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IREB IREB Certified Professional for Requirements Engineering (CPRE)

The Certified Professional for Requirements Engineering (CPRE) is a personal certificate aimed at individuals working in Requirements Engineering, Business Analysis and Testing. It will expand your professional knowledge and help you to become more successful in your job.

The certification scheme is developed by the IREB, the contents are taught by independent training providers and the CPRE test can be taken at approved certification bodies. The CPRE certificate has lifetime validity.

Requirements engineering as the first step of system development crucially influences the success of the development project. The four core disciplines of requirements engineering are: elicitation, documentation, verification and validation management. Professionalism in requirements engineering avoid defects in system analysis and establishes a structured proceeding from project idea to a valuable set of requirements. Quality characteristics are defined for a single requirement as well as for the requirements specification as a whole.

You can prepare for the exams by attending a training course with a recognised IREB® training provider for IREB® Requirements Engineering - Foundation Level; participants will have relevant content and courses clearly explained and taught to them. The syllabus covers the important foundations in requirements engineering: differentiation between the system and system context, establishment and documentation of requirements, as well as their testing and management and the tool support available.The test is available on Pearson Vue for anyone wishing to self-study.

The IREB® Certified Professional for Requirements Engineering - Foundation Level certification is a prerequisite for taking the three IREB® Advanced Level courses: Requirements Modelling, Requirements Management, Requirements Elicitation & Consolidation.

The level of detail of this syllabus allows internationally consistent teaching and examination. To reach this goal, the syllabus contains the following

General educational objectives

Contents with a description of the educational objectives and References to further literature (where necessary)

Educational Objectives / Cognitive Knowledge Levels

Each module of the syllabus is assigned a cognitive level. A higher level includes the lower levels.

The formulations of the educational objectives are phrased using the verbs "knowing" for level

L1 and "mastering and using" for level L2. These two verbs are placeholders for the following


L1 (knowing): enumerate, characterize, recognize, name, reflect

L2 (mastering and using): analyze, use, execute, justify, describe, judge, display, design,develop, complete, explain, exemplify, elicit, formulate, identify, interpret, conclude from, assign, differentiate, compare, understand, suggest, summarize

All terms defined in the glossary have to be known (L1), even if they are not explicitly mentioned in the educational objectives.

This syllabus uses the abbreviation "RE" for Requirements Engineering.

Structure of the Syllabus

The syllabus consists of 9 main chapters. One chapter covers one educational unit (EU). Each main chapter title contains the cognitive level of the chapter, which is the highest level of the sub-chapters. Furthermore, the teaching time is suggested that is the minimum a course should invest for that chapter. Important terms in the chapter, which are defined in the glossary, are listed at the beginning of the chapter.

Example: EU 1 Introduction and Foundations (L1)

Terms: Requirement, Stakeholder, Requirements Engineering, Functional Requirement, Quality Requirement, Constraint

This example shows that chapter 1 contains education objectives at level L1 and 75 minutes are intended for teaching the material in this chapter.

Each chapter can contain sub-chapters. Their titles also contain the cognitive level of their content.

Educational objectives (EO) are enumerated before the real text. The numbering shows to which sub-chapter they belong.

Example: EO 3.1.2
This example shows that educational objective EO 3.1.2 is described in sub-chapter 3.1

The Examination

This syllabus is the basis for the examination for the foundation level certificate.

A question in the examination can cover material from several chapters of the syllabus. All chapters (EU 1 to EU 9) of the syllabus can be examined.

Fixed typos and grammar issues

EU 1: Reference to ISO/IEC/IEEE 29148:2011 added

EU 1: List of aspects for quality requirements modified and

reference to ISO/IEC25010:2011 added

EU 3.1: Term “legacy” replaced by “existing”

EU 4.3: Reference to IEEE 830-1998 replaced by reference to

ISO/IEC/IEEE 29148:2011

EU 4.6: List of quality criteria for requirements modified

EU 5.2: Term “may” added to the verbs for fixing liability of a


EU 6.1: Hint added to the definition of the term “model”

EU 6.5: Duplicate paragraph regarding cardinalities removed

EU 7.1: examples “correctness” and “completeness” for

quality criteria replaced by reference to EU 4.6

EU 7.3: List of criteria for quality aspect "documentation”


EU 7.6: List of conflict types modified; detailed description

added; “Subject conflict” replaced by “Data conflict”

EU 8: New Educational objective 8.7.1 added

EU 8.1: Attribute “criticality” replaced by “risk”

EU 8.7: New Educational unit “Measurement for

Requirements” added

Terms: Requirement, Stakeholder, Requirements Engineering, Functional Requirement,
Quality Requirement, Constraint

Educational Objectives:

EO 1.1 Knowing symptoms of and reasons for inadequate RE

EO 1.2 Knowing the four major activities of RE

EO 1.3 Knowing the role of communication in RE

EO 1.4 Knowing skills of a requirements engineer

EO 1.5 Knowing the three kinds of requirements

EO 1.6 Knowing the role of quality requirements

Good RE is important since many errors arise already in this phase and can only be rectified
later at high cost. Typical symptoms of inadequate RE are missing and unclear requirements.

Typical reasons for inadequate RE are the wrong assumption of the stakeholders that much is self-evident and does not need to
be stated explicitly communication problems due to differences in experience and knowledge
the project pressure from the client to build a productive system rapidly.

The four main activities of RE are elicitation, documentation, validation/negotiation plus the
management of requirements. The activities can be scheduled in specific processes such as
recommended in the Standard ISO/IEC/IEEE 29148:2011. They often concern different levels of
requirements such as stakeholder requirements and system or software requirements.

Natural language is the most important means to communicate requirements. At the same time
it is particularly important to agree on a common terminology. Furthermore the communication
medium (written or spoken) plays a big role. When communicating, all participants must deal
consciously with focusing and simplification.

This is especially true for the most important role in RE: the requirements engineer. Besides
communication skills he or she must especially have the following skills: analytical thinking,
empathy, conflict resolution skills, moderation skills, self-confidence and the ability to convince.
Typically we differentiate between three kinds of requirements: functional requirements,
quality requirements and constraints.

The umbrella term “non-functional requirement” is often used for quality requirements and
constraints. Quality requirements must be documented explicitly. In particular the following
aspects need to be considered







More comprehensive quality models can be found in the requirements engineering literature
and in standards such as the Standard ISO/IEC25010:2011.

Even though quality requirements are mostly documented using natural language, their relation
to other statements have to be traceable and their validation has to be ensured by quantitative
assertions or made operational by transformation into additional functionality.

Terms: System Context, System Boundary, Context Boundary

Educational Objectives:

EO 2.1 Knowing system context, system boundary and context boundary

EO 2.2 Mastering and using system boundary and context boundary

EU 2.1 System, System Context and Boundaries (L1)

The source and so the justifications of the requirements for a system lie in the system context of
the planned system. The source consists of the set of all context aspects that initiated or
influenced the definition of the requirements. Among the potential aspects in the system context

People (stakeholder or groups of stakeholders)

Systems in operation (technical systems, software and hardware)

Processes (technical or physical processes, business processes)

Events (technical or physical)

Documents (e.g. laws, standards, system documentation)

It is the function of the system boundary to define which aspects will be covered by the planned
system and which aspects are part of this systems environment. The context boundary
identifies the part of the environment that has a connection to the system to be developed.

EU 2.2 Determining System and Context Boundaries (L2)

Often the system boundary is only precisely defined towards the end of the requirements
process. Before that, the desired functions and qualities of the planned system are only
incompletely known or not known at all. Therefore there will be a grey zone in which the
possible system boundary lies. Besides a shifting of the system boundary within the grey zone,
the grey zone itself can also shift during the RE process, e.g. when, through a shifting of the
system boundary, further aspects of the environment become important.

Also the context boundary can change over time, e.g. when it turns out, contrary to expectations,
that a legal requirement, previously classified as relevant, has absolutely no impact on the
planned system, then the system context is reduced in this area.

The context boundary also has a grey zone. It comprises the identified aspects of the
environment for which, at a particular time, it is unclear whether these aspects have a relation to
the planned system or not.

Educational Objectives:

- Knowing various types of requirements sources

- Knowing the significance of requirements sources and the consequences of disregarded requirements sources

- Knowing the most important information of the stakeholder documentation

- Knowing important principles in dealing with stakeholders (stakeholder rights and duties)

- Mastering and using the content and significance of the Kano model

- Knowing influencing factors for the choice of elicitation techniques

- Knowing advantages and disadvantages of elicitation techniques

- Mastering and using the following types of elicitation techniques and examples for each: survey techniques, creativity techniques, document-centered techniques, observation techniques and supporting techniques

An important activity in RE activity is the elicitation of requirements for the system to be
developed. The foundations for the requirements elicitation comprise on the one hand the
system context and on the other hand the requirements sources. Various types of requirements
sources are differentiated. Possible requirements sources are, for example, stakeholders,
documents or existing systems.

It is the task of RE to collect the goals and requirements from the various requirements sources.
If sources are disregarded, this can have significant negative consequences on the entire course
of the project. The documentation of the requirements sources should, with respect to the
stakeholders, contain at least the following information:


function (role)

additional personal and contact data

temporal and spatial availability during the project progress

relevance of the stakeholder

their area and extent of expertise

their goals and interests regarding the project

Depending on the company culture it is appropriate, in agreement with the stakeholders, to
define verbally or by means of written documentation the tasks, responsibilities, authority, etc.
From the stakeholder agreements arise rights and duties for each stakeholder. Dealing with
stakeholders effectively guards against lack of motivation and conflicts. Stakeholders should be
involved in the project and not only affected by the project.

EU 3.2 Requirements Categorization according to the Kano Model (L2)
For the elicitation of requirements, it is crucial to know what importance the requirements have
for the satisfaction of the stakeholders. According to the model of Dr. Kano, this satisfaction can
be classified into three categories:

Basic factors (synonym: Dissatisfiers)

Performance factors (synonym: Satisfiers)

Excitement factors (synonym: Delighters)

EU 3.3 Elicitation Techniques (L2)

Elicitation techniques fulfill the purpose of finding out the conscious, unconscious and
subconscious requirements of stakeholders. Important factors influencing the choice of
elicitation technique are risk factors, human influences, organizational influences, functioncontent influences and the intended level of detail of the requirements. Various techniques are
needed for the various RE products:

Survey techniques (e.g. interviews, questionnaires)

Creativity techniques (e.g. brainstorming, brainstorming paradox, change of perspective,
analogy technique)

Document-centric techniques (e.g. system archaeology, perspective-based reading,
requirements reuse)

Observation techniques (e.g. field observation, apprenticing)
Support techniques (e.g. mind mapping, workshops, CRC cards, audio and video
recordings, use case modeling, prototypes)

The application of appropriate elicitation techniques is a project-critical key competence. The
best results are achieved with a combination of various elicitation techniques.

Terms: Requirements Document, Requirements Specification
Educational Objectives:

- Knowing key reasons for requirements documentation

- Knowing the three perspectives of functional requirements

- Knowing advantages and disadvantages of natural language requirements documentation

- Knowing the most important model-based requirements documentation form

- Knowing the advantages of mixed form of requirements documentation

- Knowing the advantages of standardized document structures

- Knowing widespread document structures

- Knowing important points for a tailored standard structure

- Knowing activities building on requirements documents

- Mastering and using quality criteria for requirements documents

- Mastering and using quality criteria for requirements

- Knowing the two most important style rules for requirements

- Mastering and using contents and importance of a glossary

- Mastering and using rules for handling the glossary

- Document Design (L1)

In RE it is necessary to document all important information. All forms of more or less formal
representation of requirements, from the description in prose up to diagrams with formal
semantics, are called documentation techniques. Many people are involved in the documentation
in the lifecycle of a requirements document. Documentation plays a goal-orientated supporting
function in communication. The following factors make this support necessary. Requirements
are long-lasting, legally relevant and should be accessible to all. Requirements documents are

EU 4.2 Documentation Types (L1)

Requirements documents include, amongst other things, functional requirements that normally
represent the following three different perspectives of a system.

Data perspective

Behavioral perspective

Functional perspective

All three perspectives can be documented by means of natural language requirements, whilst
conceptual model types are specialized for one of these perspectives. Effectively applicable
forms of the documentation are:

Natural language requirements documentation
Conceptual requirements models such as, for example use case diagrams, class diagrams,
activity diagrams or state diagrams (see also EU 6)
Combined forms of requirements documentation

EU 4.3 Document Structures (L1)

Central components of a requirements document are the requirements for the system being
considered. Besides the requirements, depending on the purpose of the document, the
requirements documents also contain information about the system context, acceptance
conditions or, for instance, characteristics of the technical implementation. In order to ensure
the manageability of requirements documents, such documents must be structured most

Reference structures for requirements documents propose a more or less complete and a more
or less flexible field-tested content structure. Common reference structures for requirements
documents are described amongst others in the Standard ISO/IEC/IEEE 29148:2011.

In practice it turns out that there are a lot of positive effects from using reference structures for
requirements documents. For instance, the use of reference structures simplifies the usage of the
requirements documents in subsequent development activities (e.g. in the definition of test
cases). Generally reference structures cannot be adopted one-to-one for a requirements
document, as the content structure frequently has to be adapted in detail for domain-, companyor project-specific circumstances.

EU 4.4 Use of Requirements Documents (L1)

Requirements documents serve as the basis for many activities during the project lifespan, such
as, for example


Architectural design



Change management

System usage and system maintenance

Contract management

In order to serve as a basis the subsequent development processes, the requirements document
must meet certain quality criteria. In particular this includes:

Unambiguity and consistency

Clear structure

Modifiability and extensibility



EU 4.6 Quality Criteria for Requirements (L2)

In addition, the individual requirement must satisfy certain quality criteria, in particular:










Besides the quality criteria for requirements there are two basic style rules for requirements in
natural language, which promote readability:

short sentences and paragraphs

formulate only one requirement per sentence

A frequent cause of conflicts, arising in RE, lies in the different understanding of terminology
among the involved people. To prevent this problem, it is necessary that all relevant terms are
defined in a glossary. A glossary is a collection of term definitions for:

context-specific technical terms

abbreviations and acronyms

everyday concepts that have a special meaning in the given context



The following rules should be observed when working with a glossary:

The glossary must be managed centrally

The responsibilities for maintaining the glossary must be defined

The glossary must be maintained over the course of the project

The glossary must be commonly accessible

Use of the glossary must be obligatory

The glossary should contain the sources of the terms

The stakeholders should agree upon the glossary

The entries in the glossary should have a consistent structure

It is beneficial to begin the development of the glossary as early as possible, in order to reduce
the alignment work later on

Terms: Requirements Template

Educational Objectives:

EO 5.1 Mastering and using the five transformational processes in the perception and writing
of natural language and their consequences on the formulation of requirements
EO 5.2 Mastering and using the five steps for formulating requirements using a requirements

EU 5.1 Language Effects (L2)

As natural language is often ambiguous and interpretable, it is necessary to pay special attention
to precisely this aspect when using language. During the processes of perception and writing, socalled “transformational processes” occur. The fact that these transformational processes follow
certain rules can be used by the requirements engineer to elicit exactly what the author of the
requirement really did mean. The five most relevant transformational processes for RE are:


Nouns without reference index

Universal quantifiers

Incompletely specified conditions

Incompletely specified process words

EU 5.2 Requirements Construction using Templates (L2)

Requirements templates are an easily learnable and applicable approach to reducing language
effects in the formulation of requirements. The requirements template effectively supports the
author of a requirement in creating high quality requirements.
The five steps to formulating requirements through a requirements template are:

Determine legal obligation

Determine the core of the requirement

Characterizes the activity of the system

Insert objects

Determine logical and temporal conditions

Educational Objectives

- Knowing the purpose and definition of attribute schemes

- Knowing important attribute types for requirements

- Mastering and using views on requirements

- Knowing methods for prioritizing requirements

- Mastering and using techniques for prioritizing requirements

- Knowing the benefits of requirements traceability

- Mastering and using classes of traceability relationships

- Mastering and using forms of representation for traceability relationships

- Mastering and using versioning of requirements

- Mastering and using the formation of requirements configurations

- Mastering and using the formation requirements baselines

- Knowing the importance of requirements changes

- Knowing the functions and members of a Change Control Board

- Mastering and using the elements of a requirements change request

- Mastering and using different classes of change requests

- Mastering and using a process to handle change requests

- Knowing the importance of requirements measurements
IREB Certified Professional for Requirements Engineering (CPRE)
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IREB Certified Professional for Requirements Engineering
re.de/fileadmin/IREB/Lehrplaene/IREB_cpre_syllabus_FL_en_v21.pdf(page 28,
assigning attributes to requirements (L1))
Question: 41
Which definition best characterizes the term traceability in terms of requirements
engineering? (Choose two)
A. Traceability of the effort for the elicitation of the requirements, beginning with the
elicitation of the documentation right to the point of requirements acceptance
B. Monitoring of progress in requirements elicitation
C. Ability to analyze requirements for contradictory content, especially between the
requirements specifications and the test cases
D. Traceability of the requirements, along with the associated documents, from the
requirements elicitation to the implementation
E. Level of satisfaction between the elicited and approved requirements
Answer: A, C
Question: 42
You have been commissioned to analyze a change request for its possible impact. Which
of the following aspects must be analyzed for this?
Question: 43
Your company uses only text processing as a tool in requirements management. Which
two essential tasks for requirements management are least supported by this tool?
A. Version management of individual requirements
B. Generation of result document
C. Requirements tracing
D. Creating of graphic models
E. Documentation of requirements and goals
Answer: C, D
Question: 44
Your company works intensively with models with requirements and uses UML for the
description of models. Which three capabilities should a modeling tool processes in order
to able to create traceable models in the requirements engineering? (Choose three)
A. The model elements can be stored under version control
B. The models are checked for community with the UML definition
C. The model is exported in the XML format
D. Every model element must process anID
E. Model elements can be linked via hyperlinks
F. The modeling tool creates reports suitable for management
Answer: A, C, E
Question: 45
the introduction of a requirements
Which two statements are correct with regards to
engineering tool? (Choose two)
A. The introduction of a tool defines the feature requirements engineering approach
B. Risks associated with the introduction can be identified through a pilot operation
C. The requirements engineering process must be clearly defined before introduction
D. The license costs are generally the greatest cost block relating to the introduction of a
requirements engineering tool
Answer: C, D
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Imagine you approached someone you admired, and boldly asked that person to mentor you. And the answer was “Yes!” But a year into the relationship, those monthly mentoring sessions might not invigorate you like they used to, and aren’t quite as energizing for the mentor, either.

4 Types Of Questions To Ask A Mentor

1. Stories

To break the ice, have your mentor tell a story from his or her own career. Hey, everybody likes to talk about themselves! For example, you could inquire: “How did you get to where you are today?” or “How did you land your current role?” But you could also ask more specific questions that address your career objectives and concerns. Some questions to consider:

• Was there a time you messed up and felt like you’d failed? How did you bounce back?

• How did you learn to embrace risk-taking?

• Tell me about a recent business setback. How did you recover?

• Think back to five years ago. Did you envision your career as it is today?

• Was there ever a role you applied for and landed, but weren't 100% qualified to do? How did you proceed?

• What do you wish you had known before taking your first management role?

• Which leadership skills were the most difficult to develop?

• Can you tell me about a time when you had a difficult boss? How did you handle the situation?

• What’s the most important leadership lesson you’ve learned and how has it proven invaluable?

• How did you develop the skill of speaking so engagingly in front of groups?

2. Situations

Now that the conversation is flowing, get more granular in your requests and bring a specific situation to your mentor--one that you’d like help navigating. For example:

• I tried to delegate a task last week and it did not go well. Can we work through what to do differently next time?

• Who are the people I need to align with in this organization to achieve success?

• My boss said I need to be more strategic. What does that mean?

• How can I let my boss know that I don’t need to be micromanaged?

• How can I stay connected to key influencers who do not work in same office or geographical area?

• When trying to gain buy-in to implement a new program, what tactics have worked for you?

• My performance review is coming up. What type of preparation do you most appreciate seeing from your employees?

• I have two very different career path options available to me. Can you weigh in to help me make a final decision?

• I'm considering a career transition. What are some other areas of the business that might be a good fit for me?

• I’ve heard that taking a stretch assignment could help my career trajectory. What are the pros and cons?

3. Self-Awareness

One of the greatest gifts you can deliver yourself is the gift of self-awareness, meaning the ability to see yourself as others view you. That way, if you like how you’re perceived, you can embrace it and take steps to strengthen that positive perception. If you don’t like how you are currently perceived, you can take steps to shift that perception to a more positive one that supports, rather than undermines, your career and leadership goals.

After starting with the obvious question: “How do you think others perceive me?” become more specific, so your mentor can assist by “holding up the mirror” and providing detailed feedback on how your actions and communication are impacting the way others see you. Ask questions such as:

• How am I viewed? In other words, what's my personal brand in our organization?

• Where do you see my strengths?

• What do you see as some of my blind spots and how can I improve?

• How I am viewed by leadership?

• What do people say about me when I’m not in the room?

• Could you offer feedback on ways to Boost my executive presence?

• Do I come across as strategic or tactical in my day-to-day communication?

• Am I viewed as high-maintenance when I send my boss weekly status updates?

• How could I have communicated my idea more clearly?

• When I presented at the last meeting, how did I do? Did my communication style support the message I intended to deliver?

4. Skill-Building

Is there a skill you’re currently working to enhance, such as project management, long-term strategic planning, delegating, or public speaking? Use questions like these to ask your mentor for advice and resources to help you polish that skill:

• How can I become a more assertive negotiator?

• Can we role-play asking for a raise and a promotion?

• How can I become better at managing people who do not report to me?

• Do you have any quick tips for re-energizing an overworked team?

• Can you recommend a book or resource for dealing with difficult conversations?

• What practices can you recommend for dealing with nervousness when speaking to groups?

• I have been asked to facilitate a team-building activity at a staff retreat. What are some keys to success?

• What’s a good methodology or tool for project management and tracking team commitments?

• Do you have a template that you use for long-range visioning and strategic planning?

• What new skills do I need to move ahead?

With these four types of questions and their accompanying examples, you’ll never sit through another mentoring conversation wondering if the other person is finding the discussion useful. And deliver this list to those whom you mentor, encouraging them to use it to maximize the value of the time you spend together.

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Interviewing Questions on Professionalism

Based in Ottawa, Canada, Chris Wolski started writing professionally for non-governmental organizations in 2007. He has written communications material for marketing firms and small businesses, and he has published articles for various websites. Wolski received a national coaching certification in 2001 and a Master of Arts in political science from York University in 2007.

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Frequently Asked Questions

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Drexel University School of Education

As with any skill, teaching takes practice. A practicing student teacher is allowed to get hands-on experience teaching. But since student teaching is also a fairly rigorous process, it helps if you know how to prepare for it.

Are you interested in learning more about Drexel’s School of Education and student teaching opportunities? Take a moment to request more information.

What is Student Teaching?

Student teaching or field experience is a critical component of a student’s journey towards becoming an educator. In a student teaching experience, a student applies the knowledge and skills gained through their coursework in a real-world setting. Student teachers at Drexel work with the Field Placement Office to obtain a student teaching experience close to their home or at a school that is most convenient for them. Student teaching is often completed towards the end of a student’s degree or certification program. State departments of education require a certain number of hours of student teaching as part of teacher licensure requirements.

Why Is Student Teaching Important?

Student teaching provides future educators with the pedagogical tools and experience necessary to connect practice and theory. While working closely alongside their teacher mentor, student teachers receive ongoing feedback about their performance.

This allows student teachers to become more proficient at instructing students, implementing adaptable curriculum, and performing accurate student assessments. Student teaching also provides numerous chances for self-reflection and personal growth. While learning to become a skilled educator can take years of practice, student teaching is necessary and helpful to gain the skills and experience required to be a teacher.

What Is the Student Teaching Experience Like?

Student teaching involves full-time placement in a teaching position, spanning at least 13 weeks. During this time, student teachers will gradually assume all of the responsibilities of teaching a classroom. Because student teaching is a full-time commitment, teachers need to be careful about managing their responsibilities during this time. Along with feedback and assistance from a teacher mentor, this can make the student teaching experience equal parts rigorous and rewarding.

Additionally, student teachers attend a weekly professional seminar, where guided discussions allow them to reflect on classroom experiences and set goals for improvement. This also gives student teachers the chance to collaborate with other teacher candidates, and to share advice or strategies. Student teaching seminar assignments may include journaling, reflective papers, creating rubrics, building lesson plans, and so forth.

What Is the Role of a Student Teacher?

A student teacher will learn to manage a classroom along with daily procedures, lesson plans, and student behavior. The first week of being a student teacher involves interactive observations. That may include working with individual students, or even assisting the teacher with lessons. In the following weeks, student teachers gradually assume all of the responsibilities of running a classroom. This includes creating a formal lesson plan, practicing instruction with students, and the responsibility of maintaining an organized, safe classroom environment.

How Involved will I be in the Classroom?

Student teaching experiences vary depending on the student. Undergraduate education majors at Drexel complete a 4-stage student teaching model. At the first two stages, students observe a classroom to see how an experienced teacher leads lessons. The student may also work individually or with small groups of students. At stage III, the student will complete a minimum of 30 hours of teaching by leading lessons with the whole class. At stage IV, undergraduate students spend up to 30 weeks teaching in a school. At this advanced stage, a student applies all their skills in lesson planning and classroom management by leading a class on their own under the observation of an experienced teacher. Part-time graduate students complete 13 weeks of student teaching to meet the requirements set by the Pennsylvania Department of Education.


Student teachers draft lesson plans under the supervision of their assigned teacher and deliver the lessons to the class. When developing their plans, student teachers take into the account the special needs of their students to ensure that they will grasp the concepts and learning activities. Drexel undergraduate students gain a good understanding of what student teaching is like through their previous experience in stages 1-3.

What Is the Student Teaching Dress Code?

Student teaching dress codes will vary slightly from school to school. However, teacher candidates are not only representing themselves, but their entire institution. Consequently, candidates are urged to dress professionally and conservatively. Student teachers should dress in a way to appear highly mature and professional.

Questions about student teaching? Request more information and get started with a degree or certificate from Drexel School of Education.


As a student teacher, you’ll be teaching five days per week for the entire school day. The number of hours of student teaching required for licensure vary from state to state. At Drexel, part-time graduate students pursuing a teaching license complete 13-weeks of student teaching, while undergraduate students complete a 30-week teacher residency at a K-12 school.

How to put Student Teaching on a Resume?

You can add student teaching on in the “relevant experience” section on your resume, as opposed to the section about your educational background. Like any job or internship, include the name of the institution where you worked, and the dates you worked there. To make yourself stand out from other student teachers, you should include specific examples of your accomplishments in the classroom, i.e. a unique unit plan. You could also include information about the age of the students, or about the subjects that you taught.

Do Student Teachers get Paid?

Student teaching is unpaid because the experience is a large part of your education. Additionally, it’s inadvisable to pursue full-time employment while working as a student teacher. However, student teachers are often able to find part-time work as tutors, or in after-school programs.

There is one exception to this rule. Sometimes a shorthanded school will hire a student teacher with a temporary or emergency teaching license. These exceptions are sometimes available to people who expect to receive their teaching license within a year.

How do I apply for Student Teaching?

Drexel University School of Education’s Field Placement Office manages all student teaching experiences for students. Students should contact the Field Placement Office to apply for student teaching and to get more information about clearances and other forms that are required to be completed prior to beginning student teaching.

How Do I Prepare for Student Teaching?

Aspiring student teachers can prepare by obtaining the background clearances relevant to their state, and then providing copies to the field placement office. It may be necessary to get a tuberculin test, however, this varies by district. Additionally, student teachers will need to need to complete the pre-service academic assessment (PAPA) exams to receive placement.

Student teachers need to manage their other responsibilities and time commitments in a way that never interferes with attendance; teachers must not be absent or late to assigned classrooms. In the event of an emergency, student teachers must notify the placement office and their mentor teacher as soon as possible.

How Do I Get Student Teaching Experience?

Once all requirements for placement have been met, the placement office will find a student teaching opportunity near you. Teacher candidates can then reach out to their mentor teacher to become acquainted. As a student teacher, you’ll be teaching five days per week for the entire school day. By the end of your education, you’ll have at least 13 weeks of experience.

Though student teachers work closely with their teacher mentors, teacher candidates quickly take over the full responsibilities of running a classroom. In addition to teaching experience, teacher candidates also attend weekly seminar related to their field.


Questions about student teaching? Request more information and get started with a degree or certificate from Drexel School of Education.

Mon, 04 May 2020 02:22:00 -0500 en text/html https://drexel.edu/soe/resources/student-teaching/advice/faq/
Professional Snowboarder Raises Important Questions About Social Media And Snowsports

The line between athlete and influencer is officially blurred.

In a recent episode of The Bombhole—a snowboarding podcast—Nitro Snowboard's Knut Eliassen made an observation about social media posts and views that raised several important questions regarding the status of snowsports athletes in the digital age.

Eliassen is right: on social media, content geared toward a broader audience—like a video of a snowboarder riding with a gear bag—will rack up more views than clips of a snowsports athlete executing a flawless double cork or greasing a quad kink rail.

Freeskiing Olympic medalist Nick Goepper, too, has noted this disparity.

In an Instagram post, Goepper shared that a video of him executing four double corks in the halfpipe—a superhuman feat—earned a smaller audience than a clip of him playing dress up and pouring water on his head.

It's all a bit backward, isn't it? For decades—if you discount the countless barriers that limited the participation of anyone who wasn't a white man in snowsports—on-snow skill was the primary arbiter of success for would-be snowsports athletes.

Now, as Goepper explained, you can drive more traffic (and presumably more sponsor dollars) by effectively playing into the algorithmic whims of tech giants with short, debatably silly clips that don't require much skiing or snowboarding talent.

Where does this leave us?

There's no simple, paragraph-long answer. Nuance prevails. With the rise of social media—among other factors—comes greater opportunities for the democratization of brand representatives. We're already seeing a wider range of personal backgrounds appear in ski team lineups—that's worth celebrating. These days, being an interesting, tech-savvy person is as much an asset as having a double cork or two in your bag.

However, in primarily supporting those who run the influencer beta instead of seeking snowsports success through honing their skiing skills, we risk leaving behind pros prioritizing their love of the sport over the social media game.

As social media marketing tactics exert further influence over snowsports, we could also enter a status quote where brands begin asking too much of already stretched-thin sponsored athletes. Juggling the demands of professional skiing and functioning as a full-time influencer? Herculean.

In short, amidst the ever-developing clamor that is social media, what really matters—skiing and those who dedicate their lives to it, regardless of how they look—has become slightly clouded. We shouldn't lose sight of what we're doing here in the first place.

Related: Oregon Ski Resort Cancels New Year Festivities As Snow Fails To Arrive

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We're always on the lookout for amusing, interesting and engaging ski-related videos to feature on our channels. Whether you're a professional or just an amateur, we want to see your best footage and help you share it with the world. Submit your video for a chance to be featured on POWDER and our social channels. Be sure to subscribe to our YouTube channel to watch high-quality ski videos.

Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:30:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://www.yahoo.com/lifestyle/professional-snowboarder-raises-important-questions-143000551.html
Study Abroad Study Abroad

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ESF Education Abroad is devoted to making transformational international experiences accessible to all ESF students regardless of major, cost, identity, or other defining factors. We do this by working with students on an individual basis to find the opportunities that best fit their personal needs and goals.

ESF students have hundreds of education abroad programs to choose from! Programs vary in length from one week up to a full academic year and are located all over the world, so there is something for everyone! Start to browse programs below, and please reach out to oie@esf.edu with any questions or to start planning your experience abroad.


Program Details
ESF Short-Term Programs Travel abroad with an ESF faculty member and your classmates! Most short-term courses are between one to three weeks in length and take place over spring or summer break.
ESF Exchange Programs Spend a semester or summer abroad with one of ESF's university partners.
ESF Partner Study Abroad Study abroad for a winter, summer, or semester with one of ESF's recommended study abroad providers, any other SUNY institution or through another study abroad program provider. Many of these programs are immersive or field-based opportunities. Short-term, summer, and semester programs are all available!


Quick Tips

Before researching programs, think about your goals for education abroad. What type of experience are you hoping to have and what are you most interested in learning? What type of opportunities do you have limited access to in Syracuse and how might you gain those abroad? Use these questions to help guide you to better understand what it is you want out of your international experience and how you might be able to find a program that fits those criteria.

In addition to thinking about what is important to you, take some time to recognize what is not important to you. When choosing a education abroad program, it can be easier to find a "perfect" match if you understand what you are willing to compromise. Are financials the most the important piece to you? Specific classes for your major? Perhaps a research course in a specific field? Rank the things that are most important to you so we can help you find that "perfect" opportunity.

You never know where you might find recommendations, advice or input. Ask your classmates, professors, advisors, parents, guardians, coaches, etc. You never know what you might discover. Don't forget to visit OIE as well – we serve as the repository for all of the different opportunities in front of you and can help guide you when you're not sure where to even start.

Fri, 14 Aug 2020 12:08:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.esf.edu/studyabroad/index.php
Frequently Asked Questions

As an individual student or as a family, consider potential lifestyle changes that may have to take place while financing a college education.

If possible, pay off credit card balances or other outstanding consumer debt. This is important for two reasons: First, having fewer bills coming in as you are paying for college may mean you could pay more out of pocket and borrow less. It is always wise to borrow as little as possible. Second, consumer debt, like credit cards and auto loans, are not considered in the aid awarding process.

Fri, 03 Jun 2016 01:55:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.uab.edu/cost-aid/resources/first-professional/faq

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