H12-211 study help - Huawei Network Technology and Device (HCNA-HNTD) Updated: 2024
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Exam Code: H12-211 Huawei Network Technology and Device (HCNA-HNTD) study help January 2024 by Killexams.com team
H12-211 Huawei Network Technology and Device (HCNA-HNTD)
Exam : H12-211 HCNA (HCDA)-HNTD
The HCNA-HNTD exam covers basic IP network connectivity, TCP/IP technologies, Ethernet technologies such as STP and RSTP, VLAN and Link Aggregation and their implementation within Huawei switches. Routing principles and technologies including RIP and OSPF for IPv4 and IPv6 networks, WAN technologies, IP based security, network management as well as IPv4 and IPv6 based application services.
IP Network Principles
- Ethernet and IP based data forwarding processes.
- TCP/IP network protocols and data encapsulation
- VRP commands for basic navigation and configuration
- IPv4 addressing principles, address design and subnetting
- TCP/IP supporting applications such as Ping, Tracert, FTP, and Telnet.
- LAN switching operations.
- Link Aggregation application and configuration.
- VLAN and GVRP and behavior, application and configuration.
- STP and RSTP switching behavior, application and configuration.
- Principles and application of serial technologies in wide area networks.
- HDLC and PPP encapsulation principles and configuration.
- Frame Relay and PPPoE implementation at the customer edge.
- Static and dynamic routing principles,
- RIP and OSPF dynamic routing protocol function and implementation in VRP
- Traffic Filtering technologies and their application in the enterprise network
- User management through authentication and authorization schemes.
- IPsec VPN technologies for protecting user data.
- How network security is ensured by using network security technologies and firewalls.
- Network Management protocols and technologies.
- IPv6 principles and technologies
- IPv6 routing technologies
- Application services for IPv6 networks
The content mentioned in this article provides a general exam guide; the exam may contain additional related content that is not included here.
Huawei Certified Training — HCNA: Huawei Networking Technology and Device (HNTD)
Huawei Certified Training — HCNA: Lab Guide for the Huawei Networking Technology and Device (HNTD) course
VRP Configuration Guide
Huawei Product Manuals
|Huawei Network Technology and Device (HCNA-HNTD)
HUAWEI (HCNA-HNTD) study help
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Huawei Network Technology and Device (HCDA-HNTD)
PPP support () authentication protocol, and therefore more secure than the HDLC
B. MD 5
Answer: A, C
In the PPP protocol, PAP certification process required to establish () handshake
Standard PPP frame format protocol which includes several fields ()
A. Protocol field
B. Information Fields
C. length field
D. fill in the fields
Answer: A, C, D
The following statement on the LCP, which is correct ().
A. is responsible for negotiating the establishment of links
B. Layer 3 protocol type negotiation
C. will cut off the link after link idle timer timeout
D. Testing the link, link quality to determine whether the link can be established
Answer: A, C, D
Judge: PPP protocol, IPCP negotiation process of dynamic and static, like consultation,
only one Config- Request dialogue IP address assignment can be completed.
Frame Relay using the following method to dynamically address which is mapped to
A. ARP protocol
B. RARP protocol
C. inARP agreement
D. map protocol
In the frame relay network, the bandwidth of each virtual circuit for the control strategy
is the correct description
A. In the Tc, the amount of data transfer when the user is not greater than Bc, to
continue receiving the frame transmission
B. When the user data transmission is greater than Bc Bc and Be, but not greater than
the sum, it will send more than frame the scope of Bc DE position "1"
C. When the Tc in the user data transmission is greater than the sum of Bc and Be, the
frame will exceed the scope of the DE position "1"
D. When the Tc in the user data transmission is greater than the sum of Bc and Be, it
will exceed the range of frames discarded
Answer: A, B, D
Judge: In X.25, in a packet transmission path of each node must receive a complete
packet and must be completed before sending error checking. Frame Relay nodes simply
check the destination address in the packet header information, and immediately forward
AAL layer which several sub-sub-layer ().
A. TC sublayer
B. PM sublayer
C. Convergence Sublayer (CS)
D. disassembly sublayer (SAR)
Answer: C, D
The formation of the routing table a variety of ways, the following is the correct way ().
A. Static Routing Protocol
B. Dynamic routing protocols
C. Application layer protocol
D. Transport Layer
Answer: A, B
A router via RIP, OSPF, BGP and static routes are learning to reach the same destination
address routing. By default, VRP will eventually selected () routing as the optimal route
D. Static routes
Routers do not need to know the full forward path, only know the destination of the
nearest next hop how to take forward this packet relay process we call
A. hop by hop forwarding
B. host by host forwarding
C. router by router forwarding
D. network by network forwarding
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Major smartphone makers are following Apple and Google into the smartphone trend of 2017: artificial intelligence.
Huawei said they will have an AI-focused “Superphone” in 2020—just a year before their goal to be the world’s top smartphone maker. The Chinese tech giant has been sitting at No. 3 since last year, behind Samsung and Apple.
The Chinese company said they are not releasing further information about what AI its “Superphone” will have, but whatever it is, AI will surely be a critical factor for Huawei’s push to the top spot.
But despite publicly announcing their AI ambitions, there is little that's known about what the tech giant is actually doing with AI—that is, before the Mate 9 was released.
Launched in the U.S. last month, Huawei’s Mate 9 was successful and recognized for its AI integration in the flagship smartphone.
“The Mate 9 features a Machine Learning Algorithm to ensure the handset continues running fast and smooth rather than slowing down over time as smartphones generally tend to do,” explains Shao Yang, president of strategy marketing at Huawei’s consumer business group.
Machine learning can track trends and behavioral patterns, making the device more efficient by correctly anticipating its usage. “This is important, and is actually a critical feature of the Mate 9,” says Ben Stanton, an analyst at Canalys.
The Mate 9 was also the first smartphone with Amazon’s Alexa. This cloud-based voice assistant helps users perform everyday tasks, like checking the news or controlling smart homes, and Huawei is in an advantageous position to use Alexa compared to most rivals.
“[The Alexa partnership] is possible because Huawei doesn’t have a service-driven agenda,” says Stanton. “It doesn’t matter if Alexa on Mate 9 pushes users towards Amazon Prime services, because Huawei doesn’t have a competing service. Apple and Google do. Huawei can therefore reap the benefits of voice interaction with relatively low investment.”
RELATED: Huawei Mate 9 Review
Huawei's Shao says the company has been working with telecom carriers for user retention and network maintenance in the field of machine learning. “In the artificial intelligence domain, we have recently made breakthroughs in deep learning and machine translation,” said Shao. Particularly for the AI application adopted in the Mate 9, Shao claims Huawei has made technological breakthroughs in various areas such as sensor algorithms, computer vision, search engine and semantic understanding.
But despite the breakthroughs, Huawei still has a long way to go. “For Huawei, [AI] is still at the infancy stage,” says Xiaohan Tay, a senior analyst at IDC. In general, AI algorithms are improved by feeding huge amounts of data. But Huawei, being a hardware company, doesn't have this data, she said.
One way Huawei could get access to data is to work with fellow Chinese tech giant Tencent, says Tay, which owns WeChat—China's most popular messaging app.
Huawei has a long road ahead, but playing a long game is just what the tech giant excels at, especially compared to Chinese smartphone rivals like Oppo and Xiaomi.
They don’t break down their research and development spending, but Huawei is among the top tech companies spending the most on R&D.
“Innovation is a marathon,” says Huawei's Shao. “So each year, we dedicate at least 10% of our sales revenue to R&D.” Over the last 10 years, Huawei said they invested more than $38 billion in total.
AI will become essential for smartphones this year, and Huawei is able to keep improving its AI by investing billions every year, something Oppo and Xiaomi can’t match or simply copy.
Huawei may be able to hold on to the No. 3 spot by keeping its Chinese rivals at bay, but snagging the top spot with AI is unlikely based on R&D spending.
Samsung, the world’s top smartphone maker, spends even more than Huawei. In 2015, Huawei invested $9.2 billion into R&D, whereas Samsung easily dwarfed that with $14.1 billion in global R&D spending, which, according to Strategy&, is the most any tech company is spending.
A new study suggests getting that cute dog in one's more mature years might be a good idea after all.
Researchers from the Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou, China, found that pet ownership can be associated with slower rates of developing dementia.
The study, published on Tuesday in JAMA Network Open, determined that owning a pet made a difference in verbal memory and fluency among adults who lived alone.
The study's author, professor Ciyong Lu, said in the study that slower rates of declining verbal memory and fluency were seen in those who lived alone — but not in those who lived with others.
"Pet ownership offset the associations between living alone and declining rates [of] verbal memory and verbal fluency," he said.
The research involved more than 7,900 participants over the age of 50, with roughly 35% of them owning pets and 27% of them living alone.
In the study, Lu said that those living alone with a pet showed slower rates of developing signs of dementia.
"These findings suggest that pet ownership may be associated with slower cognitive decline among older adults living alone," he said.
"Contrary to living alone," the authors also wrote, "pet ownership (for example, raising dogs and cats) is related to reduced loneliness, an important risk factor for dementia and cognitive decline."
Lu said that clinical trials will be necessary in order to confirm the study's findings.
Currently, more than 55 million people worldwide have dementia — with nearly 10 million new cases each year, according to the World Health Organization (WHO).
Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia, which is currently the 7th leading cause of death, the WHO also notes.
Early symptoms of dementia include forgetfulness, being confused, losing track of time, misjudging distances, feeling anxious, personality changes, inappropriate behavior and more.
There is currently no cure for dementia or for someone developing signs of dementia, but the WHO suggests that staying active and continuing to stimulate the brain may help.
Fox News Digital reached out to Lu for further comment.
People visit the booth of Chinese tech giant Huawei at the Cairo ICT 2023 expo in Cairo, Egypt, on Nov. 21, 2023. [Photo/Xinhua]
China's technology giant Huawei and Thailand's Ministry of Digital Economy and Society (MDES) established a partnership on Monday, aiming to help drive the Southeast Asian country's digital transformation towards an artificial intelligence (AI) development hub in the region.
Speaking at the Huawei Cloud AI Summit Thailand 2023 in Bangkok, MDES Minister Prasert Jantararuangtong said the collaboration in the cloud and AI digital ecosystems will lead the kingdom to build its own dedicated AI, which is a key infrastructure for the future under the government's initiative to push cloud-first policies as the new growth engine.
Cooperation with private sector partners like Huawei will help Thailand speed up digital transformation, develop talents, achieve economic sustainability, and Excellerate people's well-being, Prasert said in his opening remarks.
Huawei is assisting Thailand to harness the transformative power of AI by laying a solid digital foundation and establishing AI infrastructure for the government and businesses, which will result in the development of AI applications across various sectors, David Li, CEO of Huawei Thailand, told the summit.
As Huawei seeks to develop the cloud foundation for an intelligent future, providing better solutions for each consumer, it showcased a variety of cutting-edge AI solutions and models specifically customized to Thailand's demands during the summit, including models for the Thai language, meteorology, government, and AI solutions for the finance and retail sectors, Li said.
They say that there's no sense in crying over spilled milk. But what do they know? Crying can get you another glass of milk if you do it loud enough. Plus, crying may serve a real physiologic purpose, according to a study published recently in Emotion, meaning the journal and not in an Emo-kind of way.
For the study, three researchers from the University of Queensland (Leah S. Sharman, Genevieve A. Dingle, and Eric J. Vanman) and one from Tilberg University (Ad J. J. M. Vingerhoets) recruited 197 female undergraduate students. They said that they choose all women rather than including men because pilot testing of sad videos had revealed that more women than men cried or at least more women revealed that they were crying. This did not account for the men who cried inside or used some bro-language or high fives to hide the crying.
The research team then showed each of the study participants either a video that are supposed to make them feel sad (sad videos) or a video that was not supposed to elicit any emotion (neutral videos) like something from a documentary or a ted talk. Each video lasted for close to 18 minutes. After the video, the researchers noted whether or not each participant had cried while watching the video. Ultimately, 65 participants watched the neutral video, 71 watched the sad video and cried during it, and 61 watched the sad video and did not cry. Presumably, no one cried during the neutral video. But then again, actor Bryce Dallas Howard was able to cry when Conan O'Brien talked about Home Depot in this Conan clip:
Then, each participant underwent a Cold Pressor Stress Test (CPT), which involved placing the participant's left hand, up to the wrist, in cold 0° to 5°C water. Unless you are the Iceman or Killer Frost, this is supposed to be painful. The research team measured how long each participant could stay in this position until pulling her hand out of the water. During the study, the research team continuously measured each participant's heart rate and respiratory rate and periodically measured cortisol levels from saliva samples. Cortisol is a stress-hormone that's produced by the body.
Also, at four points during the study, participants answered questions from the Positive and Negative Affect Scale short form (PANAS). These questions asked the degree to which the participant was experiencing ten different emotions and to rank each on a five-point scale that ranged from a one (very slightly or not at all) to a five (extremely).
When it came to cortisol levels and how long the participants could keep their hands submerged in the cold water, the study ended up finding not much difference between the neutral video watchers, the sad video non-criers, and the sad video criers. So if you are about to dunk yourself in cold water or take a cold shower, it may not help to cry first.
But here's a difference that the study found. Are you ready? Take a deep breath. The difference was breathing rates. While watching the videos, the non-criers tended to have elevations in their breathing rates, whereas, by contrast, the criers tended to maintain their initial breathing rates. In other words, tearing up could have helped participants better control their breathing rates. This provides further evidence that crying may help you better regulate arousal, serving as an emotional release.
Another interesting finding was that right before crying, participants tended to experience decreases in their heart rates, seemingly in anticipation of the crying. Once the crying began, their heart rates then tended to creep back up but not above where their heart rates had been before everything began. This may be further evidence that crying has a beneficial regulatory effect on your physiology.
So perhaps next time you start crying you can tell people that you are regulating your physiology. You've probably heard of people saying that they had a good cry and feel better after they've let the tears flow. It can be important to find reasonable ways to periodically release your emotions. Otherwise, you may end up bottling everything up like a hot air balloon that can explode when you least expect it.
Moreover, crying can be a way of communicating. It's really the only way that babies can express their needs before they learn how to say things like "why you throwing shade on me," or "I'm not Gucci." Crying can help communicate to others that you need more sympathy, comfort, or help. Of course, this can be misused. You don't want to cry every time your order at a restaurant doesn't come out right. And of course, there is the whole concept of crocodile tears: people crying to get something when they don't really mean it.
Crying can also be a way of communicating with yourself. Even when you cry alone, you may be telling yourself about your own state because, like many people, you could be terrible at practicing your own emotions and situation. Tears could be your body's way of saying, "hey, take a break," or "something's not right," or "take care of yourself." Tearing up can then be a way of your body literally crying out to you.
Your body is a complex system. Crying can be complex. Your tears can flow when you are very sad, very angry, or even very happy. Better understanding what causes us to cry and what happens as a result could help us better handle our emotions and stress.
The government has approved the supply of equipment by Chinese telecoms firm Huawei for the UK's new 5G data network despite warnings of a security risk.
There is no formal confirmation but the Daily Telegraph says Huawei will build "non-core" components such as antennas.
The US wants its allies in the "Five Eyes" intelligence grouping - the UK, Canada, Australia and New Zealand - to exclude the company.
Huawei has denied that its work poses any risks of espionage or sabotage.
But Australia has already said it is siding with Washington - which has spoken of "serious concerns over Huawei's obligations to the Chinese government and the danger that poses to the integrity of telecommunications networks in the US and elsewhere".
A spokesman for the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport has said it is reviewing the supply of equipment for the 5G network and will report in due course.
Digital minister Margot James responded to the reports by tweeting: "In spite of Cabinet leaks to the contrary, final decision yet to be made on managing threats to telecoms infrastructure."
According to the Daily Telegraph, Huawei would be allowed to help build the "non-core" infrastructure of the 5G network.
This would mean Huawei would not supply equipment for what is known as the "core" parts - where tasks such as checking device IDs and deciding how to route voice calls and data take place.
Huawei, a private company which already supplies equipment for the UK's existing mobile networks, has always denied claims it is controlled by the Chinese government.
It said it was awaiting a formal announcement, but was "pleased that the UK is continuing to take an evidence-based approach to its work", adding it would continue to work cooperatively with the government and the industry.
Ciaran Martin, the head of the National Cyber Security Centre - which oversees Huawei's current UK work - told BBC Radio 4's Today programme a framework would be put in place to ensure the 5G network was "sufficiently safe".
Asked about the potential of a conflict in the position of Five Eyes members, he added: "In the past decade there have been different approaches across the Five Eyes and across the allied wider Western alliance towards Huawei and towards other issues as well."
What is 5G?
5G is the next (fifth) generation of mobile internet connectivity, promising much faster data download and upload speeds, wider coverage and more stable connections.
The world is going mobile and existing spectrum bands are becoming congested, leading to breakdowns, particularly when many people in one area are trying to access services at the same time.
5G is also much better at handling thousands of devices simultaneously, from phones to equipment sensors, video cameras to smart street lights.
Current 4G mobile networks can offer speeds of about 45Mbps (megabits per second) on average and experts say 5G - which is starting to be rolled out in the UK this year - could achieve browsing and downloads up to 20 times faster.
BBC security correspondent Gordon Corera says it is believed the decision to involve Huawei was taken by ministers at a meeting of the government's national security council on Tuesday, chaired by Prime Minister Theresa May.
The home, defence and foreign secretaries were reported to have raised concerns during the discussions.
In a tweet, shadow Cabinet Office minister Jo Platt said using Huawei equipment would raise "serious questions" about the "government's interests and how they will secure networks".
BBC security correspondent Gordon Corera
The decision on Huawei is one of the most significant long-term national security decisions this government will make and was always going to be contentious.
5G will underpin our daily lives in ways that are hard to predict. So does allowing a Chinese company to build those networks put people at risk of being spied on or even switched off?
That is the concern from Washington and other critics who wanted the company excluded.
But deciding to ban Huawei entirely from the network would have risked slowing down the development of 5G and also upsetting China.
The UK believes it has experience in managing the risks posed by Huawei and can continue to do so going forward.
But one retired senior intelligence official recently told me his view on what to do about Huawei had changed.
In the past, he said, he had believed the policy of managing the risk had been sufficient. But now he was less sure.
The reason was not to do with any change in his view of what the company could do. Rather it was about the risks to relationships with close allies, namely those of the Five Eyes and US.
Foreign Affairs Committee chairman Tom Tugendhat tweeted that allowing Huawei to build some of the UK's 5G infrastructure would "cause allies to doubt our ability to keep data secure and erode the trust essential to #FiveEyes cooperation".
Speaking on the Today programme, Mr Tugendhat said the proposals still raised concerns, as 5G involved an "internet system that can genuinely connect everything, and therefore the distinction between non-core and core is much harder to make".
Joyce Hakmeh, a research fellow at think tank Chatham House and co-editor of the Journal of Cyber Policy, said the UK's current mobile network needs to be transformed to the "the next level... quicker, more stable 5G".
But she added the government would be hoping its decision on Huawei did not upset either China or the US.
Limiting - but not barring - Huawei technology from the 5G networks would be a "diplomatic way of managing a difficult situation" for the UK, said Ms Hakmeh.
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