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Exam Code: AAMA-CMA Practice test 2022 by team
AAMA-CMA AAMA Certified Medical Assistant

Follow a step-by-step guide to apply for the exam:
- Eligibility
- Documentation
- Policies
- Applying
- Scheduling
- Preparing
- Score Notification
- Certificate

Content Outline for the CMA (AAMA)® Certification Exam
I. A–G General
A. Psychology
1. Understanding Human Behavior
a. Behavioral theories
(1) Maslow
(2) Erikson
b. Defense mechanisms
(1) Common types
(2) Recognition and management

2. Human Growth and Development
a. Normal developmental patterns/milestones

3. Death and Dying Stages

B. Communication
1. Therapeutic/Adaptive Responses to Diverse Populations
a. Visually impaired
b. Hearing impaired
c. Age specific
(1) Geriatric
(2) Pediatric/adolescent
d. Seriously/terminally ill
e. Intellectual disability
f. Illiterate
g. Non-English speaking
h. Anxious/angry/distraught
i. Socially/culturally/ethnically diverse

2. Nonverbal Communication
a. Body language
(1) Posture
(2) Position
(3) Facial expression
(4) Territoriality/physical boundaries
(5) Gestures
(6) Touch
(7) Mannerisms
(8) Eye contact

3. Communication Cycle
a. Sender-message-receiver-feedback
b.Listening skills
(1) Active/therapeutic
c. Assess level of understanding
(1) Reflection
(2) Restatement
(3) Clarification
(4) Feedback
d. Barriers to communication
(1) Internal distractions
(a) Pain
(b) Hunger
(c) Anger
(2) External/environmental distractions
(a) Temperature
(b) Noise

4. Collection of Data
a. Types of questions
(1) Exploratory
(2) Open-ended
(3) Closed/Direct

5. Telephone Techniques
a. Call management
(1) Screening/gathering data
(2) Emergency/urgent situations
b. Messages
(1) Taking messages
(2) Leaving messages

6. Interpersonal Skills
a. Displaying impartial conduct without regard to race, religion, age, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, physical challenges, special needs, lifestyle choices
b. Recognizing stereotypes and biases
c. Demonstrating empathy/sympathy/compassion

C. Professionalism
1. Professional Behavior
a. Professional situations
(1) Displaying tact, diplomacy, courtesy, respect, dignity
(2) Demonstrating responsibility, integrity/honesty
(3) Responding to criticism
b. Professional image

2. Performing as a Team Member
a. Principles of health care team dynamics
(1) Cooperation for optimal outcomes
(2) Identification of the roles and credentials of health care team members
b. Time management principles
(1) Prioritizing responsibilities

D. Medical Law/Regulatory Guidelines
1. Advance Directives
a. Living will
b. Medical durable power of attorney
c. Patient Self-Determination Act (PSDA)

2. Uniform Anatomical Gift Act

3. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

4. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

5. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act (CLIA '88)

6. Americans with Disabilities Act Amendments Act (ADAAA)

7. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
a. Health insurance portability access and renewal without preexisting conditions
b. Coordination of care to prevent duplication of services

8. Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act
a. Patient's right to inspect, amend, and restrict access to his/her medical record

9. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA)
a. Controlled Substances Act of 1970

10. Medical Assistant Scope of Practice
a. Consequences of failing to operate within scope

11. Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (GINA)

12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

13. Consumer Protection Acts
a. Fair Debt Collection Practices Act
b. Truth in Lending Act of 1968 (Regulation Z)

14. Public Health and Welfare Disclosure
a. Public health statutes
(1) Communicable diseases
(2) Vital statistics
(3) Abuse/neglect/exploitation against child/elder
(a) Domestic abuse
(4) Wounds of violence

15. Confidentiality
a. Electronic access audit/activity log
b. Use and disclosure of personal/protected health information (PHI)
(1) Consent/authorization to release
(2) Drug and alcohol treatment records
(3) HIV-related information
(4) Mental health

16. Health Care Rights and Responsibilities
a. Patients' Bill of Rights/Patient Care Partnership
b. Professional liability
(1) Current standard of care
(2) Standards of conduct
(3) Malpractice coverage
c. Consent to treat
(1) Informed consent
(2) Implied consent
(3) Expressed consent
(4) Patient incompetence
(5) Emancipated minor
(6) Mature minor

17. Medicolegal Terms and Doctrines
a. Subpoena duces tecum
b. Subpoena
c. Respondeat superior
d. Res ipsa loquitor
e. Locum tenens
f. Defendant-plaintiff
g. Deposition
h. Arbitration-mediation
i. Good Samaritan laws

18. Categories of Law
a. Criminal law
(1) Felony/misdemeanor
b. Civil law
(1) Contracts (physician-patient relationships)
(a) Legal obligations to the patient
(b) Consequences for patient noncompliance
(c) Termination of medical care
(i) Elements/behaviors for withdrawal of care
(ii) Patient notification and documentation
(d) Ownership of medical records
(2) Torts
(a) Invasion of privacy
(b) Negligence
(c) Intentional torts
(i) Battery
(ii) Assault
(iii) Slander
(iv) Libel
c. Statutory law
(1) Medical practice acts
d. Common law (Legal precedents)

E. Medical Ethics
1. Ethical Standards

2. Factors Affecting Ethical Decisions
a. Legal
b. Moral

F. Risk Management, Quality Assurance, and Safety
1. Workplace Accident Prevention
a. Slips/trips/falls

2. Safety Signs, Symbols, Labels

3. Environmental Safety
a. Ergonomics
b. Electrical safety
c. Fire prevention/extinguisher use/regulations

4. Compliance Reporting
a. Reporting unsafe activities and behaviors
b. Disclosing errors in patient care
c. Insurance fraud, waste, and abuse
d. Conflicts of interest
e. Incident reports

G. Medical Terminology
1. Word Parts
a. Basic structure
(1) Roots/combining forms
(2) Prefixes
(3) Suffixes

2. Definitions/Medical Terminology
a. Diseases and pathologies
b. Diagnostic procedures
c. Surgical procedures
d. Medical specialties

II. H-M Administrative
H. Medical Reception
1. Medical Record Preparation

2. Demographic Data Review
a. Identity theft prevention
b. Insurance eligibility verification

3. Handling Vendors/Business Associates

4. Reception Room Environment
a. Comfort
b. Safety
c. Sanitation

5. Practice Information Packet
a. Office policies
b. Patient financial responsibilities

I. Patient Navigator/Advocate
1. Resource Information
a. Provide information about community resources
b. Facilitate referrals to community resources
c. Referral follow-up

J. Medical Business Practices
1. Written Communication
a. Letters
b. Memos/interoffice communications
c. Reports

2. Business Equipment
a. Routine maintenance
b. Safety precautions

3. Office Supply Inventory
a. Inventory control/recordkeeping

4. Electronic Applications
a. Medical management systems
(1) Database reports
(2) Meaningful use regulations
b. Spreadsheets, graphs
c. Electronic mail
d. Security
(1) Password/screen saver
(2) Encryption
(3) Firewall
e. Transmission of information
(1) Facsimile/scanner
(2) Patient portal to health data
f. Social media

K. Establish Patient Medical Record
1. Recognize and Interpret Data
a. History and physical
b. Discharge summary
c. Operative note
d. Diagnostic test/lab report
e. Clinic progress note
f. Consultation report
g. Correspondence
h. Charts, graphs, tables
i. Flow sheet

2. Charting Systems
a. Problem-oriented medical record (POMR)
b. Source-oriented medical record (SOMR)

L. Scheduling Appointments
1. Scheduling Guidelines
a. Appointment matrix
b. New patient appointments
(1) Identify required information
c. Established patient appointments
(1) Routine
(2) Urgent/emergency
d. Patient flow
(1) Patient needs/preference
(2) Physician preference
(3) Facility/equipment requirements
e. Outside services (e.g., lab, X-ray, surgery, outpatient procedures, hospital admissions)

2. Appointment Protocols
a. Legal aspects
b. Physician referrals
c. Cancellations/no-shows
d. Physician delay/unavailability
e. Reminders/recall systems
(1) Appointment cards
(2) Phone calls/text messages/e-mail notifications
(3) Tickler file

M. Practice Finances
1. Financial Terminology
a. Accounts receivable
b. Accounts payable
c. Assets
d. Liabilities
e. Aging of accounts
f. Debits
g. Credits
h. Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs)
i. Relative Value Units (RVUs)

2. Financial Procedures
a. Payment receipts
(1) Co-pays
b. Data entry
(1) Post charges
(2) Post payments
(3) Post adjustments
c. Manage petty cash account
d. Financial calculations
e. Billing procedures
(1) Itemized statements
(2) Billing cycles
f. Collection procedures
(1) Aging of accounts
(2) Preplanned payment options
(3) Credit arrangements
(4) Use of collection agencies

3. Diagnostic and Procedural Coding Applications
a. Current Procedural Terminology (CPT)
(1) Modifiers
(2) Upcoding
(3) Bundling of charges
b. International Classification of Diseases, Clinical Modifications (ICD-CM) (Current schedule)
c. Linking procedure and diagnosis codes
d. Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS Level II)

4. Third-Party Payers/Insurance
a. Types of plans
(1) Commercial plans
(2) Government plans
(a) Medicare
(i) Advance Beneficiary Notice (ABN)
(b) Medicaid
(3) Managed care organizations (MCOs)
(a) Managed care requirements
(i) Care referrals
(ii) Precertification
[a] Diagnostic and surgical procedures
(iii) Prior authorization
[a] Medications
(4) Workers' compensation
b. Insurance claims
(1) Submission
(2) Appeals/denials
(3) Explanation of benefits (EOB)

III. N-V Clinical
N. Anatomy and Physiology
1. Body as a Whole
a. Structural units
b. Anatomical divisions, body cavities
c. Anatomical positions and directions
d. Body planes, quadrants

2. Body Systems Including Normal Structure, Function, and Interrelationships Across the Life Span
a. Integumentary
b. Musculoskeletal
c. Nervous
d. Cardiovascular, hematopoietic, and lymphatic
e. Respiratory
f. Digestive
g. Urinary
h. Reproductive
i. Endocrine
j. Sensory

3. Pathophysiology and Diseases of Body Systems
a. Integumentary
b. Musculoskeletal
c. Nervous
d. Cardiovascular, hemtopoietic, and lymphatic
e. Respiratory
f. Digestive
g. Urinary
h. Reproductive
i. Endocrine
j. Sensory

O. Infection Control
1. Infectious Agents
a. Bacteria
b. Viruses
c. Protozoa
d. Fungi
e. Parasites

2. Modes of Transmission
a. Direct
b. Indirect
c. Airborne
d. Droplet
e. Inhalation

3. Infection Cycle/Chain of Infection

4. Body's Natural Barriers

5. Medical Asepsis
a. Hand hygiene
(1) Hand washing
(2) Alcohol-based hand rub
b. Sanitization
c. Disinfection

6. Surgical Asepsis
a. Surgical scrub
b. Sterilization techniques/Autoclave
(1) Preparing items
(2) Wrapping
(3) Sterilization indicators

7. Standard Precautions/Blood-borne Pathogen Standards
a. Body fluids
b. Secretions
c. Excretions
d. Blood
e. Mucous membranes
f. Personal protective equipment (PPE)
(1) Gowns
(2) Gloves
(3) Masks
(4) Caps
(5) Eye protection
g. Post-exposure plan

8. Biohazard Disposal/Regulated Waste
a. Sharps
b. Blood and body fluids
c. Safety data sheets (SDS)
d. Spill kit

P. Patient Intake and Documentation of Care
1. Medical Record Documentation
a. Subjective data
(1) Chief complaint
(2) Present illness
(3) Past medical history
(4) Family history
(5) Social and occupational history
(6) Review of systems
b. Objective data
c. Making corrections
d. Treatment/compliance

Q. Patient Preparation and Assisting the Provider
1. Vital Signs/Anthropometrics
a. Blood pressure
(1) Technique
(2) Equipment
(a) Stethoscope
(b) Sphygmomanometer
b. Pulse
(1) Technique
(a) Pulse points
(b) Rate and rhythm
c. Height/weight/BMI
(1) Technique
(2) Equipment
d. Body temperature
(1) Technique
(2) Equipment
e. Oxygen saturation/pulse oximetry
(1) Technique
(2) Equipment
f. Respiration rate
(1) Technique

2. Recognize and Report Age-Specific Normal and Abnormal Vital Signs

3. Examinations
a. Methods
(1) Auscultation
(2) Palpation
(3) Percussion
(4) Mensuration
(5) Manipulation
(6) Inspection
b. Body positions/draping
(1) Sims
(2) Fowlers
(3) Supine
(4) Knee-chest
(5) Prone
(6) Lithotomy
(7) Dorsal recumbent
c. Pediatric test
(1) Growth chart
(a) Measurements
(i) Techniques
b. OB-GYN test
(1) Pelvic exam/PAP smear
(2) Prenatal/postpartum exams

4. Procedures
a. Procedure explanation and patient instructions
b. Supplies, equipment, and techniques
(1) Eye irrigation
(2) Ear irrigation
(3) Dressing change
(4) Suture/staple removal
(5) Sterile procedures
(a) Surgical assisting
(b) Surgical tray prep
(c) Antiseptic skin prep
(d) Sterile field boundaries
(e) Surgical instruments
(i) Classifications
(ii) Instrument use

5. Patient Education/Health Coach
a. Health maintenance and disease prevention
(1) Diabetic teaching and home care
(a) Home blood sugar monitoring
(2) Instruct on use of patient mobility equipment and assistive devices
(3) Pre-/post-op care instructions
(4) Patient administered medications
(5) Home blood pressure monitoring and lifestyle controls
(6) Home anticoagulation monitoring
(7) Home cholesterol monitoring
b. Alternative medicine

6. Wellness/Preventive Care
a. Cancer screening
b. Sexually transmitted infections
c. Hygienic practices
(1) Hand washing
(2) Cough etiquette
d. Smoking risks and cessation
e. Recognition of substance abuse
f. Osteoporosis screening/bone density scan
g. Domestic violence screening and detection

R. Nutrition
1. Basic Principles
a. Food nutrients
(1) Carbohydrates
(2) Fats
(3) Proteins
(4) Minerals/electrolytes
(5) Vitamins
(6) Fiber
(7) Water
b. Dietary supplements

2. Special Dietary Needs
a. Weight control
b. Diabetes
c. Cardiovascular disease
d. Hypertension
e. Cancer
f. Lactose sensitivity/intolerance
g. Gluten free
h. Food allergies

3. Eating Disorders

S. Collecting and Processing Specimens
1. Methods of Collection
a. Blood
(1) Venipuncture
(a) Site selection
(b) Site prep
(c) Equipment
(i) Evacuated tubes
(ii) Tube additives
(iii) Needles
(2) Capillary/dermal puncture
b. Urine
(1) Random
(2) Midstream/clean catch
(3) Timed 24-hour collection
(4) Catheterization
(5) Pediatric urine collector
c. Fecal specimen
d. Sputum specimen
e. Swabs
(1) Throat
(2) Genital
(3) Wound
(4) Nasopharyngeal

2. Prepare, Process, and Examine Specimens
a. Proper labeling
b. Sources of contamination
c. Specimen preservation
(1) Refrigeration
(2) Fixative
d. Recordkeeping
e. Incubator
f. Centrifuge
g. Microscope
h. Inoculating a culture
i. Microbiologic slides
(1) Wet mount

3. Laboratory Quality Control/Quality Assurance
a. Testing protocols
b. Testing records and performance logs
c. Daily equipment maintenance
d. Calibration
e. Daily control testing
f. Monitor temperature controls
g. Reagent storage
h. CLIA-waived tests

4. Laboratory Panels and Performing Selected Tests
a. Urinalysis
(1) Physical
(2) Chemical
(3) Microscopic
(4) Culture
b. Hematology panel
(1) Hematocrit
(2) Hemoglobin
(3) Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
(4) Automated cell counts
(a) Red blood cell (RBC)
(b) White blood cell (WBC)
(c) Platelet
(5) Coagulation testing/INR
c. Chemistry/metabolic testing
(1) Glucose
(2) Kidney function tests
(3) Liver function tests
(4) Lipid profile
(5) Hemoglobin A1c
d. Immunology
(1) Mononucleosis test
(2) Rapid Group A Streptococcus test
(3) C-reactive protein (CRP)
(4) HCG pregnancy test
(5) H. pylori
(6) Influenza
e. Fecal occult blood/guaiac testing

T. Diagnostic Testing

1. Cardiovascular Tests
a. Electrocardiography (EKG/ECG)
(1) Perform standard 12-lead
(2) Lead placement
(3) Patient prep
(4) Recognize artifacts
(5) Recognize rhythms, arrhythmias
(6) Rhythm strips
b. Holter monitors
c. Cardiac stress test
2. Vision Tests
a. Color
b. Acuity/distance
(1) Snellen
(2) E chart
(3) Jaeger card
c. Ocular pressure
d. Visual fields

3. Audiometric/Hearing Tests
a. Pure tone audiometry
b. Speech and word recognition
c. Tympanometry

4. Allergy Tests
a. Scratch test
b. Intradermal skin testing

5. Respiratory Tests
a. Pulmonary function tests (PFT)
b. Spirometry
c. Peak flow rate
d. Tuberculosis tests/purified protein derivative (PPD) skin tests

6. Distinguish Between Normal/Abnormal Laboratory and Diagnostic Test Results

U. Pharmacology

1. Medications
a. Classes of drugs
b. Drug actions/desired effects
c. Adverse reactions
d. Physicians' Desk Reference (PDR)
e. Storage of drugs

2. Preparing and Administering Oral and Parenteral Medications
a. Dosage
(1) Metric conversion
(2) Units of measurements
(3) Calculations
b. Routes of administration
(1) Intramuscular
(a) Z-tract
(2) Subcutaneous
(3) Oral/sublingual/buccal
(4) Topical
(5) Inhalation
(6) Instillation (eye-ear-nose)
(7) Intradermal
(8) Transdermal
(9) Vaginal
(10) Rectal
c. Injection site
(1) Site selection
(2) Needle length and gauge
d. Medication packaging
(1) Multidose vials
(2) Ampules
(3) Unit dose
(4) Prefilled cartridge-needle units
(5) Powder for reconstitution
e. Six Rights of Medication Administration
(1) Right patient, right drug, right route, right time, right dose, right documentation

3. Prescriptions
a. E-prescribing
b. Controlled substance guidelines

4. Medication Recordkeeping
a. Reporting/documenting errors

5. Immunizations
a. Childhood
b. Adult
c. Recordkeeping
(1) Vaccine information statement (VIS)
d. Vaccine storage

V. Emergency Management/Basic First Aid
1. Assessment and Screening
a. Treatment algorithms/flow charts
b. Triage algorithms/flow charts

2. Identification and Response to Emergencies
a. Bleeding/pressure points
b. Burns
c. Cardiac and respiratory arrest
d. Foreign body obstruction
e. Choking
f. Diabetic ketoacidosis
g. Insulin shock
h. Bone fractures
i. Poisoning
j. Seizures
k. Shock
l. Cerebral vascular accident (CVA)
m. Syncope
n. Vertigo
o. Wounds
p. Cold exposure
q. Heat exposure
r. Joint dislocations/sprains/strains
s. Asthmatic attack
t. Hyperventilation
u. Animal bite
v. Insect bite
w. Concussion

3. Office Emergency Readiness
a. Equipment
(1) Crash cart supplies
(2) Automated external defibrillator
b. Emergency response plan
(1) Evacuation plan

AAMA Certified Medical Assistant
Medical Certified study help
Killexams : Medical Certified study help - BingNews Search results Killexams : Medical Certified study help - BingNews Killexams : Certified Clinical Medical Assistant (CCMA)

Stock Photo of a Nurse

Online Clinical Medical Assistant TrainingNational Health career Logo

Prepare for the CCMA Exam

Clinical medical assistants combine clinical and procedural knowledge, working across the domain of health care facilities to aid inpatient treatments and clinical operations. They are tasked with working directly with patients and supporting the work of doctors and other health care professionals. The 100% online course will prepare you to work as a Certified Clinical Medical Assistant (CCMA), designated by the National Healthcare Career Association (NHA).

Job Outlook for Certified Clinical Medical Assistants

The healthcare field offers one of the leading areas of opportunities for career growth today. Within healthcare, medical assistants are among the most in-demand professionals. NHA estimates that job openings for medical assistants are increasing by 9-15% each year.

The US Bureau of Labor Statistics concurs with the NHA estimate. Its data indicates job opportunities for medical assistants will grow by 23% overall by 2028. This is four times the expected average growth for all jobs.

Medical assistants earn $34,800 per year, or $16.73 per hour on average, according to BLS data.

Certified Clinical Medical Assistant FAQs


According to NHA, certified clinical medical assistants serve in a variety of functions that combine office operations and patient procedures. CCMA's may coordinate patient scheduling, facilitate office visits and manage patient records, including Electronic Health Records (EHR). They may also assist with exams and procedures such as EKG, phlebotomy, and laboratory procedures.


While CCMAs may serve in a variety of roles in the healthcare setting, including office processes, clinical procedures and patient management, Certified Nurses Assistants (CNAs) work full-time with patients and may help with basic care activities such as dressing, bathing, and moving patients while they are under medical care.


The healthcare environment operates on the basis of professionalism, precision and dedication to patient welfare. Medical assistant certification may be required for many jobs. Earning a certification such as the CCMA establishes a medical assistant as a caring, responsible professional who has undergone a study and assessment program to validate their credentials.


CCMAs commonly work in hospitals, physicians' offices, outpatient clinics, and other healthcare facilities, according to the BLS.

Course Objectives

Prepare to take and earn the Certified Clinical Medical Assistant (CCMA) exam

Learn the skills necessary to function as a member of the healthcare team in an ambulatory setting.

Know the standards for ethical behavior, therapeutic communication, protecting the privacy of patient information

Understand the importance of a first impression and a safe office environment

Summarize the HIPAA Privacy Rule and HIPAA Security Rule

Demonstrate basic medical terminology knowledge

Discuss government and private insurances

Identify the functions of the major body systems

Demonstrate how to write a chief complaint and obtain a patient history

Discuss the importance of medical and surgical asepsis

Explain the information contained in different types of medical records.

Identify the three methods used to perform venipuncture


Prerequisites and Requirements

There are no prerequisites to take the course.


Medical Terminology














Certified Clinical Medical Assistant





































Nancy Smith

Nancy Smith has over 30 years of experience in the healthcare industry. Her clinical experience includes working as a medical assistant for a network of rural health clinics, and as a medical coder, insurance claims specialist, and medical records auditor. She worked as a medical office manager for ten years, where she recruited and trained all medical assistants. Nancy holds a bachelor's degree in vocational education and has developed and taught medical assistant programs.


Registration and Enrollment

This course is powered by ed2go and 100% online. Start anytime.

Thu, 03 Mar 2022 09:44:00 -0600 en-US text/html
Killexams : Women Applying For Workers' Comp Should Use Female Doctors, Study Says

Advisors with female clients who need to file for workers’ comp stand the best chance of getting benefits if they use a female doctor for the evaluation, according to a new study.

Women who were injured on the job and evaluated by female doctors were 5% more likely to be certified as having an injury that qualified them for benefits than if the doctors were men, according to a study by the National Bureau of Economic Research in Cambridge, Mass., that examined more than 70,000 workers’ compensation claims.  

Moreover, the study found that women receive 8.5% more in benefits if they use a female doctor.

The researchers used what they considered a perfect demo of workers’ comp claimants—those in the Texas workers’ compensation insurance system. There, more than a third of claims involve dispute over an injured worker’s level of impairment, which automatically triggers an independent medical evaluation. And in the Texas system, an injured worker is randomly assigned to an independent doctor from a pool of doctors with appropriate credentials.

“The random assignment of doctors to patients means that differences in assessments between male and female doctors stem from the doctors themselves rather than from differences in the types of patients assigned to doctors,” the researchers wrote. “We show that being evaluated by a female doctor rather than a male doctor increases the likelihood that female claimants are evaluated as disabled and increases subsequent cash disability benefits females receive.”

In contrast, the gender of the doctor had no bearing on the likelihood that male patients would be certified as disabled for the purposes of workers’ comp, the study found.

When the researchers looked at how male doctors evaluate male versus female patients, they found there was a sizable gap between the rate of male patients being certified and the rate of female patients being certified, the study said. Female doctors, however, certified both male and female patients at the same rate.

“These results are consistent with male doctors evaluating female patients against a stricter standard than male patients and female doctors applying similar standards to male and female patients,” the researchers wrote.

While this study looked at workers’ compensation claims, there are many programs that rely on “gatekeepers” like doctors to help assess who gets a benefit and who does not, the study concluded. In the case of female claimants, being matched to female gatekeepers could result in a much better outcome, the study said.

“Research into other government programs that use gatekeepers to approve benefits could also reveal whether the programs are fair to women, including federal disability benefits, SNAP food stamps, and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families,” the researchers wrote. “If matching the gender of the applicants with their gatekeepers increases women’s access to social insurance benefits more broadly, then this practice may meaningfully affect the benefits women receive and can work to close the gender disparities.”

Mon, 10 Oct 2022 08:11:00 -0500 Jennifer Lea Reed text/html
Killexams : Tufts University researchers launching study to see if health shake prevents memory loss

BOSTON -- Local researchers are studying whether drinking a daily shake can help stave off memory loss. 

Researchers at Tufts University are launching a clinical trial to see whether drinking a specially designed healthy shake every day can help people control their weight and prevent memory loss as they age. 

They're recruiting people over 55 who are overweight or obese with no serious memory problems at baseline.  If you'd like more information, go to their website.

Mon, 03 Oct 2022 09:33:15 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Medical Transcription Market Share, Size, Growth, Industry Updates and Forecast 2028

The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content.

The report on Medical Transcription provides growth potential analysis of the market across all segments and brings forth a comprehensive analysis of factors such as consumer behavior, growth trends, growth drivers, and product utilization, and the latest development of the major key player in the industry along with a detailed study of brand positioning and price patterns.

Sep 26, 2022 (Heraldkeepers) -- Medical Transcription, also called MT, refers to an allied profession that transcribes voice-recorded medical reports. These reports are dictated by doctors, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. These reports can be voice files or notes made during lectures, or any other spoken material. These can be dictated via phone, uploaded digitally through the Internet, or by smartphone apps. Nurse practitioners, doctors, and other healthcare professionals dictate confidential notes about each visit. These notes are taken by doctors, nurse practitioners, and other healthcare providers. They are then transcribed into a complete record of each visit. A template is created based on the type and specialty of the practice. Sometimes, files are not edited with speech-to-text translations. These notes are then formatted and edited by the transcriptionists, who turn them into a final document. Medical transcriptionists use their medical terminology knowledge and critical thinking skills while they transcribe. They will stop and clarify any conflicting information they find, such as someone who is allergic to a medication. Medical transcriptionists typically complete a certificate program, which includes courses in anatomy, physiology, and medical specialties. A few complete associate’s programs. Some people call medical transcriptionists medical language specialists. They need to be able to use punctuation and grammar well. They must also be able to understand complex medical terminology and medical and surgical procedures. They must also be able to hear accents and use their auditory processing skills.

The Association for Healthcare Documentation Integrity (AHDI) is the professional association for medical transcriptionists. Depending on their experience, medical transcriptionists can apply for one of the two certifications. After completing a medical transcription program, new transcriptionists can take the test to become Registered Healthcare Documentation specialists (RHDS). Trained transcriptionists with less than two years of experience, or those who specialize in one field are eligible to take the exam. Medical transcriptionists who have obtained the RHDS certification are eligible to become Certified Healthcare Documentation specialists (CHDS) once they have completed their training. For their CHDS certification, medical transcriptionists need to have at least two years of experience in a multi-specialty or acute-care clinic setting. Medical transcriptionists work with your healthcare provider behind the scenes to ensure that your health history and information are accurately documented. They can also transfer it to other providers if necessary. They will not likely see you in the normal course of your treatment. With a few exceptions, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (“HIPAA”) gives you the right of access to your health information. Many providers provide online access to your electronic medical records (EMR) via their websites. Global market growth is due to rising patient numbers, increasing surgical procedures, and improving healthcare infrastructure.

The report on Medical Transcription provides growth potential analysis of the market across all segments and brings forth a comprehensive analysis of factors such as consumer behavior, growth trends, growth drivers, and product utilization, and the latest development of the major key player in the industry along with a detailed study of brand positioning and price patterns. It also includes information about the factors that are limiting the growth of the market which is useful for vendors when planning their strategies. These factors are important in identifying market growth opportunities. FutureWise analysts also help customers to understand more eccentric market parameters.

Research Methodology

Data mining is used to conduct a market study. This report includes information from companies, government agencies, trade associations, brokers, other regulatory and non-regulatory organizations, as well established companies. This information authenticates the research report on Medical Transcription and aids clients in making better decisions. The market dynamics are also covered in this report. The highly skilled professionals have gained critical and precise insights through extensive secondary and primary research.

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The Medical Transcription market research report is segmented by service type, by technology, by mode of procurement, by end user, and by region. It includes insights into the revenue value and sales volume for the period 2022-2028.

Medical Transcription Market Segmentation:

By Service Type

History and Physical Report
Discharge Summary
Operative Note or Report
Consultation Report
Others (Pathology Report, Radiology Report, etc.)

By Technology

Electronic Medical Records/Electronic Health Record (EMR/EHR)
Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS)
Radiology Information System (RIS)
Speech Recognition Technology (SRT)

By Mode of Procurement


By End User

Clinical Laboratories
Academic Medical Centers

By Region

North America
Latin America
Middle East and Africa

Medical Transcription Market Regional Analysis:

The Medical Transcription report breaks down its geographic outlook into regions like North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Middle East & Africa.

The study, which is based on the analysis period, provides information about projected growth rates for each regional market.

The Medical Transcription market topographies are analyzed in terms of market share, assembly volumes, and remuneration during the forecast period.

The report includes detailed market summaries for each region, which include consumption volumes, value trends, and profit margins to assist stakeholders in making quick and informed decisions.

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Major players included in the Medical Transcription Market:

Some of the key market players are

Acusis LLC
Transcend Services
Nuance Communications Inc.
MModal LLC
iMedX Inc.
Global Medical Transcription LLC
nThrive Inc.
Medi-Script Plus
TransTech Medical Solutions LLC

Competitive Landscape:

This report contains a detailed company profile and information about each company’s production, product offerings, revenue, and other relevant data.

Additionally, it includes information on gross margins and pricing trends for each manufacturer relative to their market share during the forecast period.

Objectives of the Study:

A detailed analysis of the global Medical Transcription market by service type, by technology, by mode of procurement, by end user, and by region.

Provide information about the factors that influence the market, such as drivers, opportunities, and restraints.

Forecasting and analysis of micro markets and the overall market.

Market size predictions for North America, Europe and the Asia Pacific, Latin America, and the Middle East/Africa.

A competitive analysis, including technological advancements, product launches, expansions, and acquisitions.

Other Features of the Report:

Competitive Analysis
What's Next
Market Data Forecast
Risks and Opportunity Assessment
Market Trends and Dynamics

These are some of the most important questions the report addresses

What are the key factors driving the market’s growth?
What is the market’s projected growth rate in the forecast period?
Which region will hold the largest market share?
What are the opportunities and threats vendors face in this market?
What are the Medical Transcription Market’s revenue, sales, and price analysis for the top manufacturers?

Table of Contents:

Market Introduction
Research Methodology
Executive Summary
Market Variables, Trends, and Scope
Market Overview
Market Analysis Tools
Market Segmentation
Regional Landscape
Market Share Analysis and Competitive Landscape
Company Profiles
Impact of COVID-19
Competitive Intelligence and Competitive Matrix
Major Deals and Strategic Alliances Analysis
Relevant Case Studies and Latest News Updates
Key Points from the Analysts at FutureWise Market Research

About FutureWise Market Research:

We specialize in high-growth niche market research and offer agility, flexibility, as well as customized solutions for our clients. Our market insights and consulting services allow our clients to stay ahead of their industries for many years.

FutureWise Market Research

Vinay T - Head of Business Development


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Sun, 25 Sep 2022 23:10:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Folic Acid May Help Decrease Risk of Suicide, Study Finds
  • A latest study investigated of taking folic acid was linked to a decrease in suicide attempts.
  • Over 12 million adults thought about suicide – with 1.2 million actually attempting to end their lives, in 2020 according to data from the CDC.
  • Researchers found people with a folic acid prescription experienced a 44% reduction in suicidal events.

New research published last week in JAMA Psychiatry investigated if taking the inexpensive vitamin folic acid may help reduce the risk of suicide.

“The importance of our study is that we have identified an inexpensive, widely available potential suicide prevention tool that has minimal if any side-effects,” lead author Robert Gibbons, PhD, Blum-Riese Professor of Biostatistics and Medicine at the University of Chicago, told Healthline.

In 2020, over 12 million adults thought about suicide – with 1.2 million actually attempting to end their lives, according to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

“Folic acid is a type of B vitamin,” said Nicole Roach, a registered dietician at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York. “Many foods contain folate or will be enriched with folic acid.”

She added that this nutrient is naturally high in foods such as vegetables, especially dark green leafy vegetables such as spinach, mustard greens, and asparagus.

“Other foods which contain folate include nuts, beans, oranges and orange juice,” she continued.

According to Roach, while these foods are naturally high in folate, there are other foods that will be fortified with folate, which means that while not naturally a good source, the vitamin is added during the manufacturing process.

“These foods include enriched breads, flours, pastas, rice, and cornmeal,” she said.

Roach emphasized the importance of making sure you consume enough folic acid, because it plays an important role in cell functioning and growth.

She said we typically need about 400 micrograms of folate per day, while people who are pregnant should aim for 600 micrograms per day and those who are breastfeeding should aim for 500 micrograms per day.

Gibbons and team collected the data of almost 870,000 patients from a U.S. pharmacoepidemiologic database of medical claims for patients filling a folic acid (vitamin B9) prescription from 2012 to 2017.

This process was then repeated with a control supplement (vitamin B-12).

Over 80 percent of patients in this study were female, and a little over 10 percent were aged 60 years or older.

Researchers found the group that filled a folic acid prescription experienced a 44% reduction in suicidal events, which includes suicide attempts and intentional self-harm.

Researchers also found that the longer people took folic acid, the lower their risk tended to be. Each month of taking folic acid was associated with an extra five percent decrease in the risk of attempted suicide during a 24-month follow-up period.

“We were surprised by the strong association between reduction is suicide attempt risk with increased duration of folic acid treatment, said Gibbons. “We were also pleased to see that our negative control, vitamin B12 showed no association with suicide attempt.”

He said that a randomized clinical trial of folic acid is already in the works.

“If confirmed in a large-scale randomized clinical trial, which we are pursuing with one of our nation’s largest healthcare providers, it could have the potential to save thousands of lives,” said Gibbons

Naomi Torres-Mackie, PhD, a clinical psychologist at Lenox Hill Hospital said the impact of vitamin deficiency on mood has been previously studied, with B vitamins being the most commonly examined, particularly B12.

“There have also previously been studies on folate and depression, she said. “Being mindful not to conflate depression and suicide, this study only looked at the latter, which is an important contribution to separate out and examine suicide in particular.”

Experts stress that more study is needed and that people in mental health crisis or who have thoughts of suicide should immediately seek medical help.

Torres-Mackie noted that it’s important that people who have thoughts of suicide are seen by a mental health professional who has training in suicide and crisis management.

“The specific way in which suicidal ideation is treated depends on the underlying cause, as thoughts of suicide can be related to a mental health condition, commonly psychosis, or depression.”

This study seems to have promise,” said Torres-Mackie.

However, she cautioned that more study is needed before folic acid can be accepted as a new way to prevent suicide.

“There are some barriers for access to traditional forms of suicide treatment, but if folic acid can be helpful in reducing suicide attempts, it has the potential to provide help on a large-scale basis to individuals who very much need it,” she said.

Torres-Mackie cautioned that “much more” research is necessary before getting to that point.

“And as the authors point out, a large-scale randomized clinical trial is needed before a causal relationship can be determined or before treatment recommendations should include folic acid,” Torres-Mackie concluded.

Dr. Alex Dimitriu, double board-certified in Psychiatry and Sleep Medicine and founder of Menlo Park Psychiatry & Sleep Medicine and BrainfoodMD, said that people who have thoughts of suicide are typically treated with a combination of medication and therapy.

“Lithium, ketamine, and anti-depressants have been shown to reduce suicidal behavior,” he continued. “I believe that neuroplasticity – our ability to adapt and think differently, is essential, especially when someone is in a crisis-like state such as suicidal ideation.”

He explained that certain medications might Improve neuroplasticity.

“In the case of folic acid, it plays a key role in the formation of various neurotransmitters, serotonin, norepinephrine and even BDNF – brain derived neurotrophic factor, which is like ‘miracle grow’ for certain brain areas,” said Dimitriu.

He considered the study “impressive.”

“Given the low downside or side effect profile of using folic acid, I would certainly give it a go,” Dimitriu said.

“Always seek professional help with anyone having suicidal thoughts,” said Dimitriu. “If it is truly urgent, safety first, call 911 or get the person to an emergency room to assure safety.”

He added that in his years of experience work, he cannot underscore how many people, who considered suicide, were so happy to be alive months later.

“Time heals, and you have to be safe to allow the healing to occur,” Dimitriu pointed out. “We live in a time of treatment options, use them.”

New research finds that the B-vitamin called folic acid may reduce risk of self-harm or attempted suicide by up to 44 percent.

Experts say that this might be due to the vitamin’s crucial role in brain health.

They also say much more research is needed before folic acid can be considered a viable way to prevent suicide.

Tue, 04 Oct 2022 10:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : How Daily Breathing Exercises Can Help Lower Blood Pressure as Much as Medication
  • In a new study, researchers said people who did short daily breathing exercises significantly reduced their blood pressure.
  • The participants used equipment that provided some resistance while they did their breathing.
  • Experts say utilizing daily breathing techniques can provide a number of health benefits.
  • They add that lifestyle factors such as diet and exercise are also important.

Using breathing techniques for 5 to 10 minutes a day might help lower blood pressure, according to a study completed at the University of Colorado, Boulder, and the University of Arizona.

In their study, researchers instructed participants to complete breathing exercises for 5 to 10 minutes daily using a breathing device. The participants were told to take 30 breaths as the machine provided resistance, so their respiratory muscles worked harder. The trial lasted six weeks.

Within two weeks of using the device, the researchers said they noticed improvements in blood pressure. The only side effects noted were temporary sore muscles and lightheadedness.

By the end of the six weeks, participants had an average decrease of 9mmHg in systolic blood pressure.

“A nine-point decrease in systolic blood pressure is tremendous,” Dr. Rigved Tadwalkar, a cardiologist at Providence Saint John’s Health Center in California, told Healthline. “While we have long known that deep breathing exercises can contribute to lowering blood pressure, it is surprising to learn of such a vigorous effect when adding resistance.”

Researchers said the results were as effective as taking blood pressure medication and possibly more effective than lifestyle changes, such as losing weight or reducing salt in your diet.

“As a reference, exercising is expected to reduce systolic blood pressure by approximately 5 to 8 mmHg,” explained Dr. Jim Liu, a cardiologist and clinical assistant professor of internal medicine at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center. “Sticking to a heart-healthy diet can decrease it by approximately 11 mmHg.”

“Hypertension is classified into different stages, with stage 1 including systolic between 130 to 139 mmHg and stage 2 including [greater than] 140 mmHg systolic,” Liu told Healthline. “Treatment differs depending on the stage. Therefore, a decrease in 9 mmHg may be the difference between having to take versus not taking blood pressure medications.”

When participants tried the breath training for six weeks, then stopped for six weeks, their blood pressure remained almost as low as right after the training period.

The study results were as of the end of the trial. Still, the researchers noted that blood pressure could continue to Improve with long-term use.

Young, healthy participants also benefitted from using the device.

Researchers said improving the strength of the diaphragm and other breathing muscles is not what caused the drop in blood pressure.

“We think the large, forceful breaths done with respiratory muscle strength training device likely lower sympathetic activity (the fight or flight response), which tends to be overactive in people with higher blood pressure,” said Daniel Craighead, lead author of the study and an assistant research professional in the Integrative Physiology of Aging Lab at the University of Colorado School of Integrative Physiology.

“We also think it improves the health of our blood vessels, which are critically important for preventing cardiovascular diseases,” he told Healthline.

How you breathe can also influence blood pressure.

“Slow, deep breathing can help lower blood pressure without medications,” said Rachel MacPherson, a certified personal trainer and nutrition coach. “If your doctor has approved this method for helping you control your blood pressure, using a deep breathing device may help. The [Food and Drug Administration] approved some of these devices to slow breathing and heart rate.”

“Some of these devices were originally developed for people with serious lung conditions, but further research on those with high blood pressure has found them useful for reducing it,” MacPherson told Healthline. “The devices regulate your breathing or help you strengthen your breathing muscles and Improve blood vessel function. They also increase the amount of nitric oxide, which widens your arteries for better blood flow and lower blood pressure.”

According to Craighead, the device used in the study was the Powerbreathe K3, which retails for $500. As part of his disclosure, Craighead told Healthline that Powerbreathe provided a research discount for the device but had no other involvement in the study. The National Institutes of Health funded the research.

“There are many different devices available online. Our research involved performing inspirations against very high resistance, so it’s most important that people look for a device with a high maximal resistance setting (the cheapest devices provide only low levels of resistance to inspiration, which can’t mimic our protocol),” explained Craighead. “I recommend people look for a device with a maximal inspiratory resistance setting of at least 100 cmH2O. I also recommend people consult with their doctor before starting inspiratory muscle strength training to ensure it’s safe for them.”

“Managing blood pressure is a combination of lifestyle measures and medications, depending on how high it is,” said Liu. “If someone’s blood pressure is just slightly above goal, lifestyle changes might be enough to treat it.”

Tadwalkar suggests the following lifestyle measures:

“There are also a large variety of blood pressure prescription medications,” added Tadwalkar. “Common medication classes are angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), calcium channel blockers, and diuretics. Depending on an individual’s clinical situation, a physician may prescribe drugs from other classes, including beta-blockers, vasodilators, or alpha-blockers. However, sometimes, it is clear a person needs blood pressure medications. But, we nearly always emphasize lifestyle measures before discussing pharmacologic therapies.”

Wed, 28 Sep 2022 13:40:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Heart attack: Could 'love hormone' help regenerate heart muscle cells?
  • Almost 18.6 million people die each year from cardiovascular disease, including coronary artery disease, which causes heart attacks.
  • Researchers from Michigan State University have found evidence that the hormone oxytocin helps stimulate the regeneration of lost heart muscle cells.
  • Scientists hope this discovery may one day help people regain heart muscle cells lost during a heart attack.

Heart disease is currently the leading cause of death worldwide — almost 18.6 million people globally died from cardiovascular disease in 2019.

The most common type of heart disease is coronary artery disease, which occurs when plaque builds up inside the blood vessels that supply the heart. When the heart does not receive the blood and oxygen it needs, a person may experience a potentially life-threatening heart attack, clinically called a myocardial infarction.

When heart muscle cells are deprived of blood and oxygen, they can start to die, damaging the heart.

Historically, scientists believed that heart muscle cells, called cardiomyocytes, could not regenerate. This meant any heart muscle cells a person lost during a heart attack they would be unable to regain over time. However, previous research shows heart muscle cells may be able to regenerate.

And now, a research team from Michigan State University presents evidence that a hormone called oxytocin may help stimulate the regeneration of cardiomyocytes. Researchers believe this finding may one day help restore lost heart muscle cells in people who have heart attacks.

This study appears in Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology.

Oxytocin is a naturally-occurring hormone produced in the hypothalamus region of the brain.

The hormone is usually associated with functions of the female reproductive system, including childbirth and breastfeeding.

According to Dr. Rigved Tadwalkar, a board-certified cardiologist at Providence Saint John’s Health Center in Santa Monica, CA, oxytocin does not have a medical role outside of obstetrics.

“The most common indications are for the promotion of labor and to control uterine bleeding in the postpartum setting,” he explained to Medical News Today.

Dr. Tadwalkar also pointed out that oxytocin is known as the “love hormone” because it promotes bonding and a positive mood.

“Oxytocin is increased by activities that we often find pleasurable and/ or fulfilling,” he noted. “Typically, these are mind-body activities like meditation, yoga, or sexual intimacy. Also included [are] conversation, cooking, sharing a meal with someone, being charitable, performing acts of kindness, as well as engaging in forms of touch such as hugging, kissing, and massage.”

Past research also shows that oxytocin has a positive impact on the heart, including by helping decrease blood pressure.

Why did researchers decide to look at oxytocin to potentially help with heart muscle cell regeneration?

“Regeneration is a very demanding process energetically and imposes severe restrictions on heart function, so we reasoned there should be some kind of ‘central control’ rather than it being completely autonomous,” study lead author Dr. Aitor Aguirre, assistant professor in the Department of Biomedical Engineering at Michigan State University, explained.

“Our educated guess, based on what is known about central control of other critical processes in the body, was potential neuroendocrine pathways controlled by the brain. With that in mind, we took about 20 or so important neuroendocrine hormones and [checked] out their ability to activate the epicardial stem cells, which participate in heart regeneration. Oxytocin was the top hit,” he said.

Dr. Aguirre and his team used both human tissue in vitro and zebrafish to study how oxytocin helps stimulate stem cells created from the epicardium of the heart — called epicardium-derived progenitor cells — to develop into cardiomyocytes.

“Oxytocin reprograms a population of adult cells in the outer layers of the heart — called the epicardium — and turns them into stem cells,” Dr. Aguirre further explained. “These stem cells migrate into the deeper layers of the injured heart — myocardium — and repair parts of the injury by releasing healing factors and transforming into lost cells — blood vessels, cardiomyocytes, [and] fibroblasts.”

Dr. Aguirre said that after further study, these findings could lead to a treatment to boost a person’s regenerative response:

“Oxytocin and several analogs are already employed in the clinic for other conditions, so it is easy to see it as a potential medication that could be administered to people right after myocardial infarction to boost endogenous regeneration — either as an injection in the bloodstream or maybe a pill using small molecule drugs. [This] could constitute a significant step forward to reduce mortality and morbidity from heart attacks and related conditions where the heart is injured.”

In addition to providing background on oxytocin, Dr. Tadwalkar told MNT that there is absolutely the potential for practical application of this study’s findings in humans.

“We [are] not all the way there yet, but oxytocin, or a similar analog that stimulates its receptor, could conceivably be utilized to regenerate the heart in humans after acute or chronic injury,” he said.

“Unfortunately, oxytocin exists only briefly in the human circulation [with a] short half-life,” cautioned Dr. Tadwalkar. “However, we could take advantage of this beneficial signaling pathway in humans by creating drugs that are higher in potency or with longer half-lives. Since we already use oxytocin clinically, this is not inconceivable.”

Yet Dr. Tadwalkar also emphasized the need to evaluate the potential side effects of an increased dose of oxytocin.

“When oxytocin is boosted naturally, we do not think there are any significant adverse effects,” he explained. “However, several studies have shown that oxytocin could promote dishonesty and fear, the latter due to selective social bonding. When oxytocin is used medically in the obstetric world, there are a variety of systemic side effects. Common ones from a cardiovascular perspective include changes in blood pressure and heart rate, as well as rhythm disturbances.”

MNT also spoke with Dr. Sanjiv Patel, a board-certified interventional cardiologist at MemorialCare Heart & Vascular Institute at Orange Coast Medical Center in Fountain Valley, CA, about this study. He said this was “an exciting start” to a potential way to regenerate heart cells.

“Right now there’s a lot of research going on in terms of reviving [the] damaged part of the heart,” he explained. “A lot of trials in the lab have been successful, but then in the real world when they do clinical trials, it has not been as successful. So this […] has promise, but I think it still has a long way to go still.”

Regarding this research, Dr. Patel said he would like to next see how effectively oxytocin helps regenerate cardiomyocytes.

“How does it regenerate into an effective heart muscle cell?” he asked. “At what point does it stop regenerating? What other factor does it need to increase the mass production of the cells within the heart?”

“We also need to find out under what conditions or what other stimulating factors or chemicals does it need to sustain the change so that it does Improve and not just transiently Improve and then you’re back to having a problem,” Dr. Patel added.

“That requires a lot of [study]. And after that, obviously, then advance into a hierarchy of mammals to see what happens in their hearts before we get to human levels,” he explained.

Tue, 04 Oct 2022 23:06:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : How Drinking 2-3 Cups of Coffee a Day May Help You Live a Longer Life

New research suggests that moderate coffee drinking may protect you from developing heart disease and prevent early death.

Oscar Wong/Getty © Provided by Health Oscar Wong/Getty

One of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world, there's long been debate over whether coffee is truly good for you. But the good news for coffee lovers everywhere is that a newly published study seems to add to the growing body of research supporting the benefits of coffee.

The study, which was published in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, suggests that two to three cups of coffee a day may actually protect you from developing heart disease and even early death.

"Decaffeinated, ground, and instant coffee, particularly at 2 to 3 cups/day, were associated with significant reductions in incident [cardiovascular disease] and mortality," researchers wrote. "Ground and instant but not decaffeinated coffee was associated with reduced arrhythmia."

With coffee being ubiquitous in most societies across the world and up to 80% of medical practitioners historically recommending that patients with cardiovascular disease avoid coffee, researchers for the current study wanted to examine whether that recommendation was really warranted.

Here's a closer look at what the study found and why coffee may actually help protect you from heart disease and increase longevity.

Related:6 Health Benefits of Coffee, According to a Nutritionist

What Health Risks Are Reduced by Drinking Coffee?

The observational study analyzed data from patients who participated in the UK Biobank, which is a large-scale biomedical database and research resource that includes coffee consumption habits for nearly 450,000 adults. The patients included in the research effort were free of heart disease or arrhythmia at the start of the study and were divided into four groups: People who drank caffeinated ground coffee, people who drank decaf coffee, people who drank caffeinated instant coffee, and people who didn't drink coffee at all.

Researchers analyzed medical and death records for patients after an average of 12.5 years for issues such as arrhythmia, heart disease, stroke, and death. The researchers also adjusted for factors like age, diabetes, ethnicity, high blood pressure, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, sex, smoking status, and tea and alcohol consumption.

As a result of their review, researchers found a variety of important benefits from coffee drinking including significant reductions in the risk for coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure and stroke when drinking ground, decaffeinated or caffeinated coffee. Ground coffee and instant coffee were also found to reduce risks for an irregular heartbeat, also known as arrhythmia.

"Our findings from the UK Biobank further corroborate the beneficial associations of habitual coffee intake as reported in latest population studies," the researchers wrote.

Study co-author Peter Kistler, Ph.D, head of clinical electrophysiology research at the Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute and head of electrophysiology at Alfred Hospital in Melbourne, told Health previous studies had linked coffee to a lowered risk of heart attacks, heart failure, and arrhythmias, but he said those efforts only involved a small number of participants and that the findings needed to be Verified by a larger in a larger population, as his effort did.

"There is significant public interest in the cardiovascular benefits of coffee," Kistler said.

Is This a Breakthrough Finding?

Though this latest development may be good news for coffee lovers, the findings actually support previous studies that found drinking between three to five cups of black coffee a day can be beneficial for a variety of health conditions, including:

"This is one of several studies that have come out in the last several years that seem to support moderate coffee consumption for health," Holly Andersen, MD, attending cardiologist and an associate professor of clinical medicine at the New York-Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Cornell Medical Center, told Health.

Related:How To Know if Your Coffee Habit Is Too Much Caffeine

How Specifically Does Coffee Help Lower Risk of Death?

This study, like many others in the past, was observational, meaning it cannot pinpoint a specific cause and effect when it comes to how coffee helps lower risk of death. Randomized controlled trials would be needed to understand the relationship between coffee and cardiovascular health. However, there are some theories about what could be behind the link.

"Coffee is a complex drink which contains more than 100 biologically active compounds, of which caffeine is the most well known," Kistler said. "Caffeine is known to be a stimulant which increases alertness and concentration. However caffeine has other effects on the body such as reducing fat generation, and has antioxidant properties."

Caffeine also contains compounds called polyphenols which are known to be antioxidants, Kistler continued. "Polyphenols can also modify the body's metabolism, such as increasing the body's sensitivity to insulin, and Improve the gut microbiome," he said. "All these effects are likely to explain the reductions in the risk of coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, and stroke."

As for the arrhythmia risk, Kistler noted that caffeine can block receptors on cells in the body that bind to adenosine, a molecule that can affect heart cells and increase the risk of arrhythmias. "By blocking these receptors which bind to adenosine, we believe that caffeinated coffee may protect against arrhythmias," he said. "This may explain the differing effects" of caffeinated versus decaffeinated coffee when it comes to irregular heartbeat, he said.

But coffee in general—whether it's caffeinated or not—is packed with "phytodiverse chemicals," ​​Rigved Tadwalkar, MD, a board certified cardiologist at Providence Saint John's Health Center told Health. Meaning, there are a lot of different plant substances in coffee. "The sheer diversity and number of these compounds are likely the reason why all types of coffee are found to have benefits," Dr. Tadwalkar said.

It's also entirely possible that something else is at play here, Deborah Cohen, DCN, RDN, associate professor in the department of clinical and preventive nutrition sciences at Rutgers University, told Health. "Risk could be more related to body weight, diet composition, or physical activity vs coffee alone," she said. "So many factors influence risk of death. It could be that those who drink a lot of coffee are more active, eat fewer calories and thus, are less overweight or obese which influence cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes risk, and more."

How Much Does Coffee Reduce the Risk of Death?

The positive health impacts of coffee observed by the researchers were quite noticeable. People who drank two to three cups of coffee a day had the largest impact—among these individuals ground coffee led to a 27% lowered risk of death, while decaf drinkers had a 14% lower risk. The risk was 11% lower for those who drank instant caffeinated coffee.

When it comes to heart disease and stroke, the benefits among people who consumed three cups of coffee a day showed up as follows:

  • Ground coffee: 20% lowered risk of heart disease and stroke
  • Decaf coffee: 6% lowered risk of heart disease and stroke
  • Instant: 9% lowered risk of heart disease and stroke

And finally, for irregular heartbeat the study showed:

  • Individual who drink 4 to 5 cups of caffeinated ground coffee: 17% lowered risk
  • Two to three cups a day of instant coffee: 12% lowered risk

Historically, caffeinated coffee has been viewed as a bad thing for patients with cardiovascular disease, but Kistler said that should begin change. "Mild–moderate coffee intake should not be discouraged but rather considered part of a healthy lifestyle," he said. And Kistler is not alone.

The latest findings "build on prior research that shows that coffee has, in my opinion, turned out to be this fairly magical substance," Dr. Tadwalker said.

Mon, 03 Oct 2022 09:33:07 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Medical Simulation Market 2022 Size to Hit USD 2002.5 million with CAGR of -0.2% by 2028, Medical Simulation Market Analysts Certification

The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content.

Oct 09, 2022 (The Expresswire) -- [111 Pages] "Medical Simulation Market" Insights 2022 By Types (Basic Anatomic Model, Partial Task Trainer, Computer based Trainer, Virtual Reality Training System, Others), Applications (Hospital, Medical College, Others), Regions and Forecast to 2028. The Medical Simulation Market research includes an in-depth analysis of report detailed information on factors influencing demand, growth, opportunities, challenges, and restraints, and Analysis of Pre and Post COVID-19 Market. The global Medical Simulation market size is projected to reach multi million by 2028, in comparison to 2022, with unexpected CAGR during the forecast period.

The Medical Simulation market report provides a detailed analysis of global market size, regional and country-level market size, segmentation market growth, market share, competitive Landscape, sales analysis, impact of domestic and global market players, value chain optimization, trade regulations, latest developments, opportunities analysis, strategic market growth analysis, product launches, area marketplace expanding, and technological innovations.

According to our (Global Info Research) latest study, due to COVID-19 pandemic, the global Medical Simulation market size is estimated to be worth USD 2029.5 million in 2021 and is forecast to a readjusted size of USD 2002.5 million by 2028 with a CAGR of -0.2% during forecast period 2022-2028. Hospital accounting for % of the Medical Simulation global market in 2021, is projected to value USD million by 2028, growing at a % CAGR in next six years. While Basic Anatomic Model segment is altered to a % CAGR between 2022 and 2028.

Global key manufacturers of Medical Simulation include Laerdal, CAE, Kyoto Kagaku, LimbsandThings, and Simulaids, etc. In terms of revenue, the global top four players hold a share over % in 2021.

The Global Medical Simulation market is anticipated to rise at a considerable rate during the forecast period, between 2022 and 2028. In 2021, the market is growing at a steady rate and with the rising adoption of strategies by key players, the market is expected to rise over the projected horizon.

Final Report will add the analysis of the impact of COVID-19 on this industry.

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Moreover, it helps new businesses perform a positive assessment of their business plans because it covers a range of subjects market participants must be aware of to remain competitive.

Medical Simulation Market Report identifies various key players in the market and sheds light on their strategies and collaborations to combat competition. The comprehensive report provides a two-dimensional picture of the market. By knowing the global revenue of manufacturers, the global price of manufacturers, and the production by manufacturers during the forecast period of 2022 to 2028, the reader can identify the footprints of manufacturers in the Medical Simulation industry.

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Medical Simulation Market - Competitive and Segmentation Analysis:

As well as providing an overview of successful marketing strategies, market contributions, and latest developments of leading companies, the report also offers a dashboard overview of leading companies' past and present performance. Several methodologies and analyses are used in the research report to provide in-depth and accurate information about the Medical Simulation Market.

The Major players covered in the Medical Simulation market report are:

● Laerdal
● Kyoto Kagaku
● LimbsandThings
● Simulaids
● Gaumard
● Mentice
● Surgical Science
● Simulab
● Tellyes
● Shanghai Honglian
● Yimo Keji
● Shanghai Kangren
● Shanghai Yilian
● Shanghai Boyou
● Shanghai Zhineng

The current market dossier provides market growth potential, opportunities, drivers, industry-specific challenges and risks market share along with the growth rate of the global Medical Simulation market. The report also covers monetary and exchange fluctuations, import-export trade, and global market

status in a smooth-tongued pattern. The SWOT analysis, compiled by industry experts, Industry Concentration Ratio and the latest developments for the global Medical Simulation market share are covered in a statistical way in the form of tables and figures including graphs and charts for easy understanding.

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A thorough evaluation of the restrains included in the report portrays the contrast to drivers and gives room for strategic planning. Factors that overshadow the market growth are pivotal as they can be understood to devise different bends for getting hold of the lucrative opportunities that are present in the ever-growing market. Additionally, insights into market expert’s opinions have been taken to understand the market better.

Report further studies the market development status and future Medical Simulation Market trend across the world. Also, it splits Medical Simulation market Segmentation by Type and by Applications to fully and deeply research and reveal market profile and prospects.

On the basis of product typethis report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into:

● Basic Anatomic Model
● Partial Task Trainer
● Computer based Trainer
● Virtual Reality Training System
● Others

On the basis of the end users/applicationsthis report focuses on the status and outlook for major applications/end users, consumption (sales), market share and growth rate for each application, including:

● Hospital
● Medical College
● Others

Medical Simulation Market - Regional Analysis:

Geographically, this report is segmented into several key regions, with sales, revenue, market share and growth Rate of Medical Simulation in these regions, from 2015 to 2027, covering

● North America (United States, Canada and Mexico) ● Europe (Germany, UK, France, Italy, Russia and Turkey etc.) ● Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India, Australia, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, Malaysia and Vietnam) ● South America (Brazil, Argentina, Columbia etc.) ● Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa)

Some of the key questions answered in this report:

● What is the global (North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa) sales value, production value, consumption value, import and export of Medical Simulation? ● Who are the global key manufacturers of the Medical Simulation Industry? How is their operating situation (capacity, production, sales, price, cost, gross, and revenue)? ● How the competition goes in the future related to Medical Simulation? ● Which is the most leading country in the world? ● What are the Medical Simulation market opportunities and threats faced by the vendors in the global Medical Simulation Industry? ● Which application/end-user or product type may seek incremental growth prospects? What is the market share of each type and application? ● What focused approach and constraints are holding the Medical Simulation market? ● What are the different sales, marketing, and distribution channels in the global industry? ● What are the upstream raw materials and manufacturing equipment of Medical Simulation along with the manufacturing process of Acetonitrile? ● What are the key market trends impacting the growth of the Medical Simulation market? ● Economic impact on the Medical Simulation industry and development trend of the Medical Simulation industry. ● What are the market opportunities, market risk, and market overview of the Medical Simulation market? ● What are the key drivers, restraints, opportunities, and challenges of the Medical Simulation market, and how they are expected to impact the market? ● What is the Medical Simulation market size at the regional and country-level? ● How do you find your target audience?

Our research analysts will help you to get customized details for your report, which can be modified in terms of a specific region, application or any statistical details. In addition, we are always willing to comply with the study, which triangulated with your own data to make the market research more comprehensive in your perspective.

Inquire more and share questions if any before the purchase on this report at-

With tables and figures helping analyse worldwide Global Medical Simulation market trends, this research provides key statistics on the state of the industry and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the market.

Detailed TOC of Global Medical Simulation Market Research Report 2022

1 Scope of the Report
1.1 Market Introduction
1.2 Years Considered
1.3 Research Objectives
1.4 Market Research Methodology
1.5 Research Process and Data Source
1.6 Economic Indicators
1.7 Currency Considered

2 Executive Summary
2.1 World Market Overview
2.1.1 Global Medical Simulation Annual Sales 2017-2028
2.1.2 World Current and Future Analysis for Medical Simulation by Geographic Region, 2017, 2022 and 2028
2.1.3 World Current and Future Analysis for Medical Simulation by Country/Region, 2017, 2022 and 2028
2.2 Medical Simulation Segment by Type
2.3 Medical Simulation Sales by Type
2.3.1 Global Medical Simulation Sales Market Share by Type (2017-2022)
2.3.2 Global Medical Simulation Revenue and Market Share by Type (2017-2022)
2.3.3 Global Medical Simulation Sale Price by Type (2017-2022)
2.4 Medical Simulation Segment by Applications
2.5 Medical Simulation Sales by Application
2.5.1 Global Medical Simulation Sale Market Share by Application (2017-2022)
2.5.2 Global Medical Simulation Revenue and Market Share by Application (2017-2022)
2.5.3 Global Medical Simulation Sale Price by Application (2017-2022)

3 Global Medical Simulation by Company
3.1 Global Medical Simulation Breakdown Data by Company
3.1.1 Global Medical Simulation Annual Sales by Company (2020-2022)
3.1.2 Global Medical Simulation Sales Market Share by Company (2020-2022)
3.2 Global Medical Simulation Annual Revenue by Company (2020-2022)
3.2.1 Global Medical Simulation Revenue by Company (2020-2022)
3.2.2 Global Medical Simulation Revenue Market Share by Company (2020-2022)
3.3 Global Medical Simulation Sale Price by Company
3.4 Key Manufacturers Medical Simulation Producing Area Distribution, Sales Area, Product Type
3.4.1 Key Manufacturers Medical Simulation Product Location Distribution
3.4.2 Players Medical Simulation Products Offered
3.5 Market Concentration Rate Analysis
3.5.1 Competition Landscape Analysis
3.5.2 Concentration Ratio (CR3, CR5 and CR10) and (2020-2022)
3.6 New Products and Potential Entrants
3.7 Mergers and Acquisitions, Expansion

4 World Historic Review for Medical Simulation by Geographic Region
4.1 World Historic Medical Simulation Market Size by Geographic Region (2017-2022)
4.1.1 Global Medical Simulation Annual Sales by Geographic Region (2017-2022)
4.1.2 Global Medical Simulation Annual Revenue by Geographic Region
4.2 World Historic Medical Simulation Market Size by Country/Region (2017-2022)
4.2.1 Global Medical Simulation Annual Sales by Country/Region (2017-2022)
4.2.2 Global Medical Simulation Annual Revenue by Country/Region
4.3 Americas Medical Simulation Sales Growth
4.4 APAC Medical Simulation Sales Growth
4.5 Europe Medical Simulation Sales Growth
4.6 Middle East and Africa Medical Simulation Sales Growth

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5 Americas
5.1 Americas Medical Simulation Sales by Country
5.1.1 Americas Medical Simulation Sales by Country (2017-2022)
5.1.2 Americas Medical Simulation Revenue by Country (2017-2022)
5.2 Americas Medical Simulation Sales by Type
5.3 Americas Medical Simulation Sales by Application
5.4 United States
5.5 Canada
5.6 Mexico
5.7 Brazil

6.1 APAC Medical Simulation Sales by Region
6.1.1 APAC Medical Simulation Sales by Region (2017-2022)
6.1.2 APAC Medical Simulation Revenue by Region (2017-2022)
6.2 APAC Medical Simulation Sales by Type
6.3 APAC Medical Simulation Sales by Application
6.4 China
6.5 Japan
6.6 South Korea
6.7 Southeast Asia
6.8 India
6.9 Australia
6.10 China Taiwan

7 Europe
7.1 Europe Medical Simulation by Country
7.1.1 Europe Medical Simulation Sales by Country (2017-2022)
7.1.2 Europe Medical Simulation Revenue by Country (2017-2022)
7.2 Europe Medical Simulation Sales by Type
7.3 Europe Medical Simulation Sales by Application
7.4 Germany
7.5 France
7.6 UK
7.7 Italy
7.8 Russia

8 Middle East and Africa
8.1 Middle East and Africa Medical Simulation by Country
8.1.1 Middle East and Africa Medical Simulation Sales by Country (2017-2022)
8.1.2 Middle East and Africa Medical Simulation Revenue by Country (2017-2022)
8.2 Middle East and Africa Medical Simulation Sales by Type
8.3 Middle East and Africa Medical Simulation Sales by Application
8.4 Egypt
8.5 South Africa
8.6 Israel
8.7 Turkey
8.8 GCC Countries

9 Market Drivers, Challenges and Trends
9.1 Market Drivers and Growth Opportunities
9.2 Market Challenges and Risks
9.3 Industry Trends

10 Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis
10.1 Raw Material and Suppliers
10.2 Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis of Medical Simulation
10.3 Manufacturing Process Analysis of Medical Simulation
10.4 Industry Chain Structure of Medical Simulation

11 Marketing, Distributors and Customer
11.1 Sales Channel
11.1.1 Direct Channels
11.1.2 Indirect Channels
11.2 Medical Simulation Distributors
11.3 Medical Simulation Customer

12 World Forecast Review for Medical Simulation by Geographic Region
12.1 Global Medical Simulation Market Size Forecast by Region
12.1.1 Global Medical Simulation Forecast by Region (2023-2028)
12.1.2 Global Medical Simulation Annual Revenue Forecast by Region (2023-2028)
12.2 Americas Forecast by Country
12.3 APAC Forecast by Region
12.4 Europe Forecast by Country
12.5 Middle East and Africa Forecast by Country
12.6 Global Medical Simulation Forecast by Type
12.7 Global Medical Simulation Forecast by Application

13 Key Players Analysis
13.1.1 Company Information
13.1.2 Medical Simulation Product Offered
13.1.3 Medical Simulation Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2020-2022)
13.1.4 Main Business Overview
13.1.5 Latest Developments

14 Research Findings and Conclusion

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Sun, 09 Oct 2022 15:53:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Existing heart medication may help treat alcohol use disorder
  • Researchers from the National Institutes of Health studied a medication with existing FDA approval to see if it would work for an alternative purpose.
  • Spironolactone is prescribed to treat heart conditions. Because the medication is a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, the researchers were interested to see if it would yield benefits in treating alcohol use disorder.
  • By the end of the study, the group learned that the drug shows some promise for decreasing alcohol consumption.

Sometimes researchers find new uses for existing medications, which is helpful since they start from the point of already knowing potential side effects. A study from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) indicates the heart medication spironolactone may be effective for patients with alcohol use disorder.

While more research is necessary on using spironolactone for this purpose, the researchers conducted studies with rats, mice, and humans and saw that the medication might have benefits. The findings were published in Molecular Psychiatry.

According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), a division of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), alcohol use disorder “is a medical condition characterized by an impaired ability to stop or control alcohol use despite adverse social, occupational, or health consequences.”

In the United States, 17 million adults ages 18 years or older have alcohol use disorder, according to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), part of the Department of Health and Human Services.

Additionally, the AHRQ says men are more likely to develop the disorder than women. They predict that 17% of men and 8% of women will develop alcohol use disorder at some point.

Some people are at a higher risk for developing alcohol use disorder, including people who began drinking before they turned 15, those who binge drink, and those with a family history of alcohol misuse or mental health issues.

Some of the features of the disorder include:

  • Being unable to stop or cut down on drinking
  • Getting into situations that may have harmful effects because of drinking
  • Having withdrawal symptoms after the alcohol wears off
  • Binge drinking

There are a number of treatments for people with alcohol use disorder, including therapy and medications. Three FDA-approved medications for alcohol use disorder are naltrexone, disulfiram, and acamprosate.

One of the main reasons researchers studied spironolactone is because the medication is in the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist drug class.

“The steroid hormone aldosterone and its related mineralocorticoid receptor regulate fluid and electrolyte homeostasis,” according to the study authors. Based on preliminary research that suggests aldosterone and MR may contribute to alcohol seeking and consumption, the authors were interested in spironolactone since it can possibly reduce that desire.

The researchers conducted three studies that examined the use of spironolactone to treat alcohol misuse. They conducted studies in rats, mice, and humans.

In the rat study, there were two categories of rats: rats addicted to alcohol and rats with no addiction. After injecting both categories of rats with spironolactone, the rats had to press a lever to receive alcohol.

In the study with mice, the researchers tested spironolactone on mice that were allowed to binge drink both sweetened and unsweetened alcohol solutions. The scientists injected the mice with spironolactone before giving them access to the solutions.

In the human cohort study, the researchers collected data from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs on people prescribed spironolactone for any of its approved indications for at least 60 days and who self-reported alcohol consumption. The researchers matched each of these people with up to five individuals not exposed to the drug.

Both rat and mouse studies showed decreased alcohol consumption with the spironolactone injections. Additionally, the authors noted that the spironolactone did not impair coordination or movement, nor did it affect their food and water intake.

In the human study, researchers observed a decrease in their self-reported alcohol consumption in the group that took spironolactone. Spironolactone had the greatest effect on people who self-reported excessive alcohol consumption, such as binge drinking.

“These are very encouraging findings. Taken together, the present study argues for conducting randomized, controlled studies of spironolactone in people with alcohol use disorder to further assess its safety and potential efficacy in this population, as well as additional work to understand how spironolactone may reduce alcohol drinking.”

George F. Koob, Ph.D., co-author of the study

Dr. Koob is the director of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

Dr. Lorenzo Leggio, a senior co-author of the study, spoke with Medical News Today about the future of research on alcohol use disorder and spironolactone. Dr. Leggio said they need “placebo-controlled studies to assess the potential safety and efficacy of spironolactone in people with alcohol use disorder (AUD).”

Dr. Leggio is the senior investigator in the Clinical Psychoneuroendocrinology and Neuropsychopharmacology (CPN) Section, a joint NIDA and NIAAA laboratory.

Suppose scientists continue the research on spironolactone and eventually submit it for regulatory approval to treat alcohol use disorder. In that case, it could become the fourth FDA-approved medication to be indicated for this disorder.

This study emphasizes the importance of continuing research on existing medications.

“Thanks to the progress in the addiction biomedical research field, we are increasing our understanding of the mechanisms of how some people develop AUD; hence we can use this knowledge to identify new targets and develop new treatments for AUD.”

– Dr. Leggio

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), more than 140,000 people die from excessive alcohol consumption each year. With this in mind, it highlights why it is important to focus on repurposing existing medications to treat the disorder and developing new ones.

“Given this is an old medication that has been used for decades in clinical practice for other indications, repurposing spironolactone allows us to move forward quickly to the next steps,” commented Dr. Leggio.

Dr. Orman Trent Hall, a board certified addictionologist and addiction researcher at the Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, also spoke to MNT about the study.

“Alcohol use is among the leading causes of death and disability in the world,” said Dr. Hall. “When people become addicted, they find themselves drinking in a way that feels out of control and have trouble stopping even after they realize alcohol is harming them.”

“Finding new medications for AUD offers hope for a future when fewer people suffer the worst consequences of this disorder,” commented Dr. Hall.

Fri, 23 Sep 2022 09:33:00 -0500 en text/html
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