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Exam Code: IBCLC Practice exam 2023 by team
IBCLC International Board Certified Lactation Consultant

International Board of Lactation Consultant Examiners (IBCLE)
International Board Certified Lactation Consultant® (IBCLC®)

Detailed Content Outline

A. Infant

1. Feeding behaviours at different ages

2. Food intolerances/allergies

3. Infant anatomy and anatomical/oral challenges

4. Introducing complementary foods

5. Low birth weight

6. Milk banking – formal and informal

7. Normal infant behaviours

8. Nutritional requirements - preterm

9. Preterm development and growth

10. Skin tone, muscle tone, reflexes

11. Term development and growth

12. WHO growth charts with gestational age adjustment

B. Maternal

1. Breast development and growth

2. Breast surgery

3. Composition of human milk

4. Maternal anatomical challenges

5. Maternal nutritional status

6. Nipple structure and variations

II. Physiology and Endocrinology 24

1. Diabetes

2. Infertility Issues

3. Maternal metabolic and hormonal disorders (e.g., thyroid, Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome)

4. Maternal autoimmune disorders

5. Multiples

6. Newborn hypoglycemia

7. Pregnancy and breastfeeding – tandem

8. Relactation

9. Stooling and voiding

III. Pathology 31

A. Infant

1. Allergies

2. Ankyloglossia

3. Cleft lip and palate

4. Congenital anomalies (e.g., gastrointestinal, cardiac)

5. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD), reflux

6. Hyperbilirubinemia

7. Infant acute disease (bacterial, viral, fungal, systemic)

8. Infant neurological disabilities

9. Small for Gestational Age (SGA), Large for Gestational Age (LGA)

B. Maternal

1. Abscess

2. Milk ejection reflex dysfunction

3. Maternal acute disease (bacterial, viral, fungal, systemic)

4. Maternal chronic disease

5. Maternal disability (physical and neurological)

6. Mastitis

7. Milk supply, low or over

8. Nipple and breast conditions

9. Nipple pain and trauma

10. Post-partum hemorrhage

11. Pre-eclampsia / pregnancy induced hypertension

IV. Pharmacology and Toxicology 13

1. Alcohol and tobacco

2. Contraception

3. Drugs of abuse

4. Galactogogues

5. Gel dressings/nipple creams

6. Medication (prescription, over-the-counter, diagnostic and therapeutic procedures)

7. Medicinal Herbs

V. Psychology, Sociology, and Anthropology

1. Transition to parenthood

2. Birth practices

3. Foods to eat/avoid that affect lactation

4. Employment – returning to work

5. Family lifestyle

6. Identifying support networks

7. Maternal mental health

8. Maternal psychological/cognitive issues

9. Mother-baby relationship

10. Safe sleep

11. Weaning

12. Cultural competency

VI. Techniques 25

1. Effective milk transfer (including medically-indicated supplementation)

2. First hour

3. Latching

4. Managing supply

5. Milk expression

6. Positioning

7. Refusal of breast, bottle

8. Skin-to-skin (Kangaroo care)

9. Test-weighing

VII. Clinical Skills 35

A. Equipment and Technology

1. Feeding devices (e.g., tubes at breast, cups, syringes, teats)

2. Handling and storage of human milk

3. Nipple devices (e.g., shields, everters)

4. Pacifiers

5. Pumps

6. Scales

7. Communication technology

8. Websites

B. Education and Communication

1. Active listening

2. Anticipatory guidance

3. Care plan development and sharing

4. Documentation

5. Educating mothers and families

6. Educating professionals, peers, and student

7. Extending the duration of breastfeeding

8. Emotional support

9. Empowerment

10. Group support

C. Ethical and Legal Issues

1. Breastfeeding in public

2. Clinical competencies

3. Code of Professional Conduct (CPC)

4. Principles of confidentiality

5. WHO code –advocacy and policy

D. Research

1. Apply research in practice

2. Appraise and interpret research results

3. Use research to help develop policies and protocols

E. Public Health and Advocacy

1. Advocate for Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI)

2. Advocate for compliance with World Health Organization International Code of Marketing of Breast milk Substitutes (WHO Code)

3. Advocate for mother / baby in healthcare system

4. Develop breastfeeding-related policies

International Board Certified Lactation Consultant
Consultant International study
Killexams : Consultant International study - BingNews Search results Killexams : Consultant International study - BingNews Killexams : Business students gain global consulting experience through travel

Through international travel, students in Louisiana Tech’s College of Business are gaining real-world knowledge of the global business world.

Last month, online and traditional/on-campus Master of Business Administration students came together in Santiago, Chile, to learn about the culture and business environment of the South American country’s rapidly developing and diverse economies.

“Above the obvious benefits of increased awareness of different cultures, practices, and perspectives, students who work and study abroad gain exposure to unique challenges and opportunities, especially in emerging markets, that spark innovation, boost problem-solving skills, and uncover avenues for greater investment and business growth,” said Dr. William McCumber, associate dean of graduate programs and research for the College of Business.

McCumber accompanied the team of 11 graduate students on the trip and taught BUSN 540, a new graduate-level course designed to facilitate the global consulting component of the immersive experience.

The students were paired with three Chilean companies: Simplo, whose mission is to eliminate single-use plastics through a 100% compostable product line that serves as alternatives for stationary goods; Coderhub, a no-code data analytics company that helps municipalities better serve their citizens; and Mappin, a map art company that rescues old works to give them value in present-day and develops educational material with cultural and identity themes.

Charles Anderson, an online MBA student, worked with his classmates to advise Simplo on how to successfully kickstart their launch in the U.S. market. The team conducted a full market analysis, researched critical success factors for a crowdfunding campaign, and advised on marketing, financial, and PR strategies.

“The way Louisiana Tech structures the MBA program truly set me up for success to consult with international businesses,” Anderson said. “Although our deliverables were focused mainly on financial objectives and raising capital, there were considerations throughout the project that overlapped with the classes we take in the MBA program. This includes marketing, management, economics, and accounting. I am confident that having a mastery level understanding of all these fields of business contributed to our success advising in Chile.”

Sharon Jackson, a traditional MBA student, used the global consulting experience as a chance to set her degree apart from others. She was part of the team consulting with Coderhub.

“I learned cultural and language barriers are real aspects of business, but the issues and challenges are the same irrelevant of the country of origin,” Jackson said. “We were able to provide Coderhub with ideas on how to strengthen their company by identifying a RFI, RPQ, or RFP and the information each of these is seeking, sharing some of the challenges of the procurement process, strategic initiatives, and a roadmap for next steps.”

McCumber noted that though the learning outcome for BUSN 540 was singular, it was incredibly complicated.

“Our students had to successfully complete a professional consulting project on behalf of a foreign company in a foreign nation in a foreign language,” McCumber said. “I am pleased to report that not only were the MBA consultants successful, they are being sought as consultants and/or employees of the firms they served.”

This learning outcome was one of the reasons many students — like Gafe Gibson, a traditional MBA student — decided to travel to Chile.

“I initially went on this trip to gain experience in a real-world consulting environment,” Gibson said. “It’s always best to meet with people face-to-face so you can grasp the reality of the situation they’re facing in the business world. Our MBA courses are challenging. Still, they are also informative in practical situations, allowing us to reach beyond the books and seek out real-world environments in our consulting tasks.”

Anderson’s reasons for participating were similar.

“You can gain knowledge and insights in the classroom, but there is no substitute for real-world involvement and problem-solving,” Anderson said. “Louisiana Tech’s College of Business has emphasized the value of critical thinking and providing solutions to prospective clients, and I feel this trip was a unique opportunity to further craft those skills.”

In addition to practicing these skills in a real-world environment, students also enjoyed the bonding experience of traveling as a cohort.

“My favorite part was building a team,” Jackson said. “Dr. McCumber effectively brought together people with common goals and helped us unravel the puzzle to provide a solution. The team structures were developed through interactions with our partner companies, the cohesiveness of the MBA students in developing budding relationships, and our ability to think as a unit.”

The shared cultural experiences of the trip — from seeing the Andes Mountains to learning about Chilean winemaking — allowed the students opportunities to connect with their classmates, some of whom may have never otherwise met in person due to distance learning.

“We had a very diverse group that worked together exceptionally well. Having the opportunity to learn about the backgrounds, careers, personalities, and goals of the rest of the group was tremendous,” Anderson said. “I feel we all came to Chile a little uncertain of one another, which is normal when you first meet people, but left as a group of real friends with a shared experience that can’t really ever be duplicated.”

As international travel continues to enhance the College of Business’ academic offerings, undergraduate and graduate students are encouraged to take advantage of future global consulting opportunities as well as the College’s exchange program with IESIG in France.

“We need business leaders with a global perspective in a global economy, especially as international relations and global contracts are increasingly fraught with competing ideologies, politics, and complications,” McCumber said. “How many times in life do we allow ourselves a truly life-changing experience? Watching online and traditional MBAs come together, in person, in Santiago was amazing — a truly Bulldog bonding experience. Seeing friendships made, networks expanded, seeing the joy of discovery… you just can’t put a price on these experiences.”

About the College of Business
Through market-responsive academic programs, impactful scholarship, and a student-focused culture, Louisiana Tech University’s College of Business graduates business and academic leaders who are innovative, entrepreneurially minded, and analytically and technologically skilled for a globally competitive marketplace. Building on a vibrant community of life-long learners, our graduates are prepared to positively impact business and society. Accredited by AACSB International, the College offers eight undergraduate degree programs in addition to the master of business administration, master of accountancy, and doctor of business administration. For more information, visit   

Thu, 17 Aug 2023 03:49:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Study MBBS Abroad For Indian Students: Best MBBS Abroad Consultants No result found, try new keyword!Hijab, azaan, jihadi, anti-national, terrorist, mullah, miya—the meaning of these terms are blurred on purpose by many political leaders and Right-wing groups. They use it as a strategy to serve ... Fri, 28 Jul 2023 22:40:00 -0500 en-US text/html Killexams : 16 Easiest Countries To Get PR For International Students

In this article, we will talk about the 16 easiest countries to get PR for international students. We will also discuss the emerging trends in international students’ mobility and the key players in the industry. You can skip our detailed analysis and head straight to the 5 Easiest Countries To Get PR For International Students.

The concept of ‘study abroad’ has persisted over time, with people leaving their homeland and traveling to new places to learn. There are a myriad of reasons for student mobility and it varies among individuals. Students might travel to a new place for better education, higher ranked universities, to experience education in a foreign country, to be more independent, to experience new cultures, and to travel while also getting a formal education. However, one of the main reasons is the search for a better future and improved lifestyle. 

Not every country in the world is peaceful. People often want to leave and get Permanent Residency (PR) in other countries to Improve their quality of life. PR grants a person the right to live and work in a country indefinitely however they are not a citizen of that country. Students who have left their country for education often prefer permanently settling in the destination country. Seeking PR is especially considerable for students getting higher education. According to a report by IMARC Group, the global higher education market was valued at $20.1 billion, and it is predicted to grow at a compound annual growth rate of 20.2% from 2023 to 2028, reaching $61.1 billion at the end of the forecasted period. 

Recent Trends In Student Mobility 

When the pandemic hit, student mobility was severely impacted. People were social distancing, and education became primarily virtual. However, now that the situation has improved, the world is recovering from the slump in international student mobility trends. According to a report by Holon IQ, the number of international students rose from 1 million in 1970 to more than 5 million in 2019, corresponding to $196 billion in direct annual expenditure. This number is expected to almost double to $433 billion by 2030. International student enrollments are expected to grow to 8 million by 2030. The rise in globalization combined with technological advancement and easy access to information online, like searching for universities and scholarships, has generated an upsurge in the number of students considering studying abroad.  

According to the Holon IQ report, about 70% of the global demand for education is primarily in Asia and Africa. However, the supply side is predominantly confined to the North American and European regions, with the majority of the top-ranked universities located there. According to the QS World University Rankings 2024, the United States has the highest number of top-ranked universities, 199, followed by the United Kingdom with 90 top universities worldwide. They are at the top of the list of countries with the best education. This supply-demand imbalance is one of the main factors for the influx of students to North America and Europe. After the pandemic, the number of international students is expected to grow further as the world is moving towards a normal situation with no travel restrictions. 

Notable Names In Education For Study Abroad 

Some of the largest education companies in the world are assisting students with their mobility. These companies provide consultancy services facilitating students to plan their future and move abroad easily. One of the most prominent names in education consultancy is New Oriental Education & Technology Group Inc. (NYSE:EDU). The company provides consulting services to students aspiring to move abroad.

On July 26, the company reported earnings for the fiscal fourth quarter of 2023. New Oriental Education & Technology Group Inc. (NYSE:EDU) reported earnings per share of $0.37. The company’s revenue for the quarter amounted to $860.57 million, up 64.22% year over year, and ahead of Wall Street estimates by $42.17 million. It is among the list of best education stocks to buy in 2023. Here are some comments from the company’s earnings call for the fourth quarter of 2023:

“In particular, I would like to highlight the solid recovery has been valid in the growth of our overseas test prep and overseas study consulting businesses, which have recorded steady increments in revenues and enrollments. The dedicated blend of our restructured business model better utilizes the facility and streamlined cost structure have not only helped us yield better than expected margins in this fiscal quarter but also enlivened our continued exploration of new potential ventures as we unfold a new chapter of innovative endeavors.

The company’s sustainable profitability, resilient business lines, and emerging new initiatives have reaffirmed our belief in maintaining a healthy growth of our market share amid the encouraging environmental recovery. Now, I would like to spend some time to talk about the quarter’s performance across our remaining business lines and new business to you in detail. Our key remaining business secured a promising trend, coupled with the positive momentum in our new initiatives. Breaking it down, the overseas test-drive business reported a revenue increase of 52% in dollar terms or 62% in RMB terms year-over-year for the first quarter. The overseas study consulting business recorded a revenue increase of about 6% in dollar terms or 13% in RMB terms year-over-year for this quarter.”

Another prominent name is IDP Education (ASX:IEL). It is an Australian company leading international students through consultancy services. IDP helps students from all across the globe to study in “English-speaking countries”. The company is almost 50 years old and is operating in more than 30 countries. IDP Education (ASX:IEL) is connected extensively with schools, colleges, and universities across the globe. The vast network of partner education institutions enables them to connect their clients with their best match based on their preferences.

Graham Holdings Company (NYSE:GHC) is also a major name in the industry. The key services the company offers are English-language training and proficiency exam preparation. By better enabling the students to prepare for the English proficiency test it facilitates their mobility and provides them with the essentials required to move abroad.

16 Easiest Countries To Get PR For International Students

Our Methodology 

To make the list of easiest countries to get PR for international students, we initially filtered out the countries with the highest number of top-ranked universities. We used QS World University Rankings 2024 and calculated the number of top-ranked universities in all 104 countries listed. We then sifted through the top 35 countries and organized them based on their inbound mobility rate in 2020 by UNESCO. UNESCO has defined the inbound mobility rates as the “number of students from abroad studying in a given country, expressed as a percentage of total tertiary enrollment in that country.” The top 16 countries from that list were then ranked based on the time required before you become eligible to apply for PR. We used the information from these countries’ individual government sites to estimate the time required. Since some countries on our list required the same amount of time; we have used the inbound mobility rates as the tiebreaker. 

16 Easiest Countries To Get PR For International Students

16. Japan

Inbound Mobility Rate: 5.7
Time Required: 10 Years

Japan is one of the easiest countries to get PR for international students. Japan is located in East Asia. According to QS ranking, it has 50 of the top 1500 universities in the world. It has an inbound mobility rate of 5.7. A person can apply for PR if they have lived in Japan for over 10 years under any visa. However, this is not a strict requirement. A point system based on a person’s skills eases this out. The 10 years requirement, however, has been repetitively mentioned across various sites. 

15. Italy

Inbound Mobility Rate: 2.9
Time Required: 5 Years

Italy is located in Europe. According to QS ranking, it has 42 of the top 1500 universities in the world. It has an inbound mobility rate of 2.9. Italy has a rich culture and history that attracts thousands of international students every year. A person can apply for PR after they have lived in Italy for a minimum of 5 years.

14. South Korea

Inbound Mobility Rate: 3.7
Time Required: 5 Years

South Korea is located in East Asia. According to QS ranking, it has 43 of the top 1500 universities in the world. It has an inbound mobility rate of 3.7. People can apply for PR if they have lived in South Korea for more than 5 years. It is among the easiest countries to get PR for international students.

13. Spain

Inbound Mobility Rate: 3.8
Time Required: 5 Years

Spain is located in Europe. According to QS ranking, it has 35 of the top 1500 universities in the world. It has an inbound mobility rate of 3.8. After a person has held the temporary residence permit for 5 years, they become eligible for PR. It is one of the countries with the best quality of life, making it a highly preferred location to get PR for international students.  

New Oriental Education & Technology Group Inc. (NYSE:EDU), IDP Education (ASX:IEL), and Graham Holdings Company (NYSE:GHC) are some of the most noteworthy companies facilitating students to study abroad. 

12. Poland

Inbound Mobility Rate: 4.5
Time Required: 5 Years

Poland is located in Europe. According to QS ranking, it has 22 of the top 1500 universities in the world. It has an inbound mobility rate of 4.5. A person can apply for PR if they have lived in Poland for over 5 years. It is one of the easiest countries to get PR for international students.

11. Russia

Inbound Mobility Rate: 5
Time Required: 5 Years

Russia spread across both Europe and Asia. According to QS ranking, it has 48 of the top 1500 universities in the world. It has an inbound mobility rate of 5. A person becomes eligible for PR in Malaysia after working for 5 years there. There is a 5-year validity, and it can be extended unlimited times.

10. Kazakhstan

Inbound Mobility Rate: 5.5
Time Required: 5 Years

Kazakhstan is among the easiest countries to get PR for international students. Kazakhstan is located in Asia. According to QS ranking, it has 21 of the top 1500 universities in the world. It has an inbound mobility rate of 5.5. A person becomes eligible for PR in Kazakhstan after working for 5 years there.

9. United Kingdom

Inbound Mobility Rate: 20.1
Time Required: 5 Years

The United Kingdom is located in Europe. According to QS ranking, it has 90 of the top 1500 universities in the world. It has an inbound mobility rate of 20.1. PR is referred to as Indefinite Leave to Remain in the UK. Once a person has resided continuously in the UK for 5 years, they become eligible to apply for PR. The UK has some of the best universities in the world and attracts many students every year. The UK is one of the easiest countries to get PR for international students. 

8. France

Inbound Mobility Rate: 9.2
Time Required: 4 Years

France is located in Europe. According to QS ranking, it has 35 of the top 1500 universities in the world. It has an inbound mobility rate of 9.2. People can apply for PR if they have lived in the country for 4 years. The short time required to get PR makes it a top-listed country on our list of easiest countries to get PR for international students.  

Some companies that assist international student mobility include New Oriental Education & Technology Group Inc. (NYSE:EDU), IDP Education (ASX:IEL), and Graham Holdings Company (NYSE:GHC).

7. Australia

Inbound Mobility Rate: 36
Time Required: 3.5 Years

According to QS ranking, it has 38 of the top 1500 universities in the world. It has an inbound mobility rate of 26. A person can apply for PR if they have been living in Australia for more than 3.5. It is one of the most popular destination countries for international students. 

6. United States

Inbound Mobility Rate: 5.1
Time Required: 3 Years

The United States has 199 of the top 1500 universities in the world according to QS ranking. It has an inbound mobility rate of 5.1. A person can apply for PR if they have lived in the US for over 3 years. The United States has the most number of highest-ranked universities in the whole world. It is among the most significant names on our list of easiest countries to get PR for international students.

Click to continue reading and see the 5 Easiest Countries To Get PR For International Students.

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Disclosure: None. 16 Easiest Countries To Get PR For International Students is originally published on Insider Monkey.

Thu, 10 Aug 2023 05:48:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : U.S. Education System: What International College Students Should Know No result found, try new keyword!At U.S. colleges and universities, grades typically are given on a universal letter system of A through F; a student's cumulative grade is indicated as a grade point average, or GPA, which is usually ... Fri, 11 Aug 2023 07:39:44 -0500 en-us text/html Killexams : Consultants find climate crisis is good for business

The global climate emergency is proving very lucrative for consulting firms.

As the preferred advisers to governments and the world’s largest corporations, management consultancies have discovered that designing policies and shaping the regulation of climate responses is a new and very profitable line of business.

One of the best recent examples was in Australia in April 2021, when the then Prime Minister Scott Morrison hastily announced his government’s long-awaited modelling outlining a pathway to ‘net zero by 2050’.

Stressing a heavy emphasis on ‘carbon offsets’, new technologies and limited reduction in fossil fuel extraction, the modelling for this report had been prepared not by the government’s major scientific body, the CSIRO, but by the world’s most expensive and elite management consulting firm, McKinsey & Co.

Despite costing the Australian taxpayer over AUD$6 million, the modelling, as critics quickly noted, contained dubious assumptions, ignored the cost of future climate impacts and notably failed to outline how net-zero carbon emissions would actually be achieved by mid-century.

Nevertheless, the choice of McKinsey as the experts modelling these scenarios seemed to fit with a government hurry to continue the expansion of the fossil fuel sector.

McKinsey, after all, had worked for 43 of the 100 largest carbon polluters in the world including ExxonMobil, Gazprom, Shell, BP and Saudi Aramco.

It wasn’t always like this.

In Australia, as the political ‘climate wars’ raged during the 2010s, and prime ministers rose and fell on the back of various climate policies, many large corporations were already anticipating the regulatory, reputational, market and physical risks that climate change would inevitably bring to bear on their operations and were establishing sustainability functions in response.

Yet, throughout this period, the management consulting industry, which prided itself as being at the forefront in predicting future business risks and opportunities, seemed remarkably quiet on an issue which scientists and policy analysts had long recognised posed an existential threat to the future of our societies and indeed a large proportion of life on the planet.

Sure, on the back of the Stern Review in the UK in 2006, McKinsey had developed a greenhouse gas abatement cost curve which had been promoted in different countries, and boutique sustainability consultancies had emerged to work with corporate clients on report writing.

However, climate change, and environmental sustainability more generally, was seen as something of a niche area for management consultants and certainly not a core driver of consulting revenue.

If there was a point when this changed, it was when Mark Carney as head of the Bank of England gave a speech at insurance giant Lloyd’s of London in 2015 and highlighted the threat that climate change posed for stranded carbon assets.

Soon after the Financial Stability Board published recommendations for the disclosure of climate risk in corporate financial reporting and major institutional investors like BlackRock, HSBC and the Norwegian Sovereign Wealth Fund announced plans to reduce their exposure to fossil fuel stocks and focus on ‘green’ investment opportunities.

Suddenly, climate change had arrived in the halls of finance and the major consulting firms started to pay attention.

While management consultancies like to present themselves as management fashion setters, research suggests that if anything they tend to follow the demand preferences of their corporate and government clients. 

Following the 2015 UN Paris Climate Agreement, in which 195 of the world’s governments committed to take action to avoid warming the planet more than 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, the question has been how that might actually be achieved.

While the traditional policies of emissions regulation through carbon pricing and taxes have been seen as too politically contentious, in the intervening years the policy answer has been for government and increasingly, large corporations, to commit to achieving ‘net-zero’ carbon emissions by mid-century.

Here then has been a ready source of demand for advice into which the world’s large consulting firms have now entered. 

What started as a trickle of sustainability consulting suddenly transformed into a flood and in the last several years, management consulting has found its climate mojo.

The ‘Big Four’ accounting majors (Ernst & Young, Deloitte, KPMG and PricewaterhouseCoopers) quickly snapped up smaller boutique sustainability consultancies to establish their own climate and sustainability practices and bullishly announced multi-billion investments in environmental, social and governance (ESG) capabilities.

In 2021, Boston Consulting Group established its own Center for Climate and Sustainability and the firm was announced as the ‘Consultancy Partner’ for the 26th Conference of the Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Glasgow that year.

Not to be outdone, shortly afterwards the most venerable of the blue-chip consulting firms, McKinsey & Co, launched its own new practice, titled McKinsey Sustainability and its regular publications were now filled with advice and reports on the urgency of climate change and how different industries could seize the opportunities of the new climate economy.

However, as evangelists for the neoliberal economic order, global management consultancies face a dilemma in advising governments about how to tackle the climate crisis.

Any meaningful response to global warming actually requires the rapid cessation of fossil fuel energy and an industrial-scale shift to renewable energy sources; no mean feat in a world still reliant for over 80 percent of its energy needs from coal, oil and gas.

Moreover, any consulting advice to governments or business needs to square with their clients’ commitment to the continued expansion of economic growth, the maximisation of shareholder value, while at the same time appearing to provide some appearance of future emissions mitigation. 

Not surprisingly, much of the net-zero policy advice falls on the net-side of the equation with a heavy emphasis on carbon off-sets (paying others to plant forests or at least promise not to cut forests down), the expansion of costly technologies of carbon capture and storage (CCS), and investment in, as yet, unproven carbon removal via direct air capture.

Missing here is the inconvenient truth that the world’s carbon budget to avoid dangerous climate change has now run out, and that even the International Energy Agency now argues that there can be no new oil, coal or gas development if the world is to have any hope of achieving net-zero emissions by 2050.

Yet, a perusal of McKinsey Quarterly, or indeed any of the other major consultancy publications, reveals a surprisingly upbeat story for the fossil fuel sector in the short to medium term.

Yes, a decline in coal as an energy source but oil and gas are still seen as stable investments over the next decade. There’s also a rosy future for renewables as well as hydrogen, bio-feedstocks and carbon capture and storage.

As an elite government and corporate adviser, it pays not to talk down potential future clients and markets.

Much of the big consulting assignments are not just in the corporate sector but increasingly working for governments.

This shift to public-sector consulting has a long history, with major consultancies like McKinsey, BCG, Accenture and the Big Four having provided advice and implementing changes in public sector settings such as health, education, social services and utilities for many decades.

As the philosophy of new public management has spread around the world, so the ‘politicised expertise’ of management consultancies has been used by governments to justify the neoliberal retreat of the state from the provision of public services.

It has also led to some disastrous policy outcomes, such as McKinsey’s work in advising governments in developing economies on the REDD+ program aimed at reducing rainforest deforestation, which paradoxically resulted in policies increasing deforestation.

A major problem in advising governments and the public sector more generally is that unlike the established public service bureaucracy, which at least in the Westminster system maintains a level of independence and an ability to provide advice to government ‘without fear of favour’, management consultancies are profit-seeking commercial businesses.

Their survival depends upon winning and maintaining client relationships such that an on-going line of business contracts is maintained.

As critics have noted, the large consultancies work across multiple industries and from project to project.

Despite claiming they internally manage potential conflicts of interest through systems of ‘Chinese walls’, numerous corporate scandals from Enron to more recent times show these conflicts appear a feature of the business.

Indeed, when it comes to climate change, it’s not as if the consulting firms’ own employees haven’t noted the ethical and moral dilemmas of advising on emissions reduction while at the same time maintaining very profitable on-going relationships with the key producers of the climate crisis. 

Some years ago, when researchers interviewed a partner in one large consultancy that worked for major coal mining companies, he noted that while many of his younger consultants were quite passionate about climate change and did research in their own time, ‘That’s nice, but if a client doesn’t want to hear it, they’re not allowed to say it!’.

While these tensions are often hidden from public view, in 2021 in the lead-up to COP26 in Glasgow, 1,000 of McKinsey’s own employees signed an open letter expressing outrage at the firm’s continued engagement with the likes of BP, ExxonMobil, Gazprom and Saudi Aramco.

The signatories observed that the ‘climate crisis is the defining issue of our generation’, and urged McKinsey to publicly disclose the aggregate amount of carbon pollution produced by its clients and warned: ‘Our positive impact in other realms will mean nothing if we do not act as our clients alter the Earth irrevocably’. 

While the company’s partners responded by claiming McKinsey should be seen as helping the planet transition to a net-zero future, its staff pointed out that much of the consultancy’s work actually focuses on improving the efficiency of fossil fuel extraction and enhancing corporate profitability.

In the words of one departing employee: “Having looked at the genuine hours billed to the world’s largest polluters, it is very hard to argue today that McKinsey is the ‘greatest private-sector catalyst for decarbonisation’ … It may well be the exact opposite.”

Management consulting is an industry which has evolved historically in tandem with the emergence of industrial capitalism and management as a professional class.

Far from the image it likes to portray as a provider of independent expertise and advice, consultancy is itself a global business driven by the profit motive and the need to maintain on-going commercial relationships with its corporate clients. 

The fact that governments worldwide now turn to management consultants rather than their own public servants as the preferred source of policy and technical advice is an indicator of how thoroughly neoliberalism has denuded and corrupted the state and the collective interests of civil society. 

Climate change is now the most urgent and threatening issue facing the future of human society.

It says something about the parlous state of our democratic institutions that even on an issue of such critical importance, this too is now being handed over to the partisan whims of an already all-powerful corporate class. 

Christopher Wright is Professor of Organisational Studies at the University of Sydney Business School and a key researcher at the Sydney Environment Institute. His research explores societal and corporate responses to climate change. His most recent book on this course is Organising Responses to Climate Change: The Politics of Mitigation, Adaptation and Suffering (Cambridge University Press, 2022).

Originally published under Creative Commons by 360info™.

Mon, 14 Aug 2023 21:12:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Generative AI threatens women's employment more than men's, study finds

In brief: Another study on the impact that generative AI will have on jobs has been published. Mirroring the results of a similar recent report, it concluded that most people will see their positions augmented by the technology as opposed to them becoming automated. However, women and admin workers face the greatest risk of seeing their jobs replaced.

A new study from the International Labour Organization (ILO) looked at the potential effects generative AI will have on job quantity and quality. The bottom line is that most jobs and industries are only partially exposed to automation and are more likely to be complemented by AI.

Clerical workers were found to be the category with the greatest amount of technical exposure to generative AI. About a quarter of clerical tasks were considered highly exposed, while more than half (58%) had medium-level exposure. The study names typists/word processing operators, travel consultants, scribes, inquiry clerks, contact center information clerks, bank tellers, data entry clerks, and survey and market research interviewers as those whose jobs are most at risk of becoming fully automated.

The risk to clerical workers is a stark contrast to other occupational groups such as professionals, managers, and technicians, who only had a small share of tasks that are greatly exposed, while a quarter of tasks had medium-level exposure.

The study also found that generative AI is likely to impact more women than men. It noted that more than twice the share of female employment is potentially affected by automation, partly due to the higher number of women in clerical work.

ILO estimated that in high-income countries, 7.8% of female jobs (around 21 million) are potentially automatable, while the figure is just 2.9%, or 9 million, for men. Overall, 5.5% of total employment in high-income countries is potentially exposed to automation, whereas in low-income countries, the risk only applies to 0.4% of all employment.

The study, which used the latest GPT-4 large language model that powers ChatGPT, notes that the socioeconomic impacts of generative AI will largely depend on how its diffusion is managed. It also warns that the costs to affected workers could be "brutal."

ILO's finding mirror a similar report from IBM this week that also predicted generative AI will augment rather than replace jobs. However, the study added that 40% of the global workforce will have to learn new skills over the next three years due to AI implementation, and warned that while AI won't replace people, people who use AI will replace people who don't.

Tue, 22 Aug 2023 01:11:00 -0500 Rob Thubron en-US text/html
Killexams : AI unlikely to destroy jobs, but cost to certain workers may be 'brutal' — UN study

Generative AI is more likely to complement existing jobs than take over them entirely, though certain roles, such as clerical work, could see more of their tasks automated than others. 

According to an Aug. 21 Generative AI and Jobs study by the International Labour Organization — a United Nations agency — 24% of clerical tasks are considered highly exposed to automation, with an additional 58% with medium-level exposure.

Tasks with high and medium GPT-exposure by occupational category. Source: ILO

Typists, travel consultants, bank tellers, contact center clerks, bookkeeping and data entry clerks, hotel receptionists and secretaries are the administration roles most at risk, the figures show.

This, according to the ILO, could suggest that women could be more at risk, given their higher representation in administrative roles.

“3.7 percent of all female employment in the world is in jobs that are potentially automatable with generative AI technology, compared with only 1.4 percent of male employment.”

Meanwhile, AI automated work is more likely to impact employees in high-income countries (5.5%) compared to low-income countries (0.4%), the report found.

Occupations with high automation potential by income level and sex. Source: ILO

The ILO’s study on generative AI mostly focused on the impact of chatbot applications, such as OpenAI’s ChatGPT and Google’s Bard.

Crypto customer service

The ILO report also shows customer service and coordination-related tasks as having high automation potential, along with data management and record keeping, information processing and language services, tasks related to responding to inquiries. 

Table showing tasks with high automation potential clustered into thematic groups. Source: ILO

Many customer service roles were lost in the most recent crypto winter of 2022, which saw some of the industry’s heavyweights in Binance, Coinbase and Kraken significantly reduce headcounts, including in customer service.

Currently, customer service roles in Web3 comprise 832 (2.5%) of the total 33,846 listings on cryptocurrency job board

Related: Dear crypto writers: No one wants to read your ChatGPT-generated trash

However, the ILO concluded that the workforce as a whole won't be too affected by AI and that AI’s overall impact were neither particularly positive nor negative for now — rather, its impact will depend on how GPTs are managed and regulated.

“Without proper policies in place, there is a risk that only some of the well-positioned countries and market participants will be able to harness the benefits of the transition, while the costs to affected workers could be brutal,” it wrote. 

ILO’s findings are more optimistic than that of everyday Americans, with a recent survey revealing that 62% of the U.S. population believes that AI will have a major impact in the workplace over the next two decades, leaving many Americans “wary” and “worried” about what their future holds.

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