which must remain within the following limitations.

You may exclude nonresident aliens from a solo 401(k) who receive no U.S. income and those who receive benefits under a collective-bargaining agreement.

Solo 401(k) Eligibility Requirements

Setting the wrong eligibility requirements could result in you being excluded from the plan or non-owner employees being eligible to participate in the plan.

For example, say you elect zero years of service as a requirement to participate, but you have five seasonal employees who work fewer than 1,000 hours each year. These employees would be eligible to participate in the plan because they meet the age and service requirements. Consequently, their eligibility would disqualify your business from being suitable to adopt the solo 401(k) plan. Instead, you could adopt a regular 401(k) plan.

Some solo 401(k) products, by definition, require further exclusions. Before you decide to establish a solo 401(k) plan, be sure to check with your financial services provider regarding its provisions.

Contribution Requirements

For 401(k) employee elective-deferral contributions you may require an employee to perform one year of service before becoming eligible to make elective-deferral contributions.

For profit-sharing contributions, you may require an employee to perform up to two years of service in order to be eligible to receive profit-sharing contributions. However, most solo 401(k) plans will limit this requirement to one year.

For plan purposes, an employee is considered to have performed one year of service if they work at least 1,000 hours during the year. While you may generally choose to require fewer than 1,000 hours under a regular qualified plan, most solo 401(k) plans include a hard-coded limit of 1,000 hours.

Solo 401(k) Contribution Limits

There are two components to the solo 401(k) plan: employee elective-deferral contributions and profit-sharing contributions.

Employee Contribution Limits

You may make a salary-deferral contribution of up to 100% of your compensation but no more than the annual limit for the year. For 2023, the limit is $22,500 (increasing to $23,000 for 2024), plus $7,500 for people age 50 or over for both years.

Employer Contribution Limits

The business may contribute up to 25% of your compensation (calculations are required in the case of the self-employed) but no more than $66,000 for 2023 ($69,000 for 2024). An employee aged 50 or above can still contribute an additional $7,500 for 2023 and 2024.

Other 401(k) Plans

In comparison with other popular retirement plans, the solo 401(k) plan has high contribution limits as outlined above, which is the key component that attracts owners of small businesses. Some other retirement plans also limit the contributions by employers or set lower limits on salary-deferred contributions.

The following is a summary of contribution comparisons for the employer plans generally used by small businesses.

Account Elective Deferral Maximum Employer Contribution Catch-Up Contribution
Solo 401(k) $22,500 for 2023 $23,000 for 2024 25% of compensation or 20% in the case of a sole proprietor or a Schedule C taxpayer $7,500 for both 2023 and 2024
SEP IRA Not Allowed 25% of compensation or 20% of modified net profit for unincorporated business owners Not Allowed
Profit-Sharing or Money-Purchase Pension Plan Not Allowed 25% of compensation or 20% of modified net profit for unincorporated business owners Not Allowed
SIMPLE IRA $15,500 for 2023 $16,000 for 2024 3% of compensation/income $3,500 for both 2023 and 2024

Contributions Example

As mentioned earlier, you may make employee elective-deferral contributions of up to 100% of your compensation but no more than the elective-deferral limit for the year. Profit-sharing contributions are limited to 25% of your compensation (or 20% of your modified net profit if your business is a sole proprietorship or partnership).

The total solo 401(k) contribution is the employee elective-deferral contribution plus the profit-sharing contribution—up to $66,000 for 2023 and 69,000 for 2024.

If your business is a corporation, the profit-sharing contribution is based on the W-2 wages you receive. If you receive $70,000 in W-2 wages, for instance, your profit-sharing contribution could be up to $17,500 ($70,000 x 25%). When added to a salary-deferral contribution of $19,000, the total would be $36,500.

If your business is a sole proprietorship or partnership, the calculation gets a little more involved. In this case, your profit-sharing contribution is based on your modified net profit and is limited to 20%. The IRS provides a step-by-step formula for determining your modified net profit in IRS Publication 560.

Other Benefits of a Solo 401(k)

There are a number of other benefits that come with the Solo 401(k).


As with other qualified plans, you may be able to borrow from the solo 401(k) up to (1) the greater of $10,000 or 50% of the balance or (2) $50,000, whichever is less. Check the plan document to determine if any other limitations apply. 

5500 Filing May Not Be Required

Because the plan covers only the business owner, you may not be required to file Form 5500 series return unless your balance exceeds $250,000.

No Nondiscrimination Testing

Generally, certain nondiscrimination testing must be performed for 401(k) plans. These tests ensure that the business owners and higher-paid employees do not receive an inequitably high amount of contribution when compared with lower-paid employees.

Such tests can be very complex and may require the services of an experienced plan administrator, which can be costly. Because the solo 401(k) plan covers only the business owner, there is no one against whom you can discriminate, so these tests are not required.

Deducting Contributions

Similar to other employer plans, the solo 401(k) allows you to deduct plan contributions of up to 25% of eligible compensation. For plan purposes, compensation is limited to $330,000 in 2023 and $345,000 in 2024. Earnings over that amount are disregarded for plan purposes.

Can I Have a 401(k) for My LLC?

Yes, any business is able to set up a 401(k). If you are self-employed, you can create a solo 401(k) as a limited liability company (LLC)—assuming you meet all the other eligibility requirements.

What Is the Minimum Number of Employees Needed for a 401(k)?

A business of any size can offer a 401(k) plan. A solo 401(k) is for business owners with no employees.

How Much Can a Small Business Owner Contribute to a 401(k)?

The maximum contribution for a small business owner to a 401(k) for 2023 is $66,000 ($73,500 if you’re 50 or older)—which includes contributions as the employee and employer. For 2024, the contribution limit is $69,000, and $76,500 if you are 50 or older.

The Bottom Line

If you own more than one business, you must check with your tax professional to determine whether you are eligible to adopt the solo 401(k). Ownership in another business that covers employees other than the business owner could result in your being ineligible for this type of plan.

Fri, 03 Nov 2023 05:13:00 -0500 en text/html
refrigerated container

In the 1950s, trucking magnate Malcom McLean changed the world when he got frustrated enough with the speed of trucking and traffic to start a commercial shipping company in order to move goods up and down the eastern seaboard a little faster. Within ten years, containers were standardized, and the first international container ship set sail in 1966. The cargo? Whisky for the U.S. and guns for Europe. What was once a slow and unreliable method of moving all kinds of whatever in barrels, bags, and boxes became a streamlined operation — one that now moves millions of identical containers full of unfathomable miscellany each year.

When I started writing this, there was a container ship stuck in the Suez canal that had been blocking it for days. Just like that, a vital passage became completely clogged, halting the shipping schedule of everything from oil and weapons to ESP8266 boards and high-waist jeans. The incident really highlights the fragility of the whole intermodal system and makes us wonder if anything will change.

A rainbow of dry storage containers. Image via xChange

We are all used to seeing the standard shipping container that’s either a 10′, 20′, or 40′ long box made of steel or aluminum with doors on one end. These are by far the most common type, and are probably what come to mind whenever shipping containers are mentioned.

These are called dry storage containers, and per ISO container standards, they are all 8′ wide and 8′ 6″ tall. There are also ‘high cube’ containers that are a foot taller, but otherwise share the same dimensions. Many of these containers end up as some type of housing, either as stylish studios, post-disaster survivalist shelters, or construction site offices. As the pandemic wears on, they have become so much in demand that prices have surged in the last few months.

Although Malcom McLean did not invent container shipping, the strict containerization standards that followed in his wake prevent issues during stacking, shipping, and storing, and allow any container to be handled safely at any port in the world, or load onto any rail car with ease. Every bit of the container is standardized, from the dimensions to the way the container’s information is displayed on the end. At most, the difference between any two otherwise identical containers is the number, the paint job, and maybe a few millimeters in one dimension.

Standard as they may be, these containers don’t work for every type of cargo. There are quite a few more types of shipping containers out there that serve different needs. Let’s take a look at some of them, shall we?

Continue reading “Field Guide To Shipping Containers” →

Tue, 06 Apr 2021 12:00:00 -0500 Kristina Panos en-US text/html
Is My Chase Plan Worth It?

Editorial Note: We earn a commission from partner links on Forbes Advisor. Commissions do not affect our editors' opinions or evaluations.

If you recently made a big purchase with a Chase credit card, you might be wondering if it’s worth using My Chase Plan to put that purchase on an installment plan, where you make a number of smaller payments over a specific period of time. My Chase Plan lets you avoid the interest charges that would typically otherwise come with carrying a balance from month to month, but as you may have guessed, it’s not free—you’ll be charged a fixed monthly fee.

We’ll break down the specifics of My Chase Plan and help you decide if it’s right for you.

Find the Best Credit Cards for 2024

No single credit card is the best option for every family, every purchase or every budget. We've picked the best credit cards in a way designed to be the most helpful to the widest variety of readers.

What Is My Chase Plan?

My Chase Plan is an installment plan option for Chase credit card customers, letting you split a big purchase into equal monthly payments. Think of it as a form of Buy Now, Pay Later (BNPL). Competing BNPL plans offered by other card issuers include American Express Pay ItÂŽ Plan ItÂŽ and Citi Flex Pay.

Before you can create a plan, you’ll need to use your Chase credit card to buy an item. Once the transaction is posted, you can log on to your Chase account and create a payment plan. You may be able to choose from up to three different payment plans of varying durations.

Chase will assess a fee on your payment plan, which will vary depending on the purchase amount, the duration of the plan and additional factors. Until Dec. 31, 2022, there were no fees for the first My Chase Plan that a customer creates. However, there may be fees for any subsequent plans.

My Chase Plan is only available for purchases of $100 or more. If you’re seeking a BNPL plan for a purchase less than $100, a third-party provider like AfterPay or Affirm may be an option.

Chase fees, including annual fees and late fees, are not eligible for the program. Cash advances, disputed transactions and balance transfers are not eligible. Also, any purchases that are more than 90 days old do not qualify. And, if you have already paid part of the purchase, you may not be able to enroll it in a payment plan via My Chase Plan.

Customers will still earn rewards on transactions enrolled in My Chase Plan, so you don’t have to worry about missing out on points or miles if you pay in installments.

My Chase Plan is available with the following Chase credit cards:

  • AeroplanÂŽ Credit Card
  • Chase Freedom (card closed to new applicants)
  • Chase Freedom UnlimitedÂŽ
  • Chase Freedom Flex℠*
  • Chase FreedomŽ Student credit card*
  • Chase Sapphire (card closed to new applicants)
  • Chase Sapphire PreferredÂŽ Card
  • Chase Sapphire ReserveÂŽ
  • Chase Slate (not available for applications online)
  • Chase Slate Edge℠
  • Aer Lingus Visa SignatureÂŽ Card
  • British Airways Visa SignatureÂŽ Card
  • Iberia Visa SignatureÂŽ Card
  • DisneyÂŽ VisaÂŽ Card*
  • DisneyÂŽ Premier VisaÂŽ Card*
  • The World of Hyatt Credit Card
  • IHG Rewards Classic Credit Card (card closed to new applicants)
  • IHG Rewards Select Credit Card (card closed to new applicants)
  • IHG One Rewards Traveler Credit Card
  • Instacart MastercardÂŽ
  • Marriott Bonvoy BoldÂŽ Credit Card*
  • Marriott Bonvoy BoundlessÂŽ Credit Card*
  • Marriott Bonvoy Credit Card (card closed to new applicants)
  • Marriott Bonvoy Premier Credit Card (card closed to new applicants)
  • The Ritz-Carlton Credit Card (card closed to new applicants)
  • Southwest Rapid RewardsÂŽ Plus Credit Card
  • Southwest Rapid Rewards Employee Credit Card (open to Southwest Airlines employees)
  • Southwest Rapid RewardsÂŽ Premier Credit Card
  • Southwest Rapid RewardsÂŽ Priority Credit Card
  • (card closed to new applicants)
  • United Club℠ Infinite Card
  • United MileagePlus Awards Card (card closed to new applicants)
  • United MileagePlus Select Card (card closed to new applicants)
  • United℠ Explorer Card
  • United Gateway℠ Card
  • United Presidential Plus Card (card closed to new applicants)
  • United Quest℠ Card

How Does My Chase Plan Work?

When you log on to your Chase credit card account, click on the individual credit card you used to make the purchase. As you scroll down, you will see a list of transactions eligible to be put on a payment plan. Click on the purchase you want to create a plan for and then hit “Next.”

You will then see a list of possible options with the total monthly payment amount displayed. Chase’s payment terms range from three to 18 months, depending on the purchase amount, your credit history and other factors.

Customers can have up to 10 active plans at one time. If you have 10 payment plans, you will not be able to set up more until you pay off at least one of the plans.

You can pay off an installment plan ahead of schedule, and there are no prepayment fees. Once you finalize the plan, you will not be able to change the repayment term.

Customers don’t have to worry about making separate payments for My Chase Plan. Instead, Chase will add your payment to your minimum monthly payment. You’ll also have an option to pay the “interest saving balance” each month, which will let you stick to the repayment schedule for what’s on the payment plan, while avoiding interest charges on the balance not on a plan.

If you have a large purchase coming up but haven’t made it yet, you can access the My Chase Plan dashboard through your online account and click “Calculate a My Chase Plan.” This will let you get an estimate of what your payment plans for such a purchase might look like.

What Happens If I Miss a Payment?

Your payment plan will remain active even if you miss a payment, and Chase will tack the missed payment amount onto the following month’s minimum payment. Note that if you don’t finish paying off your entire purchase within the My Chase Plan timeline, the issuer can charge you a credit card late fee. You also risk damaging your credit score when you pay late.

My Chase Plan Fees

You won’t be charged interest for purchases that you put on a My Chase Plan. However, you will have to pay a fixed monthly fee.

The monthly fee you’ll pay for each My Chase Plan depends on a variety of factors—the amount of the purchase, how many months your plan allows before payment is complete and additional factors as well. While Chase’s website does not specifically state that your credit score impacts your monthly fee, it’s reasonable to assume if you have excellent credit and an impeccable payment history, that might help with getting a lower fee.

Chase also does not spell out how the monthly fees associated with My Chase Plan payments compare to the APR assessed for carrying a balance on your card normally. However, cardholders online have reported that if you need to finance a purchase, using a My Chase Plan can save you money compared with incurring interest charges at your regular purchase APR.

Is My Chase Plan Worth It?

To get an idea what a payment plan might look like for a purchase you’re considering, log on to your Chase account and navigate to the My Chase Plan dashboard. You will be able to estimate potential plans and fees before buying the item.

Because the fees will be displayed as a monthly amount, it will be difficult to compare them to an APR. If you always pay your card off in full each billing cycle, and thus avoid interest charges due to your grace period, doing that will save you money compared to paying a fee for a My Chase Plan. Similarly, if you’re currently taking advantage of a 0% APR offer on new purchases, then it’s better to charge the transaction normally and not create a My Chase Plan.

However, if you’re facing the prospect of carrying a balance for three or more months and incurring interest charges at your credit card’s regular APR, a My Chase Plan payment plan is worth considering—particularly if your card’s regular APR is high, such as 20% or more.

Bottom Line

In most situations, you’re probably best just to use your credit card normally and pay your balance in full every month. If you’re forced to finance a purchase of at least $100 over three or more months, a My Chase Plan could potentially be helpful.

However, a credit card with a 0% introductory APR on purchases could be an even better deal, offering a year or more of no interest, whereas a My Chase Plan will involve a monthly fee.

Whether you opt for a BNPL financing option such as My Chase Plan or a 0% APR credit card, don’t take it as an excuse to overspend. It’s crucial to finish paying off the purchase in full within the payment plan window—or, in the case of a 0% APR credit card, before the introductory period comes to an end. Otherwise, your big purchase could turn into a mountain of debt.

Find the Best Credit Cards for 2024

No single credit card is the best option for every family, every purchase or every budget. We've picked the best credit cards in a way designed to be the most helpful to the widest variety of readers.

*The information for the following card(s) has been collected independently by Forbes Advisor: Chase Freedom Flex℠, Chase Freedom® Student credit card, Disney® Visa® Card, Disney® Premier Visa® Card, Marriott Bonvoy Bold® Credit Card, Marriott Bonvoy Boundless® Credit Card. The card details on this page have not been reviewed or provided by the card issuer.

Wed, 13 Dec 2023 20:46:00 -0600 Zina Kumok en-US text/html
Best Meal Prep Containers for 2024

Updated Jan. 1, 2024 10:00 a.m. PT

Written by  David Watsky Julie Vadnal
Our expert, award-winning staff selects the products we cover and rigorously researches and tests our top picks. If you buy through our links, we may get a commission. Reviews ethics statement

David Watsky Senior Editor / Home and Kitchen

David lives in Brooklyn where he's logged more than a decade writing about all things edible, including meal kits and meal delivery subscriptions, cooking, kitchen gear and commerce. Since earning a BA in English from Northeastern in Boston, he's toiled in nearly every aspect of the eats business from slicing and dicing as a sous-chef in Rhode Island to leading complex marketing campaigns for major food brands in Manhattan. These days, he's likely somewhere trying the latest this or tasting the latest that - and reporting back, of course. Anything with sesame is his all-time favorite food this week.

Expertise Kitchen tech, cookware, small appliances, food innovation, meal delivery and meal kits.

Julie Vadnal is a writer and founder of the newsletter JULES. Her work has appeared in Cosmopolitan, ELLE, Esquire, Glamour, and Real Simple. Follow her on Instagram at @julievadnal.

Hands-on Product Reviewers


Sq. Feet of Lab Space
$32 at Amazon

Best glass meal prep containers

Bayco container set

View details
$12 at Walmart

Best plastic meal prep containers

Bentgo 10-piece set

View details
$39 at Amazon

Another great glass option

Verel glass containers with bamboo lids

View details
$55 at Amazon

Best reusable food bags

Silicone storage bags

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$11 at Amazon

Best glass storage jars

Ball Mason jars

View details
$22 at Amazon

Best collapsible food containers

Vremi silicone set

View details
$15 at Amazon

Best reusable container for salad

Oxo leak-proof salad container

View details
$30 at Amazon

Best stainless steel lunchbox

Unichart lunch box

View details

A good meal prep plan isn't all about the ingredients. The best meal prep plans start with the right hardware, so we're out to find the best reusable meal prep containers for the future health nut in you. 

Speaking of which, meal prep is almost like a form of time travel. Let me explain. If you're trying to eat more healthy stuff on the regular, laying out a few days or even a week's worth of healthy meals is like playing defense against your future self and stopping those impulsive and highly questionable diet decisions before they happen.

When you plan and prep your meals ahead of time, you help yourself stay on track and make conscious choices about what you're eating. Sometimes meal prepping can feel like a chore, but having the right meal prep containers could be the boost you need to get it done on Sunday and be set up for the week.

You could scroll the web for food storage sets and meal prep containers for hours and the types of meal containers and reusable lunch boxes are many. You've got plastic meal prep containers that are microwave- and freezer-safe, locking glass or metal containers, leakproof easy-to-clean portion control Tupperware, Mason jars and containers with vented lids for safely housing hot food. 

We've scoured the internet to unearth the best and most popular food prep container sets that are simultaneously good-looking and functional with locking, leak-proof lids to put you in a meal prep mood. There are glass meal prep containers, those made from sturdy plastic, bamboo numbers and bento boxes galore. So prep some overnight oats, blend up that salad dressing, pull out your meal prep recipe book and peruse our list of the best containers for meal prep in 2024.

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This durable 18-piece set of glass food prep containers is a dream for portioning out healthy meals. Use a glass container for soups, snacks, veggies, stews and brown-rice bowls, and then toss them in your work bag or pop them in the microwave. The locking lids on these glass meal prep containers are completely leak-proof and spill-proof. (Hot tip: Use the tiniest one for storing condiments and dressings.)

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If you're not into glass containers, these light plastic meal prep containers are ready to set your meal prep plan ablaze. This slick set comes with 10 trays and 10 lids so you'll be good to meal prep all week and then some. 

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If you're working from home for the foreseeable future and won't be lugging food to an office, I strongly recommend glass meal prep containers. For one, they'll last longer and glass gets sparkling clean with almost no effort. Plus, they're just sort of classy, don't you think? Speaking of aesthetics, these large glass food storage containers with airtight bamboo lids look great and stack easily in the fridge. It's a perfect meal prep system and under $40 for a set of four.

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May you never buy another plastic bag again with these clever food storage containers that are great for meal prep. These reusable silicone wunderkinds come in a variety of sizes (there are three in this set). Use one food container for your sammy and the baby ones for cut carrots, nuts and berries or chocolate.

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We know you've maybe heard of this one before, but still, there's nothing more satisfying than constructing a gorgeous Mason jar salad, which is pretty much the perfect way for a meal prepper to beat the "home desk salad" blues. These durable, freezer-safe meal prep jars are also great for storing liquids like salad dressing, soup and protein shakes. Best of all, glass gets sparkling clean with no effort, unlike some other materials.

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Perfect for portion control, these colorful reusable food storage containers will help you spot your lunch in a crowded fridge. The locking plastic lids will minimize leaks and spills with their airtight seal -- and they collapse after use, which means more cupboard storage space for you!

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This genius three-layer food prep salad container separates your proteins and toppings from your veggies and greens, and a mini container with a twist-off top keeps your dressing in check.

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A favorite product of Oprah's, this genius pack has a sleek bamboo cover and a Tetris-like modular design with durable containers that are completely spill-proof. (You can buy different sizes to mix and match to help with portion control.) It's microwave-safe, freezer-safe and dishwasher-safe. Plus, it comes with magnetic cutlery, which decreases your chances of accidentally tossing a fork in the trash.

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Prove that you're a millennial who can actually cook (or at least one who remembers to use those leftovers from last night) with this double-decker bento lunch box that can be converted into a single-tier box, too, depending on your bento lunch haul.

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This adorable triple-decker box isn't just a looker, the insulated top layer of the compartments will keep your food warm for two to three hours.

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Thu, 13 Aug 2020 09:15:00 -0500 en text/html
What Is a Financial Plan? No result found, try new keyword!While this sounds fairly straightforward, a solid financial plan is highly individualized to reflect the unique circumstances each person brings to the table – including their personal desires ... Tue, 19 Jul 2022 03:52:00 -0500 Student Insurance Plan

305-300 Questions and Answers | 305-300 availability | 305-300 approach | 305-300 syllabus | 305-300 questions | 305-300 exam format | 305-300 exam Questions | 305-300 testing | 305-300 health | 305-300 availability |

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