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FSOT Foreign Service Officer Test

The Foreign Service Act of 1980 tasks the U.S. Department of State – and the Board of Examiners (BEX) specifically – with responsibility for the evaluation and selection of candidates for the Foreign Service.
The Department takes this charge seriously and has devoted significant resources to the development of a Foreign Service Officer Selection Process with the goal of providing all candidates, regardless of socioeconomic background, education, or experience, a chance to demonstrate their potential to be a Foreign Service Officer.
Candidates who participate in the selection process will find that it is designed to challenge them and to give them the opportunity to demonstrate qualities that have been identified as necessary to become a successful Foreign Service Officer. Thus, the Board of Examiners stands by the validity and integrity of the assessment process as being a fair and accurate selection method for Foreign Service Officers. Indeed, it is vital to the U.S. Department of States mission and purpose.
To ensure no bias in favor of any candidate, the Board of Examiners periodically revises its testing materials. It also asks all candidates to sign nondisclosure agreements before beginning portions of the assessment, and has implemented other safeguards. Please note that BEX will terminate the candidacy of anyone found to have violated the nondisclosure agreement. The Foreign Service is a unique career and, perhaps unsurprisingly, the selection process is also unique. The Foreign Service selection process, including the Foreign Service Officer Test (FSOT), the Qualifications Evaluation Panel (QEP), and the Foreign Service Oral Assessment (FSOA), is an employment selection tool used by the Department of State to identify the most qualified candidates for Foreign Service positions.

In other words, it is a hiring process. Therefore, the nature and purpose of this assessment process are different from those of educational testing. In education, assessment focuses on “mastery testing” and the goal is to determine if the student possesses sufficient knowledge or skill to pass a course or to practice a profession. The assessments are usually comprehensive, covering the entire body of required knowledge or skill. The scores verify current competence and command of a definite skill set. Such assessments are often accompanied by extensive feedback, and possibly remedial training and reassessment, with the ultimate objective of passing. Education assessments are not a competition; the objective is for everyone to pass. In employment selection, the goal is to determine which candidates are the most qualified because an organization wants to hire the best. Employment assessments only demo a job-related body of knowledge or skills because assessment time is limited. The scores are used as predictors of prospective job performance, rather than indicators of current competence. Thus, tests like those used in the Foreign Service Officer selection process are not accompanied by extensive feedback or remedial training because they are not meant to measure an entire body of knowledge or skills. Moreover, the organizations hiring process is meant to be highly selective given the limited number of openings available.

The Foreign Service Officer Test (FSOT) is the first of eight steps in the FSO selection process. It is a computer-based test that consists of four separate test sections:
1. Job Knowledge Test
2. Situational Judgment Test
3. English Expression Test
4. Written Essay Test
The first three sections of the test contain items in a multiple-choice format. The Written Essay appears in the last section of the FSOT. Each section of the test is timed separately and must be completed within the designated time limit.
This Guide provides demo questions for each component of the FSOT to supply candidates a general idea of the type of questions they will encounter in the test.
Although the Written Essay section is an important aspect of the test that is used to determine a candidates qualifications, it will not be scored unless the candidate passes the Job Knowledge, Situational Judgment Test, and English Expression sections of the test.

Success on the FSOT involves much more than studying for a test. The FSOT assesses knowledge and skills that the candidate has acquired from reading widely from many different sources, study or course work in a number of related fields, and other career or life experiences.
In the development of the FSOT, a job analysis was conducted of the positions held by Foreign Service Officers to identify the knowledge and skills critical to success on the job. Then, a detailed test blueprint was created.
The test blueprint provides an outline of the required knowledge and skill areas and their relative importance to the job. The knowledge and skill areas covered on the FSOT are listed below.
 Correct grammar, organization, writing strategy, sentence structure, and punctuation required for writing or editing reports: This knowledge area encompasses English expression and language usage skills required for preparing or editing written reports, including correct grammar and good writing at the sentence and paragraph level.
 United States Government: This knowledge area encompasses a general understanding of the composition and functioning of the federal government, the Constitution and its history, the structure of Congress and its role in foreign affairs, as well as the United States political system and its role in governmental structure, formulation of government policies, and foreign affairs.
 United States History, Society, Customs, and Culture: This knowledge area encompasses an understanding of major events, institutions, and movements in national history, including political and economic history, as well as national customs and culture, social issues and trends, and the influence of U.S. society and culture on foreign policy and foreign affairs.

World History and Geography: This knowledge area encompasses a general understanding of significant world historical events, issues, and developments, including their impact on U.S. foreign policy, as well as knowledge of world geography and its relationship to U.S. foreign policy.  Economics: This knowledge area encompasses an understanding of basic economic principles, as well as a general understanding of economic issues and the economic system of the United States.
 Mathematics and Statistics: This knowledge area encompasses a general understanding of basic mathematical and statistical procedures. Items requiring calculations may be included.
 Management Principles, Psychology, and Human Behavior: This knowledge area encompasses a general understanding of basic management and supervisory techniques and methods. It includes knowledge of human psychology and behavior, leadership, motivational strategies, and equal employment practices.
 Communications: This knowledge area encompasses a general understanding of the principles of effective communication and publicspeaking techniques, as well as general knowledge of public media, media relations, and the goals and techniques of public diplomacy and their use to support work functions.
 Computers and the Internet: This knowledge area encompasses a general understanding of basic computer operations such as word processing, databases, spreadsheets, and using e-mail and the Internet.
Related Areas of Study
Success on the FSOT is not necessarily dependent on a specific course of study. However, the curriculum of the following college-level courses often helps to familiarize a candidate with the information assessed by the test. The names of the courses are general and may differ from institution to institution.
• English Composition/Rhetoric
• American History
• American Studies (including cultural and social history)
• American Political Thought
• United States Political System
• American Economic History
• Introduction to Economics (micro and macro)
• World History (Western and non-Western)
• World Geography
• International Economics
• World Religions
• Introduction to Statistics
• Introduction to Management Principles
• Intercultural Communication
• Mass Communication
• Psychology

Foreign Service Officer Test
Certification-Board Foreign course outline
Killexams : Certification-Board Foreign course outline - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/FSOT Search results Killexams : Certification-Board Foreign course outline - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/FSOT https://killexams.com/exam_list/Certification-Board Killexams : GovCloud: The Future of Government Work

WRITTEN BY: Charlie Tierney, Steve Cottle & Katie Jorgensen

Wind back the clock to 1971. Jane, a freshly minted college graduate, joins the government as a clerk. Jane’s work consists largely of entering information into databases and creating reports, which requires her to spend the better part of her work day seated at a terminal near a mainframe computer that fills an entire room. Jane and her colleagues are expected to be at their desks from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., five days a week. Jane is grateful to have a steady 9-to-5 job, and plans to spend her entire career with her agency.

Flash forward 40 years and meet Jane’s grandson, Ian. He carries a slim tablet wherever he goes, which has more computing power than the mainframe with which Jane worked. Ian is constantly tethered to the Internet and works 24/7, from wherever he is. Ian expects to switch from project to project and office to office as his career develops and his interests evolve. If he feels he has reached the limit of his ability to learn or grow in one role, he will look elsewhere for a new opportunity. What if the government could supply Ian the opportunities and experiences he seeks?

The GovCloud concept proposed in this paper would restructure government workforces in a way that takes advantage of the talents and preferences of workers like Ian, who are entering the workforce today. The model is based on a large body of research, from interviews with public and private sector experts to best practices from innovative organizations both public and private.

“This is the first generation of people that work, play, think, and learn differently than their parents… They are the first generation to not be afraid of technology. It’s like the air to them.”

— Don Tapscott, author of Grown Up Digital

This report details trends in work and technology that offer significant opportunities for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of the government workforce. It lays out the GovCloud model, explaining how governments could be organized to take advantage of its flexibility. It examines how work would be performed in the new model and discusses potential changes to government HR programs to support GovCloud. Other sections provide resources for executives, including a tool to help determine cloud eligibility, steps they can take to pilot the cloud concept, and future scenarios illustrating the cloud in action.

The GovCloud model represents a dramatic departure from the status quo. It is bound to be greeted with some skepticism. Without such innovation, however, governments will be left to confront the challenges of tomorrow with the workforce structure of yesterday. The details of the GovCloud model are open for debate. The purpose of this paper is to jumpstart that debate.


Forty years ago, more than half of employed American adults worked in either blue-collar or clerical jobs. Today, less than 40 percent work in these same categories, and the share continues to shrink.1 Jobs requiring routine or manual tasks are disappearing, while those requiring complex communication skills and expert thinking are becoming the norm.2 Increasingly, employers seek workers capable of creative and knowledge-based work.

“We should ask ourselves whether we’re truly satisfied with the status quo. Are our workday lives so fulfilling, and our organizations so boundlessly capable, that it’s now pointless to long for something better?”

— Gary Hamel, author of The Future of Management

The next generation of creative knowledge workers has already entered the job market. These “Millennials” came of age in a rapidly and radically changing world. They are the first true digital “natives.” They have grown up with instant access to information through technology. As such, Millennials have considerably different expectations for the kind of work they do and the information they use. The pursuit for variety in work has led Millennials to cite simply “needing a change” as their top reason for switching jobs.3

Advances in technology have also  changed the actual ways in which people perform work. The ability to crowdsource tasks is one example of this change. Since its founding in 2001, volunteers have produced and contributed to over 19 million articles in 281 languages on Wikipedia.4 Built around this concept, a burgeoning industry is developing around “microtasking,” dividing work up into small tasks that can be farmed out to workers. Amazon’s Mechanical Turk, rolled out in 2005, allows users to post tasks to a platform where registered workers can accept and complete them for a small fee. When this paper was written, more than 195,000 tasks were available on Mechanical Turk.5

Such technologies may offer suitable possibilities for the public sector. Microtask, a Finnish cloud labor company, maintains Digitalkoot, a program that helps the Finnish National Library convert its image archives into digital text and correct existing errors. It does so with volunteered labor; participants simply play a game in which they are shown the image of a word and then must type it out to help a cartoon character cross a bridge. In doing so, they are turning scanned images into searchable text, greatly improving the search accuracy of old manuscripts.6 At present, more than 100,000 people have completed over 6 million microtasks associated with this project.7

As the pace of computing power and machine learning increases, professors Frank Levy and Richard Murnane contend that more tasks will move from human to computer processing.8 Skeptics need look no further than IBM’s Watson, a computer that can answer questions posed in natural language. In February 2011, Watson defeated two all-time champions of the quiz show Jeopardy! This was not solely a publicity stunt; IBM hopes to sell Watson to hospitals and call centers to help them answer questions from the public.9

Around the globe, more and more governments are looking to increase telework among employees. In 2010, the U.S. government passed legislation calling for more telework opportunities for government employees. Likewise, the Australian government, in order to attract and retain information and communications technology workers, instituted a teleworking policy in 2009 requiring agencies to implement flexible work plans.10 Other countries, including Norway and Germany, are also focusing on flexible work arrangements to Improve public sector recruiting.11 In Canada, the government has an official telework policy that recognizes “changes are occurring in the public service workforce with a shift towards more knowledge workers,” and “encourages departments to implement telework arrangements.”12

Cloud definitions

Cloud computing: “Internet-based computing, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices on-demand, like electricity.”

— Amazon

Crowdsourcing: “Neologistic compound of crowd and outsourcing for the act of taking tasks traditionally performed by an employee or contractor, and outsourcing them to a group of people or community, through an “open call” to a large group of people (a crowd) asking for contributions.”

— Wikipedia

GovCloud: “A new model for government based on team collaboration, whereby workforce resources can be surged to provide services to government agencies on-demand.”

— GovLab

Source: Frank Levy and Richard J. Murnane, The New Division of Labor: How Computers are Creating the Next Job Market, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004), p. 50.

Figure 1: Trends in routine and non-routine tasks in the U.S. 1960-200213

These are all powerful steps in the right direction for employees whose natural work rhythms are not locked into “9 to 5.” Some companies have taken telework one step further. British Telecom is pushing the concept of “agile working” through its Workstyle Project, where employees decide what work arrangements best suit them—rather than a rigid definition by location and hours. BT Workstyle is one of the largest flexible working projects in Europe, with over 11,000 home-based workers. BT has found that its “home-enabled” employees are, on average, 20 percent more productive than their office-based colleagues.14

Similarly, U.S. electronics retailer Best Buy experimented with a “Results Only Work Environment” (ROWE). In a ROWE, what matters is not whether employees are in their office, but rather that they complete their work and achieve measurable outcomes. In a ROWE, salaried employees must put in as much time as is actually needed to do their work—no more, no less.

The decline in routine and manual tasks and the rise of new ways of working is not isolated to the private sector. In 1950, the U.S. federal workforce largely comprised clerks performing repetitive tasks. About 62 percent performed these tasks, while only 11 percent performed more “white-collar” work. By 2000, those relationships were reversed. Fifteen percent performed repetitive tasks, compared to 56 percent in the white-collar categories.16 Similarly, in 1944, the number of workers in the UK civil service considered “industrial” totaled 505,000. By 2003, this number fell to 18,200, with “non-industrial” workers reaching 538,000 in 2004.17 And in Canada, in 2006, knowledge-based workers represented 58 percent of federal workers in the Core Public Administration, up from 41 percent 11 years earlier.18

The swelling ranks of “non-industrial” government workers indicate a shift in public sector jobs toward creative, collaborative, and complex work. The workforce structure, however, designed for clerks of the last century, remains largely the same. With limited flexibility to distribute resources, governments often address change by creating new agencies and programs. This can be seen following major events like the outbreaks of the Avian flu and SARs in the past decade, 9/11, and the financial crisis of 2008.

Source: United States Office of Personnel Management, A Fresh Start for Federal Pay: A Case for Modernization (April 2002), p. 5. http://www.opm.gov/strategiccomp/whtpaper.pdf

Figure 2: The changing U.S. federal workforce 1950–200015

Given increasing budgetary pressures and burgeoning national debts, the conventional model of creating new agencies or permanent structures in response to new challenges is unsustainable. This is exacerbated by our inability to accurately predict future needs and trends. Consider a 1968 Business Week article proclaiming that “the Japanese auto industry isn’t likely to carve out a big share of the market for itself,” or the president of Digital Equipment Corporation, who in 1977 said, “[t]here is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home.”19

The world is full of experts who attempt to predict the future—and fail.20

Instead of endeavoring to predict the future, governments can choose to create a flexible workforce that can quickly adapt to future work requirements. To accomplish this, the  government can learn from a game-changing concept in the technology world: cloud computing.

Major organizations and small startups alike increase their flexibility by sharing storage space, information, and resources in a “cloud,” allowing them to quickly scale resources up and down as needed. Why not apply the cloud model to people? The creation of a government-wide human cloud could provide significant benefits, including:

  • The ability to apply resources when and where they are needed
  • Increased knowledge flow across agencies and a new focus on broad, government-wide missions
  • A reduction in the number of permanent programs
  • Fewer structures that stifle creativity and interfere with the adoption of new technologies and innovations

A cloud-based government workforce or “GovCloud” could include workers who perform a range of creative, problem-focused work. Rather than being slotted into any single government agency, cloud workers would be true government-wide employees.


This section outlines the organizational structure of the GovCloud model, which rests on three main pillars: a cloud of government workers, thin executive agencies, and shared services.

The cloud

Most government workforce models tend to constrain workers by isolating them in separate agencies.

Consider the 2001 outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in the United Kingdom and the subsequent slaughter of more than 6 million pigs, sheep, and cattle. The problem of an impacted food supply is complicated. In most countries, multiple agencies focus on agriculture, food production, and public health. In the United Kingdom, the army and even tourism ministries were impacted by the outbreak as agencies became overwhelmed by the number of animals in need of disposal and by the cordoning off of tourist areas to prevent the spread of the disease.Yet the structure of government agencies often confines employees to work in information silos, creating inherent operational inefficiencies. In a cloud workforce model, experts in each area could be pulled together to support remedies and propose coordinated corrective measures.

“I want someone saying: ‘Did you know that the Ministry of Justice is doing that, or could you piggy-back on what the communities department is doing, or had you thought about doing it in this way?’ You’ve got to get away from thinking about centralized command and control.”  

— Dame Helen Ghosh, Permanent Secretary, UK Home Office 21

The FedCloud model

The GovCloud model could become a new pillar of government, comprising permanent employees who undertake a wide variety of creative, problem-focused work. As needed, the GovCloud model could also take advantage of those outside government, including citizens looking for extra part-time work, full-time contractors, and individual consultants.

Cloud workers would vary in background and expertise but would exhibit traits of “free-agent” workers—self-sufficient, self-motivated employees who exhibit a strong loyalty to teams, colleagues, and clients. Daniel Pink, author of Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us, argues that 33 million Americans—one-quarter of the workforce— already operate as free agents.22

According to the white paper, “Lessons of the Great Recession,” from Swiss staffing company Adecco, contingent workers—those who chose non-traditional employment arrangements23—are expected to eventually make up about 25 percent of the global workforce.24These more autonomous workers, according to Pink, are better suited to 21st-century work, and are more productive—even without traditional monetary incentives.25

Benefits of the cloud

The fluid nature of the cloud can provide significant benefits:

  • Knowledge exchange: Avoids “trapping” knowledge within any single agency. The fluidity of the cloud allows for the quick connection of knowledge with the people who need it.
  • Adaptability: Allows the government to concentrate resources where needed. The cloud would make federal work more adaptable and focused on cross-cutting outcomes.
  • Collaboration: Encourages collaboration, whether in person or virtually, through the expanded use of video conferencing, collaborative tools, and electronic communication.
  • Focus resources: Teams can be formed quickly and dissolved when their work is concluded, reducing the likelihood of government structures continuing to operate after they are no longer needed.26

The nature of the cloud—teams forming and dissolving as their tasks require—encourages workers to focus on specific project outcomes rather than ongoing operations.

Benefits of thin agencies

Thin agency structures could lead to:

  • Simplified mission accountability and responsibility
  • A greater focus on mission outcomes rather than on back-office management

Benefits of shared services

Greater use of shared services could allow the federal government to:

  • Reduce redundant back-office structures
  • Consolidate real estate obligations and data centers
  • Create a government-wide support structure capable of supporting the GovCloud

The need to support some ongoing missions will remain, of course. These missions will be carried out by thin agencies.

Under the cloud concept, federal agencies would remain focused on specific missions and ongoing oversight. These agencies, however, would become “thinner” as many of their knowledge workers transfer into the cloud. Thin agencies could also create opportunities to streamline organizations with overlapping missions.

Employees working in thin agencies could fall into two main categories:

  • Mission specialists: These are subject matter experts who possess knowledge central to the mission of the agency or tied to one geographic location. Examples include agency executives, policy experts, and others with knowledge that is closely aligned with the mission of a specific agency (e.g., foresters, tax code specialists). Mission specialists also could enter the cloud, based on the specific needs of other agencies.
  • Frontline workers: These are employees who represent the “face” of government to citizens—law enforcement officers, investigators, regulators, entitlement providers, etc.—and who interact with citizens on a regular basis. As the nature of frontline work typically does not lend itself to the cloud, these employees would still align with individual agencies.

GovCloud could change the highest levels of public sector workers as we know them today. The Senior Executive Service in the United States, Permanent Secretaries and Directors General in the United Kingdom and Australia—all such senior officials could rotate between agencies, shared services, and the cloud, which would reflect the original intent behind many of these high-level offices: giving executives a breadth of experience in roles across government to help develop shared values and a broad perspective. An important benefit of rotation would be the ability to tap into cloud networks to assemble high-performing teams.

To further focus agencies on specific missions, many of their back-office support functions could be pulled into government-wide shared service arrangements.

The use of shared services in government has come and gone in waves—usually dictated by fiscal necessity. Most countries in Europe, as part of their e-government strategies, have placed increased focus of late on developing shared services, whether through an executive agency or a CIO, as well as working with EU coordination activities. And while the decentralized governments of some EU countries—such as Germany—make shared services more difficult, these countries are using states and agencies to pilot innovative approaches.27

Other efforts around the world include the U.S e-Government Act of 2002, which examined how technology could be used to cut costs and Improve services. More recently, the New Zealand government appointed an advisory group in May 2011 to explore public sector reform to Improve services and provide better value. In their report, “Better Public Services,” the advisory group recommended the use of shared services to Improve effectiveness in a variety of government settings, including policy advice and real estate.29 Following up on this, three New Zealand agencies—the Department of the Prime Minister, the State Services Commission, and the Treasury—announced in December 2011 that they would share such corporate functions as human resources and information technology.30 And though shared services in Western Australia were shut down, other projects in South Australia are moving ahead and already showing savings.31

Shared Services Canada

In August 2011, the government of Canada announced the launch of Shared Services Canada, a program that seeks to streamline and identify savings in information technology. Among its first targets is something as mundane as email. But with more than 100 different email systems being used by government employees, the potential savings and boost to efficiency could be significant. Not only do these incompatible systems cost money by requiring individual departments to negotiate and maintain separate licenses and technical support, it also makes it difficult for government employees to communicate with one another and with the public. And with no single standard, ensuring the security of information transmitted over email becomes more challenging. Shared Services Canada will move the government to one email system as well as consolidate data centers and networks—ultimately looking for anticipated savings of between CA$100 million and CA$200 million annually.28

While the idea of using shared services is not a novel one, it is central to the GovCloud model. The GovCloud model envisions building upon effective practices and those shared services already in operation to deliver services like human resources, information technology, finance, and acquisitions government-wide. Workers in these shared services would include subject matter experts in areas like human resources and information technology, as well as generalists, who support routine business functions.

The potential for shared services continues to grow. As seen with IBM’s Watson and Microtask’s Digitalkoot, new technologies provide an opportunity to accelerate the automated delivery of basic services. Some agencies already have begun capitalizing on these trends. For example, NASA has moved its shared service center website to a secure government cloud, facilitating greater employee self-service and helping to reduce demand on finite call center resources.32


This decision tool is designed to help leaders determine which employees are appropriate for each of the three structures in the GovCloud model—the cloud, thin agencies, and shared services.

To the cloud…

GovCloud Project Lifecycle


Managing employees in the cloud will require governments to reinvent human resource management. Individual and team performance evaluations, career development, pay structures, and benefits and pensions would need to change to support GovCloud. This section examines possibilities for HR reinvention, including performance management, career development, workplace flexibility, and benefits.

Performance and career management

Employees working in the cloud would require an alternative to determine pay and career advancement. The government could take its cues from the gaming world and evaluate cloud workers with a point system.

“The manager as we know it will disappear— to be replaced by a new sort of business operative whose expertise is assembling the right people for particular projects.”

—Daniel Pink, author of Free-Agent Nation 33

An HR management system that incorporates the accumulation of experience points (XP) through effective work on cloud projects, training, education, and professional certifications could replace the tenure-centric models for cloud employees.

Why experience points (XP)?

  • Rewards team players: Creates incentives not only to perform well as an individual but also to be a valuable collaborative team member and to continue one’s personal development
  • Manages performance: Allows governments to shift focus from time in grade to a more holistic performance management scheme
  • Fits work style: Capitalizes on the work style of Millennials, who value performance over tenure
  • Creates right incentives: Takes advantage of “gamification” concepts to incentivize desired behaviors
  • Lets workers own their careers: Allows workers to take personal ownership over the management of their careers, including their professional development and work-life integration

As employees accumulate XP, they could “level up” and take on additional responsibilities in future projects. Workers in the cloud could earn XP in four ways:

  • Education and training: Employees earn XP based on advanced degrees, continuing education courses, and professional certification.
  • Social capital: Employees could earn XP with high social capital scores based on their participation in GovCloud collaboration and networking.
  • Leadership: taking on additional leadership responsibilities in cloud teams could raise individual XP scores.
  • Projects: Projects in the cloud could be worth a certain number of XP, based on their scope and complexity and team performance. Project managers could award additional XP based on employee level, individual performance, and peer evaluation.

Breaking down silos: DEFRA

After some high-profile incidents—slow responses to outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease, flooding that may have been preventable, and a farming subsidy system that seemed to result in more chaos than aid—the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) was looking to reinvent itself. In 2006, the department launched DEFRA Renew. One of its key goals was to bring the department’s policymaking closer to actual delivery to create more responsive processes.

Organized, mainly by policy, with fixed teams, DEFRA had been unable to redeploy resources as needed in response to a crisis. As part of DEFRA Renew, a new operating model was implemented that used flexible resourcing where staff were assigned to specific projects for fixed periods. This allowed management to measure and build the required capabilities and competencies needed and to allocate resources efficiently to Improve overall service quality. New roles were also created to support sustainable staff development and resource management in the new model.

To create buy-in for such a fundamental culture shift within the department, a facilitative approach to decision-making was employed. Change management programs and mentoring were extended to all levels of the department, including leadership. New mechanisms—such as approval panels for resources and the use of business cases—also worked to push changes among staff and promote collaborative behavior.

DEFRA Renew was widely recognized as a key enabler in the department meeting required efficiency improvement targets set by the UK government. DEFRA moved to a more project-based approach, with fewer staff in core teams. According to Dame Helen Ghosh, former Permanent Secretary of DEFRA, they could be more responsive now that “the management board won’t be made up of director generals with individual policy silos.”34

Just as XP could be gained through learning new skills, it could be lost in the following three ways:

  • Failure to apply skills: Workers could earn XP for training, but lose these points if they do not use the resulting skills on projects.
  • Down time: One would expect some cloud employees to be between projects at any given time, and indeed this provides the capacity to surge when demands require. That said, employees who spend too much time away from project work could lose XP.
  • Poor project performance: Employees who receive less-than-satisfactory ratings on individual performance reviews, peer evaluations, or team performance could lose XP.

Salary and benefits

Any serious discussion about creating a new class of government employees requires a fresh look at employee benefits and compensation. For example, XP could be used to help determine workers’ salaries, but additional research into alternative pension and benefit programs is needed. While any discussion on compensation could be contentious, a healthy debate among stakeholders from across the government should be welcomed.

Career paths

As new roles emerge in the cloud, so too could new career paths. Career emphasis could move away from time served in a particular pay grade and toward milestones that are meaningful for employee development.

Each worker may have different career aspirations. For instance, not all workers aspire to management; some may seek to master a particular subject area instead. Career advancement in the cloud would not equate to moving up a ladder, but rather moving along a lattice.

Lattice GovCloud Model

Here’s how the lattice could work for Ian, who we met in the introduction.

  • The early years: A few years after being hired into the human resources shared service straight out of school, Ian has been exposed to a wide variety of agencies. Through these interactions, he realizes he has become passionate about the field of social work.
  • Seeking a change: Ian decides to leave federal service and pursue a master’s degree in social work, and then take a job at his state’s social services agency. After a few years, Ian accepts a position as director of a mid-sized non-profit.
  • Returning to GovCloud: After years of running the non-profit, Ian begins thinking about government service again. He decides to join GovCloud by working just a few hours a week. After working part-time on projects that require social work experience, Ian decides to return full-time. To more effectively manage social programs, Ian seeks out all the performance measurement training he can find.
  • Finding a niche: Ian becomes well versed in performance measurement, first for social programs, but he quickly learns how to apply those concepts elsewhere. When his social work experience isn’t needed, he can also lend performance measurement knowledge from the cloud.
  • Winding down: As he nears retirement, Ian wants to help train the next generation of social workers by teaching one course per semester at a local university. However, he is able to remain connected to GovCloud and spend one or two days a week working with social programs and measuring the performance of other projects.

“Think of the lattice as a jungle gym. The best opportunities to broaden your experience may be lateral or even down. Look every which way and swing to opportunities.”

— Pattie Sellers, Fortune editor at large

Cathleen Benko and Molly Anderson, the authors of The Corporate Lattice, argue that the corporate ladder is giving way to a lattice that accommodates flatter, more networked organizations; improves the integration of career and life; focuses on competencies rather than tenure; and helps increase workforce loyalty.35 The lattice metaphor allows employees to choose many ways to “get ahead.”


It is unlikely that all workers will thrive in the new GovCloud environment right out of the gate. As such, it would be important to assess a worker’s readiness before placing her in GovCloud and providing training on core competencies critical to cloud success. There could also be opportunities to start workers, especially those at earlier stages of a career, within an agency or shared service to build up expertise in some area before “graduating to the cloud.” Once in the cloud, new workers could be paired with mentors, who are more experienced, to help navigate the cloud experience itself.

There should be an emphasis on continuous learning in the cloud. It would be important for cloud workers to continue to refine their skills, develop additional expertise, and adapt to new ways of working. Not only could continuous learning affect workers’ career mobility by increasing the depth and breadth of their skills, but it could also impact their salary and level by increasing their XP.

Learning and development in the cloud could take on many themes of “next learning.” Next learning focuses on creating personalized learning experiences that leverage the latest technologies and collaborative communities to deliver education and learning programs that build knowledge bases and promote learning as a focus and passion, not just a checkbox in a career.36

To broaden cloud worker skills and the ability to handle multiple tasks and work on a variety of projects, cloud learning could include the following principles:37

  • Video: The use of video learning could bring an in-person feel to trainings for cloud workers. Further, it could allow for more meaningful mentor relationships, even over long distances. This is an important component of a highly virtual workplace.
  • Social and collaborative learning: Use the wisdom of the cloud (and beyond) to create a collaborative learning environment.
  • Learning projects: In an environment where cloud workers are completing microtasks or participating in projects, design training to reflect this, helping to hone collaboration and other skills that will be important in the cloud.
  • Learning and leading in a distributed workplace: Workers who ascend to positions of leadership will need more than the traditional essentials of leadership to get them there. They will need to learn how to motivate and manage employees in a distributed environment, which requires an emphasis on communication, accountability, trust, and performance.
  • Building knowledge bases and connectivity for learning:Elective knowledge management will be critical in the Gov Cloud environment. This is just as important for training as for project information. Make knowledge gained in one area available elsewhere by tagging and promoting content for others to see. This can complement social learning by allowing users to bookmark or promote effective learning channels.

Workplace flexibility

In the cloud, careers and expertise will be built in new ways and work will be something we do, rather than a place we go to. As such, the cloud will supply workers more control over their schedules and workloads. By creating a flexible workplace, governments could shed a significant amount of physical infrastructure and create shared workspaces. Many buildings could be converted into co-located spaces; teams could use collaboration spaces or videoconferencing centers.

Some workers might rarely set foot in a government building, instead conducting cloud tasks at home and interacting with project teams virtually. With advancing communications and mobile technology, distance no longer hinders collaboration. It no longer matters whether all workers are at an office between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m.; what matters is whether project teams produce results and whether everyone contributes.

A more flexible workplace could also take advantage of resources governments might not otherwise have access to. Some retiring workers may not want to quit working altogether, and a flexible model could be an enticing way to keep their expertise on retainer. Alternatively, the model could take advantage of would-be government employees unwilling to relocate or unable to work a regular schedule. By increasing flexibility, governments could increase their available resource pool, allowing agencies to access the skills and knowledge they need, when they need it. For an example of how a retiree could interact with the cloud, see Appendix C: National Security Case Study.

U.S. State Department pilots the cloud

Don’t think governments will ever take to the cloud? At the U.S. Department of State, the idea could soon be a reality. The Office of eDiplomacy is preparing to pilot a cloud component to its e-internship model for American students as part of the Virtual Student Foreign Service (VSFS), beginning this year. The VSFS currently offers e-internships to U.S. university students of multiple month duration. By using a new micro-volunteering platform, State Department offices and embassies around the world will be able to create non-classified tasks that take anywhere from a couple of minutes to a couple of days to complete. Each task will be tagged by region and/or issue and will automatically populate the profiles of students who have indicated those interests. Students can then select the tasks that interest them the most or that fit into their schedule.

To see that the most pressing work is performed first, offices and embassies will be able to prioritize their tasks, so critical items appear at the top of the queue. Imagine a small embassy preparing for a high-profile, multilateral meeting. The preparations for such an event could be daunting for a small staff. The power of the cloud could augment an individual embassy’s capacity to prepare for a major event and ensure that related items are performed ahead of those that are less critical.

While there are plenty of incentives for participating in the VSFS micro-volunteering platform—from an impressive line on a student’s resume to the chance to make a difference by working on subjects of interest—thought is being put into how to creatively incent high performance. One idea is to simply invoke students’ competitive spirit. Competition could be encouraged by a monthly leader board, which results in bragging rights and, potentially, even a low-cost, but high-impact reward. Transparency is also key to competition: with ratings available to State Department staff and other cloud interns and the ability to make short thank you notes from embassies publicly available, interns would be keen to make a good impression.

The potential applications of this type of program are significant. Imagine if offices throughout the State Department could tap into the language and cultural expertise of the thousands of foreign national staff members around the globe. Providing a platform for those employees to contribute even a small amount of time to discreet tasks that require their expertise could unlock a world of knowledge.38


Creating the GovCloud model will require bold leadership and the ideas and initiatives of entrepreneurial executives. While a GovCloud model may be years in the making, agencies can begin adopting cloud concepts today.

  • Build collaboration spaces: Make interoffice collaboration easier. Create physical spaces in your office where employees can casually spend time sharing information across departments. Provide employees with several hours per week to devote to collaborative efforts with other areas of the agency that interest them.
  • Rotate your people: Embrace the Millennials’ aptitude for change. Create a rotational program that allows staff members to work across departments and specialties. As your organization realizes the value of a broader perspective, you can pursue rotation among agencies or even secondments (rotations between the nonprofit, private, and public sectors).
  • Start a volunteer cloud: Plant the seeds for the cloud by allowing workers to seek tasks beyond their current responsibilities. Start by providing a platform for managers to post issues or problems they need help in solving. Allow employees to help with projects or tasks that interest them. This will allow them to expand their networks, build new skills,   and chase their passions.
  • Pilot a GovCloud: Only experience will bring people to understand the power of the cloud. A few agencies could bring the cloud to life by moving resources to a pilot cloud workforce. This would allow them to document lessons learned and determine the viability of the cloud on a wider scale. Use the GovCloud decision tree to help determine who could thrive in the cloud.

One step toward the cloud: Secondments and temporary project teams

The Ontario Public Service (OPS) has significant experience with building as-needed project teams to support specific, high-priority projects using staff brought in from other departments for short-term secondments. What allows this to work is a flexible HR framework that supports and facilitates staff secondments as developmental opportunities. The HR framework contributes to a culture that recognizes and rewards the experience secondees gain in these high-profile work assignments. OPS employees are generally eager to participate in these projects and are typically rewarded throughout their careers for the skills they acquire.39

Implementing GovCloud

The GovCloud concept is designed to be versatile as well as applicable to a wide range of entities. Depending on your organization, government executives wishing to employ GovCloud may choose to apply the concept first to a unit, before expanding to other branches or divisions, entire agencies, or the whole of government.

Often, GovCloud principles are most effectively implemented as part of a larger reform program within a particular agency—as with the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs’ Renew program, as described earlier in this report. On a smaller scale, the UK Cabinet Office used flexible resourcing (FR) in its Economic Reform Group (ERG), with a staff of about 400, as part of its cost-reduction plans. Using a simple database that it had developed and a strong program of communications, FR is now used and embraced by all core ERG employees, with strong, clear ownership from the top—another key implementation factor. Says Ian Watmore, the UK Cabinet Office’s former permanent secretary, FR means “we are able to deploy people much more quickly to priority projects.”40

Figure 3 outlines how GovCloud can apply to a variety of organizations.


Most government workforces haven’t undergone a broad restructuring in decades. In that time, the world has been transformed by computers, the Internet, and mobile communications.

To respond to a variety of challenges, governments have created scores of new organizations. However, in today’s world of budget cuts and increased fiscal scrutiny, the constant creation of new, permanent structures is not sustainable.

The GovCloud model could offer a new way to use government resources. A cloud of government-wide workers could coalesce into project-based teams to solve problems and separate when their work is done. This could allow governments to concentrate resources when and where they are needed. By using this model in conjunction with thinner agencies and shared services, governments can reduce back-office redundancies and let agencies focus on their core missions.

This model capitalizes on the work preferences of Millennials—the future government workforce—who value career growth over job security or compensation.41 The GovCloud model allows employees to gain a variety of experiences in a shorter amount of time and to self-select their career direction.

To support GovCloud, governments could establish the processes by which cloud teams would form, work, and dissolve. New ways to evaluate performance and help workers gain skills and build careers should be considered. Today’s employee classification system stresses job descriptions and time in service; this could be transformed with an XP model that emphasizes the individual’s ownership of his or her career.

The GovCloud model will undoubtedly be controversial. Many stakeholders, from governing bodies to public employee unions, must weigh in to shape the future government workforce. The transition to a cloud model will not happen overnight or maybe even in the next five years, but the conversation starts today.


Charlie Tierney

Charlie Tierney is a Manager in Deloitte Consulting LLP’s Federal Human Capital Practice and a former GovLab Fellow. He has served clients in the intelligence community. He graduated from the University of Kansas with a BA in Chinese History and minor in Mandarin, and is currently pursuing his Masters in Business Administration at the University of Maryland’s Smith School of Business.

Steve Cottle

Steve Cottle was a GovLab Fellow and a Senior Consultant in Deloitte Consulting LLP’s Federal Strategy & Operations practice. There, he served multiple clients within the Department of Homeland Security. Steve graduated from Boston College with a BA in International Studies and German and received a Fulbright Grant to study international security in Germany. Steve is currently pursuing his Masters in Public Policy at the Georgetown Public Policy Institute.

Katie Jorgensen

Katie Jorgensen was a GovLab Fellow and Consultant in Deloitte Consulting LLP’s Federal Strategy & Operations practice. There, she served multiple clients in the Federal Railroad Administration and Transportation Security Administration. Katie received her BA in American Studies from Georgetown University. Katie is currently pursuing her Masters in Business Administration at Duke University’s Fuqua School of Business.

Originally published by Deloitte University Press on dupress.com. Copyright 2015 Deloitte Development LLC.

Mon, 06 Jun 2022 21:38:00 -0500 text/html https://www.theatlantic.com/sponsored/deloitte-shifts/govcloud-the-future-of-government-work/260/
Killexams : Cosmetic Surgery in Paradise

Here's a fabulous vacation plan: Hop a flight to Cozumel for a weeklong resort stay. Enjoy poolside lounging, fine dining, and barefoot walks in the surf, all while you recover from plastic surgery.

That's right. There are many cosmetic surgery clinics in Mexico, the Caribbean, and South America where you can get away from it all and have your nose, breasts, face, or tummy done, too. Your friends won't bug you because they're hundreds of miles away, and if you're going to be in recovery for a while, why not convalesce in paradise?

"The allure of it is that it makes perfect sense," says Malcolm Paul, MD, president of the American Society for Aesthetic and Plastic Surgery. Nevertheless, he thinks it's a bad idea. "It's a whole lot better to stay home," he says.

Paul argues that cosmetic surgery is nothing like a spa treatment. It's real surgery that involves real risks. He is concerned that people who leave the U.S. won't be guaranteed the same medical standards they would have at home. If you were to have life-threatening complications during the operation, the doctor might not be equipped to deal with them.

What's more, you can't be certain that the results will satisfy you. If you were to need follow-up work done, your doctor wouldn't be just down the street. You would have to pay for another plane ticket and another hotel stay.

Besides the risks, Paul says, a cosmetic surgery vacation might not be as much fun as you'd expect. You're supposed to avoid the sun after surgery, and even if you wanted to, no doctor would tell you it's OK to splash in the ocean with bandages and stitches.

Bargains Galore

Low costs draw people to foreign clinics. Whereas a surgeon in Manhattan may charge $5,000 for a nose job, one in Mexico may charge $1,800. That's not the only procedure for which fees differ greatly. A facelift may set you back $7,500 in New York. Down in Mexico, you can have it done for as little as $4,000.

Paul says you shouldn't let a bargain sway you. "It's not a good idea to try to save money on your plastic surgeon or your parachute," he says.

Nevertheless, paying top dollar doesn't necessarily mean you will get top quality. Like any business, surgical clinics must factor their overhead into their rates. Office space in Mexico tends to be quite a bit cheaper than a suite on Fifth Avenue.

Bruce Lattyak, MD, cosmetic surgeon at the Bermuda Wellness Centre, says a doctor's training and experience should be a higher priority than cost, no matter where the clinic is. "I think the most important thing is to develop a rapport with your surgeon," he says. Your conversations with the surgeon should leave no doubt that you're in capable hands.

It's also good to know that the surgeon is certified by the American Board of Plastic Surgery. You can find American board-certified doctors working abroad. "I have friends who have done that for years," Paul says.

Outside the U.S., many surgeons are not certified by the American board. Surgeons trained in Europe, for example, may not have American board certification, but that doesn't make them hacks. Find out what kind of training a foreign doctor has. He or she should have a degree in surgery from a known and respected university as well as past experience, like a surgical residency at a good hospital. Also keep in mind that a surgeon can be trained in surgery of the head and neck, but not be qualified to operate on other parts of the body. You probably don't want that surgeon to do your breast implants.

That may be another argument for having surgery in the U.S., where you know what's what and who's who. It may be hard to figure out which foreign hospitals and universities are reputable. Is St. Isabel's Hospital in Bulawayo a state-of-the-art medical center, or a filthy three-bed clinic? Is La Universidad del Sol a renowned medical school, or a classroom above a hair salon?

Road to Recovery

The Wellness Centre, where Lattyak works, is on the island of Bermuda. It's an outpatient clinic, so after you have your surgery you recover in one of several nearby guest houses or hotels.

Lattyak says he understands why doctors like Paul discourage cosmetic surgery vacations, but he argues that recovering in a spa-like atmosphere may be "a terrific boost to the healing process." At home you're burdened with chores and responsibilities. "Being able to leave some of that behind is a real boost," he says.

"Most of our patients have a realistic understanding of their postsurgical limitations and restrictions," Susan Canale, nurse at the Cosmetic Surgery Center of San Carlos, Mexico, tells WebMD. "What our center does offer is an affordable service in a beautiful, private, and peaceful seaside town."

If you do choose to travel for surgery, plan for a long enough stay. "Whoever does the surgery should outline the expected recovery time," Lattyak says. "You can't just do this on a whim."

Sat, 30 Mar 2013 10:18:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.webmd.com/beauty/features/cosmetic-surgery-in-paradise
Killexams : Assessing Learning in Courses

Assessing students’ preparedness before your course begins and at the course outset  

The COVID-19 pandemic and social upheaval have influenced students’ learning contexts and contributed toward uncertainties related to the knowledge, skills, and experiences students have acquired. Access this resource for feasible ways to diagnose any gaps in students’ preparation, point students to useful resources, and make informed decisions about course design, instruction, and program milestones.


Direct Measures for Assessing Student Learning

Formative Assessment
Grading and Rubrics
Assessing Specific Types of Assignments
Self and Peer Assessment
Equity and Assessment

Indirect Measures for Assessing Student Learning

See Evaluating Courses and Instruction on our Teaching Strategies & Materials website.

Classroom Assessment Techniques

Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs) offer a means to generate quick ungraded feedback about student learning and instruction. Depending on their purpose, they might be used to assess:

  • prior knowledge, recall and understanding
  • students’ awareness of their attitudes and values
  • skill in analysis and critical thinking
  • students’ self-awareness as learners
  • skill in application and performance
  • learner reactions to class activities, assignments and materials 

Common cats include: one minute paper, the muddiest point, pre-knowledge check, mid-session check, and in-class polls. For more examples and descriptions of CATs see the Vanderbilt Center for Teaching Resource on CATs


Cross, K. P., & Angelo, T. A. (1988). Classroom Assessment Techniques. A Handbook for Faculty.

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Providing feedback

Sharing feedback one or more times during the course, rather than only at the end, can provide students with a motivating sense of progression. Feedback can be important for reinforcing successes and, in opportunities for growth or correction, it can help students understand not simply that they did something wrong but also (a) where and how they got off course and/or (b) how feedback is a valuable resource in many contexts, such as writing, design, etc. Providing feedback only at the end of a course can lead students to compare themselves simply to their peers rather than have a sense of their own learning trajectory and potential.

Some instructors hold individual meetings with students to share their standards and expectations, and address the degree to which the student is meeting them. These conversations can also allow students to define and measure their work against their personal objectives for the course and serve as opportunities to reflect on what tangible next steps they can take in order to progress. In this way, these conversations can be a backdrop for students to take ownership of their learning.

Finally, feedback can focus exclusively on the assignment at hand, or it can be used more expansively to address a student’s larger educational context and development.


Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of educational research77(1), 81-112.

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Grading strategies

Instructors will want to think about whether their grading strategies are reliable, valid, fair, transparent, and that what they are assessing aligns with the stated learning objectives.  Ideally, the percentages and criteria for each assessment will be clearly conveyed to the students on the course syllabus and/or in other materials, such as assignment descriptions.

While grading practices may vary across disciplines and departments, there are a few points instructors might wish to keep in mind:

  • Provide students with choice in the assignment, or on what questions they need to answer on an exam (e.g. answer two out of three questions) tends to enhance motivation, and may allow students to demonstrate more readily what they have learned
  • Align assessments with learning objectives. For example, if a learning objective focuses on students developing critical thinking skills, but students only take exams that focus on recall, than there is a mismatch between the kind of thinking the instructor wants from his or her students, and the kind of thinking that is actually being elicited in the assessment.
  • Vary the types of assignments (exams, projects, homework etc) to enhance motivation and persistence, using both formative and summative assessments
  • Distribute the overall grade percentages across multiple assessments
  • Weight assessments appropriately in terms of percentage of grade as well as time on task.  For example, more important assignments should be weighted more heavily
  • Offer constructive feedback on student work in a timely way.
  • Break large projects into smaller components, with each component being assigned a specific percentage (for example, a final presentation might include literature review, outline, first draft, and oral presentation)

In addition to using grading rubrics, instructors who are teaching with someone else (another instructor, or teaching assistants) might find it useful to employ:

  • Double-Marking: In this case, each grader reviews the work independently of the other[s], separately making decisions about the quality of the work (focusing on specific criteria). After each grader has had the chance to grade the work, the two share their decisions and discuss points of agreement and disagreement, in order to achieve consensus. This is especially important when instructors want to emphasize holistic evaluation of a single product or assignment to demonstrate, for example, that certain skills (such as writing, critical thinking, problem-solving) are an inherent and inseparable part of the finished achievement.
  • Pooled Marking: Here, all individuals involved with grading student work sit together, and determine the quality of a demo of student work together.  This method may be particular useful for an instructor working with several teaching assistants, so that the TAs are clear about what each criterion entails. The goal of this activity is to calibrate all graders at once. In large classes, pooled grading can be done for a demo of student work, and then each grader can work with a subset of the exam responses, papers, or other student products.

Using rubrics to assess learning

A rubric is a tool designed to:

  • assess complex learning criteria consistently and objectively, whether there’s just one grader or multiple graders;
  • measure student progress over time;
  • have a concrete reference point for sparking teacher-student dialogue about performance expectations and areas for improvement.

The analytical scoring rubric is the most common form of rubric.  An analytic rubric allows the user to understand the degree to which an outcome is being fulfilled, as opposed to providing a simple “yes vs. no” assessment. However, in the case of a rubric, each point along the scale is clearly defined and described.

Questions to consider when creating rubric:

  1. What are the specific tasks of the assignment?
  2. What are the learning outcomes you are trying to achieve with this assignment?
  3. What is the purpose of the rubric? Is it meant to provide formative assessment (student feedback) or to provide a grade (summative assessment)?  Is it qualitative or quantitative?
  4. What areas do you wish to assess?  Using neutral language, decide on descriptors that show a full range of skills and knowledge, with clear indicators of each level of performance.

Examples of rubrics to assess:

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Assessing learning with quizzes and exams

When carefully constructed, quizzes and exams can effectively assess different aspects of learning, often including such domains as critical thinking, clinical reasoning, creative thinking, application of ideas, integration of theory and practice, problem-solving, and decision-making. The nature of the questions (e.g. true/false, short answer, open-ended, solution) will depend on the kind of learning that the instructor seeks to elicit in his or her students, ideally focusing on questions that get at higher order thinking, rather than reproducing content. The University of Michigan's Center for Research on Learning and Teaching offers a helpful set of guidelines for designing and grading exams. Instructors might also find it beneficial to refer to Bloom’s Taxonomy

In assessing open-ended responses, instructors might use a rubric to ensure consistency in grading. Instructors might also draw on Biggs' Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes  (SOLO), which maps onto Bloom’s Taxonomy, to assess student responses (see document).  As Biggs explains, “this is a means of classifying learning outcomes in terms of their complexity, enabling us to assess students’ work in terms of its quality not of how many bits of this and of that they have got right. At first we pick up only one or few aspects of the task (uni-structural), then several aspects but they are unrelated (multi-structural), then we learn how to integrate them into a whole (relational), and finally, we are able to generalize that whole to as yet untaught applications (extended abstract).” The T table lists verbs associated with each level. The second row offers examples of questions at each level; the third row indicates students' responses at each level. An instructor may seek to have students answer a relational question, yet some students only answer at a uni-structural level. 

Strategies for helping students learn from quizzes and exams:

  • developing exams and quizzes that do not rely primarily on the ability to reproduce information from lecture or texts
  • students could be allowed to re-do incorrect answers, identifying where they made errors and how they would rectify them, instructors might offer students partial or additional credit
  • students might be exposed to variation of responses, perhaps from exams in previous years (letting students see examples of strong and weak responses)
  • generally, allowing students enough time and space to answer questions in a timely way

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Assessing Critical Thinking

To assess critical thinking, instructors should first identify the critical thinking skill(s) that they wish their students to achieve. Common critical thinking skills include the ability to: evaluate evidence or authority, examine central issues or assumptions, recognize and evaluate important relationships, evaluate multiple (or competing perspectives), provide alternate explanations and interpretations, separate relevant and irrelevant information; use evidence to inform arguments and conclusion; identify and explain the best solution for a real-world problem using relevant information, explain how changes in a (real-world) problem situation might affect the solution, look for--or create--new solutions; reframe problems, questions, issues, and reflect on one’s own gaps, strengths, and weaknesses.

From there, instructors can determine a rubric which identifies the criteria associated with the activity and skill, and determine the level to which each criteria has been met. Rubric scales for each criteria might include such performance levels as less plausible to most plausible; superficial to deep; unconnected to deeply connected; irrelevant to relevant; or novice to mastery.


(1) Students in an engineering class have to determine which points of data are extraneous pieces of information, and which need to be charted on a graph and explained. They are required to explain which data were used and which data were omitted in final project.  Their responses will be assessed on how logical the selection of data points, and the clarity of the explanations.

(2) Students in a marketing class have been asked to analyze a case study and create a set of solutions based on outside research of trends. The rubric to assess their critical thinking includes the following criteria: (a) the extent to which underlying assumptions are identified and questioned, (b) the extent to which the student has identified plausible solutions, and (c) how effectively solutions are communicated

(3) Students in a history class must identify which evidence drawn from a collection of documents will help support an original thesis statement, offering a cause or set of causes to help explain a given trend or event. They must then rank a set of scholarly arguments, from “Most Plausible to Least Plausible” and describe their reasoning behind each chosen ranking. The responses are assessed for their level of plausibility, use of evidence, the depth of their analysis, as well as their successful evaluation of multiple points of view.


List adapted from Stein, B.  & Haynes, A. (2011): Engaging Faculty in the Assessment and Improvement of Students' Critical Thinking Using the Critical Thinking Assessment Test, Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 43:2, 44-49

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Assessing essays and other written work 

Assessing essays and other written work can be tricky, partly because writing assessment is subjective and partly because “good writing” varies with the purpose of an assignment and the field or “discourse community.” For example, instructors in English look for different characteristics in an analysis of a play than biology instructors want to see in a lab report. But when grades vary, many students mistakenly assume that assessment of writing in college is idiosyncratic and unfair.

To prevent that misconception and to help students develop a better understanding of how to write in different fields and for different audiences, one best practice is to share grading criteria with students when making an assignment and when returning a paper with a grade, as can be seen in these examples from first-year seminars, an introductory engineering course, and an upper level biology course. 

In addition, if instructors assign more than one paper in a quarter, they can explain how the categories of assessment – such as purpose, organization, development, style, and mechanics – remain constant even though in some instances students will be writing an argument or analysis, while in others they may be telling a story or reporting on survey data. The more we help students move beyond a simplistic and rigid, “rules-based” understanding of writing, the more we will be helping them prepare for the variety of writing they will need to do throughout their lives.

One special case is assessment of writing done by non-native English speakers. In this case, instructors often grade primarily on content (purpose, development, organization, and quality of insights), while looking for improvement in style and mechanics, but not mastery. One good strategy is to help students with one area of grammar at a time, such as tenses or pronoun reference, and then grade on improvement in that one area.

For more resources about assessing and responding to student writing, see nuwrite.northwestern.edu

Rubric for assessing written work in a foreign language

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Assessing group projects

Group projects can help develop skills in collaboration, leadership, and time management, and they often mirror the work settings many students will be experiencing. The assessment of group projects can place more emphasis on process and skills than on content recall, and often encourages students to explain strategies rather than simply supply answers. But it can be challenging to assess individual students and their inputs within this group context.

Two approaches aim to balance the assessment of the group with the assessment of the individual’s achievements by assigning a grade for each. If a project can be equitably divided into distinct tasks (or roles), these tasks can be assigned to individuals and their contributions can be marked separately. Some tasks will likely involve everyone, so for the ultimate product/outcome, a group mark will be assigned and given to each member of the group.

In a second example, each member also receives the same group grade. However, each student additionally writes a reflection paper on the process and group dynamics, and describing his or her unique contributions to the project. Individual students are graded on these papers.

Peer assessment can be a fitting approach to group projects, since students’ peers may be most informed about one another’s contributions. Students can be asked to allocate a proportion of a total mark to each member of their group. Peer assessment requires a good deal of preparation and expectation-setting, with students agreeing ahead of time on criteria to be used. An example of this type of assessment is available below.

Midterm Peer Evaluations

Assessing Student Projects Rubric


Implementing Small-Group Instruction: Insights from Successful Practitioners by James L. Cooper, Jean MacGregor, Karl A. Smith, Pamela Robinson: 

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Assessing discussion and participation

Instructors often consider discussion and student participation to be a vital component of their courses—and for student engagement overall—but many struggle with how to meaningfully assess these elements.

To begin, instructors should think carefully about what they believe constitutes meaningful student contributions. Does it mean asking (or answering) questions? Does it mean listening to others and responding in respectful thoughtful ways? Does it mean reflecting on course concepts and ideas before or after class, and sharing those reflections with others?  Is it to consider multiple points of view or to synthesize ideas of others? 

Assessing discussion– Center for Education in Law and Democracy
Assessing discussion rubric 

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Assessing creative work

This is a course surrounded by skepticism: How can something as elusive as creativity be measured? However, a lot of work has been done in this area over the past several decades. Given its associations with innovation, adaptability, critical thinking, and problem solving, it can be critical to understand the degree to which students are manifesting creativity.

With so many definitions of creativity in existence, it is important to clarify the definition being used in the context of the course or program as well as the specific student outcomes around creativity.

If students are assigned to create a tangible product (or an idea for a product), the focus of the assessment might be the product/idea itself. Following the practice of creative product assessment in both academic and corporate settings, specific dimensions of creativity can be identified (such as novelty, usefulness, and elegance of design), and those dimensions can be assessed. Those making the judgments along these dimensions might include instructors, other students, and/or external field experts. The use of “authentic assessment,” where the assessment process reflects the way feedback would be shared and used in the “real world,” can appropriately be applied to product/idea development.

The process of creativity and creative thinking can also be assessed. For example, students might fill out checklists of behaviors deemed creative (such as identifying problems or referencing sources outside the discipline for inspiration). Tests of divergent thinking might additionally be used if one of the outcomes is to develop creative capacities that transfer beyond the subject at hand.

Using multiple assessment techniques and having the assessment stem from multiple sources, such as the instructors, peers, experts, and self-assessments, is particularly valuable when assessing and providing feedback on creativity.

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Authentic Assessment

Just as authentic learning experiences engage students in work processes that researchers and experts use every day, authentic assessment reflects the ways in which field practitioners work and receive feedback. It directly examines the intended benefit of student learning, rather than measuring an out-of-context proxy.

Part of what distinguishes authentic assessment is the intended audience of the student’s presentation of material. In more traditional assessment approaches, students may write papers with the instructor as the intended audience. In authentic assessment, students may present a proposal, performance, or service as they would in their field of practice, for example, to a real or imagined relevant audience. The work itself may also serve a real purpose, such as a problem to be solved.

Because students or groups of students within a single class may be producing very different “products” to be assessed in very different environments, authentic assessment necessitates a degree of adaptivity in grading. The time this requires, and the challenges in creating consistent grading criteria, should be considered in light of the learning benefits of this approach.

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Self assessment

Giving students the opportunity to assess themselves can help them take responsibility for their own learning and support the development of intellectual independence.  Self assessment can help gauge a student’s conceptual knowledge, skills, abilities, self-efficacy attitudes, and values; and may help students identify their own strengths, weaknesses, and gaps.

If using a rubric, instructors might wish to involve students in the scoring process. For example, an instructor might have students score themselves before entering a conversation about how he or she would score them; the conversation can focus on areas of discrepancy. The instructor might decide then to alter his or her own score in some cases, and in other cases, might take the opportunity to clarify expectations.

Evidence suggests that giving students a role in developing the criteria against which they will measure their own success affords them even greater ownership over their learning. Criteria development can look a little like a negotiation process, where some of the instructor’s basic standards for success serve as a starting point around which the student’s personal objectives can be defined. And this helps each student account for his/her personal baseline of knowledge upon entering the course or program. Even when students help develop the criteria, they may need guidance in applying it.

A simple process, clearly defined criteria, and enough time allotted for conversations with students can help make self-assessment a positive and effective method.


Panadero, E., Jonsson, A., & Botella, J. (2017). Effects of self-assessment on self-regulated learning and self-efficacy: Four meta-analyses. Educational Research Review, 22, 74-98.

Peer and self assessment in student work: principles and criteria

Nulty, D. D. A Guide to Peer and Self Assessment.

McMillan, J. H., & Hearn, J. (2008). Student self-assessment: The key to stronger student motivation and higher achievement. Educational Horizons,87(1), 40-49.

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Peer assessment

Peer assessment is an important developmental tool, not only for the person being assessed, but for the peer assessor as well. The ability to discern strengths and weaknesses, and to offer strategies and solutions for improvement, are important skills for students to develop. Many students also appreciate the opportunity to share their thoughts about a peer’s performance and quality of work with the instructor, particularly when the peers have been working together in a group setting. Ideally, peers will be assessed using the same criteria that individuals might use to assess themselves. Eexample of self and peer assessment tool: 

In a creative setting, peer assessment may also be an invaluable form of authentic assessment.

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Equity and Assessment

At Northwestern, we seek to ensure that all students, regardless of socioeconomic status, race, or gender, have equal opportunities to perform at their personal best. Assessments must therefore be designed to be inclusive. The following suggestions for making assessments culturally responsive are drawn from a paper put forth by the National Institute for Learning Outcomes Assessment (NILOA) in 2017, “Equity and Assessment: Moving Towards Culturally Responsive Assessment.”

  • Involve students in developing the course learning objectives
  • Help students reflect on their learning experiences
  • Allow for variation in how learning is demonstrated
  • Be mindful of personal biases when assessing student work and making use of assessment results

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Mon, 09 May 2016 22:20:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.northwestern.edu/searle/assessment-of-student-learning/course-assessment.html
Killexams : Nursing, M.S. (Accelerated)

Saint Louis University’s Trudy Busch Valentine School of Nursing offers a 21-month, five-semester direct-entry accelerated Master of Science in Nursing program that will prepare you to become a clinical nurse leader (CNL).

SLU’s direct-entry accelerated Master of Science in Nursing (AMSN) is the first and only of its kind in Missouri. This 21-month, five-semester program is designed for individuals who are not registered nurses but have already earned a baccalaureate degree in another field. By completing the program, you will graduate with a Master of Science in Nursing and be prepared to sit for both the nursing licensure exam and certification as a clinical nurse leader.

The Valentine School of Nursing is renowned for excellence in nursing education. In 2020, our AMSN NCLEX pass rate was 94%. In 2021, Niche ranked Saint Louis University’s Trudy Busch Valentine School of Nursing as the No. 8 best college in the country for nursing. Additionally, U.S. News & World Report consistently ranks our MSN-NP program as a top 50 program in their Best Graduate Schools survey.

Students who are reviewing our A.M.S.N. program may also consider our one-year accelerated B.S.N. program

About Clinical Nurse Leaders

The master’s level coursework of SLU's direct-entry accelerated Master of Science in Nursing program focuses on the competencies and role development you need to become a clinical nurse leader (CNL). Clinical nurse leaders coordinate the care of a distinct group of patients and actively provide direct patient care in complex situations. They focus on outcomes measurement, risk assessment, quality improvement, interprofessional communication and application of evidence-based practice.

Graduates initially work as staff nurses, with their CNL skill set later allowing them to pursue advanced roles in health care.

Program Highlights

The increasing number and range of opportunities available in nursing today make the accelerated Master of Science in Nursing the perfect second-degree option. Unique features of this program include:

  • Nearly 1,000 hours of clinical experience throughout the program
  • Excellent clinical experiences at major St. Louis-area hospitals and health care facilities
  • Clinicals begin in the first semester of the program
  • Minimum prerequisite course requirements (Human Anatomy, Human Physiology, Microbiology and Statistics)
  • Faculty who are nationally recognized for teaching, research, leadership and student mentorship
  • State-of-the-art classroom and simulation laboratory facilities

Curriculum Overview

The master’s level coursework of our direct entry accelerated Master of Science in Nursing program focuses on the competencies and role development you need to become a clinical nurse leader (CNL). Clinical nurse leaders coordinate the care of a distinct group of patients and actively provide direct patient care in complex situations. They focus on outcomes measurement, risk assessment, quality improvement, interprofessional communication and application of evidence-based practice. Please see the roadmap for our AMSN curriculum plan.

Admission Requirements

The Saint Louis University Trudy Busch Valentine School of Nursing adheres to the principles of a holistic admission process in which selection criteria are broad-based and linked to our University’s and school’s mission and goals. While we do consider academic metrics we also look at applicant experiences, attributes, potential for success, and how applicants may contribute to the school’s learning environment and to the profession.

  • Previous completion of a prior baccalaureate or higher degree from a regionally accredited U.S. college or university, or an internationally equivalent degree. WES, ECE or equivalently translated transcripts are required for international courses.
  • Undergraduate GPA of 3.20 or higher on a 4.00 system in previous college work.
  • Completion of the following prerequisite coursework: (*Science coursework preferably completed within the last five years.)
    • *Microbiology (3 credits)
    • *Human Anatomy (3 credits)
    • *Human Physiology (3 credits)
    • Inferential Statistics (3 credits)

Contact slunurse@slu.edu for an unofficial transcript review.

Licensure Disclosure

The curriculum for this program meets the educational requirements for licensure as a Registered Nurse in the State of Missouri.  Note that the Missouri Board of Nursing may impose additional requirements on candidates prior to granting a license; we encourage you to investigate these requirements.

The Trudy Busch Valentine School of Nursing has not determined whether the curriculum for this program meets the educational requirements for nursing licensure in any other states or territories. We encourage you to investigate the requirements in your state or territory prior to accepting an offer of admission at the Trudy Busch Valentine School of Nursing.

Requirements for International Students

Due to the rigor of this accelerated program, international students are recommended to have a 100 on the computer based TOEFL (iBT) or a 7 on the IELTS is required to demonstrate students' English proficiency.

All admission policies and requirements for domestic students apply to international students. International students must also meet the following additional requirements:

  • Demonstrate English Language Proficiency
  • Financial documents are required to complete an application for admission and be reviewed for admission and merit scholarships. 
  • Proof of financial support that must include:
    • A letter of financial support from the person(s) or sponsoring agency funding the student's time at Saint Louis University
    • A letter from the sponsor's bank verifying that the funds are available and will be so for the duration of the student's study at the University
  • Academic records, in English translation, of students who have undertaken postsecondary studies outside the United States must include:
    • Courses taken and/or lectures attended
    • Practical laboratory work
    • The maximum and minimum grades attainable
    • The grades earned or the results of all end-of-term examinations
    • Any honors or degrees received.

WES and ECE transcripts are accepted.

Application Process

Applying for the direct entry accelerated Master of Science in Nursing program requires careful planning to ensure that all admission requirements are met. You may experience a significant delay in processing if the application instructions are not followed exactly as listed. 

Please follow the four steps outlined below to apply:

Step 1 - Application

Submit the application form and fee through either SLU or NursingCAS

Note: Students only need to submit one application option. There is no preference by the School of Nursing between the SLU or NursingCAS application. 

Step 2 - Transcripts

Option A: If you are completing the application through SLU please submit your official e-transcripts from all colleges/universities attended to graduate@slu.edu.

Option B: If you are completing the application through NursingCAS please submit your official transcripts from all colleges/universities attended in sealed envelopes directly to NursingCAS. They will provide instructions when the application is initiated.

Option A and B: If you have completed college credits outside of the U.S., you must submit:

  • The official evaluated transcript from an accredited credential evaluation service (WES or ECE).
  • The official foreign transcript.

Step 3 - Resume

Attach your professional resume within the SLU or NursingCAS application. 

Step 4 - Professional Goal Statement

Attach your professional goal statement within the SLU or NursingCAS application. The goal statement should outline your anticipated nursing career trajectory for five years after graduating and include an explanation of why you've decided on that path. The statement should be one-to-two pages and double-spaced.

Application Deadline

Although the application deadline is July 1, students are strongly encouraged to apply and submit all supporting documents by Feb. 1, as space is limited.

Review Process

The Valentine School of Nursing admits students on a rolling basis, typically beginning in February, and there is a deadline to accept an offer of admission.


Graduates of our direct entry accelerated Master of Science in Nursing often initially work as staff nurses, with their CNL skill set later allowing them to pursue advanced roles in health care.

This is not an advanced practice role. Graduates of this accelerated master’s program will not be prepared for certification as a nurse practitioner but may pursue a post-master's certificate in that area.   

Scholarships and Financial Aid

Financing for this program may be available through grants, scholarships, loans (federal and private) and institutional financing plans.  For price estimates, please review the SLU Cost Calculator.  

The Trudy Busch Valentine School of Nursing at Saint Louis University offers scholarship and graduate research assistantship opportunities to eligible graduate students.  Additionally, most nursing students will participate in a tuition assistance program provided through their employer.

For more information, visit the student financial services office online at https://www.slu.edu/financial-aid.


The Trudy Busch Valentine School of Nursing is fully approved by the Missouri State Board of Nursing.

The Bachelor of Science in Nursing, Master of Science in Nursing and Doctor of Nursing Practice at the Valentine School of Nursing are accredited by the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education and approved by the Missouri State Board of Nursing. To achieve its educational objectives, the school uses the hospitals within SSM Health and many health care organizations of greater St. Louis.

NURS 4600 Pharmacology in Nursing 3
NURS 5010 Nursing Strategies in Physiological Health Alterations 6
NURS 5015 Nursing Strategies in Psychosocial Health Alterations 4
NURS 5020 Health Care Systems & Policy 3
NURS 5025 Informatics and Quality Improvement 3
NURS 5035 Foundations in Nursing Care 3
NURS 5080 Advanced Pharmacology 3
NURS 5115 Advanced Health Assessment for the Generalist Nurse 3
NURS 5145 Nursing Strategies for Health Promotion 3
NURS 5170 Advanced Pathophysiology 3
NURS 5205 Evidence-Based Practice for the Advanced Generalist Nurse 3
HCE 5500 Ethics in Nursing& Health Care 2
NURS 5601 Clinical Studies I 4
NURS 5602 Clinical Studies II 3
NURS 5603 Clinical Studies III 4
NURS 5604 Advanced Clinical Studies 4
NURS 5605 Practicum in Clinical Leadership 5
NURS 5606 Clinical Nursing Leadership for Advanced Generalists 3
NURS 5607 Advanced Synthesis of Nursing Concepts 1
NURS 5608 Physiological Adaptations of the Complex Client 2
Total Credits 65

Non-Course Requirements

Students will complete 1000 clinical hours.

Continuation Standards

Students must maintain a cumulative grade point average (GPA) of 3.00 in all graduate/professional courses.

Roadmaps are recommended semester-by-semester plans of study for programs and assume full-time enrollment unless otherwise noted.  

Courses and milestones designated as critical (marked with !) must be completed in the semester listed to ensure a timely graduation. Transfer credit may change the roadmap.

This roadmap should not be used in the place of regular academic advising appointments. All students are encouraged to meet with their advisor/mentor each semester.  Requirements, course availability and sequencing are subject to change.

Plan of Study Grid
Year One
NURS 4600 Pharmacology in Nursing 3
NURS 5115 Advanced Health Assessment for the Generalist Nurse 3
NURS 5170 Advanced Pathophysiology 3
NURS 5035 Foundations in Nursing Care 3
NURS 5145 Nursing Strategies for Health Promotion 3
  Credits 15
NURS 5010 Nursing Strategies in Physiological Health Alterations 6
NURS 5015 Nursing Strategies in Psychosocial Health Alterations 4
NURS 5205 Evidence-Based Practice for the Advanced Generalist Nurse 3
HCE 5500 Ethics in Nursing& Health Care 2
  Credits 15
NURS 5601 Clinical Studies I 4
NURS 5602 Clinical Studies II 3
NURS 5020 Health Care Systems & Policy 3
  Credits 10
Year Two
NURS 5603 Clinical Studies III 4
NURS 5604 Advanced Clinical Studies 4
NURS 5025 Informatics and Quality Improvement 3
NURS 5080 Advanced Pharmacology 3
  Credits 14
NURS 5605 Practicum in Clinical Leadership 5
NURS 5606 Clinical Nursing Leadership for Advanced Generalists 3
NURS 5607 Advanced Synthesis of Nursing Concepts 1
NURS 5608 Physiological Adaptations of the Complex Client 2
  Credits 11
  Total Credits 65

Licensure Examination

Graduates are eligible to apply to take the professional licensure examination; however, the Missouri Nurse Practice Act, Chapter 335.066, states, “Completion of an educational program leading to a degree or diploma in nursing does not ensure eligibility to write the licensure examination.” Background checks are required of applicants for clinical rotations and again to apply for licensure.

Thu, 26 May 2022 21:12:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.slu.edu/nursing/degrees/graduate/nursing-accelerated-msn.php
Killexams : JD Law Degree Courses & Requirements Accounting for Lawyers - LAW 893S

This course will introduce students to financial statements and accounting concepts that will facilitate law practice with corporate clients and in other matters where financial auditing is involved.
Credits: 2.00

Administrative Law - LAW 620S

This course studies the law governing administrative agencies in the task of carrying out governmental programs; interrelations of legislative, executive and judicial agencies in development of public policy; decision-making processes and internal procedures of administrative agencies, and legislative, executive, and judicial controls on them.
Credits: 3.00 or 4.00

Admiralty Law - LAW 627S

This is an introductory level course covering basic principles including sources of maritime law, federal and state law jurisdiction over maritime claims, special maritime remedies (arrest and attachment), carriage of goods by sea, maritime torts (collisions, allisions, pollution, personal injury claims, seamen’s rights/remedies), maritime contract disputes and liens, and marine insurance. The course will cover these subjects from both a historic and pragmatic perspective.
Credits: 2.0

Advanced Constitutional Law - LAW 604S

This course takes an in depth look at individual rights under the Constitution with a particular emphasis on the Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses.
Credits: 3.00 or 4.00

Advanced Co-op - LAW 937S

This course is for students who have already taken a co-op and want to extend that placement by one semester. Students must apply to their co-op professor with a written proposal for a specific project developed with, and approved by, their field supervisor. Grading is Credit/No Credit.
Credits: 2.00 or 3.00
Pre-Requisite: LAW 654S - Lawyering Practice Seminar , LAW 931S - Co-op , LAW 933S - Co-op Intensive

Advanced Evidence - LAW 637S

This course is supplemental to other trial advocacy courses focusing on theoretical understanding of problems which arise at trial and the practical use of evidentiary material.
Credits: 2.00 or 3.00
Pre-Requisite: LAW 634S - Evidence

Advanced Immigration Law - LAW 866S

This course covers advanced issues concerning the law, policy, and politics of immigration and citizenship in the United States, including relevant perspectives on those issues from other disciplines. subjects covered may include the constitutional power to regulate immigration and its limits, discrimination against noncitizens by private and public entities, workplace and labor rights of noncitizens, the intersection of immigration and criminal law, federal enforcement priorities, asylum and humanitarian protections, state and local enforcement initiatives, immigrant integration and inclusion policies, the politics and policy of immigration reform, and selected contemporary litigation.
Credits: 2.0 or 3.0

Advanced Legal Analysis and Bar Skills - LAW 887S

This course will prepare students for the written essays, performance tests and multiple-choice questions of the bar exam. Students will develop their exam-writing skills by taking practice questions under exam conditions and receiving critiques of their answers. Students will also review several areas of substantive law commonly tested on bar exams. NOTE: This course is not a substitute for a commercial bar review course.
Credits: 2.00 to 4.00

Advanced Legal Research - LAW 880S

This course provides students a thorough grounding in the research skills needed by today's lawyers. Students will learn how to use advanced electronic and print resources and techniques to research case law, statutes, legislative histories, administrative law, and other practice-based research tools.
Credits: 1.00 or 2.00

Advanced Trial Advocacy: Civil - LAW 904S

This course is a continuation of Introduction to Trial Advocacy and is an advanced civil trial skills class which teaches students advanced trial skills; evidentiary issues; and case development. Students will perform exercises and develop case theories using mock civil cases.
Credits: 2.00 or 3.00
Pre-Requisite: LAW 902S - Introduction to Trial Advocacy

Advanced Trial Advocacy: Courtroom Technology & Advocacy - LAW 907S

This advanced course focuses on analyzing both criminal and civil cases and preparing those cases for a presentation before a jury. The course is specifically designed to expand the skills already developed during the Introduction to Trial Advocacy course. The course methodology combines lectures, demonstrations and individual student performances, during which students will be responsible for conducting all aspects of a trial. There will be extensive critique and feedback by instructors experienced in the art of effective trial advocacy. The course culminates with each of the students conducting a complete mock trial. The course requires that all aspects of the students’ trial presentations be given while utilizing technology, which may include TrialPad for the iPad, Power Point, Timeline 3d, iThoughts, etc.
Credits: 2.0 or 3.0
Pre-Requisite: LAW 902S - Introduction to Trial Advocacy

Advanced Trial Advocacy: Criminal - LAW 906S

This course is a continuation of Introduction to Trial Advocacy and is an advanced criminal trial skills class which teaches students advanced trial skills; evidentiary issues; and case development. Students will perform exercises and develop case theories using mock criminal cases. The course will culminate with a criminal mock trial.
Credits: 2.00 or 3.00
Pre-Requisite: LAW 902S - Introduction to Trial Advocacy

Advanced Trial Advocacy: Trials of the Century - LAW 908S

This course will teach students to understand, develop and perform advanced trial skills based on strategic themes and theories used throughout the trial process. Students will analyze actual trial transcripts and exhibits, and movie vignettes of advocates from famous "Trials of the Century."
Credits: 2.00
Pre-Requisite: LAW 902S - Introduction to Trial Advocacy

Alternative Dispute Resolution Competition Team - LAW 896S

Students who have been selected for one of the Alternative Dispute Resolution competitions will enroll in this course and complete all required work in order to earn co-curricular credit for competition.
Credits: 1.0-6.0

Animal Law - LAW 626S

This course will encourage students to consider the philosophical and jurisprudential bases for the current status of animals in our legal system. The course will examine both the history of, and future trends regarding, that status. Students will read a diverse cross-section of legal theory and case law, which will explore the various moral, ethical, and public policy considerations that are implicated in the balance of the rights and needs of human beings and those of animals.
Credits: 2.00

Antitrust - LAW 716S

This course focuses on antitrust law, with emphasis on how modern technology might challenge traditional antitrust principles. subjects include Rules of Reason vs. per se analysis, monopolies, mergers, joint ventures, tying arrangements, exclusive dealing, predatory pricing, and other business behaviors that have arisen in a variety of industries and markets.
Credits: 3.00

Appellate Advocacy - LAW 910S

This course provides students with advanced training in appellate advocacy, including the study of the rhetoric of persuasion, the preparation of appellate briefs and effective oral advocacy, and will include an introduction to appellate procedure. This course is required for students serving on the moot court board.
Credits: 2.00

Banking Law - LAW 737S

This course will explore the development of banking law and how that development shapes our current banking regulatory regime. It will also compare the US banking regulatory scheme comprised of state and federal bodies with the more uniform systems operating in many foreign jurisdictions.
Credits: 3

Bankruptcy - LAW 710S

This course will examine both state law remedies and priorities and the federal Bankruptcy Code. subjects will include elements common to all bankruptcies, as well as Chapter 7 liquidations in the consumer context, and Chapter 8 and 13 wage-earner payout plans.
Credits: 3.00 or 4.00

Beginning Spanish for Lawyers - LAW 803S

This course is an introduction to the Spanish language for law students and is intended for students with limited experience with the language. It is designed to help students develop basic communication skills in Spanish by engaging them in a variety of interactive tasks. As a skills course, it is student-centered in order to maximize students’ active participation at the individual, small group and whole group levels. Grading is Credit/No Credit.
Credits: 1.00

Behavioral Science Applications to the Law - LAW 812S

This seminar is designed to inform law students and selected doctoral students in psychology about the usefulness of social science information in the practice and scholarship of law while at the same time indicating the problems and pitfalls of using such information particularly at the appellate level. Thus, this seminar explores the interplay and conflict between law and psychology and the many ways in which social science research can or should have an influence on legal decision making.
Credits: 2.00 or 3.00

Bioethics - LAW 783S

This class explores the legal and ethical issues surrounding the development of new biological technologies. subjects may include the research bioethics, assisted reproductive technology, genetics, issues surrounding death and dying, and organ transplantation.
Credits: 2.00 or 3.00

Broker/Dealer Regulation - LAW 736S

This course will discuss the legal and regulatory frameworks that govern broker-dealers. It will explore the multiple legal and regulatory regimes that govern broker dealers and affiliated institutions.
Credits: 3

Business Law Legal Research - LAW 870S

This course covers business law-related resources, in both print and electronic format, including primary and secondary sources; company information and demographics; SEC and tax information and documents; and current awareness tools.  Students will learn how to locate, use and evaluate these resources. Grading is Credit/No Credit.
Credits: 1.00
Pre-Requisite: LAW 565S - Legal Methods I , LAW 566S - Legal Methods II

Business Organizations - LAW 700S

This class studies the legal attributes of corporations, partnerships, and the limited liability of companies. It examines the rights, duties and liabilities of managers, owners, and agents. It also focuses on formation issues, operational powers and fundamental changes in business forms such as dissolution, merger, or acquisition.
Credits: 4.00

Children and the Law - LAW 643S

This course examines the relationship between children, family and the state.
Credits: 2.00 or 3.00

Civil Litigation Field Clinic I - LAW 943S

This clinical program places students in a civil practice setting. Students will learn varied litigation skills in the context of direct representation of clients. Students must enroll in both semesters of the clinic. A grade will be assigned at the end of the Spring semester.
Credits: 5.00 or 6.00

Civil Litigation Field Clinic II - LAW 944S

This course is a continuation of LAW 943S. Students must enroll in both semesters of the clinic.
Credits: 6.00
Pre-Requisite: LAW 943S - Civil Litigation Field Clinic I

Civil Litigation Remedies - LAW 628S

This course will help students gain an understanding of the law and policies relating to equitable remedies (specific performance and injunctions), damages at common law (compensatory and punitive damages), and restitution.
Credits: 2.00 or 3.00

Civil Procedure - LAW 554S

This course examines the civil litigation process with an emphasis on the federal courts. subjects include remedies, pleadings, pre-trial motion practice, discovery, motions for summary judgment, trial procedure, appellate review, and issue and claim preclusion.
Credits: 4.00

Civil Rights Law - LAW 606S

This course explores the principles of civil rights law and practice. It will also review both the history and current development of this area of law.
Credits: 2.00 or 3.00

Class Actions and Other Complex Litigation - LAW 630S

This course is an overview of class action theory and practice. Special attention will be given to class certification, notice, and settlement. The course will also address other issues in complex litigation.
Credits: 3.00

Communicating for Success - LAW 891S

The goal of this interactive seminar is to assist students in becoming practice-ready when they graduate from law school. The course will explore the array of skills and values that lawyers need to be effective in working with their clients using a relationship-centered model. Participants will draw upon their real world experiences in and out of law school to develop concrete tools and techniques to communicate with clients in a wide variety of contexts and to achieve better outcomes. Grading is Credit/No Credit.
Credits: 2.00

Community Lawyering Clinic I - LAW 950S

The clinic offers students the unique opportunity to employ a variety of strategies including litigation, legal reform, community education, media advocacy, and even international advocacy to support the mobilization efforts of community groups working on the ground to achieve social justice. During the second semester, students, in collaboration with community leaders and guided by their ground-level work in the first semester, will design and implement projects aimed at addressing the systemic challenges facing the community, such as improving access to justice. The goal of the clinic is to build students’ capacity as lawyers, leaders, advocates, policy analysts, and community organizers, while at the same time empowering and serving the community.
Credits: 5.00 or 6.00

Community Lawyering Clinic II - LAW 951S

This is a continuation of LAW 950S. Students must enroll in both semesters of this year-long clinic.
Credits: 5.00 or 6.00
Pre-Requisite: LAW 950S - Community Lawyering Clinic I

Comparative Constitutional Law - LAW 822S

This course covers subjects arising from the comparative study of constitutional systems. Focusing on constitutional structure and law in a variety of countries, the course will address comparative approaches to issues as judicial review, judicial appointment, separation of powers, federalism, and fundamental rights. The course will also explore fundamental, underlying questions about the nature of constitutions and constitutionalism, processes of constitution design, political constraints on constitutional rights and constitutional courts, and constitutional culture.
Credits: 3.00

Conflict of Laws - LAW 632S

The course focuses on cases involving multi-jurisdictional elements. Three primary areas are covered: choice of the law approaches; enforcement in a forum of judgments rendered in another state; and jurisdiction over an out-of-state party. Both relationships among American states and issues involving state and federal law are addressed.
Credits: 3.00

Constitutional Law - LAW 560S

This course examines the basic issues in federal constitutional law. subjects include the role of the courts in interpretation of the Constitution, the scope of legislative and executive powers, the limitation of the powers of state and local governments, and an introduction to concepts of equal protection.
Credits: 4.00

Constitutional Theory - LAW 605S

This course covers central issues in constitutional theory and practice, principally as they have arisen in the United States. subjects include the nature of constitutionalism; theories of constitutional interpretation; the use of history and narrative in constitutional argument; theories of constitutional change; the relationship between constitutional adjudication, democratic politics, and social movements; the significance of constitutional culture; the roles played by executive, legislative, and judicial actors; questions of constitutional legitimacy; and circumstances giving rise to constitutional dysfunction or crises. The course will explore these subjects in the context of specific issues arising historically and in exact years.
Credits: 3.0

Contemplative Lawyering - LAW 657S

Contemplative Lawyering is course about ethics and wellbeing, both personal and professional. Through readings, podcasts, journaling, and in-class discussion, you will learn how ethics and well-being are inextricably related. You will also learn mindfulness practices, both "sitting" and "portable," that help support the cultivation of ethics and well-being. At the end of the course you will have a new set of tools to help you move forward into your life as a practicing lawyer in a healthier, more ethical, more easeful way. Grading is Credit/No Credit.
Credits: 2.00

Contract Drafting - LAW 884S

In this course, students will develop basic skills needed to draft and revise contracts. Through a variety of writing assignments, students will learn the component parts of typical contracts and their purpose, as well as the ways in which the substantive content can be customized to satisfy a particular client's needs and concerns. This involves translating deal points into contract concepts, as well as revising legal boilerplate to enhance and protect their client’s interests.
Credits: 2.00

Contract Theory Seminar - LAW 832S

This course is designed to get students thinking more creatively and deeply about the ideas animating contract law and policy. While the first-year Contracts course is about mastering the technical aspects and doctrines of contract law, this course is about taking those skills to another level. The overarching course goal is to consider and discuss the ideas which undergird and supply life to contract law. The course will cover the basics of contract theory, surveying some different ideas about “the grand unifying theme of contract,” examining the strengths and weaknesses of these different ideas and theories of particular doctrines in contract law (this could include consideration, promissory estoppel, efficient breach, and/or special problems of form contracts).
Credits: 2.00 or 3.00

Contracts - LAW 552S

This course examines the enforcement of promises and bargains. subjects include contract formation, the doctrine of consideration, formalities including the Statute of Frauds and the parol evidence rule, performance and breach, defenses, remedies.
Credits: 4.00

Co-op - LAW 931S

The Co-op is a field placement in a corporation, law firm, judicial office, public interest organization, or government agency. Students must attend a pre-placement orientation and will work a set number of hours per week and satisfy or exceed the supervisor's expectations. Enrollment is by permission only. Grading is Credit/No Credit. JD students will receive 7 credits for part-time semester co-ops, and 6 credits per semester for year-long co-ops.
Credits: Variable
Co-Requisite: LAW 654S - Lawyering Practice Seminar

Co-op Intensive - LAW 933S

The Co-op is a field placement in a corporation, law firm, judicial office, public interest organization, or government agency. Students must attend a pre-placement orientation and will work 35-40 hours per week and satisfy the supervisor's expectations. Grading is Credit/No Credit.
Credits: 10.00
Co-Requisite: LAW 654S - Lawyering Practice Seminar

Copyright - LAW 760S

This course surveys the law of copyright. subjects to be discussed include the subject matter of copyright; ownership and transfer of copyrights; the rights afforded to copyright owners; duration of copyright rights; infringement; and remedies. Related areas of law such as author's moral rights, unfair competition, and contractual protection of ideas may also be addressed.
Credits: 3.00

Corporate Finance - LAW 704S

This course is designed to familiarize law students with the principles of corporate finance. In the world of corporate finance, the distinction between lawyers and investment bankers has blurred. Whether issuing new securities, taking a firm public via an IPO or securing a credit facility, corporate lawyers and investment bankers work side-by-side. Lawyers without an appreciation of corporate finance are at a distinct disadvantage. This course will provide the framework of these types of financings and offer students chances to test their knowledge with a series of simulated transactions during the course of the semester.
Credits: 2.0 or 3.0

Crime and Community - LAW 673S

In this course, students will study how various communities are affected by crime and criminal justice policies. Issues that may be considered include the war on drugs, large-scale incarceration, and sexual offender regulations.
Credits: 2.00

Criminal & Civil Rights Litigation Strategies - LAW 682S

This advanced litigation course is designed to train students in how to create a strategy for handling a criminal or civil rights matter. Students will begin with substantial factual material. With this base, they will move through the processes of developing a case theory, designing an investigation and discovery strategy, targeting relevant court motions, and preparation of the case for trial.
Credits: 2.00
Pre-Requisite: LAW 634S - Evidence , LAW 670S - Criminal Procedure: Investigations

Criminal Law - LAW 558S

This course examines the principles that underlie liability for criminal conduct. subjects include the definition of crimes and the principles of punishment, the required acts and mental states necessary for liability, and defenses to and justifications for conduct. Specific crimes will be discussed including conspiracy and intentional murder and manslaughter.
Credits: 4.00

Criminal Law Legal Research - LAW 877S

This course covers basic criminal law research resources, in both print and electronic formats. Main subjects include the following: primary and secondary resources of criminal law and procedure; interdisciplinary research; criminal law reports and statistics; and current awareness resources. This class covers both federal and state criminal law resources. Grading is Credit/No Credit.
Credits: 1.00
Pre-Requisite: LAW 565S - Legal Methods I , LAW 566S - Legal Methods II

Criminal Litigation Field Clinic I - LAW 941S

This clinical program places students in a criminal practice setting. Students will represent criminal defendants in all phases of pre-trial and trial activity. Students must enroll in both semesters of the clinic. A grade will be assigned at the end of the Spring semester.
Credits: 5.00 or 6.00

Criminal Litigation Field Clinic II - LAW 942S

This course is a continuation of LAW 941S. Students must enroll in both semesters of the clinic.
Credits: 5.00 or 6.00
Pre-Requisite: LAW 941S - Criminal Litigation Field Clinic I

Criminal Procedure: Investigations - LAW 670S

This course considers the Fourth Amendment's protection against unreasonable search and seizure, the Fifth Amendment's right to Due Process and against compulsory self-incriminations, and the Sixth Amendment's right to counsel, all with particular emphasis on the application of these constitutional provisions within the context of criminal investigation.
Credits: 3.00

Criminal Procedure: Prosecution and Adjudication - LAW 671S

This course will study the basic rules of criminal procedure, beginning with the institution of formal proceedings. It will emphasize prosecutorial discretion, preliminary hearings, the grand jury, criminal discovery, guilty pleas and plea bargaining, jury selection, pretrial publicity, double jeopardy, the right to counsel, and pretrial release and sentencing.
Credits: 3.00

Death Penalty Law - LAW 680S

This course will focus on the substantive and procedural issues presented in capital cases. It will also consider the legal issues arising in collateral challenges to death sentences.
Credits: 2.00

Deposition Skills & Technology - LAW 912S

Students will receive instruction through focused lectures, demonstrations and feedback from the professors on in-class performances. Students will spend a significant amount of time analyzing civil case files, preparing witnesses for depositions, learning questioning techniques and performing depositions of lay witnesses, parties and experts. Students will also use iPads with loaded deposition software to learn how to prepare and take depositions. Students will also use iPad technology to prepare post-deposition analysis of the depositions.
Credits: 2.0

Drexel Law Review - LAW 920S

Students must enter the law review writing competition and be selected as a member of the law review staff. Students will receive credit for their work in preparing each issue of the Drexel University Law Review. Enrollment by permission of the faculty supervisor(s) only. Grading is Credit/No Credit.
Credits: Variable

E-Discovery & Digital Evidence - LAW 660S

This course intends to prepare law students for modern-day litigation practice, which has become increasingly dependent on the understanding and use of technology. Doctrinally, this course covers the identification, preservation, collection, review, and production of electronically stored information (“ESI”) in civil litigation. Practically, this course covers the organization, use and presentation of ESI from the very beginning of the case through trial preparation.
Credits: 2.00

Education Law - LAW 640S

This course will cover constitutional and statutory law and policy issues relating to public schools, including rights of parents, teachers and students, school discipline, religion, speech, discrimination, and disability rights.
Credits: 2.00 or 3.00

Election Law - LAW 623S

This course considers the ways in which state and federal law regulate elections and the political process. Students will gain a perspective on both practical aspects of election regulation and the power relationships that motivate these rules.
Credits: 3.00 or 4.00

Employee Benefits Law - LAW 733S

This course considers the legal, economic, and social welfare aspects of benefits -principally health and retirement benefits -provided through an individual’s ties to the employment market. The course will consider mandatory benefit regimes in which all employers and employees must participate, such as Social Security and Medicare; and voluntary benefit programs, which employers may choose to adopt or not adopt for their employees. The course straddles a number of legal fields, including labor law, fiduciary law, tax law, and financial law.
Credits: 3.00

Employment Discrimination - LAW 622S

This course studies the federal and state statutes and case law that prohibit employment discrimination on the basis of race, color, gender, religion, national origin, age, disability, and sexual orientation. This course covers substantially different material than Employment Law and students may productively take both courses.
Credits: 3.00

Employment Law - LAW 722S

The purpose of this course is to help students gain a better understanding of the laws that govern the employment relationship, from hiring to firing. Students will review and discuss statutes and case law concerning restrictive covenants, Title VII, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, harassment, the Americans with Disabilities Act, the Family and Medical Leave Act, and the Fair Labor Standards Act. Real life situations will be evaluated and students will work on a hypothetical case brought before the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
Credits: 3.00

Energy Law - LAW 625S

This course will provide an overview of energy law. subjects will include: (1) an overview of U.S. energy policy; (2) introduction to Administrative Law and Regulatory Economics; (3) public utility regulation and deregulation; (4) preemption; (5) climate change; (6) electricity; (7) traditional fossil fuels: coal and oil; (8) nuclear power; (9) natural gas and the Marcellus Shale; (10) renewable energy; (11) conservation and storage; (12) oil and gas law; and (13) developing a revised U.S. energy policy.
Credits: 2.0

English for International Lawyers: Working with Legal Texts - LAW 971S

This course is designed to provide non-native English speakers with an introduction to working with legal texts to strengthen written and verbal communication skills. Grading is Credit/No Credit.
Credits: 2

Enterprise Tax - LAW 702S

This course will survey the differing federal income tax treatments of the various forms of business and investment activities, including both corporations and partnerships.
Credits: 4.00
Pre-Requisite: LAW 701S - Federal Income Tax

Entertainment Law - LAW 728S

The course will provide an overview of legal issues arising in the entertainment industry. subjects include acquisition of rights, talent agreements, project financing and structures, and distributor and licensing agreements. The course will also survey contracts, business organizations, securities, labor, copyright, trademark and rights of privacy/publicity law impacting the entertainment industry.
Credits: Variable

Entrepreneurial Law Clinic - LAW 924S

Students in the Entrepreneurial Law Clinic serve as "staff attorneys" in Drexel University’s "Start-Up Law Clinic." Students are expected to devote an average of 20 hours per week over the semester to the work of the Clinic. The Clinic will offer business and intellectual property law counseling to entrepreneurial start-ups based in the Greater Philadelphia area. These services will range from entity formation, founders’ agreements, and employment law counseling to trademark and patent registrations and general intellectual property protection counseling. The Clinic will be a transactional law practice servicing a select number of entrepreneurial clients. The Clinic will operate in collaboration with a panel of advisors who come from the leading emerging growth lawyers in Philadelphia.
Credits: 6.00
Pre-Requisite: LAW 713S - Transactional Lawyering
Co-Requisite: LAW 653S - Entrepreneurial Law Clinic Seminar

Entrepreneurial Law Clinic Seminar - LAW 653S

The Clinic Seminar will meet once a week, allowing participants in the Innovation Law Clinic to discuss various issues they encounter in their work in a seminar setting. There will be guest speakers and other opportunities to explore areas of law and law practice encountered in the Clinic.
Credits: 1.00
Pre-Requisite: LAW 713S - Transactional Lawyering
Co-Requisite: LAW 924S - Entrepreneurial Law Clinic

Environmental Law - LAW 624S

This course surveys the federal and state statutes and regulatory programs which attempt to limit water pollution, air pollution, environmental degradation, species extinction, hazardous waste, and chemical regulation problems.
Credits: 3.00

Essentials of Intellectual Property Law - LAW 765S

The purpose of this course is to prove an overview of intellectual property for those preparing to be civil or criminal attorneys who do not specialize in the field. Over the past century, the creation of new solutions and content has become a primary foundation of the U.S. economy. As such, it has become integral to the practice of business law. Some types of protection, including anti-hacking legislation, trade secrets, copyright, and trademark law, are becoming increasingly import in criminal law as well. Those interested in technology and business law will benefit from this foundational course that outlines the basics of intellectual property law.
Credits: 3.00

Estate Planning - LAW 741S

This class will introduce students to the fundamental principles and objectives of estate planning. With these fundamentals, the course will then examine the basic tools and techniques used in planning an estate to meet the needs of an individual or married couple, such as wills, various types of trusts, and lifetime gift giving. Probate of an estate, durable power of attorneys, guardianships, and planning for other life situations will also be explored.
Credits: 2.00
Pre-Requisite: LAW 740S - Trusts and Estates

European Union Data Privacy and Protection - LAW 770S

This course explores the law governing information privacy, data protection, and data security in the European Union. subjects may include an introduction to the EU Data Protection Directive and the new General Data Protection Regulation (2018), the Data Protection Authorities and cybersecurity in Europe. Students will also explore the so-called “Right to Be Forgotten,” and how EU law affects US companies doing business in Europe or with European entities.
Credits: 3.00

European Union Law - LAW 821S

This course will cover an analysis of the Treaty of Rome and other relevant legal instruments and the major institutions and characteristics of European Union law, including basic freedoms of the treaty (free movement of persons, goods, services, and capital), the Commission, the European Parliament, the European Council, the Council of the European Union, and the Court of Justice of the European Union.
Credits: 2.00 or 3.00

Evidence - LAW 634S

This course studies the law governing proof of disputed factual matters in criminal and civil trials, including issues of relevancy, competency, hearsay, and other exclusionary rules, and the privilege of witnesses.
Credits: 3.00 or 4.00

Expert Witnesses - LAW 811S

This course will examine the legal, policy, and practice considerations relating to the use of expert witnesses in civil and criminal cases. The course will examine the various roles of expert witnesses in civil and criminal cases, the rules of evidence that govern the recognition of experts and admissibility of expert testimony, techniques for effective direct examination and cross-examination of experts, and the ethical guidelines most relevant to expert testimony. This course will emphasize how attorneys can work effectively with experts (across disciplines) in the context of litigation.
Credits: 3.00

Family Law - LAW 644S

This course will examine the legal and policy issues relating to the family. subjects will include marriage, including barriers to marriage and the legal relationships between spouses; parents and children; divorce and its incidents, including child support and custody, and jurisdictional issues.
Credits: 3.00

Federal Courts - LAW 621S

This course examines the constitutional, statutory, and judicial sources of law that shape the role federal courts play in the American system of government. It pays particular attention to issues relating to federalism, separation of powers, and the scope and limits of the federal courts. Areas of study include federal common law, implied remedies, standing and justiciability doctrines, sovereign immunity, and the relationship between state and federal courts.
Credits: 3.00

Federal Criminal Law - LAW 675S

This is a broad survey course on current federal criminal law and practice. Students will become familiar with a wide range of federal criminal statutes, theories of criminal liability and culpability, federal sentencing law, federal jurisdictional issues, and federal practice from the investigative through trial stages.
Credits: 2.00 or 3.00

Federal Income Tax - LAW 701S

This course is intended to supply students an understanding of the fundamental legal and policy concepts underlying the federal individual income tax. The course will focus on the statutory framework of U.S. tax laws, particular judicial authorities, and selected Treasury Department regulations and rulings.
Credits: 4.00

Federal Litigation and Appeals Clinic I - LAW 947S

This clinic provides intensive training in appellate advocacy by involving students in cases before the state appellate and federal courts. Students provide research; draft briefs; engage in oral arguments; and assist in case selection, the development of substantive legal positions, and the creation of appellate strategy. Students must enroll in both semesters of the clinic. A grade will be assigned at the end of the Spring semester. (This course was previously titled "Appellate Litigation Clinic I".)
Credits: 5.00 or 6.00

Federal Litigation and Appeals Clinic II - LAW 948S

This is a continuation of LAW 947S. Students must enroll in both semesters of the clinic. (This course was previously titled "Appellate Litigation Clinic II".)
Credits: 6.00
Pre-Requisite: LAW 947S - Federal Litigation and Appeals Clinic I

Field Practicum - LAW 925S

This is an immersive real-world experiential course designed to support students as newcomers to legal practice. Students will focus on the study of lawyers and their roles and obligations, and also have the opportunity to examine legal institutions within the context of a directed field experience into which the student has previously been accepted. A Field Practicum does not fulfill the Professional Practice Requirement.
Credits: 1.00 to 3.00

First Amendment - LAW 602S

This course examines speech and religion clauses of the First Amendment. It considers the philosophical and historical foundation of free expression; analytical problems in First Amendment jurisprudence; and the relationships between free exercise of religion and the separation of church and state.
Credits: 3.00

Food and Drug Law - LAW 792S

This course considers the federal regulation of products subject to FDA jurisdiction, including food, human prescription and nonprescription drugs, animal feed and drugs, biologics and blood products, medical devices, and cosmetics. The course examines the public policy choices underlying the substantive law, FDA enforcement power, and agency practice and procedure.
Credits: 2.00 or 3.00

Foreign and International Legal Research - LAW 873S

This class will supply students a working knowledge of research methods, in traditional print sources and in electronic formats, for conducting research in the laws of foreign countries and international law. The class is recommended for students taking international law courses, researching international law subjects for the law school's law review, participating in the Jessup Moot Court, or interested in international legal practice. Grading is Credit/No Credit.
Credits: 1.00
Pre-Requisite: LAW 565S - Legal Methods I , LAW 566S - Legal Methods II

Foundations of Legal Analysis - LAW 838S

The course will focus on legal analysis and writing, and fundamental principles of the law, including the state and federal court systems, statutory law and interpretation, agency determinations, common law, case synthesis, policy concerns, and primary and secondary legal sources. The course will be taught using a hands-on, experiential approach largely driven by written classroom exercises and written assignments submitted for evaluation and feedback by faculty.
Credits: 2.00

Health Care Business Regulation - LAW 781S

This course examines the history of the American health care system and will consider the tensions between costs and access to care. subjects will include the federal Medicare and Medicaid systems, cost controls through health insurance and federal regulation, antitrust issues, ERISA, EMTALA, and other federal regulatory regimes. (Former titles: Health Law II; Health Care Cost & Access Regulation)
Credits: 3.00

Health Care Finance - LAW 784S

This class will consider basic economic concepts related to health care finance and private insurance. subjects will include managed care organizations and provider owned networks, as well as the effect of major federal payment programs and the impact of ERISA health care delivery systems.
Credits: 2.00

Health Care Fraud & Abuse - LAW 674S

This course examines the major federal and state legislation for providers who seek reimbursement under governmentally funded health care programs including the Medicare and Medicaid Anti-Kickback statute, the False Claims Act, and the Stark I and Stark II legislation and regulations.
Credits: 2.00 or 3.00

Health Care Quality Regulation - LAW 780S

This course examines all aspects of medical errors and quality in health care, including malpractice suits, licensing, staff privileging of doctors, and current regulatory approaches. It will also look at issues of patient rights and autonomy, including informed consent, medical information, clinical research, and issues in death and dying. (Former title: Health Law I)
Credits: 3.00

Health Law Legal Research - LAW 872S

The goal of this course is to provide students with the tools necessary to perform effective legal research in all areas of health care law. Students will learn how to use electronic and print resources and techniques to research health law statutes, legislative history, case law, regulations, and literature, as well as medical and health sciences information. Classes will consist of overviews and explanations of research tools and sources, after which students will have assignments to practice the use of those resources. Grading is Credit/No Credit.
Credits: 1.00
Pre-Requisite: LAW 565S - Legal Methods I , LAW 566S - Legal Methods II

Health Policy Colloquium - LAW 782S

This course will use case studies to examine regulatory choices in health care. The course will first examine the tools available to regulators in the U.S. health care system, from command and control regulation to market-enhancing devices such as the use of information to inform patients. The course will then consider regulatory strategies that a regulator might consider to handle several case studies: patient injury reduction in outpatient clinical/surgical settings; cost control of diagnostic imaging; in vitro fertilization and other reproduction enhancement developments; and malpractice tort reform, including insurance reform.
Credits: 2.00

Immigration Law - LAW 820S

This course covers issues in immigration law including inadmissibility and deportability, relief from removal, asylum and refugee status, citizenship, nonimmigrant and immigrant visas, and administrative and judicial review.
Credits: 3.00

Immigration Litigation - LAW 827S

The course will focus on handling cases before the immigration court. Beginning with an overview of the immigration court system and pertinent parts of immigration law, this course will also examine grounds of removal and of inadmissibility, bond motions, grounds to challenge the Notice to Appear, three of the most common forms of relief, adjustment of status and fear of return to home country. The course will be geared to a practical handling of these problems, but with a firm grounding in the legal authorities.
Credits: 2.00

Improvisation for Lawyers - LAW 890S

In this intensive course, students will hone their legal performance skills by studying improvisational theater techniques. The course will involve extensive hands-on performance. Grading is Credit/No Credit.
Credits: 1.00

Insurance Law - LAW 796S

This course will survey the basic types of individual and corporate insurance policies, legal principles of insurance law, and the role insurance plays in society. subjects may include insurance industry regulation, policy structure, risk management and interpretation, insurance marketing, insurance intermediaries, claims, and potential insurer defenses.
Credits: 2.00 or 3.00

Intellectual Property Legal Research - LAW 871S

The goal of this course is to provide students with grounding in the materials essential to performing introductory intellectual project research, enabling them to complete complex IP research assignments, whether for coursework or practice. Classes will contain an overview of research tools, explanations on how to use them effectively and assignments demonstrate their proper use. This course will augment current and future IP course offerings. Grading is Credit/No Credit.
Credits: 1.00
Pre-Requisite: LAW 565S - Legal Methods I , LAW 566S - Legal Methods II

Intermediate Spanish for Lawyers - LAW 804S

This course is intended for law students who possess some experience with the Spanish language or have taken LAW 803S. It is designed to help students develop formal, professional communication skills in Spanish by engaging them in a variety of interactive tasks that mimic those found at an entry level lawyer/paralegal position. It is a skills course, which is student-centered, interactive and conversation-based. In class activities are designed in order to maximize students’ active participation at the individual, small group and whole group levels. Grading is Credit/No Credit.
Credits: 1.00

International Business Transactions - LAW 828S

This course examines the legal framework of private international business transactions including: sales of goods and services, foreign investment, technology transfer and government regulation.
Credits: 3.00

International Human Rights Advocacy & Practice - LAW 825S

This seminar explores the use of international human rights strategies to advance social justice advocacy in the United States. On issues ranging from racial disparities in the criminal justice system to access to housing, U.S. lawyers increasingly use the human rights mechanisms of the United Nations and Inter-American Human Rights System, draw on international human rights and comparative foreign law in litigation before U.S. courts, and engage in broader advocacy such as documentation, organizing, and education. The course will examine the growing movement to incorporate international human rights strategies into U.S. social justice lawyering, explore the relevance of U.S. human rights advocacy in the current political landscape, and develop practical approaches to thoughtfully engage these tools.
Credits: 2.0 or 3.0

International Law - LAW 824S

This course will examine the nature and sources of international law; international organizations, including the United Nations and the International Court of Justice; and the developing law of human rights. Other subjects include the role of international law in the United States courts; the law relating to the use of military force; and international trade law. (This course was previously titled "Public International Law".)
Credits: 3.00

Internet Law - LAW 768S

This course addresses a variety of legal issues that relate to the Internet. Areas covered include intellectual property, electronic privacy, constitutional rights, and commercial law issues.
Credits: 3.00

Intro to Interviewing, Negotiation & Counseling - LAW 568S

This course develops the practical lawyering skills of interviewing and counseling. Students will also be introduced to negotiation theory and practice. Grading is Credit/No Credit.
Credits: 1.00

Introduction to Trial Advocacy - LAW 902S

This course will teach students to perform trial skills based on strategic themes and theories. The students will conduct direct and cross-examination of lay, party and expert witnesses, opening and closing statements, make objections and introduce exhibits. The course will culminate with each student performing in a mock trial. Grading is Credit/No Credit.
Credits: 3.00
Pre-Requisite: LAW 634S - Evidence
Co-Requisite: LAW 634S - Evidence

Introduction to United States Legal Systems - LAW 970S

This course is offered to American Legal Practice (LLM) Students Only. This course is an introduction to legal and ethical principles driving the U.S. legal system in the context of the history and jurisprudence of American law. It is designed to familiarize the student with the relevant and governing legal principles which are used in American jurisprudence. It will combine both an inquiry into these matters, and a more detailed study of legal issues, through special, current topics. The course seeks to develop a professional level of understanding in the student of a comprehensive approach to legal issues and the relevance of that methodology to professional ethics and life of the law in the United States.
Credits: 3

Jurisprudence - LAW 834S

This course addresses essential questions about the nature of law, and its role in society. What is law? What is its source of legitimacy? How does it function? Readings will consider major texts in Western jurisprudential philosophy.
Credits: 3.00

Justice Lawyering - LAW 656S

This course, which is a co-requisite of the field clinics, is a critical look at law and social justice. In that context, students will develop individual research and writing projects inspired by their clinical experience.
Credits: 1.00

Juvenile Justice Law - LAW 678S

This course will conduct an in-depth study of juvenile justice jurisprudence, doctrine, and policy in the United States. It will consider particular constitutional issues as they relate to children in the juvenile justice system. It will also consider the major differences between the criminal justice and the juvenile justice systems.
Credits: 3.00

Labor Law - LAW 658S

Labor Law touches on aspects of the law governing the employee-employer relationship. Although it is considered a niche area in legal studies, its ramifications are far-reaching, as it touches the life of anyone who works. This course emphasizes the law related to collective bargaining, equal employment opportunity, the NLRB, and the history and future of labor in the U.S.
Credits: 3.00

Land Use Law - LAW 746S

This course studies the principal methods of public control of private land use. It will consider issues relating to nuisance, eminent domain, taxation and zoning.
Credits: 2.00

Law and Mind Sciences - LAW 842S

Much of law and legal theory is based on commonsense assumptions about human behavior: criminals are evil; contracting parties act freely and with full knowledge; and workplace discrimination results from conscious prejudice. This seminar will explore evidence from social psychology, social cognition, cognitive neuroscience, and related fields that challenges these and similar conceptions.
Credits: 2.00

Law and Social Movements - LAW 844S

This course studies the various ways in which law succeeds – or fails – to bring about changes in the allocation of rights to groups and individuals. The class will focus on particular legal and social change movements, considering the effectiveness of strategies such as litigation and law reform.
Credits: 3.00

Law of Medical Malpractice - LAW 788S

This course covers medical liability issues arising from the treatment relationship between health care providers and their patients. subjects include the history of the medical malpractice tort, its evolution as a "crisis," informed consent, the framework for a medical malpractice lawsuit, and an analysis of proposals for medical malpractice reforms.
Credits: 2.00 or 3.00

Lawyering Practice Seminar - LAW 654S

This seminar focuses on learning from experiences, both in the co-op and in later professional practice. Students will study the roles being played by lawyers and the institutions where lawyers work. They will discuss their fieldwork experiences, make formal class presentations, and listen to practicing attorneys. Enrollment is by permission only.
Credits: 2.00
Co-Requisite: LAW 931S - Co-op , LAW 933S - Co-op Intensive

Lawyering Practice Seminar II - LAW 655S

This is a professionalism course designed to support students' second co-op experience as they continue to build skills and develop professional identity. Students will continue to focus on the study of lawyers and their roles and obligations within the context of their co-op and later professional practice. Course meetings will revolve around student presentations, engagement with practicing attorneys and developing a professional development plan and personal writing portfolio.
Credits: 1
Co-Requisite: LAW 931S - Co-op , LAW 933S - Co-op Intensive

Legal History - LAW 836S

This course surveys Anglo-American legal history from the origins of the common law through the 20th century. The course will focus on the development of both legal institutions and substantive law.
Credits: 2.00 or 3.00

Legal Methods I - LAW 565S

This course provides instruction in the fundamentals of predictive writing and legal research, including LEXIS and Westlaw training.
Credits: 3.00

Legal Methods II - LAW 566S

This course continues Legal Methods I. Students will learn additional legal research skills and will be introduced to persuasive writing techniques
Credits: 3.00

Legal Regulation of Global Financial Crimes - LAW 730S

This course covers a broad scope of global financial crimes and their intersection with the US financial system. Students will learn about a variety of types of financial crimes; what laws and regulations come into play; which regulators enforce them; the consequences for individuals and financial institutions who enable such crimes (whether intentionally or otherwise); the latest data breach issues, laws, and regulations (including GLBA, GDPR, and others); and how current events, politics, and technological advances intersect with these criminal enterprises.
Credits: 3.0

Legal Regulation of Investment Advisers - LAW 734S

This course will thoroughly review the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 and how it laid the foundation for present day regulation. It will explore the various legal and regulatory schemes that govern investment companies and look at the key policies that drive them.
Credits: 3

Legal Regulation of Investment Companies - LAW 735S

This course will thoroughly review the Investment Company Act of 1940 and how it laid the foundation for present day regulation. It will explore the various legal and regulatory schemes that govern investment companies and look at the key policies that drive them.

Legal Regulation of Pharmaceutical and Medical Device Research and Development - LAW 785S

This course explores the regulatory entities and schemes governing the research and development, management, financing, and reporting requirements of clinical trials in the pharmaceutical and life sciences sectors. subjects include the role of the Institutional Review Board, compliance with Good Clinical Practice standards, informed consent, pharmacovigilance and the protection of human research subjects, payments and financial transparency, conflicts of interest, ethical considerations in designing and executing clinical trials, and reporting requirements.
Credits: 3.00

Legal Regulation of Pharmaceutical and Medical Device Sales and Marketing Practices - LAW 787S

This course explores the law governing pharmaceutical and medical device sales and marketing practices, including product pricing, advertising, labeling, promotion and distribution. subjects may include identification of the entities regulating pharmaceutical and medical device manufacturers, disclosure and transparency requirements, payments to doctors and institutions, fraud and abuse, anti-bribery laws, direct-to-consumer advertising including internet advertising, off-label marketing and promotion, labeling over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, and limitations on the government’s ability to regulate commercial speech.
Credits: 3.00

Legislation and Regulation - LAW 555S

This course is intended to introduce the student to lawmaking through statutes and agency regulation in the modern regulatory state. The course will examine the reasons why we have developed into a regulatory state. It will consider the roles and relationships of Congress and administrative agencies within the three branches of government. It will look at how statutes are created and passed. The course is also designed to provide the student with an introduction to the theory and practice of statutory interpretation, including how to read and understand a statute. In addition, the course will introduce students to how agencies create and enforce regulation, including some of the requirements placed on agencies by the Administrative Procedures Act, and the judicial review of regulations
Credits: 3.00

Literature and the Law Seminar - LAW 840S

This seminar will explore the role of law, legal institutions, and legal actors in literature. It will also consider the ways in which literature, and literary theory, can be used in practice.
Credits: 2.00

Litigation Drafting - LAW 882S

This course explores technical and strategic issues in the drafting of litigation documents such as complaints, answers, written discovery, motions, affidavits, discovery schedules, pretrial orders, jury instructions, releases and correspondence. Students will complete a number of drafting assignments in and out of class.
Credits: 2.00

Marshall-Brennan Constitutional Literacy Seminar - LAW 608S

This is the required companion course for students participating in the Marshall-Brennan Constitutional Literacy Project. It is designed to prepare law students to teach constitutional law in local high schools and to supervise these high school students as they compete in regional and national constitutional moot court competitions. Grading is Credit/No Credit.
Credits: 1.00 or 2.00

Media Law - LAW 603S

This course will consider media law and the practical implications of representing media clients. subjects will include: who is “the media” in a digital age; statutory and constitutional protections; prior restraints and criminal liability; civil liability arising out of publication (including defamation and other tort liability); problems of newsgathering; reporter’s privilege; and advising the media client.
Credits: 2.00 or 3.00

Mediation and Arbitration - LAW 646S

This course explores the theory, practice and law of mediation and arbitration, with an emphasis on the roles lawyers play in these processes. The course will include simulated mediations and arbitrations to foster a deeper understanding of the material and to develop lawyering skills in resolving disputes without litigation.
Credits: 2.00 or 3.00

Mental Health Law - LAW 793S

This course will focus on providing students with an understanding of some of the most important issues for which the mental health professions and behavioral science research can provide information that is relevant to courts and attorneys.
Credits: 2.00 or 3.00

Mergers & Acquisitions - LAW 715S

This is an upper-level simulation course designed to familiarize the student with mergers and acquisitions practice. In a series of five exercises, students will work as teams to draft, mark-up and negotiate the provisions of an acquisition agreement. The course provides an opportunity to develop drafting, client counseling, negotiation and deal structuring skills while exposing students to the various substantive legal doctrine that impact a hypothetical cross-border leveraged buyout transaction.
Credits: 3.00
Pre-Requisite: LAW 700S - Business Organizations

Moot Court Board - LAW 894S

Students will be selected by the faculty supervisors to serve on the moot court board. Students will develop an intra-scholastic moot court competition and will be eligible to compete in interscholastic competitions. Students must take Appellate Advocacy before or during the semester of their external competition. Enrollment by permission of the faculty supervisor(s) only. Grading is Credit/No Credit.
Credits: Variable

National Security Law - LAW 639S

This course will examine the legal frameworks governing the use of national security powers by the U.S. government. It will explore the exercise of military force, the structures of the law enforcement and intelligence communities, and the legality of counterterrorism-related activities.
Credits: 3.00

Nonprofit Organizations - LAW 724S

This course will provide an overview of the legal environment of nonprofit organizations. Emphasis will be upon examining the law as it affects various aspects of nonprofits including incorporation, governance, fundraising and solicitation, employment, political activities, and tax status. Students will learn how the law regulates and structures nonprofit entities.
Credits: 2.00 or 3.00

Patent Litigation and Strategy - LAW 763S

This course provides an introduction to patent infringement litigation in the federal courts and will focus on the special aspects of patent litigation arising from its technical nature.
Credits: 2.00
Pre-Requisite: LAW 761S - Patents

Patent Prosecution - LAW 762S

This course focuses on drafting patents, strategy and tactics before the United States Patent and Trademark Office, and standards for patentability in the context of business effectiveness and ethical requirements.
Credits: 2.00
Pre-Requisite: LAW 761S - Patents

Patents - LAW 761S

This course provides an introduction to patent law, focusing upon the requirements of patentability (patentable subject matter, utility, novelty and non-obviousness), infringement, and defenses to infringement. Other subjects include the economics of information and innovation competition, claims drafting, licensing, patent misuse and antitrust violations.
Credits: 3.00

Pennsylvania Family Law Practice - LAW 645S

The course will teach students the practical side of practicing family law in Pennsylvania from the initial client contact through final dissolution of the marriage or custody issues and will cover the essentials of divorce, equitable distribution, child support, alimony pendente lite, alimony, custody and special relief. Students will be divided into groups of “Plaintiff’s Attorney” and “Defendant's Attorney” and will learn and be expected to determine strategy in equitable distribution, support and custody and be able to perform support calculations and spot issues related to these matters.
Credits: 2.0

Pennsylvania Innocence Project Practicum - LAW 923S

This is a practicum in which students identify, investigate, and litigate cases where individuals were convicted of crimes they did not commit. Practicum students will be supervised by Pennsylvania Innocence Project attorneys. During the semester, each student will be assigned a case to conduct an in-depth evaluation of the inmate’s innocence claim, which includes reviewing court documents, contacting attorneys, interviewing the inmate, and preparing a memorandum about the case. In addition, students will work with Project attorneys on cases in litigation, including assisting with legal research, drafting motions and briefs, and preparing for hearings. Students will visit at least one prison during the semester to meet Project clients, attend court hearings, and have the opportunity to interview witnesses with the Project’s investigator. In addition to case work, students will participate in a seminar about wrongful convictions and the law related to innocence claims. The practicum meets at the Project office in Center City. The overall time commitment for the practicum is 12 hours per week. The seminar is two hours a week, and the remaining time is spent on case work. Students are required to work 8 hours per week in the office, and the remaining 2 hours of case work can be done in the office or remotely. Grading is Credit/No Credit.
Credits: 3.00

Pennsylvania Legal Research - LAW 874S

In this course, students will become familiar with Pennsylvania primary resources (including cases, statutes, regulations, court rules, etc.) and Pennsylvania secondary legal resources (including practice guides, treatises, and CLE materials.) The class will cover all available resources, including print resources, free electronic resources, and subscription database resources. Grading is Credit/No Credit.
Credits: 1.00
Pre-Requisite: LAW 565S - Legal Methods I , LAW 566S - Legal Methods II

Pennsylvania Practice - LAW 652S

This course develops a student’s practical understanding of how the Pennsylvania Rules of Civil Procedure govern civil litigation including case initiation, discovery, motion practice and pre-trial preparation. The goal of the course is to prepare a student to work as a first year associate in a civil litigation law firm.
Credits: 2.00 or 3.00

Pretrial Advocacy - LAW 900S

This course is designed for students with an interest in litigation. Students will learn the major steps in the pretrial litigation process including theory development, client interviewing, informal fact investigation, pleading, discovery, depositions, pretrial motions, jury selection, and the settlement process.
Credits: 2.00

Private Equity and Venture Capital Law - LAW 712S

This course examines the legal and financial aspects of venture capital and private equity transactions. Subjects include venture capital financing, leveraged buyout transactions, management equity incentive structures, and related tax topics. Students will also be introduced to the venture capital and private equity fund industry.
Credits: 3.00 or 4.00
Pre-Requisite: LAW 700S - Business Organizations

Products Liability - LAW 786S

This course focuses on the theories and scope of liability arising from the distribution and sale of harm-producing products. subjects include the concept of defectiveness, design problems, duty to warn and problems with causation.
Credits: 3.00

Professional Responsibility - LAW 830S

This course will examine the ethical duties of lawyers toward clients, courts, and society. The course emphasizes the Model Rules of Professional Conduct, the Model Code of Professional Responsibility, and relevant case law. subjects covered include confidentiality, conflicts of interest, competence, fee arrangements, and the unauthorized practice of law.
Credits: 3.00

Property - LAW 556S

This course examines the basic elements of the law of real and personal property. subjects include ownership and possession of property, gifts, the rights of bona fide purchasers, adverse possession, estates and future interests in real property, and co-ownership and concurrent interests.
Credits: 4.00

Race and the Law - LAW 833S

This course considers the role of race in American law and examines the role of law in constructing notions of race.
Credits: 2.00 or 3.00

Real Estate Transactions - LAW 742S

This upper-level property course studies the legal aspects of residential and commercial real estate sales, development and finance.
Credits: 2.00

Reflections on Practice - LAW 802S

This course is designed to accompany a CPT work experience. Working in the U.S. in law can be a challenging experience. The goal of this course is to help students learn from their work experience by the use of reflection and feedback.
Credits: 1.00

Refugee and Asylum Law - LAW 826S

This course explores the treatment of foreign refugees and political asylees, with particular emphasis on relevant statutes, regulations and treaties.
Credits: 2.00 or 3.00

Regulating Patient Safety - LAW 791S

This seminar will look at the problem of medical errors in American health care, the emerging Patient Safety movement, and regulatory strategies for reducing errors and improving quality in hospitals, drug delivery systems, and physician office practices.
Credits: 2.00 or 3.00

Reproductive Rights & Justice - LAW 610S

Most people know about reproductive rights because of abortion’s prominence in American politics. Fewer people know about reproductive justice, a different framework for similar issues that explores how systemic oppression impacts all aspects of reproductive decision-making. This approach centers social, racial, and economic justice and focuses as much on a person’s rights to have and raise children as it does on their right to not have them through access to safe and legal abortion care and contraceptive access. This course will focus on several major subjects within both reproductive rights and justice: contraception, sterilization, abortion, pregnancy discrimination, assisted reproductive technology, and more. Former title: Reproductive Rights Law
Credits: 2.00-3.00

Sales - LAW 711S

This course reviews contract formation issues from the perspective of Uniform Commercial Code Article 2 and focuses on significant commercial contractual issues such as formation, performance (delivery and payment), title to goods, third party rights, warranty, and remedies.
Credits: 3.00

Secured Transactions - LAW 706S

This course provides an introduction to the law governing contractually created interest on personal property used to secure payment or performance of obligations. Students will study the creation, perfection, priority, and enforcement of security interests in personal property under Article 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code.
Credits: 3.00

Securities Regulation - LAW 714S

This course examines securities market regulation, including registration, exemption, and remedies under the Securities Act of 1933; reporting and accounting standards under the 1934 Act; the proxy system; and the regulation of broker-dealers, specialists, and self-regulatory organizations.
Credits: 3.00

Sentencing Law - LAW 672S

This course examines theories of sentencing, sentencing regimes, use of guidelines, and constitutional limits on sentencing.
Credits: 2.00 or 3.00

Sex, Gender, and the Law - LAW 611S

This course will explore the law and theory of sex and gender. Looking to a wide variety of legal doctrines and theorists, students will gain an understanding of how the law was developed, where it is going, and what it should be. The course will also address other identity characteristics and how they intersect with sex and gender.
Credits: 2.00 or 3.00

Sexual Orientation and the Law - LAW 612S

This course will focus on the interaction between sexual orientation and the law. Students will study how the transformation of social attitudes around sexual orientation plays out in various doctrinal areas.
Credits: 2.00 or 3.00

Special Education Law - LAW 642S

This class considers the law governing education of students with disabilities, with a particular focus on the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Students will study the evaluation and planning process, procedural due process provisions, and substantive issues such as use of least restrictive environment and school discipline, and remedies under the law.
Credits: 2.00

Sports Law - LAW 726S

This course will involve application of various legal doctrines (including contracts, labor, antitrust, tax, torts, remedies, arbitration and constitutional law) to a broad range of sports-related activities.
Credits: 2.00 or 3.00

Starting and Managing a Law Practice - LAW 892S

This course is designed to equip students with the knowledge, skills, and resources required to establish or manage a law firm. subjects will include marketing, office management, case management, and ethical considerations. Grading is Credit/No Credit.
Credits: 2.00

State and Local Government Law - LAW 638S

This course examines state and local governments, their role in setting public policy, and the interrelationship between them. Areas to be explored may include forms and structures of state and local governments, selection of public services, taxing and spending powers, home rule, zoning law, and general powers and immunities.
Credits: 2.00 or 3.00

Supreme Court Seminar - LAW 614S

This seminar will introduce students to the history and function of the United States Supreme Court. Students will study several active cases, draft simulated Supreme Court opinions, and practice oral argument. Where possible, students will actually attend one day of Supreme Court argument.
Credits: 3.00

Tax Law Legal Research - LAW 876S

The goal of this course is to introduce students to the concepts of tax research and the sources of tax authority. The learning outcomes for this class include giving students familiarity with statutory interpretation and legislative history, regulations, administrative decisions and letter rulings, case law, and secondary sources on tax law. There will also be discussion of the authoritative weight of various types of tax materials. The course focuses on Federal tax law, but includes an overview of state tax research—with an emphasis on Pennsylvania law—as well as international tax research. Grading is Credit/No Credit.
Credits: 1.00
Pre-Requisite: LAW 565S - Legal Methods I , LAW 566S - Legal Methods II

Technology for Law Practice - LAW 897S

This course teaches the basic technological and software skills needed for a daily law practice. subjects will include legal document management, drafting, and collaboration; spreadsheets; timekeeping; billing; e-discovery; case and practice management; cybersecurity; technology ethics and professional responsibility; and PDF creation and manipulation. Students will complete a legal technology audit that they can use as a blueprint for their future practice.
Credits: 3.00

The Rights of Children - LAW 647S

This interdisciplinary course is focused on looking critically at our treatment of children and reimagining children’s rights from conception to adulthood. Over the semester, students will engage a wide-range of issues in criminal law, education law, tax law, environmental law, and family law, among other areas. Each week the class will take up a bold idea for discussion: What if children were allowed to vote? What if there was no inheritance? What if we required everyone to take time off to care for others? Throughout the term, students will work on a research paper on a course of their choosing.
Credits: 2.00

Torts - LAW 550S

This course examines the general theories of civil liability for injuries to persons or property. subjects include liability for intentional misconduct, an introduction to the law of negligence, and a strict liability as well as defenses to claims of tort liability.
Credits: 4.00

Toxic Torts - LAW 790S

This course will consist of an in-depth study of mass tort litigation of all kinds, at both the state and federal level, focusing primarily on the manufacture and distribution of defective and toxic products and pharmaceuticals. Class actions will be studied as a remedial tool.
Credits: 2.00

Trademarks and Unfair Competition - LAW 764S

This course analyzes the law of unfair commercial practices. It covers trademarks, service marks, trade names, trade dress, infringement, interference with contractual relationships, appropriation of intellectual property created by another, defamation, disparagement, false advertising, unfair methods of competition, unfair or deceptive acts or practices, and remedies.
Credits: 3.00

Transactional Competition Team - LAW 819S

This course is restricted to students who have been approved by the instructor to participate as team members in a transactional lawyering competition approved by the instructor, such as the Transactional LawMeet®. Students are required to participate fully as a team member and to compete effectively in the selected competition under the supervision of the instructor or a senior practitioner selected by the instructor to serve as the team’s coach. Grading is Credit/No Credit.
Credits: 1.00
Co-Requisite: LAW 713S - Transactional Lawyering

Transactional Lawyering - LAW 713S

This hands-on skills course places students in the role of dealmakers. Students must anticipate legal problems and create agreements that avoid those pitfalls.
Credits: 4.00
Pre-Requisite: LAW 700S - Business Organizations

Trial Team - LAW 918S

Enrollment by permission of the faculty supervisor(s) only. Grading is Credit/No Credit.
Credits: Variable
Pre-Requisite: LAW 634S - Evidence , LAW 902S - Introduction to Trial Advocacy

Trusts and Estates - LAW 740S

This course will survey the law of gratuitous transfers and inheritance. The class will cover the creation, execution, alteration and interpretation of wills as well as the creation, revocation and interpretation of trusts and trust instruments of various types.
Credits: 3.00 or 4.00

Writing Strategies for the Bar exam - LAW 886S

This course will prepare students for the written portions of the bar exam – essays and performance test questions. Students will develop their exam-writing skills by taking practice questions under exam conditions and receiving critiques of their answers. Students will also review several areas of substantive law commonly tested on bar exams. Grading is Credit/No Credit. NOTE: The course is not intended as a substitute for a commercial bar review course. Students sitting for bar exams that do not have a performance test will take additional essay practice tests instead of practice performance tests.
Credits: 2.00

Sat, 28 Feb 2015 10:12:00 -0600 en text/html https://drexel.edu/law/academics/jd-programs/course-requirements/
Killexams : What is Information Governance?

The explosive growth of information is our era’s most significant defining characteristic. In this Age of Information, the amount of data, the uses for that data, the number of data sources and the routes it travels all grow at exponential rates. The growth creates new industries for defining, collecting, accessing, processing and curating information.

In such an environment, everybody recognizes the essence of Information Governance, but how to undertake this massive task is harder to grasp.

Today’s organizations experience explosive growth in the volume and variety of the data they collect, process and store. Unfortunately, many do not understand the types of data they handle and what value it has, which means they cannot use or maintain it properly. As a result, they fail to achieve the success level they would have if they kept proper management over the data.

Organizations can also suffer serious financial, legal and reputational consequences over poor data management. Information Governance helps to avoid a similar fate.

So, what is Information Governance (IG) and what role does it play in today’s business environment? This guide sheds some light on IG – an emerging data management area that focuses on business processes and compliance.

What is Information Governance (IG)?

IG refers to a strategic approach to maximize the value of data and mitigate the risks associated with the creation, use and sharing of enterprise information. It recognizes the information as an organizational asset that requires high-level oversight and coordination to ensure accountability, protection, integrity and appropriate preservation of enterprise information.

IG aims to break down silos and avoid any fragmentation in information management, which ensures that it remains trustworthy and that organizations experience ROI in the processes, technology and people they use to manage information.

Information governance has many formal definitions, but Gartner’s is the most widely accepted. It defines IG as an accountability framework that ensures appropriate behavior in the creation, valuation, use, archiving, deletion and storage of information. It includes the standards and metrics, roles and policies, and the processes required to ensure effective and efficient information use and enable organizations to achieve their goals.

IG processes help manage the use of information records, such as customer information, employee records, medical records and intellectual property. Your company’s IG professionals should work with your leadership and any other stakeholders in the creation of policies that specify how your employees should handle all corporate information assets.

The critical goals of Information Governance include the following:

  • Understanding and promoting the value of data assets
  • Effectively resolving any data-related issues and creating processes that prevent future occurrences
  • Enforcing conformance to standards and policies relating to Information Governance
  • Defining and approving data strategies, standards, policies and associated metrics and procedures
  • Communicating data policies clearly with the relevant people
  • Sponsoring, tracking and overseeing the delivery of data management projects

Information Governance frameworks

To help you clearly define Information Governance goals and processes, you can develop frameworks to outline your organization’s approach formally. The framework outlines and answers who, what, where, when, how and why questions.

You should tailor your framework to fit your organization’s unique needs, but it should define the areas discussed below:

  1. Scope: It establishes the extent of your information governance program including a clear outline of its overall goals, the types of data that the program will manage, and what staff members will help achieve these goals.
  2. Policies and Procedures: The framework defines the overall corporate policies and procedures that are relevant to the IG program as a whole. It includes data security, retention and disposal schedules, records management, information sharing policies and privacy.
  3. Roles and Responsibilities: The framework should define the information governance program’s essential functions, including what IG responsibilities specific departments and employees will have as part of its integration and implementation.
  4. Internal and External Data Management: An IG framework defines how the organization and its employees manage specific data. Relevant sections include legal and regulatory compliance, management of personal information, acceptable content types, how information is shared and how data is stored and archived.

It is also vital to establish how organizations operate and share information with their partners, stakeholders and suppliers. Your framework should define the policies and procedures established for sharing information with third parties, how the Information Governance process influences contractual obligations and how you will determine whether your partners and third parties meet your IG goals.

What's more, your framework should clearly outline procedures in the event of data breaches, including how to report violations and information losses, disaster recovery processes, incident management specifics, business continuity strategies, and how you will audit these disaster recovery and business continuity processes.

Finally, your framework should outline your process of continuous monitoring. Include plans for quality assurance of IG processes such as how you will monitor information access, measure regulatory compliance adherence, conduct risk assessments, maintain adequate security and review the IG program as a whole.

Information Governance vs. data governance

Many people, and organizations, consider IG and data governance as the same thing. Although both are essential for companies to achieve their business objectives, and despite some overlap between them, they are not identical.

Information Governance gets organizations business value from their data assets. It’s the technologies and activities that organizations employ to maximize their information value while minimizing associated costs and risks.

On the other hand, data governance refers to the control of information at business-unit levels to ensure it is accurate and reliable. Its programs involve procedures to manage data usability, availability, integrity and security.

In short, data governance keeps rubbish from getting in, while IG refers to the decisions you make in using data.

Here are some examples of the types of activities involved in both areas to help illustrate the differences.

  • Data governance activities include the management of metadata, data operations, data management, data architecture, data quality and primary data.
  • IG, on the other hand, concerns itself with an organization’s data lifecycle management. It includes activities and processes such as personal information exchange, regulatory compliance audits, records, retention schedule, e-discovery and data privacy protection.

Data governance is the responsibility of IT, but IG has a broader scope. You can use IG to meet business and compliance needs concerning the use and retention of data, which makes it a strategic discipline that plays a significant part in your corporate governance.

Applying IG and data governance together can result in information management practices that help you deliver higher business value.

Why is Information Governance important?

Information is a vital resource in any organization or business. Without it, business operations are not possible. Accordingly, companies make investments in processes, technology and people to ensure that information can support the enterprise.

Due to the significant investments associated with the creation, use, protection and sharing of information, organizations view it as a type of business asset, not unlike the equipment, buildings and financial resources needed to run the business.

Oversight and stewardship of resources or assets is the primary aim of any business governance. What’s more, just like any other asset, the information requires management to ensure that you address its value and associated risks responsibly.

Information Governance provides businesses with a disciplined approach to managing the risks and value associated with information.

Since IG is still an emerging field, numerous questions exist around its role in business processes. However, a properly implemented IG program allows organizations to do the following:

  • Support business needs, priorities and strategic objectives, which vary based on things like organization culture, available resources and the level of stakeholder engagement
  • Avoid data breaches
  • Achieve regulatory compliance and reduce associated risks such as penalties
  • Improve data analytics capabilities
  • Improve the ROI in enterprise business intelligence
  • Build control over outsourced IT and proliferating systems
  • Increase employee awareness about key information policies
  • Reduce the costs of information storage and eDiscovery (document discovery technology)

For example, due to the challenges that the healthcare industry is currently facing, with relation to changes in care, payment models, requirements to partner with others, new customer expectations, technology and increased regulation, Information Governance is now more critical than ever. It is the best way for healthcare and related organizations to ensure that their information is reliable and that they can trust it to meet all their diverse needs.

IG allows you to make decisions driven by the needs of your organization and not technology. It also eliminates accidental decision-makers (people who happen to possess data at a particular point during its cycle) because they tend to make decisions independently of other stakeholder needs.

How to get started

To identify the best place to start your IG initiative, you need to figure out a way to support your organization’s strategic efforts with reliable information and data.

Organizations usually have a mission and vision that guides them along as they conduct business and develop strategies to help achieve their goals. Thus, taking a careful look at those business strategies and goals can supply you a strong hint about where and how to start your IG initiative.

Since you cannot achieve any organizational goal without useful information, the best place to start your IG initiative is identifying a problem (pain point) with information that requires addressing, or even a business opportunity that reduces costs and enhances revenue.

Such strategic alignment means that you should put your IG needs as part of a broader strategy that will help achieve your organizational goals. Your goals can be extensive and varied, such as better management of space (real estate), expanding service offerings through the acquisition and integration of other businesses, creating new customer service protocols or reducing your costs.

Since IG is a set requirement of responsibility and rights to allow the suitable function of various information aspects, the provision of decision rights determines data ownership and who has the right to make decisions about it.

Therefore, by defining owners and decision-makers, you can assign responsibility and accountability to data decisions, which is probably an essential concept to implement when creating your IG policy. Accountability is vital since as data dependence grows, you can make business decisions by default, usually by selecting the easiest path and often in isolation from other considerations.

Key Information Governance areas

You should consider the following key areas when creating your Information Governance policy:

Usage policy: You can contain a lot of security risk using a well-defined usage policy that specifically details who can access data and under what circumstances.

Accountability: You should create a position such as Chief Data Officer or dedicate a department to the creation of standard policies to ensure that someone in your organization is responsible for data-handling policies.

Records Management: Large organizations could store up to 10 petabytes of information annually, which is costly. Using IG, you could save on storage costs by identifying and storing data that has value.

Compliance: Laws, business needs and regulations govern how you keep your information. After that, you should discard it as per an established lifecycle schedule base on legal, regulatory and business requirements.

Education: As with all other company policies, the training of your employees, partners and vendors about your IG program competes the circle.

Technology: A complete IG can also address IT governance. It can provide IT specialists with policies such as the creation of storage hierarchies or obtaining appropriately scaled access schemes.

Benefits of Information Governance

  • Safer and secure data. An effective IG policy allows you to create rules, standards, regulations and responsibilities geared towards keeping data safe and secure.
  • IG increases productivity because it facilitates collaboration through intelligence information sharing.
  • Reduced costs. A clear IG policy allows your organization to save money because it becomes more discerning of what data you store, in what media you store it and for how long. It also reduces wasteful duplication of effort.
  • Efficient data access. IG allows you to access usable and meaningful data easily because it is classified, secured and supported by clear policies.
  • Risk management. Information policies that classify data allow you to scale risk as per the data types, which focuses on high security where it is required.
  • Business intelligence. Efficient and easy access to trending and historical data allows developers and marketers to make better-informed decisions.
  • Lifecycles efficiencies. IG removes data silos, which means you can gain more value from your data at every point in its lifecycle.
  • Regulatory compliance. Without well-classified and easily accessible data, the process of gathering data for regulatory requirements becomes a nightmare.
  • IG dramatically reduces the costs of litigation and discovery. It enables fast and thorough e-Discovery because it allows easy identification and access to only the appropriate information.
  • IG increases business agility due to improved decision-making processes. It outlines how the organization will avail information to business users, which reduces compartmentalization and bureaucracies.
  • Shortened sales cycles increase profitability.
  • Helps companies provide better customer service. IG has set the standard for how you organize, categorize and access information.
  • IG improves employee productivity by providing as few versions of pieces of information or a document as possible, making information easy to store and access.

Information Governance laws and regulations

As corporate data volumes grow and technological innovations continually expand business capabilities, regulations that put strict laws and mandates on the IG process have become the norm. This is true for data security and privacy since personally identifiable information (PIN) has recently become a massive target for nefarious online actors and hackers.

Privacy laws have started expanding globally, creating new information security governance obligations. Many industries have become subject to regulations requiring the retention of electronic communications and records for a minimum period. These regulations include directives from federal agencies such as the Department of Justice and Environmental Protection Agency or the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Regulatory reporting requirements also mandate organizations to provide a detailed annual account of compliance. A sound business records management process provides evidence to demonstrate compliance.

What’s more, compliance rules such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, require organizations to attest the authenticity of their IG programs and records.

There exist numerous industry and government requirements related to data security, records management and data retention that can affect your IG strategy. Below are some of the essential laws that all organizations operating in the USA need to know.

  • Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX): It’s a critical regulation that applies to all public companies. SOX standardizes record management practices without exception. It requires the implementation of controls over risk mitigation process and corporate financial records. It also stipulates that companies must keep business records for at least five years.
  • Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA): It applies to healthcare providers as well as health information organizations and other covered business associate and entities that store, manage and transmit protected health information.
  • The Federal Records Act (44 USC 31) and related statutes: Require federal agencies to create complete records that document all their activities. They should also file records for safe storage practices, efficient retrieval and proper disposal.
  • The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA): It requires financial institutions to protect their customers’ non-public personal information. They must store financial records securely until they are no longer needed, then they must destroy them to ensure that nobody can access them.
  • Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA)
  • Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI-DSS)
  • Federal Rules of Civil Procedure

Measuring Information Governance progress

Assessment tools such as the IG Maturity Model and the IG Reference Model help companies measure the progress of their Information Governance progress. The IG Reference Model provides corporations, industry associations, analyst firms and other interested parties a tool that allows them to communicate to and with stakeholders concerning processes, practices and responsibilities of their IG program.

On the other hand, the IG Maturity Model is based on ARMA’s eight Generally Accepted Recordkeeping Principles. The maturity model defines the characteristics of various recordkeeping program levels that range from substandard to transformational IG. The goal of organizations is to reach the top transformational level where IG strategies are integrated into the overall corporate infrastructure or business processes to help boost cost containment, client services and competitive advantage.


IG is a set requirement of responsibility and rights to allow the suitable function of various aspects of information that include creation, valuation, use, storage, deletion and archiving. To use data effectively, IG includes policies, purposes, processes and standards that help organizations achieve their goals.

Information Governance brings organizations significant benefit and value, especially as their data collection and stores grow and regulatory oversight increases. The development and implementation of a sound IG strategy help organizations ensure data availability, control costs, mitigate cyber risks and meet regulatory challenges. Get started today before your organization suffers a security breach, faces a lawsuit, fails an audit or suffers reputational damage.

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Wed, 12 Aug 2020 01:52:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.veritas.com/information-center/what-is-information-governance
Killexams : Heilala Vanilla becomes the first vanilla company globally to be awarded B Corp Certification

Heilala Vanilla, New Zealand’s leading grower, producer and manufacturer of premium vanilla products for baking, today announced that it has been certified as aB Corporation.

This milestone underscores the brand's commitment to sustainability, transparency, and accountability, with Heilala being the first vanilla company in the world to receive this prestigious certification, finishing the process with an impressive 104.7 points.

B Corp Certification further demonstrates the company’s purpose-led mission by becoming the latest Kiwi company to be recognised for demonstrating its commitment to making the world a better place.

The company’s purpose is to empower and Improve the livelihoods of agricultural communities in Tonga. This purpose is incredibly important to the Heilala business and acts as the company’s ‘north star’.

"Since day one, we've had a mission to be ‘the good vanilla’, from how we source our beans, to the way we communicate with our team and customers, and how we're improving futures within our grower communities," says Jennifer Boggiss, Heilala Vanilla CEO. "We are immensely proud to have achieved this certification, however,we see this as just part of our journey to achieving our goals across our team, ourTongan community and the environment," concludes Boggiss.

B Corp is a global movement of companies that have made it their mission to do business responsibly, balancing the interest of people, profit and purpose. It ensures all company decisions create a positive impact on its teams, clients, suppliers, community and the environment. Heilala already had in place several measures required for B Corp certification such as independent governance, a shareholder's agreement that is aligned around purpose, a globally unique zero-waste process that has recently been registered as a patent, living wage employer with a very diverse team across Tauranga and Tonga, and impact projects in Tonga spanning over the last decade.

The certification shines a light on every aspect of the company and is based on five pillars; Governance, Workers, Community, Environment and Customers. The below descriptions outline how Heilala Vanilla meets each of its targets:


Heilala has always paid their Tongan growers above market price as they are focused on building an industry of vanilla excellence in Tonga, supporting not only growers with training but also the wider grower communities with many Impact projects from education (classrooms supplies, sporting equipment, support for school fees), through to emergency crisis support. The exact January 15 natural disaster saw Heilala Vanilla raise more than $180,000 through its Foundation to support communities in Tonga.

From April 1, 2022, five cents from the purchase of every Heilala Vanilla product will be donated to the Heilala Vanilla Foundation, delivering sustainable projects in agriculture and education to empower Tongan families and rural communities.Governance The company’s purpose of empowering Tongan rural communities is embedded in its shareholder's agreement and all stakeholders are aligned around being a purpose-driven business. It has independent directors and diversity on its Board of Directors with more than 50 per cent being women.


An engagement score of over 90 per cent- A Living Wage employer in both NZ and TongaA very diverse and loyal team- Providing employment within Tongan communities with a particular focus onWomen


Outside of the unique zero waste process, Heilala recognises there is a continual piece of work to reduce the impact of its packaging on the environment alongside working towards a goal of being carbon neutral by 2025.


Heilala holds itself to the highest third-party auditing and certification standards and has recently been awarded AA rating in the BRC food safety audit, a globally recognised certification. The customer pillar also measures customer engagement, satisfaction, and ethical marketing practices.The B Corp assessment and verification process measures a company’s entire performance, from supply chains to community work to employee benefits. It is widely considered to be the gold standard of environmental and social certification, ensuring customers and stakeholders have confidence in a company’s impact story and purpose-led initiatives.

Tue, 26 Jul 2022 12:17:00 -0500 en text/html http://www.voxy.co.nz/business/5/405203
Killexams : Rinker achieves board certification in advanced diabetes management

Tue, 02 Aug 2022 16:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.themountaineer.com/briefs/rinker-achieves-board-certification-in-advanced-diabetes-management/article_73568e7c-1036-11ed-89fa-0340ad444a88.html Killexams : A Guide to Global Investment Performance Standards

Many investment management firms tout that they are GIPS compliant. So what is GIPS, and why would a firm voluntarily choose to comply with the GIPS standards? These are some of the questions we'll answer in this brief overview of the Global Investment Performance Standards (GIPS) that are promulgated by the Investment Performance Council of the CFA Institute.

Key Takeaways

  • The Global Investment Performance Standards (GIPS) are a set of voluntary ethical standards developed by the CFA Institute and used by investment management firms around the world.
  • Firms that are GIPS compliant ensure they fully disclose and fairly represent their investment performance to potential and existing clients.
  • Investors benefit from the consistent and transparent performance reporting promoted by GIPS because it enables them to easily compare the past performance of asset managers and make more informed investing decisions.

Brief History of Global Investment Performance Standards (GIPS)

GIPS are ethical standards that apply to the way investment performance is presented to potential and existing clients. The predecessors to GIPS were the Association for Investment Management and Research-Performance Presentation Standards (AIMR-PPS). The original AIMR-PPS handbook was published in 1993, but these ethical standards were not as global in their scope as the current GIPS.

In 1995, AIMR formed a GIPS committee to work on developing global standards, and by 1999, the first edition of GIPS had been published. At this time, the CFA Institute (then known as the Association for Investment Management and Research) also established the Investment Performance Council (IPC) to further develop the standards.

By 2005, the CFA Institute had approved the new edition of GIPS and moved toward the convergence of the PPS and GIPS with an official effective date of Jan. 1, 2006. As of this date, the AIMR-PPS ceased to exist, and AIMR-compliant firms were encouraged to become GIPS compliant.

Why Move to a Global Standard?

The investment management industry is becoming more global. Many asset managers not only compete for business in their home markets but in foreign markets as well. The North American and Western European markets are very well developed, but other markets are catching up and becoming more sophisticated as well. For investment firms outside the U.S. or European Union, being GIPS compliant can provide legitimacy and supply investors confidence that the firm strives to meet the highest standards.

Being GIPS compliant can actually make things easier for firms that are trying to compete in multiple markets because they only have to abide by one set of standards and they can avoid having to make major changes in their presentation or calculation methods when working in other countries. In other words, GIPS fills a need for standardization across a far-flung industry.

Steps to GIPS Compliance

GIPS are standards, not laws. Firms do not have to be GIPS compliant. Furthermore, these standards are not codified into U.S. securities law. However, although they are voluntary, they provide discipline to the calculation and confidence in the performance represented.

Before performance is calculated and presented, there is some groundwork for the firm to do. The first thing a firm must do is actually define the firm. This may sound very obvious, but there might be legitimate reasons that a subsidiary would be excluded from a firm definition.

The next step involves a firm's composites. One of the most important things a firm can do is to define its composites in a logical and meaningful way. GIPS requires that all of a firm's discretionary, fee-paying portfolios be included in at least one composite. The GIPS Handbook defines a composite as, "an aggregation of one or more portfolios into a single group that represents a particular investment objective or strategy"—think "emerging market equity" or "global fixed-income."

The provisions of the standards cover several other items including calculation, as well as presentations and disclosures. For example, time-weighted (as opposed to money-weighted) rates of return are required. Some firms probably feel as though the largest part of their performance presentations are the GIPS required disclosures, as firms are required to disclose many items including a definition of the firm, whether performance is net of fees or gross of fees, and what additional information must be disclosed upon request.

As of May 2020, over 1,700 organizations around the world claim compliance with the GIPS standards.

Fair Representation of Historical Performance

One of the stated objectives of GIPS deals with ensuring accurate and consistent investment performance. The standards require firms to initially show a minimum of five years of GIPS compliant history.

After this minimum, the firm must build up to a track record of 10 years. If the composite has been in existence for fewer than five years, the firm must show its entire history since inception. Because investors should always be wary of firms that show only the best years of their performance, this requirement should be able to stop the practice of "cherry picking."

For example, an investment may look great if a firm only shows the last two years of performance, in which the investment experienced positive returns. However, suppose that the three years prior to this, the investment experienced negative returns. If the firm did not reveal the investment's earlier performance, investors would get a completely different impression of the firm's asset-management abilities. Having a consistent standard helps investors make more informed choices and may increase their confidence in the investment management industry.

It may also encourage firms from developed markets to be more comfortable dealing with firms from emerging markets that are GIPS compliant. When all firms follow the same standards, regardless of the region of investments, cross-investments and partnerships can be made easier.

Why Firms Choose to Be GIPS Compliant

It may seem that with all of the extra work involved, it would be a hassle for a firm to be GIPS compliant. However, because the GIPS standards have become so widely accepted, an institutional asset manager who is non-compliant may be at a competitive disadvantage. In the U.S., many investment consultants will not even consider a firm's investments for their institutional clients if it is not GIPS compliant. GIPS compliance also helps firms compete internationally.


Firms that claim compliance with GIPS can be independently Checked by a third party. Verification is voluntary at this point, but many firms choose to be Checked to help identify gaps in procedures and to supply clients peace of mind. There are firms that specialize in this type of verification and performance measurement consulting. Once a firm has been verified, it may add a disclosure stating such in its GIPS-compliant marketing materials.

The Bottom Line

An investment management firm's clients or prospective clients can benefit from GIPS standards because they provide standards for investment performance, making it easier for investors to compare firms and make more informed decisions. The GIPS Handbook on the CFA website outlines more specifics of these standards.

Fri, 01 Apr 2022 05:56:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.investopedia.com/articles/07/gips.asp
Killexams : A Handgun for Christmas

Photo: Oakland County Sheriff’s Office via Getty Images

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On the Saturday after Thanksgiving in 2021, Jennifer Crumbley pushed through the glass door at the Accurate Range. Jennifer, who goes by “Jehn,” appeared self-assured — a tall 43-year-old mother in jeans and a nubbly sweater coat. In her left hand, she carried a black case that held the SIG Sauer 9-mm. semi-automatic pistol her husband, James, had purchased at a gun shop near their home in Oxford, Michigan, the previous day.

The Crumbleys’ 15-year-old son, Ethan, had come along. He stood awkwardly by, glancing distractedly at the semi-automatic rifles for rent on the wall. After consulting with him, Jehn paid cash for half an hour of range time, 100 rounds of 9-mm. ammunition, and two paper targets.

It’s not unusual to see kids at the Accurate Range, which markets itself as a family place. Situated in a shedlike building next to a software firm and across the street from a Taco Bell, the range resembles a suburban bowling alley down to its crowded parking lot and the flashing green-and-red OPEN sign in the front window. Accurate has a party space, and it promotes seniors mornings with free coffee and doughnuts and Mother’s Day with free gun rentals and snacks. It co-sponsors church dinners, and when it exhibits its wares at gun shows, it advertises “kid-friendly outdoor activities, raffles/door prizes, and beautiful wildlife displays.” Under federal law, it is illegal for a minor to own a handgun, but the same law includes an exemption for target practice. The Crumbleys had sometimes gone to the range during the pandemic. A signed waiver for Ethan was already on file.

Ethan faced the long, narrow gallery first. He stepped slightly back from the small metal counter, lifted the pistol, and, turning it over, discovered how to click in the magazine. He aimed and fired, pausing and then, as he became accustomed to the motion, firing 14 times in quick succession. Jehn, behind him, waited for him to finish. The CCTV camera shows her jiggling her foot, which she frequently did later in court, in chains.

When Jehn took her turn, she approached the counter and Ethan showed her how to load the gun and flip the safety. After a couple of rounds, she called him over, and like a golf instructor, he rearranged the fingers of her left hand on the grip of the gun. She fired again, and when she was done, Ethan gently placed the pistol and the magazine back into the padded case. Then Jehn carried the case through the lobby and out to the parking lot. At around 7 p.m., Jehn posted a photo on Instagram. It showed a paper target riddled with holes. “Mom & son day testing out his new Xmas present. My first time shooting a 9mm I hit the bullseye.” She also posted a photo of the family’s Christmas tree, still untrimmed.

November 27, 2021: Ethan and Jehn at the gun range. Photo: submitted in evidence from Michigan

Three days later, on Tuesday, November 30, while Jehn was at the office and James was out making DoorDash deliveries, Ethan, a sophomore at Oxford High School, went into the boys’ bathroom between classes. He allegedly took the SIG Sauer out of his backpack and walked down the long, curved hallway, shooting at his schoolmates. He has been charged as an adult in Michigan with the deaths of Madisyn Baldwin, Hana St. Juliana, Tate Myre, and Justin Shilling. The 24 felony counts against him include first-degree murder, assault with intent to murder, possession of a firearm, and terrorism. Michigan does not have a death penalty, and his trial will not begin until January at the earliest, but Ethan Crumbley can expect to spend his whole life incarcerated.

What took place at Oxford High School is a horror tale, agonizing in its particulars and familiar in its outlines. But then the Oakland County prosecutor, Karen McDonald, did something extraordinary. A former teacher and a mother of five, she stood up at a press conference three days after the shooting and, looking stricken but determined, announced she would be charging the shooter’s parents as well. James and Jennifer Crumbley face four counts each of involuntary manslaughter, charges that carry a maximum penalty of 15 years. In a prosecutor’s brief, McDonald wrote that criminal charges have never been brought against the parents of a school shooter before. But she was compelled, she said: “I am angry. I’m angry as a mother. I’m angry as the prosecutor. I’m angry as a person that lives in this county.” McDonald appeared incredulous that any parents could be so reckless as to buy a gun and tell their teenager — who was sad, isolated, and obsessed with firearms and violent video games — that it belonged to him.

Not everyone who works in the Oakland County prosecutor’s office thought McDonald was taking a prudent course. In general, prosecutors don’t accept cases they aren’t confident they can win. And McDonald, a popular Democrat in a politically mixed county, would have known she was entering a morass. Oxford is gun country, and no one in town wanted to frame the shooting as a gun problem. In Oxford, kindergartners get BB guns as gifts, and high-schoolers post selfies with their guns and hunting trophies on Instagram. Elissa Slotkin, the Democratic congresswoman from the district, spent childhood summers on a farm nearby, where her father kept more than a dozen guns in his office, all unlocked. Since the shooting, it’s not uncommon to see a pickup truck bearing two bumper stickers: one with an assault rifle and a 2A slogan, the other with OXFORD STRONG, the post-shooting mantra of the town.

The Crumbleys owned three handguns, including the new pistol, and in a letter she wrote to Donald Trump congratulating him on his win in 2016, Jehn thanked him for supporting her right to bear arms. Michigan is an open-carry state, and concealed-carry permits are easy to obtain. (The Accurate Range offers certification courses on Saturdays and Sundays.) There are no safe-storage laws in Michigan, meaning that even if the Crumbleys did have the SIG Sauer unlocked on the night before the shooting, they wouldn’t have been committing a crime. McDonald regards the gun laws in Michigan as “woefully inadequate,” as she said at the press conference, but she didn’t press the point.

Instead, McDonald declared she would prove, beyond a reasonable doubt, that Jennifer and James Crumbley had grossly neglected their parental duty by not averting the obvious danger their son presented — and so were directly responsible for the deaths of four teenagers, the injuries of seven, and the trauma of the town. The parents’ trial is scheduled to begin on October 24, and based on preliminary court filings, the evidence before the jury will be a catalogue of an American family’s everyday life: text threads about chores, vacations, whereabouts, and homework; selfies, cell-phone videos, and social-media posts; school communications and unpaid bills; phone records and voice-mails. McDonald will say all the evidence adds up to a picture of parents so inattentive and irresponsible that they failed to heed Ethan’s cries for help and instead gave him a gun. Shannon Smith and Mariell Lehman, the lawyers for Jennifer and James, respectively, will say that the Crumbleys may not be perfect people but that there’s no legal mechanism to convict them of a crime based on what they didn’t know about their son. The outcome will depend on a jury’s determination of where these parents’ responsibilities end and how much they should have been expected to see.

November 27, 2021: Ethan and Jehn testing out the new sig Sauer 9-mm. pistol. Photo: submitted in evidence from Michigan

After the shooting, James and Jennifer went to the local police station, where they were interviewed. James started making calls to lawyers; Jehn begged her boss to let her keep her job. “I’m bawling right now,” Jehn texted a friend that night. “My son ruined so many lives today.” Then they fled their home on East Street — now a crime scene — for a hotel. The Crumbleys did not feel safe, their lawyers said later, with the press camped out and death threats swamping their phones. Upon learning that they were also to be charged, they holed up in an artist’s studio in a Detroit warehouse belonging to one of Jehn’s acquaintances and stopped responding to phone calls. At around 1:30 a.m. on the Saturday after the press conference, police found them there. Prosecutors say they had four burner phones (one they’d tried to destroy), four gift cards, ten credit cards, and $6,600 in cash. They had cleaned out Ethan’s bank account. According to a prosecutor’s motion, Jehn told a friend that “her son’s destiny is done and she has to take care of herself.”

Over two days in February, a preliminary examination was conducted at the Oakland County courthouse to establish the prosecutor’s right to move forward with the criminal trial. (The reporting in this story includes public testimony and documentation from those hearings, as well as other court filings and testimony. On June 27, Judge Cheryl Matthews issued a gag order preventing attorneys on both sides from speaking to the press. Neither the prosecution nor the defense were able to comment.) In Oxford, residents closely followed these proceedings and every motion and court appearance since. It’s a small town, nearly everyone I spoke to knows at least one of the victims or their family, and the fury directed at the Crumbleys is palpable. “I blame the parents completely,” Rosemary Bayer, the Democratic state senator from the district, told me. “I’m not a doctor. I’m not a psychologist. But it’s never the kid’s fault.” Twice, the Crumbleys’ lawyers have asked the court to reduce their bond from $500,000 to $100,000, and twice they’ve been denied. Marisa Prince, who serves lunch at Oxford schools and employed Hana St. Juliana as her children’s babysitter, believes the Crumbleys are better off in jail. “They’re safer there,” she says. “People are on edge with how mad they are.”

A special antipathy is reserved for Jehn. In town, people speak of her as not maternal, “a ballbuster,” absent at home. On private Facebook pages, Jehn is depicted as “the one pulling the strings, wearing the pants, the mean one,” says Lori Bourgeau, who is on the Oxford Village council. In the public mind, which extends far beyond Oxford, James is seen as the passive, gentle parent and Jehn as a mother who failed to support her son with love or discipline and who, when things started to go wrong, remained blind to her child’s descent. The lawyers for James and Jehn used to be partners, and the question of a conflict of interest has come up repeatedly in court. Buried within that question is another: whether James might testify against his wife and take a plea.

November 27, 2021: Jehn’s Instagram post of the new gun. Photo: submitted in evidence from Michigan

Oxford is a town of 22,000 people, wedged between horse farms to the north and Detroit and its suburbs to the south. Politically speaking, Oxford is pure purple; since the 1990s, it has voted for George W. Bush, Barack Obama, Mitt Romney, then Trump twice — the last time in a squeaker. Oxford High School, the only one in town, is the magnetic force at the center of it all. The social lives of adults and children revolve around the schedules of the varsity sports teams, and during football season, the whole town pours into the school’s stadium, where the field is covered with professional-grade blue turf, an extravagance that required some members of the Wildcats booster club to put up their homes for collateral in case the town couldn’t pay the tab.

Jehn grew up in Clarkston, 14 miles away. In high school, she skied with the junior-varsity team; in her 1996 senior yearbook photo, her face is framed by a bouffant. She had a brash, sarcastic side, as she said in her letter to Trump, which was downloaded from James’s Facebook page and circulated widely after the shooting. That’s why, even though she regarded herself as a feminist, she didn’t mind Trump’s “grab ’em by the pussy” comment: “I say things all the time that people take the wrong way, do I mean them, not always.”

She and James married on the beach in Florida in September 2005. Two years older and tall, tanned, and hazel-eyed, James had grown up around Jacksonville. He was charming — “happy-go-lucky,” according to people who know him, the kind of guy who’s always asking you over for a beer. Florida public records show that James was brought to court for passing bad checks and driving with a suspended license. Jehn, too, has been charged with writing bad checks. They were both found guilty in a 2005 DUI.

Ethan was born in 2006, and when he was in elementary school, the Crumbleys moved to Oxford. Their house was not the best house on East Street but not the worst one, either. It was one story with three bedrooms, a sunny kitchen, a carport, and a shed out back. Over time, the Crumbleys adopted a menagerie: Tank, a Great Pyrenees; Harley, a wolfish white rescue dog; Stella, Jehn’s cat; and Dexter, Ethan’s cat. For a while, Ethan kept a chinchilla, too.

The Crumbleys were different from most of the other families on East Street in a way that sometimes raised eyebrows. In the summer, they liked to light firecrackers in their yard, even though the noise terrified Tank so much that he would run down to a neighbor’s house to hide there. James was around the house a lot, often grilling out by the carport. He was “superfriendly. He was always high,” this neighbor says. (Police say that photos taken of the house after November 30 show evidence of marijuana having been grown in the cellar.) Jehn, the neighbor said, was almost never home. Upon resettling in Michigan, she had gotten her real-estate license and then a job as the social-media assistant at a real-estate company in Bloomfield Township. Over the next five years, while James cycled through gigs, Jehn became the family’s main earner, working her way up to marketing director. She was good at her job, “professional,” her boss testified at the preliminary examination.

From left: December 3, 2021: The Crumbley house. Photo: JEFF KOWALSKY/AFP via Getty ImagesNovember 30, 2021: A police photo of Ethan’s room. Photo: submitted in evidence from Michigan

From top: December 3, 2021: The Crumbley house. Photo: JEFF KOWALSKY/AFP via Getty ImagesNovember 30, 2021: A police photo of Ethan’s room. Photo: sub... From top: December 3, 2021: The Crumbley house. Photo: JEFF KOWALSKY/AFP via Getty ImagesNovember 30, 2021: A police photo of Ethan’s room. Photo: submitted in evidence from Michigan

The Crumbleys were not part of the OHS social life; no one could recall ever seeing any of them at a football game. “These people didn’t do that,” says Mike Aldred, a father of one of the players who was a friend of Tate Myre’s. “No one would notice the family if they dropped into a restaurant because they weren’t connected to the community.” Instead, Jehn took riding lessons at the horse farms in the countryside near Oxford and eventually bought two horses — first Shorty, then Billy. She also made friends as a volunteer on the ski patrol at Pine Knob, the tiny resort where she had skied as a kid, and on Wednesday nights, she and James played euchre at a brewpub in town. On weekends, the Crumbleys occasionally went camping, their kayaks strapped to the roof of their car.

Still, their lives in Oxford seemed to be teetering. James had two children back in Florida, and he and Jehn were often embroiled in long-distance combat over child support with the mother of his other son. When they went on weekend trips, Jehn would sometimes ask the neighbor to care for their pets; the neighbor says she would find their house in a mess: garbage stacked up against the side of the shed, the bedrooms the way “I would imagine a frat house at the end of the semester.” The interior had a stench. “The dogs would piddle on the floor in the same spot,” the neighbor says, but “Jehn laughed it off.”

Ethan mostly kept to himself, but when this neighbor passed him on the street, he always looked her in the eye and gave her a friendly wave. Not many people seemed to know him at school; those who did called him quiet and “relatively nice,” said Madeline Johnson, who was Madisyn Baldwin’s best friend.

March 17, 2021: Jehn with one of her horses. Photo: submitted in evidence from Michigan

By the early months of 2021, family life on East Street had grown tense. During the 2020–21 school year, classrooms were open, but the schedule was unpredictable: Kids and teachers were frequently out sick. Seven weeks of school that year were virtual, a reality Ethan found “incredibly difficult,” according to his guidance counselor’s court testimony. He was spending a lot of time alone in his room.

During the pandemic, James had lost a telemarketing job and begun driving for DoorDash. The couple were behind on house payments. Jehn and James would fight in the backyard, yelling so loudly that passersby could hear. Later, in court, a co-worker said Jehn’s phone arguments with James were audible through her closed office door.

James was often home with Ethan, and during the day, Jehn would frequently check in with them, asking about homework, meals, and chores. “I think your dad is sleeping,” Jehn wrote to Ethan at lunchtime on March 6.

It was around then, a little before his 15th birthday, that Ethan started to send his mother a series of texts that will be produced as evidence at trial. In the texts, Ethan said he was hearing things. Imaginary presences felt real to him. He sounded lonely and afraid. “Can you get home now?” he wrote on March 9. “There is someone in the house I think. Someone walked into the bathroom and flushed the toilet and left the light on. And I thought it was you but when I came out no one was home. There is no one in the house tho. Dude my door just slammed. Maybe it’s just my perinoa [sic]. But when are you going to get home.”

March 9, 2021: A text from Ethan to his mother describing what appear to be hallucinations. Photo: submitted in evidence from Michigan

About a week later, he seemed to be hallucinating. “Ok the house is now haunted,” he wrote. “Some weird shit just happened and now I’m scared.” And then: “I got some videos. And a picture of the demon. It is throwing BOWLS. I am not joking it fucked up the kitchen. I am just going to be outside for a while.” And finally, “can you at least text back?” If Jehn responded to him either of these times, she did not do so by text or phone.

The next day, Ethan had a meltdown. He was “really worked up and out of control,” Jehn texted James later. She gave him something to help him sleep — either melatonin or Xanax — and he fell asleep in his parents’ bed, waking up with a headache and wondering why he wasn’t in his own room.

Jehn texted James the next morning.

“You awake? Ethan awake?” she wrote just after 9:30 a.m.

“Um yeah,” he wrote. They went back and forth before Jehn decided what to do. Ethan needed to eat, work hard, and not complain, she said. On the thread, James is silent, so Jehn prods him again. “You respond and I didn’t get it?” Jehn writes.

“Jesus,” James responds.

At the preliminary examination in February, McDonald introduced the texts from Ethan to Jehn to show that the mother knew of her son’s distress yet did not take him to a doctor. Jehn had health insurance through her work, but neither James nor Ethan was on her plan. Jehn’s attorney, Shannon Smith, pointed out that it’s hard to know what a handful of texts among thousands means.

Ethan had one close friend, and in the spring of 2021, he started telling the friend by text how awful he felt. He got 17 hours of sleep over five days, he said. He was laughing and crying in the shower. He had tried to talk to his parents, but they wouldn’t listen, Ethan said.

On April 5, Ethan told his friend by text that he was thinking about calling 911 on himself but was afraid his parents would be “really pissed.” He thought he was having a mental breakdown.

“I am going to ask my parents to go to the doctor’s tomorrow or Tuesday again,” Ethan wrote. When he tried to talk to his parents before, his father had given him some medicine and told him to “suck it up,” and his mother laughed. “She makes everyone feel like shit,” he wrote.

“But this time I am going to tell them about the voices. I only told them about the people I saw.”

“Ok,” the friend wrote back.

“I also have a weird rash growing on my chest. It’s not COVID cause I got a test.”

“Hopefully they can help you man,” the friend wrote.

“Like I am mentally and physically dying,” wrote Ethan.

McDonald, the county prosecutor, is building her manslaughter case by showing that the Crumbleys failed to exercise what in the law is known as “ordinary care.” Also known as “reasonable” or “due” care, ordinary care is usually applied in civil lawsuits to prove negligence, as when a supermarket owner fails to shovel the icy walk in front of the store and is held liable when a customer slips and breaks a leg. The law understands that an ordinary person would take care to shovel the icy walks to avert such foreseeable incidents, so the negligent supermarket owner must pay a court-ordered fine. Negligence is not, generally speaking, a crime.

Occasionally, though, a prosecutor will use “gross negligence” to support a homicide charge, as when a doctor prescribes a drug to which they know a patient is allergic, or a driver texts and speeds, or a parent leaves a baby locked in a hot parked car. In these cases, a prosecutor will use words like wanton and — as McDonald does frequently — egregious to indicate an extraordinary, criminal level of negligence. Manslaughter is murder without intent or malice.

April 5, 2021: A text exchange between Ethan and his friend. Photo: submitted in evidence from Michigan

McDonald once said she “instinctually knew” she would prosecute the Crumbleys, and she has since turned herself into a fierce ally of the families of the victims. She has made the case her priority; according to Lori Borgeau, in one conversation, McDonald said “she doesn’t really care where her future goes, politically.” In Oxford, support for her is nearly universal. The course of gun restrictions is divisive, but even loyal gun owners can get behind the notion that the abandonment of personal responsibility should be punished. “Speaking as a Michigander and lifelong gun owner, responsible gun ownership requires the mental awareness to lock and secure your firearms,” says Mike Aldred. In the case of the Crumbleys, the gun “wasn’t secured. There wasn’t a care in the world. We’ve lost four babies because of it.”

Gross negligence is not a subjective charge, and a jury can’t convict the Crumbleys because it finds them abhorrent or insufficiently parental. To convict someone of manslaughter through gross negligence, a prosecutor in Michigan must prove that the defendant knew of a potentially dangerous situation, that they could have averted harm through ordinary care, and that the disastrous harm to others presented by the circumstances would have been apparent to an ordinary mind — what the attorneys call “foreseeability.”

McDonald is relying on limited precedent. In Oakland County, children regularly die of gunshots owing to the carelessness of their parents, according to Bayer, the state senator, and those parents are almost never charged with crimes. But there are exceptions, notably the 2016 case of People v. Head, in which a Detroit man left a loaded shotgun in the closet of a bedroom where his two kids decided to act out a violent video game, resulting in the death of his 9-year-old son. Head was found guilty because he knew the gun was within reach of his unsupervised children, he could have easily intervened by separating the ammunition from the gun or preventing them from accessing it, and any ordinary person could foresee that children playing with a loaded gun could result in grievous harm. The verdict was upheld on appeal.

In the Crumbley case, this kind of direct effect is more difficult to establish. The shooting was no accident, and the shooter was not a young child but an adolescent, capable of deceiving his parents. And to prove foreseeability, McDonald has to show that the Crumbleys, had they exercised “ordinary care,” would have discerned that their son could endanger lives. This is challenging, says Eve Primus, a professor at the University of Michigan School of Law. “Lots of parents have children who are troubled at various points,” she says. “What is the line where you should know that something like this would happen? What is the line between not-great parenting and criminal?”

James and Jennifer each face the same charges, but at the preliminary exam in February, McDonald emphasized Jehn’s role. In particular, she focused on the care and attention Jehn paid to her horses as proof that she prioritized her own pleasure to the detriment of her son and the safety of the community. McDonald showed that, during the months that Ethan was spiraling, Jehn went to the horse barn after work several days a week. James frequently came along while Ethan stayed home, testified Kira Pennock, who owns the barn where the Crumbleys boarded their horses and was friendly with them. Jehn knew that Ethan was “weird,” Pennock said, and that “he wasn’t out doing things like a normal kid.” Jehn had told her that “he only had one friend and that he spent a lot of time online or playing games, but he just seemed to keep to himself.”

To amplify the portrait of Jehn’s selfishness, McDonald showed that, in the year leading up to the shooting, Jehn had romantic distractions as well. Sometime in the spring or summer of 2021, Jehn and James had agreed to separate, though neither moved out of their East Street home. Jehn confided in her co-worker Amanda Holland that she had met a man whom she would see during the day, telling colleagues she was out doing errands.

“She said this person would pick her up and they would go across the street from our office,” Holland said in court.

“To where?” McDonald asked.

“Costco,” Holland replied.

“And did she say what they were doing?”

“Not directly, no.”

In the courtroom, Smith, Jehn’s lawyer, swiftly objected to this testimony, citing relevance (she was overruled), and in subsequent motions and court appearances, she and Lehman, James’s lawyer, have tried to divert the court’s attention from the character of the Crumbleys and toward what they knew and what they did. In May, Smith and Lehman submitted a long list of evidence they wished to exclude from the upcoming trial: the marijuana growing in the basement, the numerous half-empty alcohol bottles discovered after the shooting, the messiness of the house, the marital issues, the horses. Alcohol and marijuana are legal in Michigan, the defense argued, and evidence of a messy house “would place the Crumbleys on trial for not being as neat and tidy as some may believe that they should be.” Similarly, Jehn’s alleged affair would prejudice the jury against her unfairly, they argued. And just because Jehn cared for her horses doesn’t mean she didn’t care for her son, they said. The judge acceded to many of the defense’s requests, with several key exceptions. One was the horses. McDonald showed that, during the very hours Ethan was having his two apparently hallucinatory episodes and asking his mother to reply, Jehn was at the barn, taking selfies and photos of her horses. Her lawyer said that cell reception can be spotty there.

In the late spring of 2021, Ethan was torturing and decapitating baby birds. He allegedly did this in secret when his parents weren’t home, making long, grotesque videos with his phone. For at least five months, Ethan kept a bird’s head in a jar in his room, under a sheet.

“Holy shit,” he texted his friend on October 11, “my mom legit almost found the bird head. She pulled away the sheet covering it and it was fully exposed but IDK how the fuck she didn’t see it.” Several weeks before the shooting, he brought the jar to school and left it in a bathroom.

One night in August, Ethan made a video of himself handling his father’s .22-caliber KelTec pistol and sent it to his friend with an invitation to go to the shooting range the following Sunday. The friend apologized and said he wasn’t able to ask his parents. “No hard feelings,” Ethan said. Then, at 12:30 a.m., Ethan sent another video, this time of himself loading the gun and pulling back the safety. The pulse of late-summer crickets is audible, and a cat is sleeping nearby.

“Niiice,” the friend texted. “Now pull the trigger, Jkjkjkjk.”

“My dad left it out, so I thought, ‘why not?’ lol,” Ethan replied. He knows gun safety, he added, so “it’s no problem.” This was met with silence, and Ethan texts again. “Now it’s time to shoot up the school, JKJKJKJKJK.”

August 20, 2021: Ethan’s text to his friend describing playing with his dad’s gun. Photo: submitted in evidence from Michigan

That fall, Jehn and James had reconciled. According to their lawyers, neither of them knew anything about these texts. But Jehn told friends that she was worried about Ethan, according to interviews and court testimony. His grandmother in Florida had died earlier that year and then Tank, one of the family dogs, had died. Ethan was taking the losses hard.

Around Halloween, Ethan’s friend was admitted to a treatment facility and the correspondence between them ceased. Ethan began spending hours on a website devoted to killings and school shootings. During the month of November, he went to the website 421 times. He also kept a journal, 21 pages of writing and drawing in a black notebook. “I have fully mentally lost it after years of fighting with my dark side,” Ethan wrote. “My parents won’t listen to me about help or a therapist.” His father knew about the journal and encouraged him to express his feelings in it. But according to the Crumbleys’ lawyers, neither parent ever looked at it, nor did they check his phone for videos, photos, or text messages or look at his browser history.

The legal dispute between the defense and the prosecution boils down to this: Should the Crumbleys be judged for what they knew, or for what they should have known? At trial, Smith and Lehman will likely argue that a jury can’t convict the Crumbleys for not having information that their son was going to murder classmates at school. And McDonald will say that any other parents would have known and intervened. Ethan had three Instagram accounts, and his parents followed one of them, but it seems not to have aroused their concern. He was posting images of deformed faces, with protruding jaws or blank eyes, contorted with glee.

Aug. 20, 2021: A video still of Ethan playing with one of the other guns in the house. Photo: submitted in evidence from Michigan

Sue Klebold believes she was a good mother. She knew all of her son Dylan’s friends. She did not allow guns in the house. She prided herself on being the type of mother who “got up in the middle of the night to talk to him when he came home from the prom.” On April 20, 1999, Dylan Klebold and his friend Eric Harris murdered 12 classmates and one teacher at Columbine High School before killing themselves. In 2016, Klebold published A Mother’s Reckoning, in which she describes her experiences living with Dylan during the last years of his life: his withdrawal, his irritation in the company of others, his annoyance at being asked to feed the cats, a meeting with his English teacher over a disturbing school paper. None of these things was sufficiently alarming on its own to propel her to act differently.

According to Klebold, all parents invest deeply in the illusion that their kids are “fine.” When they’re forced to consider that may not be true, an intellectual revolt occurs. In a 2015 report called “Making Prevention a Reality: Identifying, Assessing, and Managing the Threat of Targeted Attacks,” the FBI demonstrates that parents are among the least proactive identifiers of potential violent mass killers. Suspicious of interventions from outsiders and anxious about disapproval or punishment, parents fail to see red flags or minimize them. “As parents, we can’t know everything our children are thinking and planning. If someone is determined to hurt someone, they will hide it from us,” Klebold told me. The Sandy Hook shooter murdered his mother in her bed before going on to kill 26 people at Sandy Hook Elementary School. “She slept with her bedroom door unlocked, and she kept guns in the house, which she would not have done if she were frightened,” her ex-husband once said. Among kids who have thoughts of suicide, 50 percent of their parents have no idea.

Parenthood is the most ordinary of human occupations, but the idea of an “ordinary family” is artifice, an ad hoc collection of societal norms. From birth, a child is meeting or not meeting standards — height, weight, fever lines on a graph, with dire or possibly not dire consequences — and it goes on from there: grades, friends, mood changes, body changes. Sometimes a kid is just underweight, and sometimes he needs to see a doctor. Sometimes a bad fight is just a bad fight, and sometimes it’s a precipitating event. As Klebold points out, not even good-enough parents can always see their children clearly.

In Oxford, countless people I spoke to framed the events leading up to November 30 as “a mental-health story”: kids falling apart in a desert of care, the same as everywhere else in the country, but in some ways worse. Even before the pandemic, administrators in Oxford schools had started to notice more fragility, anxiety, depression, and withdrawal among students. In the late 1990s, the Republican governor John Engler had closed three-quarters of Michigan’s psychiatric hospitals in a cost-cutting spree, leaving rural areas barren of psychiatric inpatient treatment for kids. There was some outpatient help available, but many families didn’t know where to find it “unless they were very savvy,” one administrator told me. When they did, wait times averaged four months. This backlog strained emergency rooms. “Every time a kid said, ‘If I don’t get an A on this spelling test, I’m going to kill myself or kill you’ or something,” she was sent to the ER, says Sheila Marcus, a psychiatrist at the University of Michigan who runs a program that trains primary-care doctors in mental health. Ninety percent of the time, these kids were deemed “not a threat” and sent back to school.

At school, mental-health support was far from robust. Shawn Hopkins, Ethan’s guidance counselor, testified in court that he was one of four counselors at the high school looking after the needs of 1,800 kids. This gave him time to see each student for ten minutes once a year, barring crises. He was performing one or two suicide-risk assessments each month. Meanwhile, among certain parents, a mistrust of educators, institutions, and authority figures was growing — a stubborn sense of “You’re not going to tell me what to do with my kid,” as Rosemary Bayer put it.

During the pandemic, suicidality among kids in Michigan rose substantially, according to Marcus, and doctors were feeling panicked. They’d call her and say, “I have many patients who have guns in their home, who are depressed, who may be suicidal.” At OHS, guidance counselors were getting regularly pulled away to cover classrooms when teachers were sick, Hopkins testified. It was often impossible for teachers to assess kids’ well-being over Zoom. “We had eyes on the kids,” said Anita Qonja-Collins, the assistant superintendent of elementary instruction in Oxford, “but did we really have eyes on the kids?”

November 26, 2021: The sales receipt for the SIG Sauer, purchased by James. Photo: submitted in evidence from Michigan

The Friday after Thanksgiving, James went down the road from East Street to Acme Shooting Goods and purchased the 9-mm. for $519.35 using his credit card. Ethan came along and waited while his father ticked a box attesting that he understood it was illegal to buy a gun for someone else and signed a form acknowledging that his new gun came with a safety lock.

The following Monday in English class, Ethan was looking at bullets on his phone. The teacher, alarmed, notified Pam Fine, the high school’s “restorative-practices coordinator,” and Fine called Ethan to her office for a meeting with herself and Hopkins. He didn’t know Ethan very well: They had met once over Zoom for scheduling and once in a hallway after a teacher said Ethan seemed “sad.”

After the meeting with Ethan, Fine left a message on Jehn’s phone. She let her know that she and Hopkins had just had a “really nice” conversation with Ethan, assuring him that “guns are a hobby for a lot of people, and shooting ranges, and that’s perfectly normal,” but that certain hobbies were better pursued at home. “He was great; he was like, ‘Yep, I get it,’ ” Fine said, her voice upbeat. “If you have any questions, you can supply me a call. Otherwise, I hope you have a great holiday.”

Jehn texted Ethan, “Seriously?? Looking up bullets in school??”

“What? Oh yah. I already went to the office for that,” Ethan replied. “Completely harmless. Teachers just have no privacy. They said I’m all good. This is nothing I should get in trouble about.”

“You’re not. They left me a voicemail.” And then, a wisecrack: “Did you at least show them a pic of your new gun?”

“No I didn’t show them the pic my god.” Ethan reiterated that it was harmless. “I guess the teachers can’t get their eyes off my screen smh.”

Jehn wrote, “Lol, I’m not mad you have to learn not to get caught.” She assured Ethan that he could listen to the voice-mail when he got home.

After school, Ethan and his parents had a terrible argument. In his journal, Ethan wrote, “The shooting is tomorrow, I have access to the gun and ammo.” He also addressed his parents: “I love you, Mom. I love you, Dad. I’m sorry for never saying it back.”

Previously, he had written in his journal about how he wanted a 9-mm. to “maximize the number of kills” and how he was “enlisting his own father” to get it for him, the prosecution said in a hearing for Ethan’s trial. After obtaining the gun, Ethan posted a photo of it on Instagram, calling the SIG Sauer “my new beauty.” Sometime that weekend, he also wrote in his journal, “I will have to find where my dad hid my 9-mm. before I can shoot the school.” In the early hours of Monday morning, at around 3 a.m., Jehn was on her phone, searching “research clinical depression treatment options.”

Photo: submitted in evidence from Michigan.

Photo: submitted in evidence from Michigan.

November 30 was a Tuesday, and it looked like snow. Jehn went to work, Ethan to school. The Crumbleys’ horse Billy had a fungus called mud fever, so James drove to the barn to put ointment on its legs. Jehn had plans to look at a property with colleagues and then go to the barn.

At 9:33 a.m., she texted James, “Call NOW. Emergency.” She texted again: “Emergency.” At 9:38, Jehn texted two photos of a math sheet Ethan had been working on that morning. During second period, the geometry teacher had walked past Ethan’s desk, and what she saw caused her such alarm that she took a photo with her phone and brought it to Nicholas Ejak, the dean of students. On his review of congruent triangles, Ethan had drawn a pistol almost exactly like the one his father had just bought. He had drawn a human figure filled with holes and a laughing-crying face. He had written, “The thoughts won’t stop. Help me.” And “Blood everywhere.” And “The world is dead.” By the time Hopkins arrived to pull him out of class, Ethan had scribbled out the gun, the bullet-riddled figure, and the dark phrases. He had written, “OHS Rocks!” And “I love my life so much!!!!” And “We’re all friends here.” And “Harmless act.”

“My god, WTF,” James texted Jehn when he saw the pictures.

“I’m very concerned,” Jehn wrote. She asked him to call her because she was headed to the school.

As Jehn drove, Hopkins and Ethan were having a talk. The geometry teacher wasn’t the only one who raised the alarm that morning. In first-period English, Ethan had been watching shootings on his phone; that teacher had alerted Hopkins as well. In court, Hopkins reported Ethan was compliant and understanding at first, but when asked to talk about drawings on the math sheet, Ethan grew “sad”: “He talked about how a family dog had died. He talked about how he had lost a grandparent, that COVID had been incredibly difficult for him.” Ethan mentioned his friend who wasn’t in school anymore and an argument he’d had the previous night with his parents. Hopkins did a standard suicide-risk assessment, he said. He asked Ethan whether he was a threat to himself or others.

Ethan reassured Hopkins. “I can see why this looks bad,” he responded, according to Hopkins. “I’m not going to do anything.”

In English, he was watching video games, Ethan explained. He hoped to be a video-game designer one day, and the pictures he drew on the math sheet were sketches for a video game. Nevertheless, Hopkins had decided to contact the parents, as “there was enough suicidal ideation to be concerned,” he said later in court. Still, “I did not ask him further questions about a plan.”

James and Jehn arrived together at the high school at about 10:30 and were guided into Hopkins’s office. Hopkins explained that he was worried about suicidality and gave them a list of local mental-health resources. James looked at the math sheet with Ethan, telling him he had them to talk to if he was upset and his journal to write in. Hopkins declared he wanted Ethan seen by a mental-health professional — today, if possible, he said. That’s when Jehn said “no,” according to Hopkins. “Today is not possible. We have to return to work,” she said. So Hopkins said he wanted Ethan seen within 48 hours, and he would be following up. The meeting ended “abruptly,” Hopkins said.

Everyone in Oxford would like to know exactly what went on in that meeting, for when all is said and done, the apportioning of blame and guilt can be found in those 15 minutes. In the preliminary exam, Hopkins said he had never seen parents so recalcitrant when informed that their child might be considering suicide. He felt, he said, that James hadn’t spoken up because he didn’t want to contradict Jehn. During cross-examination, Smith reminded Hopkins of his role as mandatory reporter. If he had felt Ethan were truly in danger, from himself or his parents, Hopkins would have been obligated to call CPS or 911 right away. He did not, nor did he or Ejak insist that Ethan be sent home. Over the subsequent months, nine civil lawsuits would be filed against the school. (The Oxford Community School District did not respond to requests for comment for this article.)

Ejak had joined the meeting partway through, and it was he who determined there was no “discipline issue.” Had the school decided that Ethan had broken any rules, the meeting might have taken a different course — actions that could have included a suspension from school or a search of Ethan’s backpack. Instead, Ejak went to the geometry classroom, retrieved the backpack, and gave it to Ethan, who said he wanted to continue his day. Hopkins agreed, saying in court that he was worried above all for Ethan’s own safety and did not want him to be alone.

After the meeting with Hopkins, Jehn was revising her plans. She still wanted to come to the barn, she texted Pennock, but now she would be bringing Ethan along. Ethan “can’t be left alone,” and James was working that evening. Pennock lightly suggested Ethan might benefit from “horse therapy.”

“Let’s make him a cowboy,” Pennock texted.

“Lol mom goals for real!” Jehn replied.

Back at work, she ran into her boss in the copy room and told him she needed to find a therapist for Ethan. She passed by Amanda Holland’s desk, showed her the math sheet, and said she felt like a failure as a parent.

At 12:20, she texted Ethan. “You ok?”

“Yah I just got back from lunch.”

“You know you can talk to us and we won’t judge,” Jehn wrote.

“Ik. thank you. I’m sorry for that. I love you.” It was 12:42.

Although the parents of mass shooters are almost never charged with crimes, victims’ families frequently sue the parents for damages. Thirty-six lawsuits filed by the Columbine families named Sue Klebold and her ex-husband, Tom, as defendants. The families of 16 of the victims of the Sandy Hook shooting sued the estate of the shooter’s mother. One of the Parkland survivors sued the shooter’s foster parents, saying they knew their foster son had guns but did not stop him from accessing them, as well as the estate of his deceased mother, saying she had failed to attend to his mental-health issues. These lawsuits are agonizing for the families of the victims, their loved ones reduced to payout sums, and they rarely have a deterrent effect.

Could a criminal case succeed in preventing future shootings in a way that these civil cases have not? The father of the Highland Park shooter, from July 2022, sponsored his son for a gun permit despite a suicide attempt and homicidal threats. The Buffalo shooter, from May 2022, worried online that his parents would find the guns he hid at home. The Uvalde shooter, from that same month, who lived with his grandparents, bought two assault rifles days after his 18th birthday. According to the Violence Project, the average age of a school shooter is 18, in legal terms an adult. Mass shooters tend to be older. To criminally prosecute the parents of an adult shooter, the state would have to show, say, evidence of aiding and abetting or conspiracy. In the 2018 Waffle House murders, the father of the 29-year-old shooter was convicted of unlawful delivery of a firearm.

In the U.S., the urgent desire to stop mass shootings — and gun violence in general — is met with almost total refusal in conservative state legislatures to pass laws or restrictions that make careless gun ownership a crime. “I don’t think there’s anything on the horizon that’s very encouraging,” says Allison Anderman, director of local policy at the Giffords Law Center. Meanwhile, 4.6 million children live in homes where loaded firearms are unlocked; a 2021 survey showed that 70 percent of parents believe they have sufficiently secured their weapons, while a third of their adolescent kids say they can find them within five minutes. In 2020, 4,368 kids died of gunshot wounds in America, making it the leading cause of childhood death. A third of these were suicides.

Nineteen states and the District of Columbia have passed Child Access Prevention laws that impose criminal penalties on people for inadequately guarding their guns from children. Some are very stringent, as in California, where it is illegal to negligently store a firearm that a child might access, even unloaded. Some are less so: In Illinois, criminal responsibility of the parent is invoked only if the child uses the weapon to kill or seriously hurt someone. A consortium at the University of Michigan found that when CAP laws are paired with felony enforcement, gun deaths among kids younger than 15 decrease by a quarter, but nationwide, most of these laws are decades old and lately pass only when a state legislature turns blue. After the Oxford shooting, Bayer introduced a CAP bill in the Michigan legislature for the third time, but it has little to no chance.

To prove gross negligence, McDonald is attempting to draw a causal chain between the Crumbleys’ behavior and the deaths of four teenagers, but one element interrupts it, and that is Ethan himself. McDonald has charged him as an adult. He resides in an adult jail and faces adult penalties. In a February hearing related to Ethan’s trial, prosecutors painted him as highly intelligent, calculating, and deceitful. “In public, you have to put on a mask to blend in,” Ethan once wrote to his friend. (According to court documents, he may be planning an insanity defense.)

The parents and child face different trials and consequences, but their narratives overlap. Can McDonald prove both that the shooter is adultlike, and thereby responsible for four counts of first-degree murder, and that his parents are directly responsible? The case of the Crumbley parents will be decided on the interpretive fine points. Did James and Jehn outright buy their minor son a gun, as the prosecution attests? Or did they “give” him a gun, in the sense that other parents might supply a child a car or a precious piece of jewelry under stipulations of technical parental ownership and control? Does the responsibility for Ethan’s possession of the gun that day rest on his parents for failing to secure the gun or on him for taking it?

If McDonald wins, it will be in part because of the community’s yearning for “a pound of flesh,” as University of Michigan Law School professor Frank Vandervort puts it. But legal precedent is a way of articulating community standards, and Vandervort worries about a conviction eroding a fundamental principle of the law: “I’m responsible for what I do, and I’m not responsible for what you do.” It’s one thing to hold an adult criminally responsible for the actions of a young child, but it’s another thing to shift criminal responsibility onto the parents of a teenager. “In some sense, for every teenager who commits a crime, you can point the finger at the parent,” Vandervort says. “You didn’t get therapy. You didn’t see the behavioral problems. What if your teenager takes your car, drinks, and kills someone? Are you going to be held responsible? Every parent who looks at this case must in some way say, ‘There but for the grace of God go I.’ ”

Primus, the University of Michigan Law School professor, also points out that, as gun possession becomes more criminalized, arrests and punishments will land disproportionately on Black and brown parents. She notes that Christopher Head, the defendant in the precedent-setting gross-negligence gun case in Michigan, is Black. “What happened at that school is awful. Obviously, Ethan Crumbley has to answer for that,” Primus says. “But I worry about the expanding criminal footprint.”

James, driving for DoorDash on Route 24, saw police cars streaming toward the school and rushed home to look for the gun. It was just after one. He called Ethan, who didn’t pick up. He called Jehn. From ten feet down the hall, her boss heard Jehn scream. “I saw her, Mrs. Crumbley, say there was an active shooter at her child’s school and she had to go,” Andrew Smith said in court.

Between 1:17 and 1:18, James called Ethan three more times. At the same time, Jehn was texting their son. “I love you too,” she wrote, in response to Ethan’s previous message. Then, “You ok?”

At 1:22, she sent him another text: “Ethan don’t do it.”

About ten minutes later, James, from East Street, called 911, his voice strained and frantic. “I have a missing gun at my house,” he said. He tried to explain about the counselor and the math sheet, how he was driving and heard about an active-shooter situation at the school. “I raced home just to, like, find out, and I think my son took the gun. I don’t know if it’s him. I don’t know what’s going on. I’m, like, really freaking out.” The Crumbleys say they feared suicide; McDonald says they must have been imagining homicide: Hundreds of parents rushed to the Meijer supermarket to pick up their kids that day, and afterward, McDonald would note the Crumbleys were the only ones who went home to look for their gun. Sue Klebold says sometimes the impulses for suicide and homicide are interwoven. A child throws his own life away by inflicting his suffering on others.

Hana St. Juliana was 14 years old. She was joyful, with a sarcastic sense of humor, a volleyball and basketball player, and close with her family, especially her older sister. She loved Christmas and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Madisyn Baldwin was 17. She loved Monster drinks and was smart and shy and an incredible artist. She doodled on everything, including gum wrappers, and had already been accepted to several colleges on full scholarship. Tate Myre, No. 42 on the football team, was a leader; even adults quieted when he spoke. “You had no choice but to follow him and do the right thing,” says Mike Aldred. Justin Shilling, co-captain of the bowling team, “was smart beyond his years, hilarious without even trying,” said his close friend Olivia McMillan when she stood up at a school-board meeting. He died the day after the shooting, and two days later, a vigil gathered at McLaren hospital as his body was taken off life support and wheeled into an operating theater where he donated his organs.

The 2015 FBI report on preventing mass violence defines leakage as the messages a prospective shooter sends, like a bread-crumb trail, to signal his intentions. Leakage can come in the form of obvious statements, in conversation or social-media posts, but it can also be subtle or private: the theme of an art project, between the lines of an essay, an item on a scribbled to-do list found in the aftermath.

The night of the 30th, after the shooting, Jehn was on a burner phone texting with Pennock about selling her horses. “Thanks for not judging, unlike the whole world,” she wrote.

“I know you and James and this doesn’t even remotely make me think it was your fault,” Pennock wrote back.

“I wish we had warnings. Something. He’s a good kid. They made a terrible decision.”

“There probably were warnings but nobody saw them,” Pennock responded. “Hindsight is always 20/20.”

After the shooting, when East Street became a crime scene, a police detective took photographs of the house. The kitchen was orderly, with a bread box on the counter, and coffee cups on a shelf, and new bags of pet food on the island. In the master bedroom, the detective photographed the unmade bed. A pair of pajama pants lay entangled with the sheets, the empty SIG Sauer case on top.

Ethan inhabited two bedrooms off the kitchen in the house, his belongings spread so completely across both that it was impossible to tell where he slept. In the photos, the rooms are spilling over with laundry and junk. Full and empty bottles of soda and water, stuffed animals, underwear, lip balm, and a geometry text are strewn over two beds. On one wall hang two giant shooting-range targets in the shape of human torsos, which are riddled with holes. There are also old soccer trophies and medals and model schooners on a shelf; toy airplanes and cars and a miniature Packers helmet crowd the nightstand along with a collectible Nazi coin and a small dish of bullets.

Mon, 18 Jul 2022 20:00:00 -0500 Lisa Miller en-us text/html https://nymag.com/intelligencer/article/oxford-school-shooting-ethan-crumbley-parents.html
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