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Exam Code: PMI-200 Practice test 2022 by Killexams.com team
PMI-200 PMI-Agile Certified Practitioner (PMI-ACP)

There are 120 questions for the PMI-ACP® test (20 random questions (called as pre-test) from the 120 questions are not to be counted towards the final score)
All questions are multiple-choice questions with 1 correct answer from 4 choices
The PMI-ACP® test lasts for 3 hours
The PMI-ACP® test is computer-based in most cases (i.e. to be answered on a computer in a selected test centre)

Domain I. Agile Principles and Mindset 16%
Domain II. Value-driven Delivery 20%
Domain III. Stakeholder Engagement 17%
Domain IV. Team Performance 16%
Domain V. Adaptive Planning 12%
Domain VI. Problem Detection and Resolution 10%
Domain VII. Continuous Improvement (Product, Process, People) 9%

DOMAINS AND TASKS

Domain I. Agile Principles and Mindset (9 tasks)
Explore, embrace, and apply agile principles and mindset within the context of the project team and organization.

Domain II. Value-Driven Delivery (4 sub-domains, 14 tasks)
Deliver valuable results by producing high-value increments for review, early and often, based on stakeholder priorities. Have the stakeholders provide feedback on these increments,and use this feedback to prioritize and Excellerate future increments.

Domain III. Stakeholder Engagement (3 sub-domains, 9 tasks)
Engage current and future interested parties by building a trusting environment that aligns their needs and expectations and balances their requests with an understanding of the cost/effort involved. Promote participation and collaboration throughout the project life cycle and provide the tools for effective and informed decision making.

Domain IV. Team Performance (3 sub-domains, 9 tasks)
Create an environment of trust, learning, collaboration, and conflict resolution that promotes team self-organization, enhances relationships among team members, and cultivates a culture of high performance.

Domain V. Adaptive Planning (3 sub-domains, 10 tasks)
Produce and maintain an evolving plan, from initiation to closure, based on goals, values, risks, constraints, stakeholder feedback, and review findings.

Domain VI. Problem Detection and Resolution (5 tasks)
Continuously identify problems, impediments, and risks; prioritize and resolve in a timely manner; monitor and communicate the problem resolution status; and implement process improvements to prevent them from occurring again.

Domain VII. Continuous Improvement (Product, Process, People) (6 tasks)
Continuously Excellerate the quality, effectiveness, and value of the product, the process, and the team.

Agile values and principles
 Agile frameworks and terminology
 Agile methods and approaches
 Assessing and incorporating community and stakeholder values
 Stakeholder management
 Communication management
 Facilitation methods
 Knowledge sharing/written communication
 Leadership
 Building agile teams
 Team motivation
 Physical and virtual co-location
 Global, cultural, and team diversity
 Training, coaching, and mentoring
 Developmental mastery models (for example, Tuckman, Dreyfus, Shu Ha Ri)
 Self-assessment tools and techniques
 Participatory decision models (for example, convergent, shared collaboration)
 Principles of systems thinking (for example, complex adaptive, chaos)
 Problem solving
 Prioritization
 Incremental delivery
 Agile discovery
 Agile sizing and estimation
 Value based analysis and decomposition
 Process analysis
 Continuous improvement
 Agile hybrid models
 Managing with agile KPIs
 Agile project chartering
 Agile contracting
 Agile project accounting principles
 Regulatory compliance
 PMI's Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct

PMI-Agile Certified Practitioner (PMI-ACP)
PMI Practitioner information source
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Preparing for the project management professional (PMP) test can be daunting. With a wealth of PMP prep resources available across the internet, you might feel overwhelmed, uncertain or confused about which resources are the best.

Creating an effective personal study plan with goals and deadlines and using the best test prep resources will help to ensure your PMP certification success.

In this article, we share some strategies and PMP test prep resources to help you prepare to take the test. Options vary from short practice tests to PMP prep courses. Let’s dig in.

Prepping for Your PMP Exam

With the PMP test costing up to $555 per attempt, intentional preparation is critical for saving money, time and energy. The Project Management Institute (PMI) administers the PMP exam. PMI states that successful test-takers spend 35 hours or more on test prep.

The following considerations can help you pass the PMP exam on the first try.

Obtain Minimum Contact Hours

PMP candidates must complete at least 35 contact hours of formal project management education before they can take the certification exam.

You can build these contact hours through the following avenues:

  • PMI-authorized training partners
  • Employer/company-sponsored programs
  • Training companies or consultants (e.g., training schools)
  • Distance-learning companies, including an end-of-course assessment
  • University/college academic and continuing education programs

Create a Reasonable Test Timeline

Once you complete your contact hours, it’s time to set a test-taking timeline.

The American Psychological Association suggests stretching your study time over a more extended period to help you better retain information. For example, if you aim to complete 35 total hours of studying, it is better to study for three to four hours per week for nine to 11 weeks rather than 12 hours per week over three weeks.

Last-minute cram sessions can be helpful for short-term information retention, but spacing out your study sessions results in better recollection.

After you determine how long your preparation should take, schedule out study time and practice tests leading up to test day.

Take Practice Exams

Practice exams are a great way to track your progress and test how well you recall the test material. You don’t need to take the full 200-question test every time. Shorter, more focused tests can help you identify improvement areas and strengthen your knowledge of specific subjects.

Toward the end of your preparation period, make sure you are ready for test day by taking the paid, PMI-authorized practice exam. This practice test follows the same format as the PMP certification exam, giving you a true feel for the official test’s design, questions and time frame.

PMP test Prep Resources

The following resources, excluding PMI’s official Project Management Body of Knowledge Guide (PMBOK® Guide), are completely free and can be used for self-study and reference purposes.

PMI PMBOK Guide

The PMBOK Guide is the foundational resource for all things project management. It details the best practices, terminologies and guidelines that all project managers should know. The PMBOK Guide is a must-have resource for any project manager. It costs only $99 and is free to PMI members.

PMPPracticeExam.org

PMPPracticeExam.org is a free, no-frills resource that helps you prepare for the PMP exam. The site offers four practice PMP exams, each of which contains 50 multiple-choice questions covering three domains: people, process and business environment. This practice test reflects the same proportions found on the official PMP exam.

Each practice test is instantly scored and provides detailed explanations for questions answered incorrectly.

PM PrepCast

PM PrepCast offers a free, 120-question practice test. Each question connects to a specific project management knowledge area and domain. This resource includes a test-timer and a marking feature for self-review. If you are struggling to answer a practice question, you can use the hint button.

PM PrepCast also offers a project management test simulator for $149. This resource includes over 2,280 demo questions with detailed answer notes and helpful references to further your learning.

Project Management Academy

As a PMI-authorized training partner, the Project Management Academy offers a free 50-question training test to all users. The organization also features 2,000 additional practice questions for Project Management Academy students.

The Project Management Academy’s practice test is based on PMBOK Guide topics. Your test results include explanations for every answer. Keep in mind that to receive your test results, you must input your name and email address.

Quizlet

Quizlet’s user-created study set includes over 1,500 terms and definitions. Quizlet is free, does not require an account and offers multiple self-study options, including a flashcard feature.

With an account, you can use Quizlet’s term-matching feature. You can also generate a test that includes written-answer, multiple-choice, true-or-false and matching questions. If you want a more advanced learning experience, the Study Path feature uses your individual goals to create a study plan.

BrainSensei

BrainSensei offers two PMP training modules and a mini practice exam. This resource offers a seven-day free trial.

Each module uses an interactive slide deck and videos to teach project management concepts. The first module is an overview of project management, and the second focuses on initiating a project. Each unit offers self-assessment opportunities, which require users to drag and drop the appropriate vocabulary terms into their correct respective spaces.

Tests.com

This practice test resource is free and comprises 25 questions. Tests.com organizes its PMP practice questions into five sections, aligned with the five steps of the project life cycle: initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling and closing. Each question is multiple-choice and includes a short description.

This resource is best for quickly testing your knowledge of the project life cycle.

Simplilearn

The Simplilearn practice test is free and based on the PMBOK Guide. It includes 200 multiple-choice questions. Test-takers have 240 minutes to complete the practice exam. They can pause and continue the test at any point and attempt the test as many times as they want.

Taking this lengthy test from beginning to end can help build your mental stamina in preparation for the real deal. Skillup by Simplilearn offers a free PMP basics course if you need more study time before taking the practice test.

Udemy

Udemy’s free PMP test prep course covers various introductory project management concepts. The five-unit course—plus one paid self-promotion unit—walks through each Topic using short video lessons that total just 1.5 hours.

The Udemy course can be helpful for those who are just starting project management careers or seeking more information about the PMP exam.

PM-Training

This free 200-question practice test uses Google Forms. Once the test is complete, your results include a final score and provide feedback that references specific sections of the sixth-edition PMBOK Guide.

Some practice questions address concepts covered in the PMBOK Guide, and some refer to Agile or adaptive methodologies. This test can provide you a broad sense of the questions you’ll find on the PMP certification exam. Those interested in the PMI Agile Certified Practitioner test can benefit from this practice test as well.

PMP-TestPrep

Unlike the other free practice exams on this list, this resource offers three difficulty levels. The easiest level is not timed and gives instant feedback after each question. The second has a two-hour time limit and provides feedback at the end. The third and most difficult level limits your time on each question.

This test comprises 90 questions and explains the correct answers after submission. The test also shares your accuracy on each of the PMBOK Guide performance domains, helping you identify areas that might require more study time.

Thu, 04 Aug 2022 08:15:00 -0500 Brandon Galarita en-US text/html https://www.forbes.com/advisor/education/pmp-exam-prep/
Killexams : How To Get PMI Certification: Is PMI Certification Worth It?

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The Project Management Institute administers PMI certifications to those who work or are planning to work in project management. PMI certifications are recognized around the world and qualify recipients to work in many industries.

You can choose from a variety of PMI certifications depending on your experience, skills and career goals. From entry-level professionals to senior leaders, project management professionals can pursue certification to develop their skills, gain experience and build on their experience.

What Are PMI Certifications?

PMI certifications help project management professionals learn new skills and grow in their careers. Each certification serves its own purpose within the realm of project management. Below are descriptions of PMI certification options.

Project Management Professional (PMP®)

PMP certification shows that you are qualified to lead and direct projects as a project management professional.

PMP Certification Requirements

  • A bachelor’s degree
  • 36 months of project leadership
  • 35 hours of project management training or CAPM® certification

or

  • A high school diploma, an associate degree or equivalent coursework
  • 60 months of project leadership
  • 35 hours of project management training or CAPM

PMP test Cost

The exam fee is $405 for PMI members and $555 for nonmembers.

PMP Time Commitment

Time commitment varies depending on your education and experience. You should earn a degree, complete three to five years of project leadership, undergo 35 hours of project management training and study and take the certification exam. You are allowed up to 230 minutes to take the exam.

Certified Associate in Project Management (CAPM)

This certification shows that you understand the fundamentals of project management and have the skills to manage projects in various environments.

CAPM Certification Requirements

  • A secondary degree, which may be a high school diploma, an associate degree or equivalent coursework
  • 23 hours of project management education or training

CAPM Cost

The test fee is $225 for PMI members or $300 for nonmembers.

CAPM Time Commitment

You have three hours to complete the exam.

Program Management Professional (PgMP®)

PgMP certification shows that you have the skills and experience to coordinate and manage multiple projects within an organization.

PgMP Certification Requirements

  • A secondary degree, which could be a high school diploma, an associate degree or coursework that is globally equivalent
  • 48 months of experience in project management or PMP
  • 84 months of experience in program management within the past 15 years

Or

  • A bachelor’s degree
  • 48 months of experience in project management or PMP
  • 48 months of experience in program management within the past 15 years

PgMP Cost

The test fee is $800 for PMI members or $1,000 for nonmembers.

PgMP Time Commitment

You have four hours to complete the exam.

Portfolio Management Professional (PfMP®)

This certification shows that you demonstrate the skills and knowledge to coordinate and manage one or more portfolios that align with an organization’s strategic objectives.

PfMP Certification Requirements

  • A secondary degree, which can be a high school diploma, an associate degree or equivalent coursework
  • 96 months of professional business experience within the past 15 years
  • 84 months of experience in portfolio management

or

  • A bachelor’s degree
  • 96 months of professional business experience
  • 48 months of experience in portfolio management

PfMP Cost

The test fee is $800 for PMI members or $1,000 for nonmembers.

PfMP Time Commitment

You have four hours to complete the exam.

PMI Professional in Business Analysis (PMI-PBA®)

This certification signifies that you have the business analysis skills needed to manage projects according to a business’s requirements.

PMI-PBA Certification Requirements

  • A secondary degree such as a high school diploma, an associate degree or equivalent coursework
  • 60 months of experience in business analysis
  • 35 hours of education or training in business analysis

or

  • A bachelor’s degree
  • 36 months of experience in business analysis
  • 35 hours of education or training in business analysis

PMI-PBA Cost

The test fee is $405 for PMI members and $555 for nonmembers.

PMI-PBA Time Commitment

You have four hours to complete the exam.

PMI-PBA Risk Management Professional (PMI-RMP®)

This certification signifies that you demonstrate expertise in identifying and managing risks to reach successful project outcomes.

PMI-RMP Certification Requirements

  • A secondary degree like a high school diploma, an associate degree or equivalent coursework
  • 60 months of experience in risk management within the past five years
  • 40 hours of education or training in project risk management

or

  • A bachelor’s degree
  • 24 months of experience in project risk management within the past five years
  • 30 hours of education or training in project risk management

PMI-RMP Cost

The test fee is $520 for PMI members and $670 for nonmembers.

PMI-RMP Time Commitment

You have 3.5 hours to complete the exam.

PMI Scheduling Professional (PMI-SP®)

This certification shows that you have the skills to develop and manage project schedules.

PMI-SP Certification Requirements

  • A secondary degree such as a high school diploma, an associate degree or equivalent coursework
  • 40 months of experience in project scheduling within the past five years
  • 40 hours of education or training in project scheduling

or

  • A bachelor’s degree
  • 24 months of experience in project scheduling within the past five years
  • 30 hours of education or training in project scheduling

PMI-SP Cost

The test fee is $520 for PMI members and $670 for nonmembers.

PMI-SP Time Commitment

You have 3.5 hours to complete the exam.

PMI Agile Certified Practitioner (PMI-ACP®)

This certification shows that you are knowledgeable and skilled in agile project management principles and techniques.

PMI-ACP Certification Requirements

  • A secondary degree, which could include a high school diploma, an associate degree or equivalent coursework
  • 12 months of experience in general project management within the past five years or a current PMP or PgMP certification
  • Eight months of experience in agile project management within the past three years
  • 21 hours of education or training in agile practices

PMI-ACP Cost

The test fee is $435 for PMI members and $495 for nonmembers.

PMI-ACP Time Commitment

You have three hours to complete the exam.

PMI Project Management Ready™

This entry-level certification introduces the fundamentals of project management to high school and post-secondary school students.

PMI Project Management Ready Certification Requirements

  • You must be a high school or postsecondary student.
  • You must be computer-literate and read at the seventh-grade level.
  • You must be able to engage in training activities and take exams.

PMI Project Management Ready Cost

School and Exam Center administrators can find out more information about coursework, learning materials, pricing, practice tests and certification exams through Certiport.

PMI Renewal Costs

The cost to renew your PMI certification is $60 for PMI members and $150 for nonmembers. To maintain certification, you must also earn professional development units (PDUs). You can earn PDUs through education or by working as a project management practitioner, speaking at conferences, mentoring others or volunteering.

To renew certification, you must typically earn between 15 and 60 PDUs every three years. The costs of earning these PDUs vary and are in addition to the PMI certification renewal fees.

How to Sign Up for PMI Certifications

You can sign up for PMI certifications through the Project Management Institute’s website. Before registering, you may want to purchase a PMI membership, which gives you access to webinars, project plans, templates, free downloads, networking events and other valuable resources. Membership also provides reduced rates for your exams.

Is a PMI Certification Worth It?

For many project management professionals, earning a PMI certification is worth it. Here are some things to keep in mind as you decide if this path is right for you.

Consider Your Career

If you’re a current or prospective project management professional, you should consider earning a PMI certification. Whether you are an entry-level project manager or a seasoned professional, certification can help you take your career to the next level.

Look at Earning Potential

According to a Project Management Institute survey, professionals with PMI certifications earned salaries that were 16% higher than those who were not certified.

Build Your Resume

Once you earn a PMI certification, make sure to include it on your resume. A certification can set you apart from other candidates by demonstrating competency and success in your project management activities. Your resume should also include information showing that you know how to use resources, tools and project management methods to achieve the best results.

Expand Your Network

As you build your career, you may encounter challenges during your projects. It’s important to take time to network with other project management professionals. You may be able to consult with others in your network who can share their knowledge and ideas to help you with your projects. You may also connect with those who can benefit from your expertise and advice.

Thu, 04 Aug 2022 09:54:00 -0500 Sheryl Grey en-US text/html https://www.forbes.com/advisor/education/pmi-certification/
Killexams : Driving DevOps with Value Stream Management

Key Takeaways

  • Value Stream Management (VSM) is an approach to make Lean-oriented production improvements across an organization's development and operational value streams.
  • A value stream is simply an end-to-end sequence of activities where work, materials, and information flow in a coordinated and streamlined manner to deliver value (products, services, results) most effectively.
  • In its modern reinvention, VSM software tools provide end-to-end and real-time access to data and analytical tools to help Excellerate Flow across CI/CD and DevOps software delivery pipelines.
  • In a digital economy, VSM improved software deliveries support the businesses' other value stream improvement initiatives.

As a contractor, over the past ten years, my professional roles allowed me to support three relatively large software development programs involving more than 100 team members spanning eleven, sixteen, and twenty product teams, respectively. In addition, I've recently supported a team developing reusable CI/CD configurations for a large federal agency. I've watched the organizations I've worked with install Agile and Lean-Agile practices throughout these activities, with limited success at best.

I wrote my last book, Scaling Scrum Across Modern Enterprises, to explore the alternative Agile and Lean-Agile scaling approaches developed and promoted by various industry leaders, focusing on Scrum-based practices. During my research, I reached out to interview the founders, or their designates, of the following Scrum and Lean-Agile practices.

  • Scrum-of-Scrums – the original Scrum scaling strategy as a team of teams
  • Scrum-At-Scale – An extension to the Scrum Guide that scales the basic Scrum of Scrums concepts enterprise-wide and across business domains with minimum viable bureaucracy (MVB) via scale-free architectures
  • The Nexus Framework – the software developer's extension to the Scrum Guide that implements Network Integration Teams (NIT) to manage cross-team dependency, integration, and synchronization issues on multiteam product development efforts
  • Large Scale Scrum (LeSS) – Another scaled-Scrum approach, with two Scrum scaling frameworks, that helps coordinate the activities of multiple teams, around features (LeSS Framework) and requirements areas (LeSS Huge Framework), working in collaboration to develop large and complex software-enabled products
  • Disciplined Agile (DA) – A Lean-Agile approach to development that provides six product development lifecycles, numerous process guides, and hundreds of potentially useful techniques that allow teams to choose their preferred Way of Working based on their unique business and organizational needs and situations
  • Scaled Agile Framework® (SAFe®) – With four configurations, a Lean-Agile approach for large organizations working on large-scale product development efforts that can leverage their economies of scale as strengths to provide greater efficiencies and yet incorporate Lean-Agile practices to enable business agility on an enterprise scale

The objective of that book was to use my experience coordinating the work of multiple teams on large software development programs to evaluate and document the alternative Scrum and Lean-Agile scaling approaches available to software teams.

After I finished that book, my publisher, PACKT Publishing, asked me what my next area of interest was. I knew I wanted to write something to help business executives understand the critical issues they must address to successfully install DevOps capabilities to compete more effectively in our digital economy. Moreover, I felt more work was required to explain how and why Lean and Agile concepts go together.  Finally, having many years of practitioner and consulting experience helping clients Excellerate their value streams, I felt there was much to say about the modern reinvention of value stream management (VSM).

A common phrase you will hear IT industry analysts make today is that "DevOps is the table stakes that allow an organization to compete in our digital economy." That's a true statement, but it's a mistake to think that executives can mandate such a change and leave the IT organization to figure things out. Instead, the organization's executives must take the lead to ensure the IT investments achieve desirable ROIs by using their improved software deliveries to Excellerate all other organizational value streams.

DevOps, or Dev(Sec)Ops, implements a strategy to integrate, automate, and orchestrate software delivery activities as a lean-oriented value stream, otherwise referred to as a software delivery pipeline. Lean production practices eliminate all forms of waste that do not add value from our customers' perspectives. The objective is only to implement activities that add value and to streamline the flow of work and information across value stream activities, end-to-end from concept through delivery.

A value stream, such as a DevOps pipeline, is simply the end-to-end set of activities that delivers value to our customers, whether internal or external to the organization. In an ideal state, work and information flow efficiently with minimal delays or queuing of work items.

So far, this all sounds great. But good things seldom come easily. Let's start with the fact that there are hundreds of tools available to support a Dev(Sec)Ops toolchain. Moreover, it takes specific skills, effort, costs, and time to integrate and configure the tools selected by your organization.

While software developers perform the integration effort, the required skills may differ from those available in your software development teams. Also, such work takes your developers away from their primary job of delivering value via software products for your internal and external customers.

In short, asking your development teams to build their Dev(Sec)Ops toolchain configurations is a bit like asking manufacturing operators to build their manufacturing facilities. Assuming they could learn the skills quickly and efficiently, redirecting your software developers to create pipeline configurations is still non-value-added work from your customers' perspectives. So, my new book provides strategies to deal with these issues. The book is titled Driving DevOps with Value Stream Management: Excellerate IT value stream delivery with a proven VSM methodology to compete in the digital economy.

In its modern context, value stream management (VSM) has become a tools-based strategy to provide visibility to data across your Dev(Sec)Ops pipeline activities and tools. A mature VSM platform provides integration adaptors and a common data model to aggregate, display, and analyze data from multiple disparate tools supporting your Dev(Sec)Ops pipelines.

In other words, with VSM tools, executives and decision-makers have end-to-end visibility to activities, work items, and information flows. As a result, they can evaluate their current state of software production and assess alternative tools and work strategies before making commitments.

Mature VSM platforms also help integrate Dev(Sec)Ops toolchains, automate pipeline activities, and orchestrate work and information flow. The result is that the VSM tools supporting Dev(Sec)Ops platforms outperform traditional Waterfall and even Agile-based approaches by orders of magnitude.

We can use the DORA Four metrics as an example of the best performers against the lowest performers:

Metric

Elite performance

Low Performers

Deployment Frequency

on demand, multiple deployments per day

between once per month and every six months

Lead Time for Changes

less than one day

between one month and six months

Time to restore service

less than one hour

between one week and one month

Change failure rate

0% to 15%

46% to 60%

Source

But, if there is one thing I want you to take away from my book, its that organizations can develop spectacular software delivery capabilities and spend a lot of time and money in the process but not realize sufficient business improvements to justify the investments. You might ask, "how is that possible?" The answer is "how you aim your improved software delivery capabilities is every bit as important as the improved delivery capabilities."

When we provide a demo of our automated CI/CD pipeline configurations, we measure time lapsed across pipeline activities in microseconds. These activities occur much faster than the time it takes to define requirements or even write the code. From a systems thinking perspective, such radical improvements is a form of localized optimizations.

For example, imagine visiting an automobile manufacturing plant that has a belt conveying vehicles at a single, steady pace. Let's also suppose each car moves between stations every 60 seconds, from front to end. Then imagine the automobile manufacturer invests a whole bunch of money in implementing a robot that can complete its work in just 30 seconds. Will the edition of that robot speed up the line? Of course not, because its cycle time is not the limiting factor across the entire line.

The same principle applies to your Dev(Sec)Ops software delivery pipelines. The speed of software deliveries is so fast that it's not likely to be your organization's bottleneck. The question is, how do you maximize the value of your software deliveries.

Value stream management is not a new concept. It's been around for decades as a continuous lean-oriented improvement strategy. In fact, there are standard steps associated with implementing a VSM initiative, regardless of the type of value stream, performed as follows:

  1. Commit to Lean and learn how it works
  2. Choose your value stream
  3. Map the current state of your selected value stream
  4. Identify Lean metrics
  5. Map the desired future state, including alternatives
  6. Plan and implement identified value stream improvements

In an ideal situation, organizations employ VSM initiatives to evaluate all their values streams, not just their software delivery processes. And, because we compete in a digital economy, the identified value stream improvement opportunities will include digital enhancements. It is those digital enhancements powered by software that can deliver the most value to the organization.

So, in this context, my book has a simple admonition: VSM is not just about tools to Excellerate software deliveries. VSM is a lean-oriented Lean-improvements strategy that provides the means to evaluate and prioritize all value stream improvement opportunities, many of which will require digital solutions.  The VSM tools help drive software delivery improvements. But it's the alignment of your improved software delivery capabilities to support other value stream improvements that will make the investments supportable and sustainable.

This book was written for corporate executives, managers, DevOps team members, and other stakeholders involved in digital business transformations to Excellerate the flow of customer value through their organization's value streams. Also, this book will help technology leaders and decision-makers understand how to get the most out of the Dev(Sec)Ops toolchain investments. Similarly, this book is also for the IT specialists who needs to understand how to gain executive support for their Dev(Sec)Ops and VSM tool investment requests.

Finally, other stakeholders impacted by IT investments will find this book helpful in maximizing value-based deliveries across the organization. I define a stakeholder as anyone who has an opinion that matters. It's not that some opinions matter more than others. But, let's face it, the demise of many software projects and programs came at the hands of Stakeholders who didn't see the value and worked behind the scenes to shut down the program and funding.

However, if your software delivery pipelines properly support other organizational value stream improvements, you'll have a much better chance of justifying your program and product team expenses.

While writing this book, I interviewed representatives from the VSM Consortium, 16 tool vendors – and conducted research on 24 VSM software tool companies in all, plus the two leading Lean-Agile Framework Companies and two of the leading Lean training and methodology companies.

The book is fairly broad, covering a range of topics. During the learning journey, you will find out what it means to deliver value and why enterprises should incorporate systems and lean thinking with their agile practices to deliver the most value. You will also learn about value stream management methods and tools and Dev(Sec)Ops pipeline implementation pitfalls and considerations. 

This book logically divides into four parts, subtitled as follows:

  1. Value Delivery – what it means and how to go about it.
  2. VSM Methodology – a Lean-oriented and proven approach to make Flow improvements across an enterprise.
  3. VSM Tool Vendors & Frameworks – to Excellerate your software delivery pipeline capabilities.
  4. Applying VSM with DevOps – to drive digital business transformations.

The chapters cover the following topics:

Chapter 1, Delivering Customer-centric Value - Defining what constitutes the delivery of value.

Chapter 2, Building on a Lean-Agile foundation – discover what it means to be a Lean-Agile enterprise.

Chapter 3, Analyzing complex systems interactions – Looking at software development activities as a complex system and understanding the impacts of interrelationships between participating elements.

Chapter 4, Defining Value Stream Management – understanding the history and fundamentals behind value stream management.

Chapter 5, Driving business value through a DevOps Pipeline – Assessing the end-to-end activity and information flows and integrated toolchains that make DevOps pipelines so complex and expensive to implement on an enterprise scale.

Chapter 6, Launching the VSM initiative (VSM Steps 1 - 3) – Learn why it's critical that the organization makes a commitment to Lean, how to choose a value stream, and what VSM team members and other stakeholders need to learn about implementing Lean.

Chapter 7, Mapping the current state (VSM Strep 4) – Learn how to construct a current state value stream map using a CI/CD pipeline flow improvement use case as an example.

Chapter 8, Identifying lean metrics (VSM Step 5) – Learn the common Lean metrics used to identify wastes that contribute poor performance across value streams and those that most apply to assessing IT and DevOps-oriented value streams.

Chapter 9, Mapping the future state (VSM Step 6) - Learn how to construct a future state value stream map and Kaizen Burst (production improvement opportunities) using a CI/CD pipeline flow improvement use case as an example.

Chapter 10, Improving the Lean-Agile value delivery cycle (VSM Steps 7 & 8) – Learn of to develop and execute a Kaizen Plan that addresses the improvement opportunities identified in the future state value stream maps.

Chapter 11, Identifying VSM tool types and capabilities – Introduces the three primary types of VSM tools and their general purpose and capabilities.

Chapter 12, Leading VSM Tools – Offers descriptions of capabilities provided by fifteen leading VSM tool vendors, and their individual strengths and areas of focus.

Chapter 13, Leading Digital VSM Practice Leaders – Introduces the VSM Consortium and two of the leading Lean-Agile frameworks that promote VSM, Disciplined Agile and the Scaled Agile Framework®.

Chapter 14, Enterprise Lean-VSM Practice Leaders – Introduces two of the leading Lean training and certification organizations, the Lean Enterprise Institute and LeanFITT™.

Chapter 15, Defining the appropriate DevOps platform strategy – Provides interviews with six expert DevOps practitioners to explain the potential DevOps implementation pitfalls that organizations need to be aware of. Also introduces four DevOps platform implementation strategies, and the pros and cons of each.

Chapter 16, Transforming Businesses with VSM and DevOps – Using VSM and DevOps tools to drive business transformations by aligning software deliveries to support improvements across all organizational value streams.

Gary Rupp's professional aims are to bridge the gap between customers and solution developers to ensure we build the right products with the highest commercial value while maintaining profitability. For more than thirty years, he has been a strong advocate of using visual modeling techniques for collaborative problem-solving in business. Gary's experience in the software industry includes executive-level roles in program and project management, professional services, and the sales and marketing of CASE, software development, and middleware tools.

Tue, 17 Aug 2021 20:40:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.infoq.com/articles/DevOps-value-stream/
Killexams : Information Management

MSc PG Certificate PG Diploma

2022 start September 

Information School, Faculty of Social Sciences

Prepare for your future career with the world’s number one school for Library and Information Management (QS Rankings 2021). Learn the core concepts and principles related to the systematic design and implementation of information, knowledge and data environments in organisational and networked contexts. The MSc and PG Diploma awards are CILIP accredited.

Course description

Ready yourself for a wide variety of organisational and consultancy roles that demand expertise in information and knowledge management. The emphasis of the programme is on developing your knowledge, skills and experience of design, implementation, management and governance effective information environments. This includes examining their purposes, functions and processes and mediating between information users, resources and systems in both organisational and networked contexts.

You'll also acquire practical experience in the use of new information and communications technologies and develop personal awareness and skills relevant to information management in a variety of workplace roles.

You'll learn basic foundations of information management concerning the systematic acquisition, storage, retrieval, processing and use of data, information and knowledge, in support of decision-making, sense-making and organisational goals.

If you have two or more years' relevant work experience in the information sector and wish to study for a higher degree, you may be interested in our Professional Enhancement programme. The programme is designed for people already in work who want to further their careers and allows greater freedom in module choice in recognition of your existing expertise.

Accreditation

The MSc and PG Diploma programmes are accredited by the Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals (CILIP).

Modules

A selection of modules are available each year - some examples are below. There may be changes before you start your course. From May of the year of entry, formal programme regulations will be available in our Programme Regulations Finder.

You’ll need 180 credits to get a masters degree, with 60 credits from core modules, 60 credits from optional modules and a dissertation (including dissertation preparation) worth 60 credits.

Core modules:

Information and Knowledge Management

This module addresses both the oretical and practical aspects ofmanaging information and knowledge in organisations, enqabling you to engagecritically with a number of current issues and debates in this field. It isdesigned around case studies of well known organisations and involves thedevelopment of skills in analysis and formulation of strategies fororganisational development. Assessed work focuses also on skills in reviewingthe domain and on the development of conceptual models for information andknowledge management.

15 credits
Information Retrieval: Search Engines and Digital Libraries

Information Retrieval (IR) systems are ubiquitous as searching has become a part of everyday life. For example, we use IR systems when we search the web, look for resources using a library catalogue or search for relevant information within organisational repositories (e.g. intranets). This module provides an introduction to the area of information retrieval and computerised techniques for organising, storing and searching (mainly) textual information items.

Techniques used in IR systems are related to, but distinct from, those used in databases. The emphasis for IR systems is to find documents that contain relevant information and separate these from a potentially vast set of non-relevant documents. The content of the module falls into two main areas: (1)  fundamental concepts of IR (indexing, retrieval, ranking, user interaction and evaluation) and (2) applying IR in specific contexts, bias in information retrieval, and dealing with non-textual and non-English content (multimedia and multilingual IR).

15 credits
Information Systems in Organisations

This module integrates courses of organisation, management, and information systems, with an aim to offer the students an integrated set of concepts and tools for understanding information systems in organisations. During this module students will explore basic management and organisational theories and examine the impact of information systems on organisations. This course introduces key concepts which will be explored further in other modules on the information Management and Information Systems programmes.

15 credits
Information Governance and Ethics

This module explores a) the emergence of information and data as an economic resource; b) the governance challenges and ethical issues arising from organizations' systematic capture, processing, and use of information and data for organizational goals, e.g. value, risk, accountability, ownership, privacy etc; c) governance, ethical, legal and other frameworks relevant to the capture, processing and use of information and data within organizational and networked contexts; and d) technologies and techniques used in the governing and governance of information and data. Case examples from a number of domains, e.g. business, government, health, law, and social media illustrate the courses investigated.

15 credits
Research Methods and Dissertation Preparation

This module assists students in the identification of, and preparation of a dissertation proposal. Students will: learn about: on-going research in the School; identify and prepare a dissertation proposal; carry out a preliminary literature search in the area of the dissertation research topic; and be introduced to the use of social research methods and statistics for information management.

15 credits
Dissertation

This module enables students to carry out an extended piece of work on an Information School approved topic, so that they can explore an area of specialist interest to them in greater depth. Students will be supported through tutorials with a project supervisor, will apply research methods appropriate to their topic, and implement their work-plan to produce an individual project report. Students will already have identified a suitable Topic and designed a project plan in the pre-requisite unit Research Methods and Dissertation Preparation.

45 credits

Optional modules - one from:

Introduction to Programming

This module introduces students with little or no programming experience to the general purpose programming language Python. Python is popular and easy to learn for developing a wide range of information systems applications. The skills and understandings required to program in Python are valued by organisations and transfer to most other programming languages.

15 credits
Website Design and Search Engine Optimisation

This module aims to teach the key principles of search engine optimised (SEO) and user-centred website design; including areas of search optimised and accessible design, content strategy, requirements analysis, user experience, and Web standards compliance. Students will have opportunities to apply this knowledge to authentic design problems and develop web authoring skills valued by employers. In particular, students will be introduced to the latest web mark-up languages (currently HTML5 and CSS3) and issues surrounding long-term search ranking, globalisation, internationalisation and localisation - with a business focussed context.

15 credits
Information Systems Modelling

To consider the role of information modelling within the organisation and provide an appreciation of the rigorous methods that are needed to analyse, design, develop and maintain computer-based information systems. The course is intended to provide an introduction to information modelling techniques. Students gain experience in applying the wide range of systems analysis methods. Students cover courses including: soft systems analysis; structured systems analysis methodologies; business process modelling; data flow modelling and object-oriented approaches (e.g. RUP/UML).

15 credits

Optional modules - three from:

Information Visualisation for Decision-Making

Organisations are nowadays challenged by the volume, variety, and speed of data collected from systems in internal and external environments. This module will focus on i) theoretical and methodological frameworks for developing visualisations; ii) how visualisations can be used to explore and analyse different types of data; iii) how visualisations can turn data into information that can be used to offer critical insights and to aid in decision-making by managers and others. Its module content includes: how to design visualisations, how to create and critique different visualisations, as well as good practices in information visualisation and dashboard design.

15 credits
Information Systems Project Management

This module aims to provide a broad understanding of the fundamentals of project management as they apply to the development of Information Systems (IS). The module uses a flexible approach combining face-to-face seminars with web-based learning material. The module will begin with an overview of the principles involved in IS project management; followed by a discussion of IS development methodologies and their different characteristics and specialisms. The rest of the module will discuss the requirements for various project control activities, including estimating development resources, risk management, guidelines for system quality assurance, and various project control techniques that have been developed in exact years. The module will culminate with a review of human resource management issues.

15 credits
Digital Business

The module addresses both theoretical and practical aspects of digital business. The module will cover the latest business trends and business models adopted by ecommerce companies so that students are able to recognise and relate to the current practice in business.  The module aims to equip the students with theoretical and business knowledge and entrepreneurial skills to understand and manage new ways of doing business in the digital economy.

15 credits
Researching Social Media

The module will examine the key theoretical frameworks and methods used in social media studies. Students will explore the following questions: 1) What can be learnt about society by studying social media? 2) How should researchers construct ethical stances for researching sites such as Facebook and Twitter? 3) What are the traditional and digital research methods and tools that can be applied to conduct research on social media? 4) What are the strengths and weaknesses of these methods?

15 credits
ICTs, Innovation and Change

This module aims at examining and exploring how organizations and human activity systems cope with change due to the new implementation or updating of Information Systems and Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). This change occurs in complex social environments and has cultural, political, structural and ethical impacts that need to be carefully managed. The module will examine and explore how both managers and Information Systems practitioners can be better prepared for the unpredictability, unintended outcomes and possible harmful consequences of change caused by the introduction or update of Information Systems and ICTs. Therefore, the module aims at providing an understanding of both approaches and techniques for the management of this change.

15 credits
Database Design

Effective data management is key to any organisation, particularly with the increasing availability of large and heterogeneous datasets (e.g. transactional, multimedia and geo-spatial data). A database is an organised collection of data, typically describing the activities of one or more organisations and a core component of modern information systems. A Database Management System (DBMS) is software designed to assist in maintaining and utilising large collections of data and becoming a necessity for all organisations. This module provides an introduction to the area of databases and database management, relational database design and a flavour of some advanced courses in current database research that deal with different kinds of data often found within an organisational context. Lectures are structured into three main areas:¿An introduction to databases¿The process of designing relational databases¿Advanced courses (e.g. data warehouses and non-relational databases)The course includes a series of online tasks with supporting 'drop in¿ laboratories aimed at providing you with the skills required to implement a database in Oracle and extract information using the Structured Query Language (SQL).

15 credits
Academic and Workplace Library, Information and Knowledge Services

This module introduces students to the purposes, functions and practices of a range of academic research and other specialist library and information/knowledge services in the public and private sectors. It considers the challenges of delivering and developing services in a demanding, fast-moving and complex environment. Lectures are combined with sector-based case studies presented by visiting speakers drawn from diverse backgrounds giving extensive opportunities for interaction with specialist practitioners.

15 credits
User-Centred Design and Human-Computer Interaction

Interface design and usability are central to the experience of interacting with computers. The module introduces usability principles and the design process for interactive systems exploring four major themes. Firstly, user psychology and cognitive principles underlying interface design. Secondly, user interface architectures, modes of interaction, metaphors, navigational structures. Thirdly, the user interface design process including task analysis, modelling constructs and prototyping techniques. Fourthly, the evaluation of user interfaces covering concepts of usability, goals and types of evaluation. The module focus is on the underlying principles of HCI and user-centred design approach with practical sessions to demonstrate these principles.

15 credits
Archives and Records Management

This module prepares students for roles within archives and records management, with emphasis on archives.  Students will develop knowledge and awareness of key theories and practices in archives and records management. The module introduces students to some of the principal issues surrounding the provision of archives and records management services and the challenges of meeting user needs within an organisational context. In addition to presenting the fundamental principles the second part of the module focuses on specific courses of interest, such as: community archiving, digital preservation, web archiving and oral history collecting.

15 credits

Other courses

Postgraduate Certificate requires a total of 60 credits
Postgraduate Diploma requires a total of 120 credits

The content of our courses is reviewed annually to make sure it's up-to-date and relevant. Individual modules are occasionally updated or withdrawn. This is in response to discoveries through our world-leading research; funding changes; professional accreditation requirements; student or employer feedback; outcomes of reviews; and variations in staff or student numbers. In the event of any change we'll consult and inform students in good time and take reasonable steps to minimise disruption. We are no longer offering unrestricted module choice. If your course included unrestricted modules, your department will provide a list of modules from their own and other subject areas that you can choose from.

Open days

An open day gives you the best opportunity to hear first-hand from our current students and staff about our courses. You'll find out what makes us special.

Upcoming open days and campus tours

Duration

  • 1 year full-time
  • 2 years part-time
  • 3 years part-time

Teaching

A variety of teaching methods are used, combining lectures from academic staff and professional practitioners with seminars, tutorials, small-group work and computer laboratory sessions.

There's a strong emphasis on problem-solving and individual aspects of learning, with the expectation that you’ll engage in independent study, memorizing and research in support of your coursework.

Teaching consists of two 15-week semesters, after which you’ll write your dissertation.

Assessment

Assessments vary depending on the modules you choose but may include essays, report writing, oral presentations, in-class tests and group projects.

There's also a dissertation of 10–15,000 words, which provides the opportunity, under one-to-one supervision, to focus on a Topic of your choice. You may choose to carry out your dissertation with an external organisation, for instance if you are a Professional Enhancement student, your project could be directly related to your work situation. In the past, students who have carried out such dissertations have welcomed the opportunity to tackle real-life problems.

Your career

We're the leading school of our kind in the UK and have a global reputation for excellence. Our MSc develops the skills you need to work in the fast-paced and evolving field of information management. After completing the course, you'll be equipped for a career in industry or research.

Our graduates have gone on to careers that include:

  • Project Manager, IBM
  • Metadata Specialist, The British Library
  • Wealth Planning Manager, China Merchants Bank
  • IT Director, Lloyds Banking Group
  • Business Analyst, Citibank
  • Director of Communications, Harvard University
  • Head of Library and Information Services, Foreign and Commonwealth Office
  • Vice-President, Goldman Sachs Japan Services Co.
  • Product Engineer, BenQ
  • Management Trainee, Jumei.com

Career pathways

Our modules prepare you for a range of career pathways, including the following. If you're interested in one of these career pathways, your tutors will recommend the most suitable module choices.

Digital Business

This involves managing and delivering products and services. Possible job titles include:

  • e-commerce manager
  • digital product/service delivery manager
  • digital marketer
  • digital product owner

Information Technology

This involves working with organisations to make improvements using information technologies. Possible job titles include:

  • business analyst
  • systems analyst
  • IT project manager
  • database administrator
  • operational researcher

Information Science

Information scientists manage an organisation's information resources and make sure they're readily available. Possible job titles include:

  • information manager
  • information officer
  • knowledge manager
  • management information analyst
  • information governance officer
  • business intelligence officer
  • reporting analyst
  • information analyst
  • data privacy analyst

Read more about careers in information

PhD student and Librarianship MA graduate Itzelle Medina Perea shares her experiences of studying at the Information School.

Facilities

We invested a six-figure sum to create leading-edge, flexible and technology-rich facilities for learning and teaching that are consistent with our reputation as a modern, highly respected and world-leading school. The new facilities include the iLab, the iSpace and a computer laboratory for collaborative learning.

We have three research labs on-site with workspace for over 80 researchers and a dedicated IT support team to assist with technical queries and requests. 

We also have a number of other newly-refurbished spaces which are available to all our researchers.

More about the Information School facilities.

Department

The University of Sheffield Information School is ranked number one in the world for library and information management in the QS World University Rankings by subject 2021. These rankings are based upon academic reputation, employer reputation and research impact.

The school has been at the forefront of developments in the information field for more than fifty years. The subject is characterised by its distinctive, interdisciplinary focus on the interactions between people, information and digital technologies. It has the ultimate goal of enhancing information access, and the management, sharing and use of information, to benefit society.

When you come to study with us you'll be an integral part of our research culture. The school is your home and we pride ourselves on the friendliness and helpfulness of our staff.

We offer an outstanding academic education through a wide range of taught postgraduate degrees which embed the principles of research-led teaching.

When you join any of our degree programmes you'll develop a critical understanding of current issues in library and information management. You'll benefit from being taught by staff who are undertaking leading-edge research and who have many links with industry.

As part of our mission to provide world-quality university education in information, we aim to inspire and help you pursue your highest ambitions for your academic and professional careers.

Entry requirements

Main course

You'll need at least a 2:1 in any subject.

You do not need work experience.

Professional Enhancement

This is a different route to the main course. It's aimed at those who already have relevant work experience.

To apply for this course you need either:

  • an undergraduate degree in any subject discipline and at least 2 years' relevant work experience, or
  • an undergraduate degree in any subject together with an acceptable relevant professional qualification and at least 2 years' relevant work experience, or
  • an undergraduate degree in any subject area, and at least 5 years' relevant work experience.

If you do not have an undergraduate degree but have other qualifications and substantial relevant work experience you may be considered for entry onto the Postgraduate Certificate or Diploma courses.

Overall IELTS score of 6.5, with a minimum of 6.0 in each component or equivalent.

Pathway programme for international students

If you're an international student who does not meet the entry requirements for this course, you have the opportunity to apply for a pre-masters programme in Business, Social Sciences and Humanities at the University of Sheffield International College. This course is designed to develop your English language and academic skills. Upon successful completion, you can progress to degree level study at the University of Sheffield.

If you have any questions about entry requirements, please contact the department.

Apply

You can apply for postgraduate study using our Postgraduate Online Application Form. It's a quick and easy process.

Applications close on Friday 5 August 2022 at 5pm.

Apply now

Any supervisors and research areas listed are indicative and may change before the start of the course.

Our student protection plan

Recognition of professional qualifications: from 1 January 2021, in order to have any UK professional qualifications recognised for work in an EU country across a number of regulated and other professions you need to apply to the host country for recognition. Read information from the UK government and the EU Regulated Professions Database.

Thu, 01 Oct 2020 03:20:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.sheffield.ac.uk/postgraduate/taught/courses/2022/information-management-msc-pg-certificate-pg-diploma
Killexams : Buying Private Health Insurance

If your employer doesn’t offer you health insurance as part of an employee benefits program, you may be looking at purchasing your own health insurance through a private health insurance company.

A premium is the amount of money that an individual or business pays to an insurance company for coverage. Health insurance premiums are typically paid monthly. Employers that offer an employer-sponsored health insurance plan typically cover part of the insurance premiums. If you need to insure yourself, you’ll be paying the full cost of the premiums.

It is common to be concerned about how much it will cost to purchase health insurance for yourself. However, there are various options and prices available to you based on the level of coverage that you need.

When purchasing your own insurance, the process is more complicated than simply selecting a company plan and having the premium payments come straight out of your paycheck every month. Here are some tips to help guide you through the process of purchasing your own health insurance.

Key Takeaways

  • You may need to purchase individual healthcare coverage if you just turned 26 years old, are unemployed or self-employed, work part time, are starting a business that will have employees, or have recently retired.
  • If you do not have the option of enrolling in an employer-sponsored health insurance plan, a good source for gaining insurance coverage is through the Health Insurance Marketplace that was created in 2014 by the Affordable Care Act (ACA).
  • If you are at least age 65 or disabled, you can enroll in Medicare, with the option to add additional coverage through a private Medigap or Medicare Advantage plan.

How Buying Private Health Insurance Works

Some Americans get insurance by enrolling in a group health insurance plan through their employers.

Medicare provides healthcare coverage to seniors and the disabled, and Medicaid has coverage for low-income Americans.

Medicare is a federal health insurance program for people who are age 65 or older. Certain young people with disabilities and people with end-stage renal disease may also qualify for Medicare. Medicaid is a public assistance healthcare program for low-income Americans regardless of their age.

If your company does not offer an employer-sponsored plan, and if you are not eligible for Medicare or Medicaid, individuals and families have the option of purchasing insurance policies directly from private insurance companies or through the Health Insurance Marketplace.

Scenarios When You Might Need Private Health Insurance

There are certain circumstances that make it more likely that you will need to purchase your own health insurance plan, including:

A Young Adult 26 Years of Age or Older

Under provisions of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010, young people can be covered as dependents by their parents’ health insurance policy until they turn 26 years old. After that, they must seek out their own insurance policy.

Unemployed

If you lose your job, you may be eligible to maintain coverage through your employer’s health insurance plan for a period of time through a program called the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA). COBRA allows eligible employees and their dependents the option to continue health insurance coverage at their own expense. 

While coverage through COBRA can be maintained for up to 36 months (under certain circumstances), the cost of enrolling in COBRA is very high. This is because the formerly employed person pays the entire cost of the insurance. Typically, employers pay a portion of healthcare premiums on behalf of their employees.

A Part-Time Employee

Part-time jobs rarely offer health benefits. A part-time job is any position that requires employees to work a lower number of hours than would be considered full time by their employer, or 40 hours per week. If you work part time, you usually must enroll in your own health insurance.

Self-Employed

A self-employed person may work as a freelancer or own a business. Some self-employed people can get health insurance through a spouse’s plan. If not, they must provide their own health insurance.

A Business Owner Who Has Employees

If you start a business and you have employees, you might be required to offer them health insurance. Even if it’s not required, you might decide to offer health insurance to be a competitive employer that can attract qualified job candidates. In this situation, you will be required to purchase a business health insurance plan, also known as a group plan.

If You Retire (or Your Spouse/Parent Retires)

When you retire, you will likely no longer be eligible for employer-sponsored health insurance. If you are under age 65 and not disabled, you will need to purchase individual private health insurance until you turn 65 and can apply for Medicare. Many retirees choose to purchase private Medigap or Medicare Advantage plans in addition to Medicare as a way of guaranteeing more comprehensive coverage. Some retired people may also decide to completely replace Medicare coverage with a private Medicare Advantage plan.

It is important to note that Medicare, Medigap, and Medicare Advantage plans are only for the individual—your spouse, partner, and any dependents cannot be insured through your Medicare plan. This means that if your family was previously insured through your employer’s plan, and you retire, your family members may need to enroll in individual insurance plans.

Dropped by Your Existing Insurer

Although the ACA prevents insurers from canceling your coverage—or denying you coverage due to a preexisting condition or because you made a mistake on your application—there are other circumstances when your coverage may be canceled. It’s also possible that your insurance may become so expensive that you can’t afford it.

Why You Should Purchase Health Insurance

If you find yourself in one of the above situations and lack health insurance coverage, it’s important to enroll in an individual plan as soon as possible. (The fine for failing to obtain coverage was canceled in 2019.)

Even though you’re not required to have insurance, you cannot predict when an accident will occur that will require medical attention. Even a minor broken bone can have major financial consequences if you’re uninsured.

If you purchase insurance through the Health Insurance Marketplace, you may be eligible for income-based premium tax credits or cost-sharing reductions. The marketplace is a platform that offers insurance plans to individuals, families, and small businesses.

The ACA established the marketplace as a means to achieve maximum compliance with the mandate that all Americans be enrolled in health insurance. Many states offer their own marketplaces, while the federal government manages an exchange open to residents of other states.

While you may not be able to afford the same kind of plan that an employer would offer you, any amount of coverage is more advantageous than none. In the event of a major accident or a long-term illness, you will be prepared.

Choosing the Best Insurance Plan for You

There are several different kinds of health insurance plans, and each of these plans has a number of unique features.

Health Maintenance Organization (HMO)

A health maintenance organization (HMO) is a company with an organizational structure that allows them to provide insurance coverage for their subscribers through a specific network of healthcare providers.

Typical HMO features include paying for insurance coverage for a monthly or annual fee. Premiums tend to be lower for HMOs because health providers have patients directed at them, but the disadvantage is that subscribers are limited to accessing a network of doctors and other healthcare providers who are contracted with the HMO.

Preferred Provider Organization (PPO)

A preferred provider organization (PPO) is a type of insurance plan in which medical professionals and facilities provide services to subscribed clients at reduced rates. Healthcare providers that are part of this network are called preferred providers or in-network providers. 

Subscribers of a PPO plan have the option of seeing healthcare providers outside of this network of providers (out-of-network providers), but the rates for seeing these providers are more expensive.

Exclusive Provider Organization (EPO)

An exclusive provider organization (EPO) is a hybrid of HMO and PPO plans. With an EPO plan, you can only receive services from providers within a certain network. However, exceptions can be made for emergency care.

Another characteristic of an EPO plan is that you may be required to choose a primary care physician (PCP). This is a general practitioner who will provide preventive care and treat you for minor illnesses. In addition, with an EMO plan, you usually do not need to get a referral from your PCP to see a specialist physician.

High-Deductible Health Plan (HDHP)

A high-deductible health plan (HDHP) has a couple of key characteristics. As its name implies, it has a higher annual deductible than other insurance plans. A deductible is the portion of an insurance claim that the subscriber covers themselves. HDHPs typically have lower monthly premiums.

This type of plan is ideal for young or generally healthy people who don’t expect to demand healthcare services unless they experience a medical emergency or an unexpected accident.

The last defining feature of a high-deductible health plan is that it offers access to a tax-advantaged Health Savings Account (HSA).

HSA subscribers can contribute funds that can later be used for medical costs that their HDHP doesn’t cover. The advantage of these accounts is that the funds are not subject to federal income taxes at the time of the deposit.

Consumer-Driven Health Plan (CHDP)

Consumer-driven health plans (CDHPs) are a type of HDHP. A portion of services that subscribers receive is paid for with pretax dollars. Like other HDHPs, CDHPs have higher annual deductibles than other health insurance plans, but the subscriber pays lower premiums each month.

Point-of-Service (POS) Plan

A point-of-service (POS) plan provides different benefits to subscribers based on whether or not they use preferred providers (in-network providers) or providers outside of the preferred network (out-of-network providers). A POS plan includes features of both HMO and PPO plans.

Short-Term Insurance Policy

A short-term insurance policy covers any gap that you might experience in coverage if, for example, you change jobs and your new company plan doesn’t kick in immediately.

It typically lasts for three months. Term lengths vary by state, and in some U.S. states, you may be eligible for a short-term plan for up to 12 months.

Short-term health insurance is also called temporary health insurance or term health insurance. It can be useful if you’re changing jobs, waiting to become eligible for Medicare coverage, or waiting out the designated open enrollment period for a plan.

Under a short-term insurance plan, your spouse and other eligible dependents may also be covered. However, one important caveat of a short-term insurance plan is that in some cases, preexisting conditions can disqualify you from coverage. The definition of a preexisting condition varies depending on the state where you live, but it is usually defined as something you have been diagnosed with or received treatment for within the last two to five years.

Catastrophic Coverage

Catastrophic health insurance is a type of insurance plan that is typically only available to adults ages 30 or younger. To qualify, you must receive a hardship exemption from the government. Catastrophic health insurance typically has lower premiums than other health insurance plans.

These types of plans are intended for people who cannot afford to spend much money every month on insurance premiums but don’t want to be without insurance in the event of a serious accident or illness.

While catastrophic health insurance plans may have low monthly premiums, they typically have the highest possible deductibles.

Choosing a Deductible

Once you’ve decided on the type of plan that is best for you, you’ll need to determine how much you can afford to pay as a deductible. This is the predetermined amount that you pay for covered healthcare services before your insurance plan starts to pay.

What can you afford to pay in out-of-pocket medical expenses each year? With most health insurance plans, the higher your deductible is, the lower your monthly premium will be. If your monthly cash flow is low, you might have to opt for a higher deductible.

Another key consideration when selecting an insurance plan is the plan’s out-of-pocket maximum. After you’ve spent this amount on deductibles and medical services through co-payments and co-insurance, your health plan will pay the entire cost of covered benefits.

How Much Does Private Health Insurance Cost?

While many people are scared by the prospect of purchasing their own insurance versus enrolling in an employer-sponsored plan, some studies have shown that it can end up being more affordable than employer-sponsored plans.

A study from the Kaiser Family Foundation found that the average monthly premium for an employer-sponsored insurance plan for individual coverage in 2021 was around $645 and $1,850 for family coverage. If you were to purchase your own insurance outside of an employer-sponsored plan, the average cost of individual health insurance was $438. For families, the average monthly premium was $1,168.

In addition, if you end up purchasing coverage through the Health Insurance Marketplace, you may qualify for a Cost-Sharing Reduction subsidy and Advanced Premium Tax Credits. These can lower your premium payment amounts, your deductible, and any co-payments and co-insurance for which you are responsible.

Where to Go to Buy Private Health Insurance

You have several options when it comes to buying private health insurance.

Medicare.gov

If you are (or are soon to be) retired, you can begin on the Medicare website. It is recommended that you see what the standard Medicare plan covers and then look at options for ways to supplement Medicare through Medigap and Medicare Advantage policies.

When considering Medigap or Medicare Advantage coverage, it’s important to understand how both work types of coverage work in conjunction with standard Medicare coverage.

HealthCare.gov

As a result of the ACA, the Health Insurance Marketplace was created in 2014. You can visit the Health Insurance Marketplace website to find out more about the options for health insurance coverage that are available where you live. You can also determine if you qualify for any subsidy and apply for it.

The marketplace has a specific open enrollment period. Typically, it is from Nov. 1 to Dec. 15 every year, although various events may lead to the open enrollment period being extended or reopened.

The website includes information about private plans that are available for purchase outside of the marketplace. However, if you purchase a plan outside of the marketplace, whether during open enrollment or not, then you will not be eligible for any subsidies available under the ACA.

Under certain circumstances, an individual may be eligible to purchase a healthcare plan through the exchange even if it is outside of the specified open enrollment period. This is called a Special Enrollment Period. You may be eligible for a Special Enrollment Period if you experience a household change, including getting married or divorced, having or adopting a child, a death in your family, moving, losing your health insurance, being in a national catastrophe, or experiencing a disability.

The American Rescue Plan of 2021 increased subsidies for ACA plans for lower-income Americans and broadened subsidies to include some subsidies at higher income levels.

Private Health Insurance Companies

You can visit the websites of major health insurance companies in your geographic region and browse available options based on the type of coverage that you prefer and the deductible that you can afford to pay.

The types of plans available and the premiums will vary based on the region where you live and your age. It’s important to note that the plan price quoted on the website is the lowest available price for that plan and assumes that you are in excellent health. You won’t know what you’ll really pay per month until you apply and provide the insurance company with your medical history.

Pricing and the type of coverage can vary significantly based on the health insurance company. Because of this, it can be difficult to truly compare the plans to determine which company has the best combination of rates and coverage. It can be a good idea to identify which plans offer the most of the features that you require and are within your price range, then to read consumer reviews of those plans.

If you are choosing a family plan or are an employer who is choosing a plan that you’ll provide to your employees, then you’ll also want to consider the needs of others who will be covered under the plan.

Key Factors for Choosing a Plan

Health insurance plans offer a variety of different features. While it may be hard to find a plan that offers everything you desire, consider which of the following features are the most medically and financially necessary. Here are some questions to consider when you are researching plans:

  • Does the plan offer prescription drug coverage? Does it only cover generic versions of prescription drugs? What is the co-payment (also referred to as the co-pay) on generics and name-brand drugs? Check the medicines you’re already taking, if any.
  • What is the office visit co-payment, and does the plan have instituted a maximum number of office visits that it will cover per year?
  • What is the co-payment for specialized services, such as X-rays, lab tests, and surgery? How about for an emergency room visit?
  • Do you want a plan that allows you to add vision and dental coverage?
  • Do you need pregnancy benefits?
  • Do you already have a doctor who you like? If so, you might want to find a plan that includes your doctor in its insurance company’s provider network.
  • Do lifetime and annual maximum benefits apply? The ACA effectively eliminated lifetime and annual maximums for essential medical services, but this does not include dental and vision coverage, for example.
  • Does the plan offer free or discounted services for preventive care, such as an annual checkup? Most plans under the ACA provide free coverage for most preventive care services. Short-term insurance plans and catastrophic coverage may not.
  • Does the plan cover specialty services such as physical therapy, chiropractic, and acupuncture visits?
  • What hospitals are included in the network?
  • For PPOs, what is the cost for out-of-network services, should you want or need them? Can you afford this?

When Can I Buy Private Health Insurance?

Most types of health insurance have an open enrollment period during which you can sign up for private health insurance. This is true whether you buy insurance via the Affordable Care Act (ACA) health insurance exchange in your state, sign up directly through the insurer, enroll in the plan that your employer offers, or sign up for Medicare.

Certain life events can trigger a special enrollment period, which will allow you to change your health insurance coverage outside of the normal enrollment period. These events include getting married or divorced, having a baby, losing your job-based health insurance, or moving out of your health plan’s service area.

What Does Private Health Insurance Cost?

In 2021, the average national cost for health insurance per year was $7,739 for single coverage and $22,221 for family coverage. However, this cost can vary considerably depending on your healthcare needs, the state where you live, and what level of coverage you require.

Where Can I Buy Private Health Insurance?

A good place to start looking for coverage is the Health Insurance Marketplace created in 2014 by the ACA. On the marketplace for your state, you can look through the details of private health insurance plans and compare the cost and benefits of each. If your state does not have its own marketplace, use HealthCare.gov.

The Bottom Line

Getting your own health insurance policy is not as easy as signing up for an employer’s plan, but at least you have control over the plan that you get. Once you figure out what you need and become familiar with the terminology used to describe health insurance plans, your research will become easier. With the number of options available, you can probably find a plan that meets both your needs and your budget.

Mon, 18 Jul 2022 19:11:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.investopedia.com/articles/pf/08/private-health-insurance.asp
Killexams : Information Systems

MSc PG Certificate PG Diploma

2022 start September 

Information School, Faculty of Social Sciences

Aimed at graduates from any discipline, this course will teach you to design and implement information systems and effective project management techniques alongside practical computing skills, including computer programming. The MSc and PG Diploma awards are CILIP accredited.

Course description

By the end of the course, you'll have an in-depth understanding of information systems within an organisational context, emphasising issues related to information, people, information technologies and the business environment. You'll have gained practical skills related to the design and analysis of information systems. Your knowledge and skills will be highly valued in industry, commerce and academia.

We have world-leading research groups in areas such as database systems, information retrieval, speech recognition, information extraction and information management. This means you'll not only gain knowledge of the well-established fundamentals, but also the most current and advanced theories and techniques.

The course focuses on core courses in information systems including information systems modelling, project management and the impact of information systems on organisations and society. These are complemented by practical skills in computer programming and the study of professional issues in computing.

You can then tailor the course to your own interests by choosing from more specialised courses including those with a more technical focus such as database design and human-computer interaction, or courses that focus on how information management can be used to benefit organisations through digital business and business intelligence.

If you have two or more years' relevant work experience in the information sector and wish to study for a higher degree, you may be interested in our Professional Enhancement programme. The programme is designed for people already in work who want to further their careers, and allows greater freedom in module choice in recognition of your existing expertise.

Accreditation

CILIP accredited for the MSc and PG Diploma awards

Modules

A selection of modules are available each year - some examples are below. There may be changes before you start your course. From May of the year of entry, formal programme regulations will be available in our Programme Regulations Finder.

You’ll need 180 credits to get a masters degree, with 75 credits from core modules, 45 credits from optional modules and a dissertation (including dissertation preparation) worth 60 credits.

Core modules:

Professional Issues

This module aims to promote an awareness of the wider social, legal and ethical issues of computing. It describes the relationship between technological change, society and the law, emphasising the powerful role that computers and computer professionals play in a technological society. It also introduces the legal areas which are specific and relevant to the discipline of computing (e.g., intellectual property, liability for defective software, computer misuse, etc) and aims to provide an understanding of ethical concepts that are important to computer professionals, and experience of considering ethical dilemmas.

15 credits
Information Systems Modelling

To consider the role of information modelling within the organisation and provide an appreciation of the rigorous methods that are needed to analyse, design, develop and maintain computer-based information systems. The course is intended to provide an introduction to information modelling techniques. Students gain experience in applying the wide range of systems analysis methods. Students cover courses including: soft systems analysis; structured systems analysis methodologies; business process modelling; data flow modelling and object-oriented approaches (e.g. RUP/UML).

15 credits
Information Systems in Organisations

This module integrates courses of organisation, management, and information systems, with an aim to offer the students an integrated set of concepts and tools for understanding information systems in organisations. During this module students will explore basic management and organisational theories and examine the impact of information systems on organisations. This course introduces key concepts which will be explored further in other modules on the information Management and Information Systems programmes.

15 credits
Information Systems Project Management

This module aims to provide a broad understanding of the fundamentals of project management as they apply to the development of Information Systems (IS). The module uses a flexible approach combining face-to-face seminars with web-based learning material. The module will begin with an overview of the principles involved in IS project management; followed by a discussion of IS development methodologies and their different characteristics and specialisms. The rest of the module will discuss the requirements for various project control activities, including estimating development resources, risk management, guidelines for system quality assurance, and various project control techniques that have been developed in exact years. The module will culminate with a review of human resource management issues.

15 credits
Information Systems and the Information Society

The module develops students' critical understanding of the impact of information and communication technologies (ICTs) on social change in 'the Information Society'. Work will revolve around three key themes: the digital divide, community and digital rights.

15 credits
Research Methods and Dissertation Preparation

This module assists students in the identification of, and preparation of a dissertation proposal. Students will: learn about: on-going research in the School; identify and prepare a dissertation proposal; carry out a preliminary literature search in the area of the dissertation research topic; and be introduced to the use of social research methods and statistics for information management.

15 credits
Dissertation

This module enables students to carry out an extended piece of work on an Information School approved topic, so that they can explore an area of specialist interest to them in greater depth. Students will be supported through tutorials with a project supervisor, will apply research methods appropriate to their topic, and implement their work-plan to produce an individual project report. Students will already have identified a suitable Topic and designed a project plan in the pre-requisite unit Research Methods and Dissertation Preparation.

45 credits

Optional modules - one from:

Foundations of Object Oriented Programming

This module introduces the foundations of object-oriented programming using the language Java. The emphasis of the module is on software engineering principles, and concepts underpinning object-oriented design and development are introduced from the outset. By the end of the module, you will be able to design, implement and test moderately complex Java programs.

15 credits
Introduction to Programming

This module introduces students with little or no programming experience to the general purpose programming language Python. Python is popular and easy to learn for developing a wide range of information systems applications. The skills and understandings required to program in Python are valued by organisations and transfer to most other programming languages.

15 credits

Optional modules - two from:

Digital Business

The module addresses both theoretical and practical aspects of digital business. The module will cover the latest business trends and business models adopted by ecommerce companies so that students are able to recognise and relate to the current practice in business.  The module aims to equip the students with theoretical and business knowledge and entrepreneurial skills to understand and manage new ways of doing business in the digital economy.

15 credits
Researching Social Media

The module will examine the key theoretical frameworks and methods used in social media studies. Students will explore the following questions: 1) What can be learnt about society by studying social media? 2) How should researchers construct ethical stances for researching sites such as Facebook and Twitter? 3) What are the traditional and digital research methods and tools that can be applied to conduct research on social media? 4) What are the strengths and weaknesses of these methods?

15 credits
Information Governance and Ethics

This module explores a) the emergence of information and data as an economic resource; b) the governance challenges and ethical issues arising from organizations' systematic capture, processing, and use of information and data for organizational goals, e.g. value, risk, accountability, ownership, privacy etc; c) governance, ethical, legal and other frameworks relevant to the capture, processing and use of information and data within organizational and networked contexts; and d) technologies and techniques used in the governing and governance of information and data. Case examples from a number of domains, e.g. business, government, health, law, and social media illustrate the courses investigated.

15 credits
Business Intelligence

We will cover the principles and practices of gathering and synthesizing business intelligence from the external environment, including organisations,  competitive intelligence operations, environmental scanning activities, market intelligence, and strategic intelligence using open source information. A  secondary focus for the module is the role of BI software in organizations to collect and analyse internal information. This module aims to provide students with an understanding of the ways in which business people use information and of how information is used to support strategic decision- making. Students will learn how to carry out effective searches using both free and fee-based resources, and will study key issues concerning the value, cost and availability of information. The module will concentrate primarily on external information resources but also covers the ways in which information internal to   an organisation can be used strategically to enhance competitive advantage. Students will learn through a combination of lectures and practical exercises, and  will have opportunities to develop expertise in using business-focused electronic information services.

15 credits
ICTs, Innovation and Change

This module aims at examining and exploring how organizations and human activity systems cope with change due to the new implementation or updating of Information Systems and Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). This change occurs in complex social environments and has cultural, political, structural and ethical impacts that need to be carefully managed. The module will examine and explore how both managers and Information Systems practitioners can be better prepared for the unpredictability, unintended outcomes and possible harmful consequences of change caused by the introduction or update of Information Systems and ICTs. Therefore, the module aims at providing an understanding of both approaches and techniques for the management of this change.

15 credits
Database Design

Effective data management is key to any organisation, particularly with the increasing availability of large and heterogeneous datasets (e.g. transactional, multimedia and geo-spatial data). A database is an organised collection of data, typically describing the activities of one or more organisations and a core component of modern information systems. A Database Management System (DBMS) is software designed to assist in maintaining and utilising large collections of data and becoming a necessity for all organisations. This module provides an introduction to the area of databases and database management, relational database design and a flavour of some advanced courses in current database research that deal with different kinds of data often found within an organisational context. Lectures are structured into three main areas:¿An introduction to databases¿The process of designing relational databases¿Advanced courses (e.g. data warehouses and non-relational databases)The course includes a series of online tasks with supporting 'drop in¿ laboratories aimed at providing you with the skills required to implement a database in Oracle and extract information using the Structured Query Language (SQL).

15 credits
User-Centred Design and Human-Computer Interaction

Interface design and usability are central to the experience of interacting with computers. The module introduces usability principles and the design process for interactive systems exploring four major themes. Firstly, user psychology and cognitive principles underlying interface design. Secondly, user interface architectures, modes of interaction, metaphors, navigational structures. Thirdly, the user interface design process including task analysis, modelling constructs and prototyping techniques. Fourthly, the evaluation of user interfaces covering concepts of usability, goals and types of evaluation. The module focus is on the underlying principles of HCI and user-centred design approach with practical sessions to demonstrate these principles.

15 credits

Other courses:

Postgraduate Certificate requires a total of 60 credits
Postgraduate Diploma requires a total of 120 credits

The content of our courses is reviewed annually to make sure it's up-to-date and relevant. Individual modules are occasionally updated or withdrawn. This is in response to discoveries through our world-leading research; funding changes; professional accreditation requirements; student or employer feedback; outcomes of reviews; and variations in staff or student numbers. In the event of any change we'll consult and inform students in good time and take reasonable steps to minimise disruption. We are no longer offering unrestricted module choice. If your course included unrestricted modules, your department will provide a list of modules from their own and other subject areas that you can choose from.

Open days

An open day gives you the best opportunity to hear first-hand from our current students and staff about our courses. You'll find out what makes us special.

Upcoming open days and campus tours

Duration

  • 1 year full-time
  • 2 years part-time
  • 3 years part-time

Teaching

A variety of teaching methods are used, combining lectures from academic staff and professional practitioners with seminars, tutorials, small-group work and computer laboratory sessions. There is strong emphasis on problem-solving and individual aspects of learning, with the expectation that you will engage in independent study, memorizing and research in support of your coursework.

Teaching consists of two 15-week semesters, after which you will write your dissertation.

Assessment

Assessments vary depending on the modules you choose but may include essays, report writing, oral presentations, in-class tests and group projects.

There is also a dissertation of 10–15,000 words, which provides the opportunity, under one-to-one supervision, to focus in depth on a Topic of your choice. You may choose to carry out your dissertation with an external organisation, for instance if you are a Professional Enhancement student, your project could be directly related to your own work situation. In the past, students who have carried out such dissertations have welcomed the opportunity to tackle real-life problems.

Your career

After completing the course, you'll be equipped to pursue a variety of roles across a wide range of industries. Our students have found work as business or data analysts, IT business consultants, information systems managers and in enterprise architecture.

Department

The University of Sheffield Information School is ranked number one in the world for library and information management in the QS World University Rankings by subject 2021. These rankings are based upon academic reputation, employer reputation and research impact.

The school has been at the forefront of developments in the information field for more than fifty years. The subject is characterised by its distinctive, interdisciplinary focus on the interactions between people, information and digital technologies. It has the ultimate goal of enhancing information access, and the management, sharing and use of information, to benefit society.

When you come to study with us you'll be an integral part of our research culture. The school is your home and we pride ourselves on the friendliness and helpfulness of our staff.

We offer an outstanding academic education through a wide range of taught postgraduate degrees which embed the principles of research-led teaching.

When you join any of our degree programmes you'll develop a critical understanding of current issues in library and information management. You'll benefit from being taught by staff who are undertaking leading-edge research and who have many links with industry.

As part of our mission to provide world-quality university education in information, we aim to inspire and help you pursue your highest ambitions for your academic and professional careers.

Entry requirements

Main course

You’ll need at least a 2:1 in any subject. Relevant work experience is an advantage but we’ll provide consideration to candidates without experience.

Professional Enhancement

This is a different route to the main course. It's aimed at those who already have relevant work experience.

To apply for this course you need either:

  • an undergraduate degree in any subject discipline and at least 2 years' relevant work experience.
  • an undergraduate degree in any subject together with an acceptable relevant professional qualification and at least 2 years' relevant work experience.
  • an undergraduate degree in any subject area, and at least 5 years' relevant work experience.

If you do not have an undergraduate degree but have other qualifications and substantial relevant work experience you may be considered for entry onto the Postgraduate Certificate or Diploma courses.

Overall IELTS score of 6.5, with a minimum of 6.0 in each component.

Pathway programme for international students

If you're an international student who does not meet the entry requirements for this course, you have the opportunity to apply for a pre-masters programme in Business, Social Sciences and Humanities at the University of Sheffield International College. This course is designed to develop your English language and academic skills. Upon successful completion, you can progress to degree level study at the University of Sheffield.

If you have any questions about entry requirements, please contact the department.

Apply

You can apply for postgraduate study using our Postgraduate Online Application Form. It's a quick and easy process.

Applications close on Friday 5 August 2022 at 5pm.

Apply now

Any supervisors and research areas listed are indicative and may change before the start of the course.

Our student protection plan

Recognition of professional qualifications: from 1 January 2021, in order to have any UK professional qualifications recognised for work in an EU country across a number of regulated and other professions you need to apply to the host country for recognition. Read information from the UK government and the EU Regulated Professions Database.

Thu, 01 Oct 2020 03:20:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.sheffield.ac.uk/postgraduate/taught/courses/2022/information-systems-msc-pg-certificate-pg-diploma
Killexams : Manufacturing PMI Falls to 25-Month Low

The latest industrial economic red flag appeared on Aug. 1 when the Institute for Supply Management released its monthly manufacturing Purchasing Managers Index (PMI) — widely regarded as a reliable barometer for the health of the U.S. industrial sector.

ISM’s July PMI showed a figure of 52.8% — its lowest mark since June 2020’s 52.4% during the height of nationwide factory shutdowns amid the worst of COVID-19’s business impacts. July’s memorizing was 0.2 percentage down points from June.

For the index, any memorizing above 50.0% indicates expansion, while anything less indicates contraction. July’s memorizing shows that while the industrial economy expanded for a 26th consecutive month, it was at its slowest pace since that mid-2020 mark.

Within the PMI, indices for new orders, production, prices, backlog and supplier deliveries all saw month-to-month declines. The New Orders Index fell 1.2 points to 48.0%; the Production Index fell 1.4 points to 53.5; the Prices Index fell a whopping 18.5 points 60.0% — its lowest memorizing since August 2020’s 59.5%; The Backlog of Orders Index fell 1.9 points to 51.3%; and the supplier Deliveries Index fell 2.1 points to 55.2%.

Indices for employment, inventories, customer inventories, new export orders and imports each saw a month-to-month increase in July. The index for Employment improved 2.6 points to 49.9%; the Inventories Index increased 1.3 points to 57.3%; the Customer Inventories Index increased 4.3 points to 39.5%; the New Export Orders Index gained 1.9 points to 52.6%; and the Imports Index grew 3.7 points to 54.4%.

“The U.S. manufacturing sector continues expanding — though slightly less so in July — as new order rates continue to contract, supplier deliveries Excellerate and prices soften to acceptable levels,” commented Timothy Fiore, CPSM, C.P.M., Chair of the ISM Manufacturing Business Survey Committee.

Related Posts

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  • Manufacturing technology orders for the month totaled $436.6 million, according to the latest U.S. Manufacturing…

Tue, 02 Aug 2022 02:02:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.mdm.com/news/research/economic-trends/manufacturing-pmi-falls-to-25-month-low/
Killexams : Women are Catalysts For Citizen Development and Corporate Prosperity In Nigeria, Says PMI

The embracing of citizen developers by the IT industry could herald significant changes to the development of Nigeria’s digital future. But will this future involve more women? Joanna Baidu,

Sub Saharan Africa Youth Lead at PMI, says citizen development could well be the opportunity to attract more women to use their experience and build applications through cloud-based,

low-code, no code platforms.

One of the reasons the International Girls in ICT Day was conceived was to draw attention to the critical need for more inclusivity in the tech sector. The gender disparity in the ICT workforce

is glaring all over the world. Hence, this year the focus is on creating safe and reliable access to the internet and digital tools for women.

Inclusion in the tech sector has been a long-standing conversation, generating varied opinions and perspectives.

It will take employers’ eagerness to develop both grassroots and in-house

technical skills of women and men to fill the existing gaps in the sector.

Male dominance in the Nigerian tech sector is evident from the underrepresentation of women

in the top ranks. Of the 93 tech firms surveyed by the ONE Campaign and the Center for Global Development, only six had a woman in a top management position. 

Worse still, more than one-third of the surveyed tech firms employed no women.

Furthermore, a youth survey by the National Bureau of Statistics, reports that young men are almost twice as likely to have a career in computer science and technology-related fields as

women in Nigeria.

According to the National Bureau of Statistics, in Nigeria, women make up on average just 22% of the total number of Engineering and Technology university graduates each year. According to

the same source, women make up roughly a fifth of people working in the information and communication technology sector.

Project Management Institute (PMI) believes that structured citizen development programmes

that open the IT development field to everyone, including women, will help companies drive inclusivity. The introduction of citizen development can help bridge the talent gap and accelerate

digital transformation in Nigeria because everyone can contribute to tech solutions without necessarily learning to code.

On the back of connected devices, the citizen development movement has spurred innovation in software development. The low code, no code tech that anyone can use has companies turning to it for fast app development and deployment. Moreover, the arrival of citizen developers has alleviated the pressure on IT departments, leaving people with more formal IT qualifications to focus on mission-critical and core programming.

Encouraging employee participation in technology development must not come at the cost of security lapses, data breaches, and governance risks. Citizen development efforts must comply with security standards and be guided by a governance strategy that sets requirements for secure applications to be created outside the IT function.

“On the positive side, more technically aware and enabled people in the workplace will undoubtedly contribute to reinforced awareness and safer operational procedures. This means

that organisations can capitalise on employee knowledge about company needs to produce

enhanced outputs,” says Baidu.

The potential for well-governed, corporate-driven citizen development is unlimited. Helping women develop new skills and reducing traditional gender gaps through structured citizen development programmes can advance a company’s market performance and profitability.

“Technology is an increasingly important part of our daily lives. Movements like citizen development must be supported and fostered across organisations and educational institutions, so women and girls get an early start. The prospect of artificial intelligence having the same gender biases as humans can turn into a reality if we don’t encourage more inclusivity in ICT,” concludes Baidu.

To meet the demand for citizen development training, PMI has introduced the PMI Citizen

Developer suite which offers several opportunities for safe, effective development of

programmes. 

They are:

● The PMI Citizen Developer™ Foundation online course. This e-learning training programme

introduces governance around citizen development and outlines best practices in citizen development methodologies.

● The PMI Citizen Developer™ Practitioner online course provides professionals with the tools

and methodologies to manage projects involving low-code and no-code platforms to solve

the problems organisations face.

● The PMI Citizen Developer™ Partner programme is an exclusive global ecosystem of low-code/no-code vendors and delivery organisations. It provides partners with the opportunity to become powered by PMI, by achieving and showcasing the PMI Stamp of Approval. 

It demonstrates that they are aligned with PMI’s global vendor-agnostic standards, guardrails, and best practices. With three partner tiers to choose from, there are options designed to meet the needs of any organisation.

● The Handbook for Creators and Changemakers is a centralised resource that assists

individuals and enterprises in understanding best practices for implementing citizen

development at scale within an organisation.

Thu, 07 Jul 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.thisdaylive.com/index.php/2022/05/20/women-are-catalysts-for-citizen-development-and-corporate-prosperity-in-nigeria-says-pmi/
Killexams : Services PMI® at 56.7%; July 2022 Services ISM® Report On Business®

Business Activity Index at 59.9%; New Orders Index at 59.9%; Employment Index at 49.1%; supplier Deliveries Index at 57.8%

TEMPE, Ariz., Aug. 3, 2022 /PRNewswire/ -- Economic activity in the services sector grew in July for the 26th month in a row — with the Services PMI® registering 56.7 percent — say the nation's purchasing and supply executives in the latest Services ISM® Report On Business®.

The report was issued today by Anthony Nieves, CPSM, C.P.M., A.P.P., CFPM, Chair of the Institute for Supply Management® (ISM®) Services Business Survey Committee: "In July, the Services PMI® registered 56.7 percent, 1.4 percentage points higher than June's memorizing of 55.3 percent. The Business Activity Index registered 59.9 percent, an increase of 3.8 percentage points compared to the memorizing of 56.1 percent in June. The New Orders Index figure of 59.9 percent is 4.3 percentage points higher than the June memorizing of 55.6 percent.

"The supplier Deliveries Index registered 57.8 percent, 4.1 percentage points lower than the 61.9 percent reported in June. (Supplier Deliveries is the only ISM® Report On Business® index that is inversed; a memorizing of above 50 percent indicates slower deliveries, which is typical as the economy improves and customer demand increases.)

"The Prices Index decreased for the third consecutive month in July, down 7.8 percentage points to 72.3 percent. Services businesses continue to struggle to replenish inventories, as the Inventories Index contracted for the second consecutive month; the memorizing of 45 percent is down 2.5 percentage points from June's figure of 47.5 percent. The Inventory Sentiment Index (50.1 percent, up 3.9 percentage points from June's memorizing of 46.2 percent) moved into expansion territory in July after four consecutive months of contraction."

Nieves continues, "According to the Services PMI®, 13 industries reported growth. The composite index indicated growth for the 26th consecutive month after a two-month contraction in April and May 2020. Growth continues — at a faster rate — for the services sector, which has expanded for all but two of the last 150 months. The slight increase in services sector growth was due to an increase in business activity and new orders. The Employment Index (49.1 percent) contracted for the second consecutive month, and the Backlog of Orders Index decreased 2.2 percentage points, to 58.3 percent. Availability issues with overland trucking, a restricted labor pool, various material shortages and inflation continue to be impediments for the services sector."

INDUSTRY PERFORMANCE
The 13 services industries reporting growth in July — listed in order — are: Mining; Real Estate, Rental & Leasing; Public Administration; Management of Companies & Support Services; Construction; Educational Services; Other Services; Utilities; Professional, Scientific & Technical Services; Health Care & Social Assistance; Transportation & Warehousing; Wholesale Trade; and Information. The three industries reporting a decrease in the month of July are: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing & Hunting; Retail Trade; and Finance & Insurance.

WHAT RESPONDENTS ARE SAYING

  • "Restaurant sales have softened the past few weeks (due to) post-holiday and seasonality factors, but we're also hearing because of consumer pressures, particularly fuel and food prices. Staffing remains a challenge in some markets. Many of our locations in (Los Angeles County) received news that there could be a return to (indoor) mask mandates." [Accommodation & Food Services]

  • "Interest rates have significantly impacted the homebuilding market. Cancellation rates have increased, as homebuyers can no longer afford the monthly payment. Traffic to our communities is down. Inflation has sidelined many would-be buyers." [Construction]

  • "Strengthening market overall and signs of improvement. Increased prices putting a strain on fixed budgets. There has been a shift from driving down costs to securing continuity of supply. Higher education is growing, with an increase in applicants." [Educational Services]

  • "Business continues to remain below pre-pandemic levels. (Patient) census and visits have increased but seem to have plateaued in the last six-month period." [Health Care & Social Assistance]

  • "Can feel the economy weakening. Clients are making appropriate moves in anticipation of a recession." [Management of Companies & Support Services]

  • "Hiring demand remains robust in most industry sectors. Tech has had a slowdown in hiring and layoffs. It's still a candidate's market, as the number of job openings across all skill levels and positions remains far greater than the number of candidates for those roles." [Professional, Scientific & Technical Services]

  • "Rising costs across the board seems to be the big focus now. Fuel and food are the most common focus but it is across the board, and there is pressure of a job market shortage for qualified workers to increase wages and other benefits." [Public Administration]

  • "(We are) in inventory reduction mode, attempting to match inventory levels to current lower sales trends." [Retail Trade]

  • "Holding steady, but some headwinds are definitely ahead on the economic front. However, supply chain issues appear to be easing, though still not great." [Utilities]

  • "Food service remains strong. Retail is softening as mass is overly concerned about inventory and consumer spending." [Wholesale Trade]

ISM® SERVICES SURVEY RESULTS AT A GLANCE

COMPARISON OF ISM® SERVICES AND ISM® MANUFACTURING SURVEYS

JULY 2022

Index

 Services PMI®

Manufacturing PMI®

Series
Index

Jul

Series
Index

Jun

Percent
Point
Change

 

 

Direction

 

Rate of
Change

 

Trend*

(Months)

Series
Index

Jul

Series
Index

Jun

Percent
Point
Change

Services PMI®

56.7

55.3

+1.4

Growing

Faster

26

52.8

53.0

-0.2

Business Activity/

Production

59.9

56.1

+3.8

Growing

Faster

26

53.5

54.9

-1.4

New Orders

59.9

55.6

+4.3

Growing

Faster

26

48.0

49.2

-1.2

Employment

49.1

47.4

+1.7

Contracting

Slower

2

49.9

47.3

+2.6

Supplier Deliveries

57.8

61.9

-4.1

Slowing

Slower

38

55.2

57.3

-2.1

Inventories

45.0

47.5

-2.5

Contracting

Faster

2

57.3

56.0

+1.3

Prices

72.3

80.1

-7.8

Increasing

Slower

62

60.0

78.5

-18.5

Backlog of Orders

58.3

60.5

-2.2

Growing

Slower

19

51.3

53.2

-1.9

New Export Orders

59.5

57.5

+2.0

Growing

Faster

6

52.6

50.7

+1.9

Imports

48.0

46.3

+1.7

Contracting

Slower

2

54.4

50.7

+3.7

Inventory Sentiment

50.1

46.2

+3.9

Too High

From

Too Low

1

N/A

N/A

N/A

Customers' Inventories

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

39.5

35.2

+4.3

OVERALL ECONOMY

Growing

Faster

26

Services Sector

Growing

Faster

26

Services ISM® Report On Business® data is seasonally adjusted for the Business Activity, New Orders, Employment and Prices indexes. Manufacturing ISM® Report On Business® data is seasonally adjusted for New Orders, Production, Employment and Inventories indexes.
*Number of months moving in current direction.

COMMODITIES REPORTED UP/DOWN IN PRICE, AND IN SHORT SUPPLY

Commodities Up in Price
Aluminum Products* (8); Chemicals (4); Coated Freesheet; Computer Accessories; Diesel Fuel (20); Eggs; Electrical Components (18); Fuel* (19); Freight Rates; Gasoline (20); Hotel Rates (3); Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Equipment; Labor (20); Labor — Contingent; Medical Supplies; Steel Products (19); Transformers (2); Transportation Costs; Travel (3); and Utilities.

Commodities Down in Price
Aluminum Products*; Copper Wires; Fuel*; Lumber (2); Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Conduit; and Steel.

Commodities in Short Supply
Appliances (5); Coated Freesheet; Computer Hardware; Electrical Components (4); Food and Beverages; Labor (12); Masks; Microchips (3); Needles and Syringes (7); Paper Products (5); Resin Based Products; Transformers (3); and Vehicles.

Note: The number of consecutive months the commodity is listed is indicated after each item. *Indicates both up and down in price.

JULY 2022 SERVICES INDEX SUMMARIES

Services PMI®
In July, the Services PMI® registered 56.7 percent, a 1.4-percentage point increase compared to the June memorizing of 55.3 percent. The 12-month average is 60.2 percent, reflecting consistently strong growth in the services sector, which has expanded for 26 consecutive months. A memorizing above 50 percent indicates the services sector economy is generally expanding; below 50 percent indicates the services sector is generally contracting.

A Services PMI® above 50.1 percent, over time, generally indicates an expansion of the overall economy. Therefore, the July Services PMI® indicates the overall economy has followed the same path as the services sector: expansion for 26 straight months following two months of contraction and a preceding period of 122 months of growth. Nieves says, "The past relationship between the Services PMI® and the overall economy indicates that the Services PMI® for July (56.7 percent) corresponds to a 2.4-percent increase in real gross domestic product (GDP) on an annualized basis."

SERVICES PMI® HISTORY

Month

Services PMI®

Month

Services PMI®

Jul 2022

56.7

Jan 2022

59.9

Jun 2022

55.3

Dec 2021

62.3

May 2022

55.9

Nov 2021

68.4

Apr 2022

57.1

Oct 2021

66.7

Mar 2022

58.3

Sep 2021

62.6

Feb 2022

56.5

Aug 2021

62.2

Average for 12 months – 60.2

High – 68.4

Low – 55.3

Business Activity
ISM®'s Business Activity Index registered 59.9 percent in July, an increase of 3.8 percentage points from the memorizing of 56.1 percent in June, indicating growth for the 26th consecutive month. Comments from respondents include: "With a new fiscal year starting on July 1, an uptick in demand of goods and services" and "Seeing more critical material come in, which allowed us to work on more projects."

The 13 industries reporting an increase in business activity for the month of July — listed in order — are: Mining; Real Estate, Rental & Leasing; Educational Services; Public Administration; Management of Companies & Support Services; Utilities; Construction; Other Services; Professional, Scientific & Technical Services; Health Care & Social Assistance; Wholesale Trade; Transportation & Warehousing; and Information. The four industries reporting a decrease in business activity for the month of July are: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing & Hunting; Accommodation & Food Services; Retail Trade; and Finance & Insurance.

Business Activity

%Higher

%Same

%Lower

Index

Jul 2022

32.9

55.7

11.4

59.9

Jun 2022

27.0

60.5

12.5

56.1

May 2022

27.1

59.6

13.3

54.5

Apr 2022

37.8

55.7

6.5

59.1

New Orders
ISM®'s New Orders Index registered 59.9 percent, up 4.3 percentage points from the June memorizing of 55.6 percent. New orders grew for the 26th consecutive month after two months of contraction and a preceding period of 128 months of expansion. Comments from respondents include: "Requests for new business" and "Moderate volume increases over the previous month."

Eleven industries reported growth of new orders in July, in the following order: Real Estate, Rental & Leasing; Mining; Educational Services; Public Administration; Transportation & Warehousing; Other Services; Utilities; Management of Companies & Support Services; Construction; Professional, Scientific & Technical Services; and Health Care & Social Assistance. The five industries reporting a decrease in new orders in July are: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing & Hunting; Accommodation & Food Services; Retail Trade; Information; and Wholesale Trade.

New Orders

%Higher

%Same

%Lower

Index

Jul 2022

32.8

54.4

12.8

59.9

Jun 2022

28.3

57.7

14.0

55.6

May 2022

31.2

54.7

14.1

57.6

Apr 2022

32.9

55.6

11.5

54.6

Employment
Employment activity in the services sector contracted in July for the fourth time in the last six months. ISM®'s Employment Index registered 49.1 percent, up 1.7 percentage points from the June memorizing of 47.4 percent. Comments from respondents include: "Employee turnover, backfills taking longer to locate and onboard" and "Difficulties hiring new candidates as we lose more people who retire or leave the company for new opportunities."

The eight industries reporting an increase in employment in July — listed in order — are: Mining; Construction; Accommodation & Food Services; Other Services; Management of Companies & Support Services; Public Administration; Professional, Scientific & Technical Services; and Wholesale Trade. The seven industries reporting a decrease in employment in July — listed in order — are: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing & Hunting; Finance & Insurance; Educational Services; Transportation & Warehousing; Real Estate, Rental & Leasing; Utilities; and Health Care & Social Assistance.

Employment

%Higher

%Same

%Lower

Index

Jul 2022

24.2

51.7

24.1

49.1

Jun 2022

20.4

60.1

19.5

47.4

May 2022

26.1

51.2

22.7

50.2

Apr 2022

24.6

52.3

23.1

49.5

Supplier Deliveries
The supplier Deliveries Index registered 57.8 percent, down 4.1 percentage points from the 61.9 percent registered in June. A memorizing above 50 percent indicates slower deliveries, while a memorizing below 50 percent indicates faster deliveries. Comments from respondents include: "Lack of drivers for delivery companies due to labor shortages" and "Global supply issues are causing uncertainty on when and how many products will arrive."

The 14 industries reporting slower deliveries in July — listed in order — are: Mining; Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing & Hunting; Finance & Insurance; Accommodation & Food Services; Educational Services; Construction; Utilities; Health Care & Social Assistance; Management of Companies & Support Services; Real Estate, Rental & Leasing; Public Administration; Professional, Scientific & Technical Services; Transportation & Warehousing; and Information. No industry reported faster deliveries in July.

Supplier Deliveries

%Slower

%Same

%Faster

Index

Jul 2022

25.2

65.2

9.6

57.8

Jun 2022

28.8

66.2

5.0

61.9

May 2022

27.4

67.7

4.9

61.3

Apr 2022

34.0

62.2

3.8

65.1

Inventories
The Inventories Index contracted in July for the second consecutive month after four straight months of growth preceded by an eight-month period of contraction. The memorizing of 45 percent was a 2.5-percentage point decrease from the 47.5 percent reported in June. Of the total respondents in July, 41 percent indicated they do not have inventories or do not measure them. Comments from respondents include: "Long lead times have consumed safety stock" and "Inventories are still lower than desired due to supply chain issues."

The seven industries reporting an increase in inventories in July — listed in order — are: Mining; Utilities; Wholesale Trade; Educational Services; Transportation & Warehousing; Public Administration; and Professional, Scientific & Technical Services. The 10 industries reporting a decrease in inventories in July — listed in order — are: Arts, Entertainment & Recreation; Retail Trade; Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing & Hunting; Other Services; Real Estate, Rental & Leasing; Management of Companies & Support Services; Finance & Insurance; Health Care & Social Assistance; Construction; and Information.

Inventories

%Higher

%Same

%Lower

Index

Jul 2022

15.1

59.7

25.2

45.0

Jun 2022

20.2

54.7

25.1

47.5

May 2022

24.7

52.7

22.6

51.0

Apr 2022

22.4

59.7

17.9

52.3

Prices
Prices paid by services organizations for materials and services increased in July for the 62nd consecutive month, with the index registering 72.3 percent, 7.8 percentage points lower than the 80.1 percent recorded in June. This is the first Prices Index memorizing below 80 percent since September 2021 and its steepest month-over-month decrease since an 8.7-percentage point drop in May 2017.

Sixteen services industries reported an increase in prices paid during the month of July, in the following order: Mining; Public Administration; Information; Accommodation & Food Services; Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing & Hunting; Educational Services; Finance & Insurance; Management of Companies & Support Services; Professional, Scientific & Technical Services; Real Estate, Rental & Leasing; Transportation & Warehousing; Construction; Health Care & Social Assistance; Other Services; Utilities; and Wholesale Trade. No industry reported a decrease in prices in July.

Prices

%Higher

%Same

%Lower

Index

Jul 2022

54.0

39.7

6.3

72.3

Jun 2022

66.1

32.2

1.7

80.1

May 2022

72.2

26.8

1.0

82.1

Apr 2022

75.4

24.4

0.2

84.6

NOTE: Commodities reported as up in price and down in price are listed in the commodities section of this report.

Backlog of Orders
The ISM® Services Backlog of Orders Index grew in July for the 19th consecutive month. The index registered 58.3 percent, a 2.2-percentage point decrease compared to the June memorizing of 60.5 percent. Of the total respondents in July, 40 percent indicated they do not measure backlog of orders. Respondent comments include: "Delays caused by long lead times for components" and "Higher backlog than previous month as suppliers try to keep up with orders and slowing deliveries."

The nine industries reporting an increase in order backlogs in July — listed in order — are: Accommodation & Food Services; Real Estate, Rental & Leasing; Other Services; Public Administration; Utilities; Educational Services; Retail Trade; Professional, Scientific & Technical Services; and Health Care & Social Assistance. The five industries reporting a decrease in order backlogs in July are: Arts, Entertainment & Recreation; Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing & Hunting; Finance & Insurance; Construction; and Wholesale Trade.

Backlog of Orders

%Higher

%Same

%Lower

Index

Jul 2022

31.3

53.9

14.8

58.3

Jun 2022

32.0

57.1

10.9

60.5

May 2022

17.4

69.2

13.4

52.0

Apr 2022

26.4

66.1

7.5

59.4

New Export Orders
Orders and requests for services and other non-manufacturing activities to be provided outside of the U.S. by domestically based companies grew in July for the sixth consecutive month. The New Export Orders Index registered 59.5 percent, a 2-percentage point increase from the 57.5 percent reported in June. Of the total respondents in July, 79 percent indicated they do not perform, or do not separately measure, orders for work outside of the U.S.

The six industries reporting an increase in new export orders in July — listed in order — are: Accommodation & Food Services; Mining; Real Estate, Rental & Leasing; Construction; Utilities; and Educational Services. Six industries reported a decrease in new export orders in July, in the following order: Arts, Entertainment & Recreation; Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing & Hunting; Information; Transportation & Warehousing; Wholesale Trade; and Professional, Scientific & Technical Services. Six industries indicated no change in new export orders in July.

New Export Orders

%Higher

%Same

%Lower

Index

Jul 2022

24.3

70.4

5.3

59.5

Jun 2022

19.9

75.3

4.8

57.5

May 2022

27.1

67.6

5.3

60.9

Apr 2022

22.4

71.4

6.2

58.1

Imports
The Imports Index contracted in July for the second consecutive month, registering 48 percent, up 1.7 percentage points from June's memorizing of 46.3 percent. Eighty percent of respondents reported that they do not use, or do not track the use of, imported materials.

The seven industries reporting an increase in imports for the month of July — listed in order — are: Mining; Information; Transportation & Warehousing; Educational Services; Utilities; Wholesale Trade; and Health Care & Social Assistance. The five industries that reported a decrease in imports in July are: Arts, Entertainment & Recreation; Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing & Hunting; Real Estate, Rental & Leasing; Other Services; and Accommodation & Food Services. Six industries reported no change in imports in July.

Imports

%Higher

%Same

%Lower

Index

Jul 2022

8.4

79.0

12.6

48.0

Jun 2022

7.0

78.6

14.4

46.3

May 2022

14.1

77.6

8.3

52.8

Apr 2022

13.6

78.6

7.8

52.9

Inventory Sentiment
The ISM® Services Inventory Sentiment Index grew in July after four previous months of contraction, registering 50.1 percent, a 3.9-percentage point increase from June's figure of 46.2 percent. This memorizing indicates that respondents feel their inventories are slightly high when correlated to business activity levels.

The five industries reporting sentiment that their inventories were too high in July are: Retail Trade; Health Care & Social Assistance; Information; Wholesale Trade; and Utilities. The six industries reporting a feeling that their inventories were too low in July — listed in order — are: Accommodation & Food Services; Management of Companies & Support Services; Educational Services; Real Estate, Rental & Leasing; Professional, Scientific & Technical Services; and Construction. Six industries reported no change in July.

Inventory Sentiment

%Too

High

%About Right

%Too

Low

Index

Jul 2022

23.4

53.5

23.1

50.1

Jun 2022

19.4

53.6

27.0

46.2

May 2022

21.7

45.6

32.7

44.5

Apr 2022

21.0

51.4

27.6

46.7

About This Report
DO NOT CONFUSE THIS NATIONAL REPORT with the various regional purchasing reports released across the country. The national report's information reflects the entire U.S., while the regional reports contain primarily regional data from their local vicinities. Also, the information in the regional reports is not used in calculating the results of the national report. The information compiled in this report is for the month of July 2022.

The data presented herein is obtained from a survey of supply executives in the services sector based on information they have collected within their respective organizations. ISM® makes no representation, other than that stated within this release, regarding the individual company data collection procedures. The data should be compared to all other economic data sources when used in decision-making.

Data and Method of Presentation
The Services ISM® Report On Business® (formerly the Non-Manufacturing ISM® Report On Business®) is based on data compiled from purchasing and supply executives nationwide. Membership of the Services Business Survey Committee (formerly Non-Manufacturing Business Survey Committee) is diversified by NAICS, based on each industry's contribution to gross domestic product (GDP). The Services Business Survey Committee responses are divided into the following NAICS code categories: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing & Hunting; Mining; Utilities; Construction; Wholesale Trade; Retail Trade; Transportation & Warehousing; Information; Finance & Insurance; Real Estate, Rental & Leasing; Professional, Scientific & Technical Services; Management of Companies & Support Services; Educational Services; Health Care & Social Assistance; Arts, Entertainment & Recreation; Accommodation & Food Services; Public Administration; and Other Services (services such as Equipment & Machinery Repairing; Promoting or Administering Religious Activities; Grantmaking; Advocacy; and Providing Dry-Cleaning & Laundry Services, Personal Care Services, Death Care Services, Pet Care Services, Photofinishing Services, Temporary Parking Services, and Dating Services). The data are weighted based on each industry's contribution to GDP. According to the BEA estimates for 2020 GDP (released December 22, 2021), the six largest services sectors are: Real Estate, Rental & Leasing; Government; Professional, Scientific, & Technical Services; Health Care & Social Assistance; Information; and Finance & Insurance. Beginning in February 2020 with January 2020 data, computation of the indexes is accomplished utilizing unrounded numbers.

Survey responses reflect the change, if any, in the current month compared to the previous month. For each of the indicators measured (Business Activity, New Orders, Backlog of Orders, New Export Orders, Inventory Change, Inventory Sentiment, Imports, Prices, Employment and supplier Deliveries), this report shows the percentage reporting each response and the diffusion index. Responses represent raw data and are never changed. Data is seasonally adjusted for Business Activity, New Orders, Prices and Employment. All seasonal adjustment factors are subject annually to relatively minor changes when conditions warrant them. The remaining indexes have not indicated significant seasonality.

The Services PMI® is a composite index based on the diffusion indexes for four of the indicators with equal weights: Business Activity (seasonally adjusted), New Orders (seasonally adjusted), Employment (seasonally adjusted) and supplier Deliveries. Diffusion indexes have the properties of leading indicators and are convenient summary measures showing the prevailing direction of change and the scope of change. An index memorizing above 50 percent indicates that the services economy is generally expanding; below 50 percent indicates that it is generally declining. supplier Deliveries is an exception. A supplier Deliveries Index above 50 percent indicates slower deliveries and below 50 percent indicates faster deliveries.

A Services PMI® above 50.1 percent, over time, indicates that the overall economy, or gross domestic product (GDP), is generally expanding; below 50.1 percent, it is generally declining. The distance from 50 percent or 50.1 percent is indicative of the strength of the expansion or decline.

The Services ISM® Report On Business® survey is sent out to Services Business Survey Committee respondents the first part of each month. Respondents are asked to ONLY report on U.S. operations for the current month. ISM® receives survey responses throughout most of any given month, with the majority of respondents generally waiting until late in the month to submit responses to provide the most accurate picture of current business activity. ISM® then compiles the report for release on the third business day of the following month.

The industries reporting growth, as indicated in the Services ISM® Report On Business® monthly report, are listed in the order of most growth to least growth. For the industries reporting contraction or decreases, those are listed in the order of the highest level of contraction/decrease to the least level of contraction/decrease.

ISM ROB Content
The Institute for Supply Management® ("ISM") Report On Business® (Manufacturing, Services and Hospital reports) ("ISM ROB") contains information, text, files, images, video, sounds, musical works, works of authorship, applications, and any other materials or content (collectively, "Content") of ISM ("ISM ROB Content"). ISM ROB Content is protected by copyright, trademark, trade secret, and other laws, and as between you and ISM, ISM owns and retains all rights in the ISM ROB Content. ISM hereby grants you a limited, revocable, nonsublicensable license to access and display on your individual device the ISM ROB Content (excluding any software code) solely for your personal, non-commercial use. The ISM ROB Content shall also contain Content of users and other ISM licensors. Except as provided herein or as explicitly allowed in writing by ISM, you shall not copy, download, stream, capture, reproduce, duplicate, archive, upload, modify, translate, publish, broadcast, transmit, retransmit, distribute, perform, display, sell, or otherwise use any ISM ROB Content.

Except as explicitly and expressly permitted by ISM, you are strictly prohibited from creating works or materials (including, but not limited to: tables, charts, data streams, time-series variables, fonts, icons, link buttons, wallpaper, desktop themes, online postcards, montages, mashups and similar videos, greeting cards, and unlicensed merchandise) that derive from or are based on the ISM ROB Content. This prohibition applies regardless of whether the derivative works or materials are sold, bartered, or given away. You shall not either directly or through the use of any device, software, internet site, web-based service, or other means remove, alter, bypass, avoid, interfere with, or circumvent any copyright, trademark, or other proprietary notices marked on the Content or any digital rights management mechanism, device, or other content protection or access control measure associated with the Content including geo-filtering mechanisms. Without prior written authorization from ISM, you shall not build a business utilizing the Content, whether or not for profit.

You shall not create, recreate, distribute, incorporate in other work, or advertise an index of any portion of the Content unless you receive prior written authorization from ISM. Requests for permission to reproduce or distribute ISM ROB Content can be made by contacting in writing at: ISM Research, Institute for Supply Management, 309 W. Elliot Road, Suite 113, Tempe, AZ 85284-1556, or by emailing kcahill@ismworld.org; subject: Content Request.

ISM shall not have any liability, duty, or obligation for or relating to the ISM ROB Content or other information contained herein, any errors, inaccuracies, omissions or delays in providing any ISM ROB Content, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. In no event shall ISM be liable for any special, incidental, or consequential damages, arising out of the use of the ISM ROB. Report On Business®, Manufacturing PMI®, Services PMI®, and Hospital PMI® are registered trademarks of Institute for Supply Management®. Institute for Supply Management® and ISM® are registered trademarks of Institute for Supply Management, Inc.

About Institute for Supply Management®
Institute for Supply Management® (ISM®) serves supply management professionals in more than 90 countries. Its 50,000 members around the world manage about US$1 trillion in corporate and government supply chain procurement annually. Founded in 1915 as the first supply management institute in the world, ISM is committed to advancing the practice of supply management to drive value and competitive advantage for its members, contributing to a prosperous and sustainable world. ISM leads the profession through the ISM® Report On Business®, its highly regarded certification programs and the ISM® Advance Digital Platform. This report has been issued by the association since 1931, except for a four-year interruption during World War II.

The full text version of the Services ISM® Report On Business® is posted on ISM®'s website at www.ismrob.org on the third business day* of every month after 10:00 a.m. ET.

The next Services ISM® Report On Business® featuring August 2022 data will be released at 10:00 a.m. ET on Tuesday, September 6, 2022.

*Unless the New York Stock Exchange is closed.

Contact:

Kristina Cahill

Report On Business® Analyst

ISM®, ROB/Research Manager

Tempe, Arizona

+1 480.455.5910

Email: kcahill@ismworld.org

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SOURCE Institute for Supply Management

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