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KCNA course outline - Kubernetes and Cloud Native Associate (KCNA) Updated: 2024

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Exam Code: KCNA Kubernetes and Cloud Native Associate (KCNA) course outline January 2024 by Killexams.com team

KCNA Kubernetes and Cloud Native Associate (KCNA)

Exam Specification:

- exam Name: Kubernetes and Cloud Native Associate (KCNA)
- exam Code: KCNA
- exam Duration: 90 minutes
- exam Format: Multiple-choice questions
- Passing Score: 70%

Course Outline:

1. Introduction to Kubernetes and Cloud Native Technologies
- Understanding the fundamentals of Kubernetes and its role in cloud-native architecture
- Exploring the key concepts of containerization and container orchestration
- Overview of cloud-native technologies and their benefits

2. Kubernetes Architecture and Components
- Understanding the architecture of Kubernetes clusters
- Exploring the roles and responsibilities of various Kubernetes components
- Overview of Kubernetes networking and storage

3. Deploying Applications on Kubernetes
- Creating and managing Kubernetes deployments and pods
- Configuring and scaling application replicas
- Understanding Kubernetes services and service discovery

4. Kubernetes Networking and Service Mesh
- Configuring and managing Kubernetes networking
- Understanding Ingress controllers and load balancers
- Introduction to service meshes and their benefits

5. Monitoring and Logging in Kubernetes
- Implementing monitoring and logging solutions for Kubernetes clusters
- Understanding Kubernetes metrics and logs
- Exploring popular monitoring and logging tools in the Kubernetes ecosystem

Exam Objectives:

1. Understand the fundamentals of Kubernetes and cloud-native technologies.
2. Demonstrate knowledge of Kubernetes architecture and its components.
3. Deploy applications on Kubernetes and manage application replicas.
4. Configure and manage Kubernetes networking and service discovery.
5. Implement monitoring and logging solutions for Kubernetes clusters.

Exam Syllabus:

The exam syllabus covers the following Topics (but is not limited to):

- Introduction to Kubernetes and cloud-native technologies
- Kubernetes architecture and components
- Deploying applications on Kubernetes
- Kubernetes networking and service mesh
- Monitoring and logging in Kubernetes
Kubernetes and Cloud Native Associate (KCNA)
Linux-Foundation Kubernetes course outline

Other Linux-Foundation exams

LFCS Linux Foundation Certified System Administrator
FOCP FinOps Certified Practitioner
KCNA Kubernetes and Cloud Native Associate (KCNA)

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KCNA
Kubernetes and Cloud Native Associate (KCNA)
http://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/KCNA
Question: 30
Which project in this list is a leading project in the observability space?
A. Jaeger
B. Vitess
C. Argo
D. Kubernetes
Answer: A
Explanation:
https://github.com/cncf/landscape#trail-map
Question: 31
What is scheduling in Kubernetes
A. Determining when to execute a cron-job
B. Assigning pods to nodes
C. Joining a new nodes to the clusters
D. Setting a time for automated tasks
Answer: B
Explanation:
https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/scheduling-eviction/
Graphical user interface, application
Description automatically generated
Question: 32
Which of the following are characteristics of Statefulsets?
A. Ordered, graceful deployment and scaling
B. Creates replica sets
C. Uses headless services
Answer: A
Explanation:
https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/workloads/controllers/statefulset/
Graphical user interface, text, application, email
Description automatically generated
Question: 33
Which control plane component is responsible for scheduling pods?
A. kube-proxy
B. kube scheduler
C. kubelet
D. kube api-server
Answer: B
Explanation:
https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/overview/components/
Graphical user interface, text, application
Description automatically generated
Question: 34
What is a benefits of Kubernetes federation?
A. Avoids scalability limits on pods and nodes
B. Creates highly available clusters in different regions
C. Low latency
Answer: A,B,C
Question: 35
Which prometheus metric type represents a single number value that can increase and decrease over time?
A. Gauge
B. Histogram
C. Summary
D. Counter
Answer: A
Explanation:
https://prometheus.io/docs/concepts/metric_types/#gauge
Graphical user interface, text
Description automatically generated
Question: 36
What is OPA?
A. Open Permission Agent
B. Online Policy Audit
C. Open Policy Agent
D. Offline Policy Accessor
Answer: C
Explanation:
https://www.cncf.io/projects/open-policy-agent-opa/
Graphical user interface, text, application, email
Description automatically generated
Question: 37
Which of the following is not the part of Kubernetes Control Plane?
A. kube scheduler
B. etcd (pronounce: esty-d)
C. kube api-server
D. kube-proxy
Answer: D
Explanation:
https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/overview/components/
Graphical user interface, diagram, application
Description automatically generated
Question: 38
Which access control component of Kubernetes is responsible for authorization and decides what requestor is allowed
to do?
A. Service Account
B. Role-based access control ‘RBAC’
C. Deployment
Answer: B
Explanation:
https://kubernetes.io/docs/reference/access-authn-authz/authorization/
Text, letter
Description automatically generated
Question: 39
Which role is responsible of creating service level indicator ‘SLI’, service level objective ‘SLO’, & Service Level
Agreements ‘SLA’
A. Site reliability engineer ‘SRE’
B. DevOps
C. GitOps
D. Security and compliance engineer
E. Developer
Answer: A
Explanation:
https://www.atlassian.com/incident-management/kpis/sla-vs-slo-vs-sli
Text
Description automatically generated
Question: 40
Which is NOT a use case for the Kubernetes dashboard?
A. Troubleshooting any issues with applications
B. Managing running applications
C. Installing new Kubernetes cluster
D. Managing the entire Kubernetes cluster
Answer: C
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Linux-Foundation Kubernetes course outline - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/KCNA Search results Linux-Foundation Kubernetes course outline - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/KCNA https://killexams.com/exam_list/Linux-Foundation Introduction to Kubernetes No result found, try new keyword!Would you like to simplify software container orchestration and find a way to grow your use of Kubernetes without adding infrastructure complexity? Then this is the course for you! In this course ... Fri, 30 Dec 2022 14:57:00 -0600 https://www.usnews.com/education/skillbuilder/introduction-to-kubernetes-1_course_v1:LinuxFoundationX+LFS158x+1T2022_verified The Linux Foundation

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Tue, 19 Sep 2023 11:59:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.sdxcentral.com/directory/linux-foundation/
Linux Foundation announces new certification and courses in open source development

The Linux Foundation announced that it created three new training courses on the edX platform, which cover Linux, Git, and other open source development tools. 

The courses can be taken individually or combined to earn a Professional Certificate in Open Source Software Development, Linux and Git.

Open Source Software Development: Linux for Developers (LFD107x) covers concepts that are crucial in developing open-source software, as well as how to work productively in a Linux environment. Students will learn about Linux systems, including key concepts like installation, desktop environments, text editors, important commands and utilities, command shells and scripts, filesystems, and compiling software.

The second course, Linux Tools for Software Development (LFD108x) goes over the tools that one would use on everyday work in Linux development. It is intended for developers that are experienced with working on any operating system that want to learn the basics of open-source development. 

The final course, Git for Distributed Software Development (LFD109x), offers an introduction to Git and it will prepare participants to use Git to create new repositories or to clone existing ones, commit new changes, review revision histories, and more. 

To earn the professional certificate, participants must enroll in the program, complete all three courses, and pay a Checked certificate fee of $149 per course. 

Tue, 18 Jan 2022 10:00:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://sdtimes.com/os/linux-foundation-announces-new-certification-and-courses-in-open-source-development/
Carrier Grade Linux

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Foundation courses

Foundation courses for international students provide an entry route into many of the undergraduate courses at Manchester. A foundation course is the first step on the way to successfully obtaining your degree.

Many international school systems are based on one year less at high school and one year more at university compared with the English system. A foundation programme is a bridging course designed to equip students with the appropriate academic grounding for a UK degree.

The foundation syllabus may also include additional English language teaching if candidates need to Improve their proficiency.

Foundation courses at Manchester

Our foundation courses have been specifically designed to provide you with the best possible preparation for entry into a wide range of undergraduate degree courses. If you successfully complete a foundation year, you can progress into Year 1 of your chosen degree, provided you have taken the relevant pathway modules and passed them at the required standard.

At Manchester we offer integrated foundation programmes on campus for courses in science and engineering and at nearby Xaverian College for biological sciences.

We also work with our foundation partner INTO Manchester to provide pathways guaranteeing an offer or interview to study at the University. 

Which nationalities need to do a foundation course

Students who have studied in a country with fewer than 13 years of school, and have not taken A-levels or the International Baccalaureate Diploma, may need to complete a foundation course before they enrol for a UK university degree.

If you are from one of the following countries, it is likely you will need to complete a foundation course before starting undergraduate study:

  • Bahrain
  • Bangladesh
  • Botswana
  • Brazil
  • China
  • Egypt
  • Indonesia
  • Iran
  • Japan
  • Jordan
  • Kenya
  • Korea
  • Kuwait
  • Latin America (including Mexico)
  • Nigeria
  • Oman
  • Pakistan
  • Peru
  • Qatar
  • Russia
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Syria
  • Taiwan
  • Thailand
  • Turkey
  • United Arab Emirates
  • Vietnam
Thu, 01 May 2014 21:56:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.manchester.ac.uk/study/international/admissions/foundation-courses/
Linux Foundation, CNCF, and Ethical Intelligence partner on new ethics in open-source course

The Linux Foundation, Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF), and Ethical Intelligence have all partnered up to create a free online course on ethics in open-source development. 

It is designed for developers looking to apply ethics to their coding practice, and for product managers looking to incorporate ethics-by-design technology into their workflows. 

According to the Linux Foundation, developers aren’t always thinking through how a piece of code could be used by a bad actor or how an algorithm might affect different classes of people.  

They explained that this is why it is important to include ethical principles like transparency and accessibility in open source. 

After this course, students should be able to assess technology for ethical blind spots, apply ethical critical thinking techniques, understand the Ethics Journey Cycle in open-source development, and utilize ethics as a decision-making tool for risk mitigation. They will also be prepared for roles like a Responsible Technologist or Ethics Developer Lead. 

The course includes two to three hours of material, including videos and quizzes. It was developed by Olivia Gambelin, CEO of Ethical Intelligence; Rahaf Albalkhi, member of the IEEE P7003-Algorithmic bias considerations working group; Dr. Michael Klenk, former management consultant; and Rand Hirmiz philosophy Ph.D candidate at York University who is specializing in the ethics of AI in healthcare. 

Registration for the course is now open. 

Tue, 17 May 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://sdtimes.com/os/linux-foundation-cncf-and-ethical-intelligence-partner-on-new-ethics-in-open-source-course/
Online Linux Administrator Course
Courses  >> Linux Administrator Online Course
Online Linux Administrator Course Content is designed by our working Linux Training professionals with a combined experience of nearly 10 years in Linux Administrator Training. These training professionals were brought together for this course development and once they started putting together their magical ideas, concepts, real life experience and problems, the end product was an exciting and highly relevant course. Come, Join our team and enter the world of Linux.

Our course is designed keeping three key things in mind; Simplicity, Efficiency and Syllabus.

  • Simplicity - The entire course is designed in a very simple way to ensure that you can master it without much difficulty. All you need to do is read, watch, and practice, and you can be an efficient Linux Administrator.
  • Efficiency- Our course takes you through a journey in which you will learn and experience a whole new world to its fullest. The course will help you attain an expert level knowledge and will help you be a class above your contemporaries.
  • Coverage - Our expert team knows what need to be learned in order to be a successful Linux Administrator, and they have put together a crispy syllabus that has it all. All the relevant Topics are covered in our course, with enough emphasis given to the most important bits.

This Linux Administrator course is an ideal platform for you to start learning and venturing into the vast ocean that Linux is. This will deliver you the right boost you need to start building a career in the highly prospective Linux space.

This course has the potential change your career and to point you towards the right direction. We have designed this course such that a person with minimum or no prior knowledge will be comfortable working with our text tutorials and watching videos. Join this course and equip yourself with the right tools to make it big in the world of Linux.

The structure of this Linux Administrator course is simple; We have 3 sections- Text Section, Videos Section, and Project Modules Section.
  • Text Section - You will be introduced to all concepts in the text format in this section, all Topics will be discussed in detail with examples.
  • Videos Section - Videos of explanation of concepts with an example will be available for you to watch and learn.
  • Project Modules Section - In this section you will be given assignments on each Topic you have learnt. All assignment requirements will be based on the real life project model which will equip you with the real life Linux experience.

Hiring companies have access to all the assignments and projects done by students so they can select best overall Linux Administration expert for their jobs, just not the students who score well in exams or can talk well in interview.

Who can take Linux training?

Our Linux Administrator Course is open to all working professionals, and graduates who have BSc, BCA, MCA or Engineering degree. It is also open to current students in MCA and Engineering. No previous experience is required.

Only requirement is that students should have a strong desire to learn and push themselves further. You should be willing to work hard, learn and doing all assignments.

Fri, 06 Oct 2017 03:33:00 -0500 text/html https://www.siliconindia.com/online_courses/linux_administrator-cid-19.html
Mobile Linux distributions

This is a list of GNU/Linux distributions designed to run on smartphones. While many support phones designed to run a mainline Linux kernel including the PinePhone and Librem 5, there are others that are able to run on phones that originally shipped with Android thanks to tools like Halium that allow them to use Linux kernels provided by makers of those Android phones.

Keep in mind that many of the operating systems listed below operating systems are a work in progress and may not be as stable or speedy as Android, may not support all of a phone’s hardware, and may not be able to run as many mobile-friendly applications. But most have at least a working web browser, which enables you to run web applications. Some allow you to run Android apps in a container thanks to tools like Anbox. And many will let you run desktop Linux applications, even if they don’t scale well to phone-sized screens. If you connect a keyboard, mouse, and display, you can even use your phone as a tiny desktop computer.

Another thing to note is that Linux isn’t the only option if you’re looking for a free and open source, privacy-focused operating system for your phone. Some other options are listed below the Mobile Linux comparison table.

Mobile Linux Distributions
Homepage and/or download links User interfaces Devices supported Description/Notes (as of March, 2021) Update frequency
Arch Linux ARM GitHub

Downloads

Phosh PinePhone

PineTab

This customizable operating system is available with a choice of the Phosh user interface or a lightweight, barebones build that you can control with keyboard and mouse or via SSH from another computer. It’s under active development, with frequent updates released. Frequently updated
Droidian Homepage

Bug Tracker

Downloads

Phosh Multiple phones This GNU/Linux distribution is based on Mobian (see below), which is a Debian-based distribution optimized for mobile devices including smartphones and tablets. While Mobian is designed for smartphones that can use a mainstream Linux kernel, Droidian uses Halium and libhybris to bring the operating system to Android phones. ?
ExpidusOS Homepage

Wiki

Downloads

Xfce-based UI PinePhone This fork of Void Linux boots on the PinePhone, but wireless capabilities are unavailable in the initial pre-alpha build that has been released so far. Occasional
Fedora Wiki

GitHub

Phosh PinePhone The mobile port of Fedora is still in the early stages, but there are a set of packages designed for mobile devices available for the PinePhone. Monthly (or longer) releases
Gentoo Gentoo Wiki

Install instructions

Lomiri

Plasma Mobile

Phosh

Sway

Framebuffer terminal with keyboard

Pinephone The mobile port of Gentoo is in the very early stages of development and must be built from scratch since there are no pre-compiled images. ?
LuneOS Wiki

Devices (click for download links and installation instructions)

Luna Next  

PinePhone and several Google, HP, and Raspberry Pi devices

LuneOS is an open source version of the webOS operating system designed for the HP TouchPad tablet and Palm phones like the Palm Pre. Based on webOS Open Source Edition, the operating system has a Linux kernel, the Luna Next user interface. Unfortunately development has largely slowed to a crawl in latest years. Infrequent (last major update in 2019)
Maemo Leste Homepage

Wiki

Downloads

Hildon PinePhone

Motorola Droid Bionic & Droid 4

Nokia N9, N900 & N950

PineTab

Raspberry Pi 2, 3 & 4

Generic ARM64 images

Maemo Leste is community-developed open source continuation of Nokia’s abandoned Maemo operating system. The latest version is based on Devuan Linux and it has a user interface that’s a little different (and more retro) than most other smartphone operating systems. Varies by device, but fairly frequent
Manjaro ARM Forum

Downloads

Lomiri

Phosh

Plasma Mobile

PinePhone One of the most actively developed Smartphone Linux distributions, this is the default OS for PinePhone models that will ship starting in Q2, 2021. Frequent alpha, beta, and dev builds
Mobian Homepage

Wiki

Downloads (milestone builds)

Downloads (daily builds)

Phosh Librem 5

PinePhone

PineTab

This unofficial build of Debian for smartphones was first introduced in the summer of 2020 and quickly became one of the more robust GNU/Linux distributions available for phones. Nightly builds are available
Nemo Mobile Homepage

GitHub

Downloads

Glacier PinePhone This community-supported, open source project continues the development of the MeeGo operating system originally backed by Intel, Nokia, and the Linux Foundation. Like Sailfish OS, Nemo Mobile is based on the Mer operating system, but while Sailfish has some proprietary components including its user interface, Nemo does not. Starting in mid-March, 2021 Nemo for the PinePhone is based on Manjaro. After a slow start, development has picked up. Recent builds based on Manjaro are available at GitHub.
Mobile NixOS Homepage

GitHub

Install instructions

No default UI Many This mobile version of the NixOS GNU/Linux distribution can be installed on the PinePhone and a number of smartphones that originally shipped with Android. It’s designed to be highly configurable, but there are no pre-built images. You’ll need to build your own following the installation instructions and notes for your specific device. But you can see what it looks like with an X11 display manager (not optimized for mobile). Monthly progress updates posted to mobile.nixos.org 
OpenMandriva Lx Downloads Plasma Mobile PinePhone Starting with OpenMandriva Lx 4.2, the operating system has been ported to run on devices with 64-bit ARM processors with builds available for Raspberry Pi and Pine64 computers, among others. There’s also a PinePhone build that’s not considered “final quality” yet. Too early to tell
openSUSE Wiki

Downloads (stable)

Downloads (dev)

Phosh

Plasma Mobile

PinePhone OpenSUSE is a popular desktop GNU/Linux distribution that has started offering mobile builds for the PinePhone relatively recently. Early builds have been a little rough around the edges, but like most operating systems for the PinePhone, OpenSUSE has been better over time as developers Improve stability, performance, and add features. Frequent releases
postmarketOS Homepage

Wiki

Installation Guide

PinePhone images

Many Hundreds but the PinePhone is the most actively supported PostmarketOS was founded in 2017 as a project that would give smartphones a 10-year lifecycle by allowing users to replace Android with a GNU/Linux distribution based on Alpine Linux that would remain up to date indefinitely even after manufacturer’s end support. Now over 250 different devices can at least boot the operating system, although some features may not be available on all devices. Weekly releases for the PinePhone
PureOS Homepage

Wiki

Source

Pipeline Image builds for the Librem 5

Installation guide for the PinePhone

Phosh Librem 5

PinePhone

Originally developed by Purism for the PinePhone, this operating system was the first to use the open source phosh “phone shell” user interface optimized for small touchscreen displays. It’s now used by many other distros, as are other packages developed for PureOS including the virtual keyboard. PureOS is based on the same GNU/Linux distribution that runs on Purism’s laptop computers, and can run desktop applications as well as mobile apps (but they’ll look best with an external display). It’s also been ported to run on the PinePhone. Actively developed by Purism
Sailfish OS Homepage

Wiki

Lipstick Select Sony phones

Gemini PDA

PinePhone

This Mer-based operating system is a continuation of the open source Maemo project that had been abandoned by Nokia. While the underlying OS is oen source, it has a proprietary user interface based on Lipstick. Developed by a company called Jolla, you can purchase a Sailfish X license for certain smartphones, or register fr a free trial with a limited feature set and limited support. If you have a PinePhone you can also download a pre-built image or follow Pine64’s instructions for using a flashing script. T Actively developed by Jolla
SkiffOS GitHub N/A Pinephone SkiffOS is a lightweight OS designed to boot quickly and support containers, allowing you to run guest operating systems in a containerized environment while updating the host OS (SkiffOS) separately. Available for a wide-range of devices including PCs, Macs, Cloud VMs, and single-board computers like the Raspberry Pi, SkiffOS also offers images for the PinePhone with support for Manjaro, KDE Neon, and Ubuntu Touch. ?
Sxmo Latest images Sxmo PinePhone Sxmo is really a user interface and set of tools using “suckless” design rather than a standalone operating system. Images available for download are based on postmarketOS. More details can be found in the Sxmo documentation. Occasional
Ubuntu Touch Homepage

Installer (for supported devices)

PinePhone installation instructions

PinePhone image downloads

Porting guidelines

Lomiri Many In 2013 Canonical announced plans to port its popular Ubuntu Linux distribution to run on smartphones and launch a phone called the Ubuntu Edge. But after a failed crowdfunding campaign the company scrapped the phone and continued work on the operating system… for a few years. Canonical ended development of Ubuntu Touch in 2017, but the project was picked up by an independent development team called UBPorts, which has continued to support and update Ubuntu Touch ever since. This makes Ubuntu Touch one of the oldest, and one of the most robust GNU/Linux distributions with a thoroughly designed user interface (Lomiri, which was formerly known as Unity), and an installer application that makes it easy to load the operating system on dozens of phones. Actively developed by UBPorts

These are some other open source operating systems that aren’t necessarily GNU/Linux distributions. Some are basically forks of Google Android that are based on Android Open Source Project code, but stripped of proprietary Google apps and services in order to focus on free software and/or offer a more privacy-focused experience. Others are

Other open source smartphone operating systems (not necessarily Linux)

  • Genode is a free and open source operating system framework that uses its own microkernel designed to run on x86, ARM, or RISC-V hardware. While Genode itself isn’t an OS, it’s the technology behind operating systems like Sculpt OS, and the developers behind Genode have announced plans to port the framework and a version of Sculpt OS to run on the PinePhone in 2021.
  • Potabi is an upcoming mobile and desktop operating system that will use a FreeBSD kernel. It’s expected to use the Lomiri user interface on mobile devices, but development is still in the planning stages. Developer Fivnex plans to sell its own hardware with Potabi pre-installed.
  • Google-free Android
    • /e/ is a version of Android that’s been stripped of all proprietary Google apps and services. Designed to emphasize user control and privacy, the operating system still looks and works like Android, but it uses non-Google app stores and services to enable most Android apps to run in a way that respects user privacy. /e/ can be installed as a replacement for the software that ships on many Android phones, but you can also buy some phones that come with the operating system pre-installed.
    • Replicant is an open source Android distribution designed to rely as much as possible on free software including the bootloader. While most phones have proprietary modem firmware, Replicant’s developers also recommend using the software on devices that can isolate the modem from the rest of the system. As a result, only a handful of older phones and tablets are officially supported.
    • GrapheneOS is an open source Android fork designed to emphasize privacy and security. Not only does it ship without Google services, but its developers focus on improving the security of the web browser, app permissions, sandboxing, and more. GrapheneOS officially supports Google Pixel 3 and later smartphones and you can find installation instructions at the GrapheneOS website.
    • There are also dozens of other custom ROMs based on Google Android, many of which are open source projects in their own right. LineageOS is probably the most well known, but you can find other popular options at the xda-developers website.
Fri, 01 Apr 2022 02:30:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://liliputing.com/mobile-linux-distributions/
Microsoft, Linux Foundation Find Common Ground

Last week, Microsoft and the Linux Foundation sent a joint open letter to the American Law Institute to protest the group's draft Principles of the Law of Software Contracts. The ALI, a nonprofit group whose stated purpose is "to promote the clarification and simplification of the law and its better adaptation to social needs," published the draft last August as part of an effort to deliver judges clearer guidelines for interpreting software licensing agreements.

The ALI is proposing that two new "non-disclaimable" warranties be added to best practice guidelines for software licensing. One warranty would make software developers liable for infringing on patents and copyrights, while the other would make contributors to open-source software liable for material defects in the software. The law currently allows contributors and licensors of open source to avoid liability by offering their wares on an "as-is" basis.

The GPL and many other free software licenses expressly state that the authors have no liability pertaining to the functioning--or non-functioning--of the software, said John Locke, principal consultant at Freelock Computing, a Seattle-based open-source consultancy.

"Legislation that imposes a burden of providing a warranty against defects would seem to go against the GPL, which would mean people couldn't use GPL software wherever this ALI principle was applied," Locke said.

The ALI's proposal would also take away commercial software vendors' ability to draw up End User License Agreements (EULAs) that distance themselves from any kind of warranty that their software is bug-free, Locke added.

In a Sunday post to the Microsoft On The Issues blog, Horacio Gutierrez, corporate vice president and deputy general counsel of Intellectual Property and Licensing, said certain provisions of the ALI's proposal "do not reflect existing law and could disrupt the well-functioning software market for businesses and consumers, as well as create uncertainty for software developers."

Jim Zemlin, executive director of the Linux Foundation, noted that the issue is one area in which the open-source community and Microsoft see eye to eye.

"The principles outlined by the ALI interfere with the natural operation of open-source licenses and commercial licenses as well by creating implied warranties that could result in a tremendous amount of unnecessary litigation, which would undermine the sharing of technology," Zemlin said in a Monday blog post.

Sun, 10 Dec 2023 22:35:00 -0600 text/html https://www.crn.com/news/applications-os/217500712/microsoft-linux-foundation-find-common-ground
Linux Foundation Connectivity Grows Portfolio with ISP Toolbox and Magma Projects
  • The LF Connectivity project umbrella, which addresses connectivity challenges for enhanced and emerging access technologies expands with 2 new projects
  • Meta contributes ISP Toolbox to LFC, a set of business, network and marketing tools to empower ISP deployments
  • LFC now is home of Magma Project, enabling synergies across packet core and connectivity solutions

SAN FRANCISCO, Dec. 19, 2023 /PRNewswire/ -- LF Connectivity (LFC), a Linux Foundation open source project focused on advancing technologies to accelerate emerging network and connectivity applications, today announced Magma and ISP Toolbox have become LFC sub-projects.

LF Connectivity

Magma is an open-source software platform that gives network operators an open, flexible and extendable mobile core network solution and current Linux Foundation project. ISP Toolbox helps to empower ISP operators with products, tools, and resources to better run their business and connect more people to faster Internet.

"With 5G becoming more pervasive and NextG on the horizon, bandwidth and latency requirements will be higher than ever, with more applications leveraging augmented reality and immersive experiences that need to traverse networks," said Arpit Joshipura, general manager, Networking, Edge, IoT, the Linux Foundation. "We are pleased to  welcome the addition of Magma and ISP Toolbox to the LF Connectivity portfolio, bringing even more new open source tools to more organizations across the globe."

Formed in collaboration with Meta in Spring 2023, LF Connectivity's vision is to create a robust and sustainable open ecosystem that will enable a wide range of communication service providers to leverage open source tools and technologies to help with the end-to-end performance and quality of experience (QoE) requirements of emerging applications.

MAGMA
Previously open sourced by Meta in 2019, Magma moved to the Linux Foundation in early 2021. Magma enables operators to build and augment modern and efficient mobile networks at scale. Magma features an access-agnostic mobile packet core, advanced network automation and management tools, and the ability to integrate with existing LTE networks with use cases across both virtual and container Network Functions (xNFs) including fixed wireless access, carrier Wi-Fi, private LTE and 5G, network expansion, and mobile broadband.

Since joining the Linux Foundation, Magma has successfully transitioned into a community-driven open source project with multiple open source releases and an evolving roadmap delivered. 

ISP Tool box
Internet Service Providers (ISP) play a critical role in closing the connectivity gap. ISP Toolbox helps to empower ISP operators with products, tools, and resources to better run their business and connect more people to faster Internet. Collaborating with network operators, equipment manufacturers, software developers, and other partners, ISP Toolbox introduces new initiatives and technologies that close the connectivity gap via free tools and resources to help ISPs grow their businesses and to help Improve connectivity. Specific tools provided include Business Network and Marketing Tools to empower ISP operators.

"Meta is pleased to contribute its ISP Toolbox to the Linux Foundation's open-source Connectivity project, which completes the portfolio alongside Terragraph, Open M-Plane, and Maveric technologies," said Shah Rahman, Engineering Director at Meta responsible for supporting open-source Connectivity projects. "By sharing these technologies with the community, we hope to further Improve global connectivity by enabling other companies and other institutions to participate and contribute to those projects."

ISP Toolbox and Magma join LFC's three initial sub-projects, initially contributed by Meta and developed in collaboration with industry partners:

  • Terragraph is a wireless technology solution that helps internet service providers deliver gigabit speed last-mile access to subscriber homes, enterprises, and multi-dwelling buildings easily and cost-effectively.
  • Open M-Plane is a software component of Meta's Evenstar hardware design for the configuration and management of the RAN. It is interoperable, hardware-independent, and aligned with O-RAN specifications to help enable mobile wireless connectivity by providing flexibility to operators looking to source hardware from different vendors as they deploy their own RAN solutions.
  • Maveric enables the development and evaluation of cellular network optimization algorithms before their deployment on the network. It is a developer platform that leverages AI/ML approaches to provide realistic cellular network representations and examples that demonstrate its use.

Project governance and infrastructure are in the works, but please visit www.lfconnectivity.org for more information or view the kick-off webinar recording, "Introducing LF Connectivity."

To participate in LFC, please visit the website and fill in the form at the bottom of the homepage: https://lfconnectivity.dev/.

Resources

About The Linux Foundation
The Linux Foundation is the world's leading home for collaboration on open source software, hardware, standards, and data. Linux Foundation projects are critical to the world's infrastructure including Linux, Kubernetes, Node.js, ONAP, PyTorch, RISC-V, SPDX, OpenChain, and more. The Linux Foundation focuses on leveraging best practices and addressing the needs of contributors, users, and solution providers to create sustainable models for open collaboration. For more information, please visit us at linuxfoundation.org.

The Linux Foundation has registered trademarks and uses trademarks. For a list of trademarks of The Linux Foundation, please see its trademark usage page: www.linuxfoundation.org/trademark-usage. Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds.

Media Contact
Jill Lovato
The Linux Foundation
jlovato@linuxfoundation.org

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SOURCE The Linux Foundation

Mon, 18 Dec 2023 22:00:00 -0600 en text/html https://markets.businessinsider.com/news/stocks/linux-foundation-connectivity-grows-portfolio-with-isp-toolbox-and-magma-projects-1032913524




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