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Fundamentals of Ethics, Corporate Governance and Business Law
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CIMAPRA17-BA4-1-ENG
Fundamentals of Ethics, Corporate Governance and Business
Law
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Question: 89
Miss B is working closely with Mr L to deliver an important report on the efficiency of Mr L’s department. They have
had to work late together several times, and last night they went out to dinner afterwards. Miss B is starting to think
she may have feelings for Mr L.
Could her independence be called into question?
A . Yes, her feelings could be influencing her independence of mind
B . No, she is not actually dating Mr L so her independence of appearance is not compromised
C . No, provided she does not act on her feelings and continues to be professional
D . Yes, having dinner with a work colleague can affect her independence of appearance
Answer: A
Question: 90
ABC Accountants has taken out an advert in its local paper to promote its services. Mr B, an account manager, is
uncomfortable, as the advert says that ABC is expert in charitable tax issues, and he knows that none of the partners
have that expertise. However, Mr B does not want to be thought of as a ‘trouble maker’ by bringing the matter up with
his manager.
Which TWO things should Mr B do?
A . Seek guidance from CIMA’s Code of Ethics
B . Seek guidance from his line-manager
C . Do nothing
D . Speak to the local paper
Answer: A,B
Question: 91
What can companies do in order to minimize the likelihood of future legislation?
A . Maintain effective self regulation
B . Insist on the highest standards of ethical behavior from their company and its employees
C . Understand and address what the public expects of companies in terms of ethical
behavior and social responsibilities
D . All of the above
Answer: D
Question: 92
Completing work within established deadlines reflects the personal quality identified by the CIMA Code of Ethics as:
A . Responsibility
B . Accuracy
C . Timeliness
D . Tardiness
Answer: C
Question: 93
Which of the following statements are correct?
(i) A claim for unfair dismissal must be made to an industrial tribunal within 3 months of the effective date of
termination.
(ii) A claim for wrongful dismissal must be made to an industrial tribunal within 6 years of the effective date of
termination.
(iii) A claim for wrongful dismissal must be made to an industrial tribunal within 3 months of the effective date of
termination.
A . (i) and (ii)
B . (i)
C . (ii)
D . (i) and (iii)
Answer: A
Question: 94
Which of the following statements is incorrect?
(i) A term may be implied into a contract on the basis of previous dealings between the parties.
(ii) A term may be implied into a contract by statute.
(iii) A term may be implied into a contract by a court where it would be reasonable to imply it.
A . (i) only
B . (i) and (ii) only
C . (ii) only
D . (iii) only
Answer: D
Question: 95
In which country are accountants legally required to speak up about certain ethical concerns?
A . United Kingdom
B . Italy
C . United States of America
D . China
Answer: C
Question: 96
Although no-one has reason to suspect, you have taken a violent dislike to a particular assurance client.
This could severely affect your independence:
A . Of belief
B . In appearance
C . Of mind
D . In competence
Answer: C
Question: 97
Which of the following is incorrect?
A . All courts below the Supreme Court may refer a case involving European Law to the European Court of Justice for
a preliminary ruling.
B . Supreme Court must refer a case involving European Law to the European Court of Justice for a preliminary
ruling.
C . An English court is not bound to provide effect to a preliminary ruling of the European Court of Justice.
D . A preliminary ruling of the European Court of Justice is sent back to the Court which referred the question and
must be given effect by that court.
Answer: C
Question: 98
AB Ltd contracted to deliver two desks and three filing cabinets to CD Ltd. On the day when delivery was due to take
place AB Ltd did not have a vehicle with sufficient capacity to hold all the goods. As a result AB Ltd delivered the
two desks only
Which of the following is correct?
A . The contract between AB Ltd and CD Ltd is frustrated.
B . CD Ltd is legally entitled to refuse delivery of the desks
C . The failure to deliver the filing cabinets is a breach of a warranty which entitles CD Ltd to claim damages
D . The delivery of the desks amounts to substantial performance of the contract and CD Ltd is obliged to pay the
contract price less an amount for the defects in performance
Answer: B
Question: 99
While working as an accountant, you are asked to overlook certain irregularities in your company’s accounts.
This is likely to result in tensions described by which TWO of the following four options:
A . Personal and societal values
B . Personal and corporate values
C . Professional and corporate values
D . Professional and societal values
Answer: B,C
Question: 100
Which of the following terms can be defined as follows?
"…the way an organization manages its relationships"
A . Ethics
B . Social responsibility
C . Corporate governance
D . Professional behavior
Answer: B
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Getting your RV or trailer parked nice and level is key to getting a good night’s sleep. Traditional methods involve bubble levels and trial and error, but [MJCulross] wanted something better. Enter the Teensy RV Leveling Helper.

The device uses an accelerometer to detect the pitch and roll angles of the RV. It then displays these on a small screen, and performs calculations on how much the RV must be raised at each corner to bring it level. The RV’s width and wheelbase can be entered via a simple touchscreen interface to ensure the calculations are correct. There’s also a trailer mode which calculates three-point leveling figures for the wheels and the hitch, as opposed to the four-wheeled RV mode.

The result is that the correct leveling blocks can be selected first time when parking up the RV or trailer. It’s a lot less tedious than the usual method of parking, leveling, checking, and then leveling again.

We don’t see a lot of camper hacks around here, but we’ve noticed a new trend towards lightweight cycle campers in latest years. If you’ve found your own nifty hacks for your home on the open road, don’t hesitate to let us know!

Wed, 25 Oct 2023 00:04:00 -0500 Lewin Day en-US text/html https://hackaday.com/2023/10/25/level-your-trailer-or-rv-with-this-nifty-helper-device/
End of Valium, the 'little helper'

by JENNY HOPE, Daily Mail

Valium, one of the world's best-known tranquillisers, has been taken off the market by its maker.

Roche has decided to stop producing the branded version of a drug prescribed to millions who became overwhelmed by the stress of living in the 20th century.

Valium was dubbed the ' housewives' choice' and immortalised by the Rolling Stones as Mother's Little Helper.

Its huge success put Roche in the pharmaceutical super league, where the Swissbased company remains.

The drug belongs to the family of benzodiazepines widely prescribed for anxiety and sleep disorders, and as muscle relaxants and anti-convulsants.

There were claims that Valium, introduced in 1963, could lead to years of dependency - with women particularly vulnerable - in patients too anxious to leave their homes.

There were countless reports of careless overprescribing by doctors, and some experts claimed it was as difficult to come off Valium as it was to break a heroin habit.

Comedian Freddie Starr was among those who blamed the pills for him becoming a 'walking zombie' in the early 1980s after he took them to cope with the break-up of his first marriage.

Probably the most notorious Valium addict was John Hinckley, who shot and wounded President Reagan. Psychiatrists at his trial were divided over the part the drug played in the shooting. Some said it could have 'impaired his control'.

But many found Valium a great help when used shortterm to cope with a crisis.

The drug is no longer protected by patent and unbranded, generic versions of the drug called diazepam - made by other companies - will continue to be available.

Roche said last night: 'It is not unusual for researchfocused companies like us to discontinue a medicine after its patent expires. This is the case with Valium.'

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Mon, 13 Nov 2023 10:00:00 -0600 text/html https://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-97526/End-Valium-little-helper.html
Fundamentals, Not Fads

In conjunction with the launch of our series on managing nonprofit organizations, we are pleased to announce that Helen Keller International is the 2014 recipient of the Henry R. Kravis Prize in Leadership.

If you were to look for a single nonprofit organization that exemplifies a commitment to management fundamentals, an organization that has resisted the allure of fads, you’d be hard pressed to find a better candidate than Helen Keller International (HKI). Founded in 1915 by Helen Keller and George Kessler, HKI is one year shy of reaching the century mark, and it has endured and grown over that period in part by following the five managerial principles that we will explore in this series.

HKI works in 22 countries to prevent blindness and to reduce malnutrition. HKI’s reach is broad. In 2012, the organization reached nearly 200 million people. That year, for example, HKI provided 50 million children with vitamin A supplements—an intervention that has been proven to reduce child mortality by 23 percent. Each year, HKI delivers preventive treatment for river blindness to 80 million people in Africa. Another HKI program, a partnership with private-sector organizations that involves fortifying cooking oil and wheat flour with vitamins and minerals, reaches 94 million people in West Africa. Through efforts of this kind, HKI has achieved significant impact. In Bangladesh, for instance, the organization’s homestead food production program led to a decrease in anemia rates from 64 percent to 45 percent. The fortified cooking-oil program in West Africa, meanwhile, prevents an estimated 14,300 deaths per year.

A capacity for innovation has definitely contributed to that record of achievement. But innovation is only part of the HKI story.


If you’re based in Silicon Valley, as both of us are, it’s hard to argue against the idea of innovation. The assumption in this part of the world is that if you want to change things, you need to develop a new business model or a new technology. And that spirit infuses the social sector not only here but also globally. At myriad conferences, you hear constant chatter about “new ideas”: impact investing, high-impact corporate social responsibility, venture philanthropy, hybrid legal and organizational forms. These ideas have some merit, to be sure. But in most cases, they are likely to have only a limited impact on the way that we build and sustain organizations in the social sector.

In our experience, the managerial issues that social sector organizations struggle to resolve—the issues that complicate their efforts to make a bigger impact on the world—are perennial. The latest fads in social innovation won’t solve them. Instead, they require a relentless focus on timeless fundamentals.

Nine Prizewinners

In April 2013, we facilitated a daylong retreat for the first 9 recipients of the Henry R. Kravis Prize in Leadership. (Helen Keller International is the 10th winner of the prize.) Each year since 2006, the Kravis Prize has been awarded to an individual or an organization with a track record of demonstrated social impact. In each case, the impact that prizewinners have made in the world has been significant, transformative, and proven (through external impact evaluations). That impact, moreover, has been broad as well as deep: Collectively, those first 9 prize recipients have positively affected the lives of more than 560 million people in 75 countries on five continents.

At the retreat last year, we encouraged Kravis Prize leaders to discuss the practices that had enabled them to make such a large impact on the world, along with the challenges that they confront in working to sustain and increase that impact. Two important insights emerged from that discussion. First, what allows each Kravis Prize winner to excel is its commitment to one or two mission-driven core competencies. Second, and more intriguingly, the challenges cited by Kravis Prize leaders are the same ones that virtually every social sector organization faces today. In short, outside of their areas of core competency, even these high-performing organizations wrestle with basic and enduring management challenges.

Five Perennial Issues

The challenges that every nonprofit organization faces, we believe, involve the need for improved execution in five areas of fundamental concern: mission focus, fundraising and development, board governance, succession planning, and performance measurement. When we have seen well-performing nonprofits lose their way, usually one (or more) of these five perennial issues lies at the root of the problem.

Mission Matters Most. Leaders of a for-profit corporation can assert with ease that their mission is to maximize shareholder value. But nonprofit leaders lack such an inherent clarity of purpose. Mission creep, therefore, remains the greatest threat to nonprofit organizations. Countless external and internal stakeholders can lead a nonprofit astray. Many funders, for example, exert subtle but fierce pressure on nonprofits to broaden their mission to accommodate a particular grantmaking interest.

Mission creep remains the greatest threat to nonprofit organizations. Countless external and internal stakeholders can lead a nonprofit astray.

Among Kravis Prize recipients, there is general agreement on the need to say “No, thank you” to funders whose grants might cause mission creep. “Once, when I tried to protect us from mission creep, I lost a multi-million-dollar funding opportunity,” says Sakena Yacoobi, founder and CEO of the Afghan Institute of Learning. “That was significant for us, because our total budget is only $3 million. I said to the funder, ‘I’m not going to do what you are telling me to do, since it is outside the scope of our mission. I am doing what our beneficiaries need me to do.’ And I lost that funding.” The price of saying no can be perilously high. But smart nonprofit leaders understand the cost of saying yes. Mission creep can stretch the resources of an organization so thin that it loses the ability to pursue its core goals.

Fundraising Is Fundamental (If Not Always Fun). For any nonprofit, the effort to achieve greater scale requires money. And that means investing in development. A standard rule of thumb: Every dollar spent on development will raise four dollars in funding for an organization. It’s a lesson that’s not lost on Kravis Prize winners. Consider Johann Koss, founder and CEO of Right to Play, who grew the budget of his organization from $2 million in 2001 to $42 million in 2013. “In 2002, we were very fortunate to raise an additional $5 million, but we resisted pressure to spend it all on programs,” Koss explains. “Instead, we reinvested 40 percent of it in development.” He and his team used that money to hire a director of development and several major gift officers. Right to Play exemplifies another cardinal rule of fundraising: Start with your board. “Expectations of board members regarding development are very explicit: Every board member is expected to make Right to Play one of their top three priorities for charitable giving, and also is expected to help us raise money from others,” Koss says. “Every year, the board chair and I have a conversation with each board member about what they’ve given, what they’ve raised from others, and plans for next year.”

A Better Board Will Make You Better. Members of a nonprofit board must engage directly and deeply in the work of their organization. Otherwise, board meetings will degenerate into rubber-stamp exercises that deprive nonprofit leaders of much-needed strategic guidance; board members, for their part, will feel that their time has not been well spent. Leaders at Mothers2mothers, a Kravis Prize organization, take that lesson to heart. Its board members “talk and argue to such an extent that meetings can be exhausting!” says Andrew Stern, founding board chair. “They come to our two-day-long meetings to guide the organization’s strategy and to make critical decisions. They are not attending in order to listen to updates, nod, and then go home.”

An equally important matter is board composition “Our board has a diverse composition of professional backgrounds, with representatives from the private sector and from various segments of the global public health landscape,” Stern notes. “The board also has notable diversity in terms of appetite for risk. Roughly half of our members are conservative; the others have a ‘go-getter’ perspective. Our diversity creates rich and ultimately very helpful discussions and balances our decision-making.”

Nothing Succeeds Like Succession. Intentional succession planning is important for any organization. For a social sector organization led by a dynamic and visionary founder, it’s an absolute imperative. Founder transitions are fraught with potential challenges—challenges that pivot around primal, life-and-death issues much more than institutional and organizational ones. The same personality traits that drive many founders (an urge to push past apparent constraints, for example) make it hard for them to see their mortality as something that they must plan for.

Which is why it’s never too early to begin succession planning. Leaders at one Kravis Prize organization, Landesa, are standard bearers of that best practice. They identified Tim Hanstad as the future replacement for founder and chief executive Roy Prosterman in 1992—13 years before he took the reins as president and CEO. During the intervening period, Hanstad served as executive director. “We had done so much succession planning for so long that by the time Tim took over, the transition was incredibly smooth,” Prosterman says. (After Prosterman stepped down, he took a seat on the Landesa board. Crucially, however, he had the wisdom to declare that he would never become the board chair.)

Clear Measurement Counts. In conducting due diligence for the Kravis Prize selection process, we have observed how rare it is for organizations to obtain substantive data on whether their intervention actually works. More than 75 percent of the 800-plus nonprofits that we have researched over the past nine years do not have impact data that one could deem reliable. In our view, too many nonprofits fail to appreciate the benefits of rigorous performance measurement.

The gold standard of evaluation methods is the randomized controlled trial (RCT). Many nonprofits are reluctant to embrace RCTs: Not only are RCTs expensive to conduct, but they also risk turning a spotlight on organizational failure. Yet some Kravis Prize recipients are using RCTs to transform their organizations in positive ways. Pratham, for example, has completed 11 RCTs over the past 12 years. “RCTs have been tremendously helpful in letting us zoom in on a strategy that works,” says founder and CEO Madhav Chavan. “The data provide us impetus to act. Yes, the RCT process is expensive, but the value is enormous. The RCT process builds internal capacity. After we started doing RCTs, we acquired a better understanding of how to think of impact with a mindset that constantly tries to maximize it.”

These five issues are matters of eternal vigilance for all social sector organizations—prizewinners and non-prizewinners alike. They are conceptually simple but very difficult in practice, because they hinge on perennially challenging trade-offs: Should we accept a generous grant, or should we decline it in order to protect our core mission? Should we spend money on programs, or should we invest in fundraising capacity? The ability to manage such trade-offs, rather than a knack for embracing the latest fads, is what spells success or failure for most nonprofits.

This entry in the “Fundamentals of Nonprofit Management” series appears in a slightly different form in the print edition of the Spring 2014 issue of Stanford Social Innovation Review.

Support SSIR’s coverage of cross-sector solutions to global challenges. 
Help us further the reach of innovative ideas. Donate today.

Read more stories by Kim Jonker & William F. Meehan, III.

Wed, 12 Feb 2014 05:08:00 -0600 en-us text/html https://ssir.org/articles/entry/fundamentals_not_fads
Natural Helper

Internship Overview: The Natural Helper will assist the Youth Caseworker in providing services to immigrant children and their families. The Natural Helper will coordinate services to ensure that the children are living in a safe environment and integrating well into their new community. The Natural Helper will assist the caseworker in connecting them to appropriate services and resources. Travel within Miami-Dade County. This is an unpaid internship. 

Learning Objectives: The Natural Helper will gain knowledge of solution-oriented, strengths-based care coordination for immigrant youth and their families. The Natural Helper will develop skills in mapping community assets and resources. The Natural Helper will develop skills in client empowerment and advocacy. 

Major Responsibilities include but are not limited to: 

  • Conduct client follow up assessments 
  • Assist clients in developing individualized service plans 
  • Assist in scheduling and accompanying clients to appointments as appropriate 
  • Map community assets and help make referrals to community partners 
  • Educate clients on U.S. healthcare and social service systems 
  • Input client information into the funder and/or agency database(s) 
  • Communicate client concerns with IRC staff and coordinate service plan with supervisor 
  • Attend relevant trainings and workshops 
  • Other duties as assigned 

Internship Requirements: 

  • Excellent communication and writing skills 
  • Required - Bilingual ability in English and Spanish 
  • Organized with attention to detail 
  • Able to work independently and under pressure 
  • An interest in international and immigrant issues 
  • Creativity and initiative to follow through on projects 
  • Strong desire to help people and enthusiasm for working in a multi-cultural setting 
  • Computer literacy – preferably with PC systems 
  • Valid driver’s license, reliable access to an insured vehicle. 

Additional Requirements: 

  • Must pass a background check, interns are responsible for covering the cost of their background check. The price is $51. 
  • Must be at least 18 years old  
  • Must attend IRC volunteer orientation training 

Minimum Commitment: 10 hours per week for four months.

If you are interested in applying, please submit your resume and cover letter to [email protected].

Thu, 09 Sep 2021 18:51:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.rescue.org/volunteer/natural-helper
Almanac: The fundamentals of Decoupled Molding

Editor's note: DECOUPLED MOLDING is a service mark of RJG Inc. For style purposes, it's referred to in this article as Decoupled Molding. There are all makes and models of hot runner systems. But no matter what kind you run, all hot runner systems have one thing in common—the word preventive, as in maintenance. One expert walks you through the dos and don'ts.

Molding isn't just an art anymore. It's about fluid and thermal dynamics and controlling pressure and flow and maintaining shot consistency. How do you get your machine to make a good part each time? Here's some advice on how you can apply scientific principles to the molding process.

As the demands of global competition and complexity of part designs have increased, the injection molding process has developed into a far more sophisticated endeavor than has previously been required. New molding machines have become far more skilled in their ability to do a variety of gymnastics to make good injection molded parts. Often, however, we find that molders on the shop floor have not kept pace with the sophistication of, or know how to apply, the new controls given to them on injection molding machines. In addition, those with older machines are discouraged by the dizzying degree of complexity surrounding these newer controls and wonder how they can ever compete. The technique called Decoupled Molding addresses these issues.

In a sense, Decoupled Molding is a classification system, as opposed to traditional molding. Decoupled Molding is further broken down into various forms (Decoupled I, Decoupled II, and Decoupled III).

Decoupled Molding allows process capability to be achieved beyond that of traditional molding techniques and allows the molder to use the full potential of the new machine's sophistication.

Equally important, Decoupled Molding (when applied to an older machine with some rather simple upgrades) allows molders with old equipment to perform at world-class levels, thus enabling them to compete effectively in the new world environment.

Surely it sounds too good to be true, but let's address just exactly what we're talking about.

Traditional Molding

To understand the differences in molding techniques, it is important to define what we mean by a traditional molding process, and to then differentiate it from Decoupled Molding.

Injection molding evolved from a manual process in the 1940s, when machines were virtually unsophisticated arbor presses in which plastic was squeezed into a mold that was manually clamped by hand. Material was fed into a cylinder, heated by heater bands, and a plunger was used to squeeze the melted plastic into a cold mold. Pressure was maintained until the part solidified, and then the mold was opened and the part was taken away. The main controls were pressure and time: how hard and how long one squeezed plastic into the mold.

Injection molding and the concept of how molding occurred evolved from this basic technique. This is what we now call traditional molding.

As the process became more sophisticated, a pump was added to the machine and the plastic was injected using hydraulic force. Early machines still had only one stage: squeeze. The pressure was set so that the plastic filled the mold, the part was packed to an appropriate level, and it was held there until solidified. If parts were insufficiently filled, we squeezed more. If parts were overfilled, we squeezed less.

As the machine evolved further, two-stage machines became standard. But the technique remained the same: Squeeze the plastic into the mold and pack it during the first stage, and then simply switch to a smaller pump (the low volume) during the second stage (or holding phase), primarily to conserve energy. The holding pressure was left either at the same pressure as the first stage or, in some cases, slightly lower to minimize overpacking at the gate.

This was largely the technique of choice over the next 20 years and is still widely used throughout the world. However, during the 1970s, there was an increase in the understanding of rheology, which made it clear some advantages could be gained by using an alternate molding methodology. Before we move on to Decoupled Molding, let's review two molding-related phenomena:

Non-Newtonian flow. When plastic is exposed to a shearing action during flow, it undergoes a dramatic viscosity change. This is called non-Newtonian behavior and is widely recognized as the standard behavior of polymers during flow. Faster flows (higher shear rates) cause a reduction in viscosity. In traditional molding, the velocity of the “squeeze†was virtually uncontrolled because it was not recognized how important this non-Newtonian phenomena really was. Today, we recognize that this is a major variable of the process and, thus, we wish to control the velocity of injection during the filling process.

Pressure-limited injection. If traditional molding techniques are used, we have a paradox. If we use just enough pressure to pack the mold, we do not have enough pressure to fill fast. In other words, the speed of fill is limited by the amount of packing, creating a pressure-limited condition during fill. Here, the first two stages (filling and packing) are coupled together and cannot be controlled independently. Even worse, if only one pressure setting is used throughout the cycle, all three stages (filling, packing, and holding) are coupled together.

A Classification System

Decoupled I. An improved technique of molding, which can be achieved on certain types of parts, is Decoupled I. This technique was used in the 1970s when cavity pressure control was initiated. With this technique, the mold is filled at a controlled velocity until the mold is volumetrically full. At this point, the machine is transferred to a set holding pressure and melt inertia (kinetic energy and the decompression of the melt) is used to pack the mold. Filling is disconnected from packing, but the inertia of the first-stage fill is the major component of the packing process. This is a process that requires a high degree of machine repeatability and is not for the faint of heart. It is generally only used in a very limited set of specific applications.

Decoupled II. If we are to achieve faster fill rates to take advantage of rheology, we must be able to fill quickly and consistently. The only way to do this is to fully separate the filling phase from the packing phase. If we do not separate the fast fill from the sudden stop at the end (when the cavity is volumetrically full), the melt inertia will cause a rapid buildup of pressure when the plastic hits the end of the cavity, producing flash. This is analogous to driving your car into the back wall of the garage to stop it.

A better approach is to slow down before hitting the end of the cavity, thus a decoupling the fast fill stage from the packing stage. Using Decoupled II, this is accomplished by transferring from fill into second-stage pressure when the mold is 95% to 98% full. This is analogous to driving fast on the way home from work and slowing down before parking in the garage.

Similarly, we can fill as rapidly as we'd like as long as we stop short to dissipate the melt inertia before we pack the mold. This is a fundamental concept of Decoupled II. Packing and holding are still coupled together; however, packing is done during second stage. The speed of packing is not controlled directly but is controlled by the second-stage pressure. Second stage is then set to pack and hold the part appropriately, without slamming into the end of the cavity.

Decoupled III. The latest evolution of the Decoupled Molding technique has been to separate the process into three distinct stages: fill, pack, and hold. The first stage, fill, is achieved at one or more velocities (multiple speeds may be necessary depending on part geometry).

The packing phase is decoupled from the filling phase; however, instead of simply squeezing the plastic in under second-stage pressure, packing is done using a low-speed, controlled velocity stage until a pressure setpoint inside the mold cavity is reached. This low packing rate absorbs most of the melt inertia and allows precise levels of packing to be achieved. This is similar to driving slowly into the garage and stopping exactly when your windshield touches the tennis ball hanging from the ceiling. Hold is then used to prevent backflow of plastic out of the mold until the gate is sealed (putting the car in park and setting the brake, to extend the analogy).

Summary

Decoupled Molding can provide unsurpassed process repeatability by segregating the molding process into the logical stages of fill, pack, and hold. Maintaining consistency of these three stages of molding separately allows the molder to build a simple, repeatable, robust process with minimal complexity.

The Decoupled Molding technique can be used on new machines, and on old machines that have been properly upgraded. Only position transfer capability is required to do the simplest Decoupled II technique. Decoupled III provides the capability for world-class consistency but requires the ability to control low-velocity pack speeds and to transfer from a cavity pressure input or an external contact closure. This three-stage technique provides a process consistency three to seven times better than the Decoupled II process.

Many of you may already be doing Decoupled Molding. However, the classification system in itself can make a better molder. The molder knows what he's doing, why he's doing it, and what the limitations are.

Rod Groleau, chairman of RJG Inc. (Traverse City, MI), has more than 30 years of experience in the plastics industry. Rod got his Bachelor of Engineering degree from GMI (now Kettering) and a Master's degree from Michigan State University. Matt Groleau joined RJG in 1991 and worked in many aspects of the business before taking the position of president. RJG provides production and process control systems, cavity pressure sensing technology, and training. Contact them at (231) 947-3111 or [email protected].

Mon, 13 Nov 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.plasticstoday.com/injection-molding/almanac-fundamentals-decoupled-molding
The Fundamentals Of Cryptocurrency Investment

(Disclaimer: Author holds investments in ether, bitcoin, EOS and Bitcoin Cash.)

2018 has already been another stellar year for organizations raising money for blockchain and cryptocurrency projects. While initial coin offerings (ICOs) reportedly raised more than $3.69 billion in 2017, the total amount raised this year already stands at a staggering $17.25 billion in late July, according to CoinSchedule.

Should the current trend I've observed in crowdsourced funding for technology companies continue, it will be important for investors to discern the nuances of investing in blockchain technologies and the virtual assets created on top of them, as ICO investors usually receive virtual assets in the form of coins or tokens in return for ether or bitcoin. Here's what you need to know about common blockchains and assets.

Fundamentals Of Currency

To understand cryptocurrencies, investors should first recall the fundamental tenets of currencies: They are typically units of measurement, stores of value and mediums of exchange. Blockchain-based virtual assets — such as cryptographic tokens — often demonstrate these three characteristics of currency. However, as an investor, I advise you to consider if and when these functions are only a byproduct of the objective inscribed by the creators into the asset's software code before investing in a cryptocurrency.

Ethereum's Ether

Ether is a virtual asset on Ethereum. Even in the current bear market, one ether trades at about $292 as of this writing, according to CoinDesk. That puts the market cap of the Ethereum blockchain at $29.66 billion — which isn't far off from the current valuation of NASDAQ-traded Vanguard Total Bond Market ETF.

Ethereum’s Virtual Machine, which allows developers to write programs called "smart contracts," executes if the user makes a payment in its native currency ether. These transaction costs on the Ethereum blockchain are consequently labeled as "gas." Like its real-world counterpart, gasoline, I believe this virtual gas should be valued by investors — not for its currency properties or inherent value but for the utility it fulfills in the Ethereum network. The more applications that are being built and used on the blockchain, the more demand ether is likely to have.

EOS

EOS is the virtual asset native to the recently launched blockchain EOS.IO. While providing similar functions as Ethereum, users of the EOS.IO blockchain are not required to pay for transactions in the blockchain’s native asset, "EOS." Block.one, which raised a reported $4 billion to fund the launch and rollout of EOS.IO, has according to a July 2018 report allocated about $700 million to grow the EOS.IO ecosystem. Like with other cryptocurrencies, one benefit to investors is that EOS token holders may receive free tokens from projects funded by venture firms supporting blockchain in what is referred to as an airdrop. I believe investors in Ethereum’s ether might also find it valuable to keep at least a small number of EOS in their digital wallets as an easy way to keep track of applications being launched on EOS.IO.

Tokens On The Ethereum Blockchain

The Ethereum blockchain provides an easy-to-navigate, token-generation interface referred to as the ERC20 Token Standard. This standard ensures that all people who control electronic wallets that comply with this standard can receive new tokens generated this way. These tokens can also easily be listed on exchanges that support this Ethereum standard, and most of the more than 200 virtual asset exchanges do.

Tokens created by software engineers on the public Ethereum blockchain are usually coded to fulfill a specific function, such as triggering an event, allowing access or assigning other rights. These tokens are therefore not created as "units of measurement." Consequently, I advise investors to value these tokens according to the overall validity of the system they are being deployed in, using startup investment criteria such as the state of the technology, experience of the team and product market fit. Good starting points for an investor’s research are the LinkedIn profiles of the team members (for qualifications) and activity of the GitHub repository of the project (to track progress). Positive signs are teams led by previously successful technologists and depositories with code development stretching back over a year or more.

Bitcoin

The Bitcoin blockchain and its currency, bitcoin (the lower case "b" differentiates the currency from the blockchain and concept), is identified by its original creators in their 2008 whitepaper on the currency as electronic cash (registration required). However, unlike fiat currencies — which are created continuously and as needed by governments — bitcoin's total supply is limited by code to a total of 21 million, making bitcoin inherently scarce. Even though a number of major currencies accept bitcoin as a form of payment, most signals seem to suggest that bitcoin is mostly bought for its "store of value" function. I recommend, therefore, that investors approach bitcoin purchases in the same manner as they would approach the purchase of gold: as a hedge against their stocks or bond holdings.

Pure Cryptocurrencies

A few virtual assets were created for the specific purpose of functioning solely as a cryptocurrency. These cryptocurrencies include Zcash, Dash, Monero and Bitcoin Cash. Zcash publishes transactions on its public blockchain, but the currency's privacy features enable users to conceal the sender, recipient and amount being transacted. Dash — launched as "Darkcoin" — also provides privacy functions to users and is using a self-governed organizational structure referred to as a Decentralized Autonomous Organization.

The value of any currency is mostly determined by the soundness of its monetary policies and inflationary tendencies. Investors seeking to add cryptocurrencies to their portfolio should familiarize themselves with the government models of the blockchains these assets are being created on and follow their specific use cases, which can generally be found in the whitepapers published by these projects. Mainstream adoption, such as when well-known merchants accept the currencies and when U.S. exchanges such as Coinbase add them, is also a positive signal for investors to look as they build a cryptocurrency portfolio.

Conclusions

I believe that blockchains and their applications, such as cryptocurrencies, are likely to play a central role in the future of any investment strategy. However, investing in these assets is not yet well understood. This is likely in part because of their nascent history and because of contradictory handling by government agencies in the U.S. and abroad that seem to incorrectly conflate cryptocurrencies with other blockchain-based assets and functions. I advise investors to look at each blockchain project's individual merits. They should use standard venture investment criteria such as the team or community supporting the technology, the size of the market opportunity and the current development status of the product while differentiating cryptographic currencies from cryptographic assets.

Wed, 29 Aug 2018 00:30:00 -0500 Christian Kameir en text/html https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbesfinancecouncil/2018/08/29/the-fundamentals-of-cryptocurrency-investment/
ICAgile Fundamentals Certification Course

Since Agile Fundamentals is foundational and the gateway to all other certification tracks, it is appropriate for those new to the agile world, and for practitioners who recognize the need to focus on “being” agile in addition to “doing” agile.

For those who want a good introduction to some widely applied Agile frameworks and practices. Participants will get a solid understanding of the processes and the environment of an agile project, and the tools and techniques used in delivering value the agile way.

  • Professionals at all organizational levels
  • All industry sectors including government and non-profit
  • Those seeking innovative approaches to product delivery
  • Organization and Team Leaders
  • Change Managers
  • Customer Satisfaction Gurus
Thu, 05 Mar 2020 20:05:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.utsa.edu/pace/agile/agile-fundamentals.html
Flames' A.J. Greer: Produces helper in win

Greer logged an assist and two shots on goal in Saturday's 6-3 win over the Kraken.

Greer couldn't cash in on a breakaway, but Philipp Grubauer didn't make a clean save, and Mikael Backlund ultimately knocked in a goal. The helper was Greer's second point in the last three contests. The 26-year-old has three points, 12 shots on net, 17 hits, 11 PIM and a minus-1 rating through 10 outings, though it appears he may have the edge over Dryden Hunt for playing time.

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Sat, 04 Nov 2023 18:28:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.cbssports.com/fantasy/hockey/news/flames-a-j-greer-produces-helper-in-win/
Coyotes' Logan Cooley: Produces helper

Cooley logged an assist and went plus-3 in Monday's 8-1 win over the Blackhawks.

Cooley helped out on the first of three goals from Michael Carcone in this contest. After beginning the season on the second line, Cooley was dropped to the third line Monday. He's still searching for his first NHL goal, but he's managed six helpers (five on the power play) with eight shots on net, seven blocked shots and a plus-3 rating through eight contests.

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Mon, 30 Oct 2023 18:20:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.cbssports.com/fantasy/hockey/news/coyotes-logan-cooley-produces-helper/
Robots will be your helper, not your adversary, says robotics firm CEO

Robots, in our collective imagination, are objects of fascination and fear. While our inner 5-year-olds marvel at the thought of Transformers or C-3PO in real life, the adult side of us fret over concerns about how robots might affect — or even replace — human jobs.

Make no mistake about it — robots will take on jobs, but not in the way you most fear, said Boston Dynamics CEO Robert Playter at Yahoo Finance's Invest conference. Boston Dynamics, founded in 1992, is a leading robotics design and engineering company that counts Meta (META), Nestle Purina, Anheuser-Busch (BUD), and DHL Express among its clients. Playter said that the company's industrial robots will conduct tasks that humans simply don't want, or aren't well suited to.

"The jobs this robot is performing are so monotonous that people don't excel at them," he said. "Would you want the job where you walk through the factory with a clipboard, recording temperatures, pressures, and gauges repetitively every day, multiple times a day?"

This is the sort of role most people would rather avoid or might end up doing incorrectly out of boredom, making it a perfect job for robots, Playter added.

Boston Dynamics' robot Spot at the premiere of "Transformers: Rise of the Beasts" held at Kings Theater on June 5, 2023, in New York City. (Nina Westervelt/Variety via Getty Images) (Nina Westervelt via Getty Images)

One of Boston Dynamics' most well-known robots, Spot, does this and other jobs like it. The four-legged robot dog — famous for the fluidity of its movement — is being deployed at scale in industrial contexts, such as factory inspection at Nestle Purina.

Other applications for Spot include situations that are dangerous or unsafe for humans.

"We've had Spot at the Fukushima nuclear power plants, and it's been to Chernobyl," said Playter. "For the police, if they have to serve a warrant to a murder suspect, you don't want the cop opening the door. That's a very dangerous environment. So, having a robot mediate that first contact with a potential suspect is actually going to be safer for folks."

Developing robots is a long, expensive process — it took at least $100 million to create Spot. There's also a gulf between having a functional robot and a scalable use case. A robot may perform reliably, but it has to fill a real need that drives widespread adoption, such as cost or efficiency savings.

"We are building a new industry here, and you have to cross the chasm with a high-value use case that is scalable and is going to pay for the development of these machines," said Playter.

Robert Playter, CEO of Boston Dynamics, with Atlas. (David L. Ryan/The Boston Globe via Getty Images) (Boston Globe via Getty Images)

So, if you're waiting for that robot maid in your home, we're still about 10 to 20 years off, said Playter. That's the key, unavoidable reality in the robotics business — you can't build Spot the way you would a car. For the foreseeable future, this is a capital-intensive, time-intensive, and incredibly specialized process.

"You have to iterate on the hardware, there is software, and the first prototype is not going to be reliable enough, so you won't be able to deliver it," Playter told Yahoo Finance. "There are a bunch of little companies out there that claim they're going to launch a humanoid in two years, but I think they're just blowing smoke."

Tesla (TSLA) CEO Elon Musk — also the owner of X, formerly Twitter — has been especially bullish about robotics, unveiling a series of humanoid robots in 2022 and doubling down this year.

"I think he's been watching too many science fiction movies, and I believe the fear-mongering is a bit overblown," Playter referred to Musk's doomsday prediction of robots wiping out human jobs. But the billionaire should be taken seriously, Playter added. He has the built-in advantage of possessing the manufacturing power, the software expertise, the economy of scale, and the financial wherewithal to fund the efforts.

Visitors view the Tesla ''Optimus'' at the 2023 World Artificial Intelligence Conference in Shanghai, China, July 6, 2023. (Costfoto/NurPhoto via Getty Images) (NurPhoto via Getty Images)

But Boston Dynamics is driving in a different direction than the famous carmaker. "On the other hand, he is saying things that don't make sense to me, like intentionally making the robots slow and weak for safety," said Playter. "You want to create robots that are strong and powerful because that's the only way they will be useful."

Nevertheless, the AI boom could move the robotics industry forward. Boston Dynamics is currently working on integrating Spot with Open AI's ChatGPT.

"AI is the brain, the robot is the body, and together, I think we're going to build an entirely new industry that's basically going to change business," he said.

See the latest coverage from Yahoo Finance's Invest event:

Allie Garfinkle is a Senior Tech Reporter at Yahoo Finance. Follow her on X, formerly Twitter, at @agarfinks and on LinkedIn.

Click here for the latest technology news that will impact the stock market.

Read the latest financial and business news from Yahoo Finance

Wed, 08 Nov 2023 02:21:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://www.aol.com/robots-helper-not-enemy-says-212151125.html




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