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Killexams : Novell Networking: study - BingNews Search results Killexams : Novell Networking: study - BingNews Killexams : Novel Technology Restores Cell Function in Pigs After Death

Within minutes of the final heartbeat, a cascade of biochemical events triggered by a lack of blood flow, oxygen and nutrients begins to destroy a body’s cells and organs. But a team of Yale scientists has found that massive and permanent cellular failure doesn’t have to happen so quickly.

Using a new technology the team developed that delivers a specially designed cell-protective fluid to organs and tissues, the researchers restored blood circulation and other cellular functions in pigs a full hour after their deaths, they report in the Aug. 3 edition of the journal Nature.

The findings may help extend the health of human organs during surgery and expand availability of donor organs, the authors said.

“All cells do not die immediately, there is a more protracted series of events,” said David Andrijevic, associate research scientist in neuroscience at Yale School of Medicine and co-lead author of the study. “It is a process in which you can intervene, stop, and restore some cellular function.” 

The research builds upon an earlier Yale-led project that restored circulation and certain cellular functions in the brain of a dead pig with technology dubbed BrainEx. Published in 2019, that study and the new one were led by the lab of Yale’s Nenad Sestan, the Harvey and Kate Cushing Professor of Neuroscience and professor of comparative medicine, genetics, and psychiatry.

“If we were able to restore certain cellular functions in the dead brain, an organ known to be most susceptible to ischemia [inadequate blood supply], we hypothesized that something similar could also be achieved in other vital transplantable organs,” Sestan said.

In the new study — which involved senior author Sestan and colleagues Andrijevic, Zvonimir Vrselja, Taras Lysyy, and Shupei Zhang, all from Yale — the researchers applied a modified version of BrainEx called OrganEx to the whole pig. The technology consists of a perfusion device similar to heart-lung machines — which do the work of the heart and lungs during surgery — and an experimental fluid containing compounds that can promote cellular health and suppress inflammation throughout the pig’s body. Cardiac arrest was induced in anesthetized pigs, which were treated with OrganEx an hour after death.

Six hours after treatment with OrganEx, the scientists found that certain key cellular functions were active in many areas of the pigs’ bodies — including in the heart, liver, and kidneys — and that some organ function had been restored. For instance, they found evidence of electrical activity in the heart, which retained the ability to contract.

“We were also able to restore circulation throughout the body, which amazed us,” Sestan said.

Normally when the heart stops beating, organs begin to swell, collapsing blood vessels and blocking circulation, he said. Yet circulation was restored and organs in the deceased pigs that received OrganEx treatment appeared functional at the level of cells and tissue.

“Under the microscope, it was difficult to tell the difference between a healthy organ and one which had been treated with OrganEx technology after death,” Vrselja said.

As in the 2019 experiment, the researchers also found that cellular activity in some areas of the brain had been restored, though no organized electrical activity that would indicate consciousness was detected during any part of the experiment.

The team was especially surprised to observe involuntary and spontaneous muscular movements in the head and neck areas when they evaluated the treated animals, which remained anesthetized through the entire six-hour experiment. These movements indicate the preservation of some motor functions, Sestan said.

The researchers stressed that additional studies are necessary to understand the apparently restored motor functions in the animals, and that rigorous ethical review from other scientists and bioethicists is required.

The experimental protocols for the latest study were approved by Yale’s Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee and guided by an external advisory and ethics committee.

The OrganEx technology could eventually have several potential applications, the authors said. For instance, it could extend the life of organs in human patients and expand the availability of donor organs for transplant. It might also be able to help treat organs or tissue damaged by ischemia during heart attacks or strokes.

“There are numerous potential applications of this exciting new technology,” said Stephen Latham, director of the Yale Interdisciplinary Center for Bioethics. “However, we need to maintain careful oversight of all future studies, particularly any that include perfusion of the brain.”

Reference: Andrijevic D, Vrselja Z, Lysyy T, et al. Cellular recovery after prolonged warm ischaemia of the whole body. Nature. 2022:1-8. doi: 10.1038/s41586-022-05016-1

This article has been republished from the following materials. Note: material may have been edited for length and content. For further information, please contact the cited source.

Wed, 03 Aug 2022 20:40:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Study discovers drug for Alzheimer's disease without inflammatory side effects

Daejeon [South Korea], August 4 (ANI): The US Food and Drug Administration recently approved Aduhelm, a monoclonal antibody that targets amyloid beta (A), as the first Alzheimer's disease treatment (AD). Its impact on cognitive improvement, however, is controversial.

Moreover, about 40 per cent of the patients treated with this antibody experienced serious side effects including cerebral edemas (ARIA-E) and haemorrhages (ARIA-H) that are likely related to inflammatory responses in the brain when the Ab antibody binds Fc receptors (FCR) of immune cells such as microglia and macrophages. These inflammatory side effects can cause neuronal cell death and synapse elimination by activated microglia, and even have the potential to exacerbate cognitive impairment in AD patients. Thus, current Ab antibody-based immunotherapy holds the inherent risk of doing more harm than good due to their inflammatory side effects.

The findings of the study were published in the journal Nature Medicine.

To overcome these problems, a team of researchers at KAIST in South Korea has developed a novel fusion protein drug, aAb-Gas6, which efficiently eliminates Ab via an entirely different mechanism than Ab antibody-based immunotherapy. In a mouse model of AD, aAb-Gas6 not only removed Ab with higher potency, but also circumvented the neurotoxic inflammatory side effects associated with conventional antibody treatments.

"FcR activation by Ab targeting antibodies induces microglia-mediated Ab phagocytosis, but it also produces inflammatory signals, inevitably damaging brain tissues," said paper authors Chan Hyuk Kim and Won-Suk Chung, associate professors in the Department of Biological Sciences at KAIST.

"Therefore, we utilized efferocytosis, a cellular process by which dead cells are removed by phagocytes as an alternative pathway for the clearance of Ab in the brain," Prof. Kim and Chung said. "Efferocytosis is accompanied by anti-inflammatory responses to maintain tissue homeostasis. To exploit this process, we engineered Gas6, a soluble adaptor protein that mediates efferocytosis via TAM phagocytic receptors in such a way that its target specificity was redirected from dead cells to Ab plaques."The professors and their team demonstrated that the resulting aAb-Gas6 induced Ab engulfment by activating not only microglial but also astrocytic phagocytosis since TAM phagocytic receptors are highly expressed by these two major phagocytes in the brain. Importantly, aAb-Gas6 promoted the robust uptake of Ab without showing any signs of inflammation and neurotoxicity, which contrasts sharply with the treatment using an Ab monoclonal antibody. Moreover, they showed that aAb-Gas6 substantially reduced excessive synapse elimination by microglia, consequently leading to better behavioral rescues in AD model mice.

"By using a mouse model of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), a cerebrovascular disorder caused by the deposition of Ab within the walls of the brain's blood vessels, we also showed that the intrathecal administration of Gas6 fusion protein significantly eliminated cerebrovascular amyloids, along with a reduction of microhemorrhages. These data demonstrate that aAb-Gas6 is a potent therapeutic agent in eliminating Ab without exacerbating CAA-related microhemorrhages."Professors Kim and Chung noted, "We believe our approach can be a breakthrough in treating AD without causing inflammatory side effects and synapse loss. Our approach holds promise as a novel therapeutic platform that is applicable to more than AD. By modifying the target-specificity of the fusion protein, the Gas6-fusion protein can be applied to various neurological disorders as well as autoimmune diseases affected by toxic molecules that should be removed without causing inflammatory responses."Professors Kim and Chung founded "Illimis Therapeutics" based on this strategy of designing chimeric Gas6 fusion proteins that would remove toxic aggregates from the nervous system. Through this company, they are planning to further develop various Gas6-fusion proteins not only for Ab but also for Tau to treat AD symptoms. (ANI)

Sat, 06 Aug 2022 22:11:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Study: Ultrasound exposure improves depressive behaviour in rat model of depression

Washington [US], August 2 (ANI): Whole-body exposure to high-frequency ultrasound increases brain activity in humans. However, little is known about its impact and associated mechanisms on emotional states like depression.

Now researchers have recently demonstrated the anti-depressant effects of ultrasound exposure in a rodent model of depression. Their findings shed light on the potential of ultrasound exposure as a non-invasive treatment for mental disorders.

Fortunately, rats experience pleasant emotions in response to high-frequency ultrasound vocalizations (USVs), making them ideal model organisms to study mechanisms underlying depression.

To this end, a team of researchers led by Professor Akiyoshi Saitoh, including Professor Satoru Miyazaki, Assistant Professor Daisuke Yamada and Tsugumi Yamauchi from Tokyo University of Science, and Shoichi Nishino from FUJIMIC, Inc., delved deeper into understanding the effects of ultrasound exposure on depression, by conducting experiments on rats lacking olfactory lobes -- organs that regulate neurotransmission. These "olfactory bulbectomized (OB)" rats undergo changes in neurotransmitters, endocrine secretions, and behaviour, which are similar to those observed in humans with depression.

Giving further insights into their study, Prof. Saitoh remarked, "Since studies on ultrasound exposure have been primarily conducted on human subjects, we needed to establish robust animal models to elucidate underlying mechanisms using invasive techniques. In our current study, we have used OB rats to study the effects of ultrasound on neural activity and behavior" Their study, published in Volume 33, Issue 10 of NeuroReport on July 6, 2022, is the first of its kind to demonstrate potential anti-depressant effects of ultrasound exposure in rats.

Initially, the team exposed wild type and OB rats to USV for 24 hours, following which they scored them for "hyperemotionality" (agitation and anxiety-like behavior) by studying their responses to getting attacked, getting startled, facing a struggle, and initiating a fight.

Next, they monitored plasma corticosterone (a hormone that is released in response to stress) levels in the blood samples of these rats. In addition, the team assessed anxiety-like behavior of the rodents using the elevated plus maze (EPM) -- an approach which triggers behavioral anxiety in rats by exposing them to open spaces in a maze, and causes them to move to closed spaces.

Their findings revealed that OB rats exposed to USV had significantly lower hyperemotionality scores and lower plasma corticosterone levels than unexposed rats. Furthermore, in OB rats with a higher latency initially. i.e., higher inclination to reach the open areas of the maze, ultrasound exposure significantly decreased their latency. Similar effects were observed with a 50-kHz ultrasound frequency which was generated artificially.

This study provides novel evidence on the anti-depressant effects of ultrasound exposure in rodents. "Our findings suggest that OB rats may be a useful animal model for investigating the effects of ultrasound exposure and mechanisms of influence.," exclaims Prof. Saitoh about the implications of the study.

He further adds, "Unlike drug therapy, ultrasound exposure is non-invasive and easy to use. An ultrasound-based therapeutic device may therefore aid the treatment and prevention of mental disorders in patients while they go about their daily lives."Let's hope that these results pave the way for developing ultrasound exposure therapy as a novel treatment to help patients cope with stress and psychiatric disorders. (ANI)

Tue, 02 Aug 2022 03:18:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : What’s new under the sun? Offering an alternate view on how “novel” structures evolve

image: The freshwater crustacean Daphnia (water flea) is a common research organism in ecology, toxicology, evolutionary developmental biology, and other fields. view more 

Credit: Proyecto Agua

WOODS HOLE, Mass. – Many crustaceans, including lobster, crabs, and barnacles, have a cape-like shell protruding from the head that can serve various roles, such as a little cave for storing eggs, or a protective shield to keep gills moist.

This shell (carapace), it’s been proposed, didn’t evolve from any similar structure in the crustacean ancestor, but appeared de novo (or out of the blue) through somewhat random co-option of the genes that also specify insect wings.

However, in a new study from the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL), Research Associate Heather Bruce and Director Nipam Patel provide evidence for an alternate view: The carapace, along with other plate-like structures in arthropods (crustaceans, insects, arachnids, and myriapods) all evolved from a lateral leg lobe in a common ancestor.

This evidence buttresses their proposal for a new concept of how novel structures evolve – one which suggests that they aren’t so novel, after all. The study, on the carapace of the crustacean Daphnia, appears online in Current Biology.

“How novel structures arise is a central question in evolution,” Bruce says. “The prevailing idea, called gene co-option, is that genes that are functioning in one context, say to make insect wings, end up in an unrelated context, where they make, say, a carapace,” says Bruce. “But here we show that the Daphnia carapace didn’t just pop out of nowhere.”

Rather, they propose the ancestral, plate-like leg lobe that evolved into both the wing and the carapace was likely present in the ancestor of all living arthropods. But because the wing and carapace look so different from this ancestral plate, and from other plates in neighboring arthropod lineages, no one realized that they were all the same thing.

“We are starting to realize that structures that don’t look anything alike – wings, carapaces, tergal plates – are actually homologous,” Bruce says. “That suggests they have a single origin that is way more ancient than anyone would have thought, way back in the Cambrian period, [500 million] years ago.”

It was there all along (cryptic persistence)

Bruce calls her model for how novel structures emerge “cryptic persistence of serial homologs.”

“Serial homologs are things like hands and feet, or the vertebrae of our spine, or the many legs repeating down a centipede’s body,” she says. “The [repeats] can look really different, but you can see similarities, and they are all built using the same initial genetic pathways. In some cases, the full structure doesn’t grow out – you may get a truncated centipede leg, or it’s really subtle and tiny. While the cells have been programmed to form the leg, they aren’t actually growing out the leg.”

In Bruce’s view, these dormant rudiments - legs, plates, etc - can persist over millions of years, as long as another repeat of the structure is still present somewhere else in the animal. And when the time is right, the structure may grow out again and take different forms in different species – a wing in an insect, say, or a carapace in a crustacean.

“If an ancestral structure is no longer needed, nature probably just truncates or reduces that tissue rather than deleting it completely. But the tissue is still there and can be elaborated again in later lineages, and appear to us to be novel,” Bruce says.

“This kind of truncation is probably common in evolution because genetic networks are so interdependent, “Bruce explains. “if a genetic pathway or tissue were to be deleted, some other pathway or tissue would be affected.” 

“I think cryptic persistence can be an explanation for a lot of ‘novel’ structures,” Bruce says.

The authors drew their conclusions by analyzing gene expression patterns in several arthropod species, and by eliminating other hypotheses of how the carapace may have evolved.

“The ancient, common origin of all these plate-like structures [in arthropods] suggests the gene networks that pattern these structures are very evolvable and plastic. They are capable of generating an awesome amount of diversity,” Bruce says.


The Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) is dedicated to scientific discovery – exploring fundamental biology, understanding marine biodiversity and the environment, and informing the human condition through research and education. Founded in Woods Hole, Massachusetts in 1888, the MBL is a private, nonprofit institution and an affiliate of the University of Chicago.

Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of news releases posted to EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of any information through the EurekAlert system.

Mon, 01 Aug 2022 06:48:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Novel Laser Tracking Stations Could Help Reduce Space Debris Collisions

In a pre-proof article posted in the Journal of Space Safety Engineering, researchers discussed and demonstrated the accomplishments of a conceptual study on the potential advancement made in the application of satellite laser ranging (SLR) in the field of space debris.

Study: Ground-based laser momentum transfer concept for debris collision avoidance. Image Credit: Frame Stock Footage/

Satellite laser ranging is an exact and cheaper substitute for radars to track orbiting targets. It has become a novel and fundamental technique in the space debris field due to its successful attempts to track resident space objects without retroreflectors.

The high-power continuous wave lasers consisting of ground stations arranged in an elaborate network can be used to effectively contribute to the low earth orbit (LEO) collision avoidance maneuvers of space debris. Therefore, it can utilize satellite laser ranging to achieve on-orbit collision avoidance.

The researchers discussed the findings that helped them explore the purposes of a laser tracking and momentum transfer (LTMT) station, the minimum size for LEO collision avoidance activity of an LTMT network, the present technological hindrances, and the gaps that need to be filled before its execution to achieve the successful application of satellite laser ranging for collision avoidance.

Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and Space Debris Mitigation

A noticeable paradigm shift in space traffic over the past five years has led to an increase in the number of objects placed in orbit each year, particularly in the LEO area.

This tendency is most likely brought on by the launch of massive constellations and the miniaturization of spacecraft. The failure of around 20% to 40% of payloads in LEO to adhere to space debris mitigation methods during the last 10 years must also be taken into account. Better solutions are needed for on-orbit collision avoidance in which satellite laser ranging can play a vital part.

Various laser momentum transfer (LMT) proposals have been put forward for space- and ground-based system topologies.

Atmospheric factors, such as turbulence, absorption, and scattering, impact a ground-based laser momentum transfer architecture, limiting the debris velocity change that can be achieved.

A ground-based laser momentum transfer system is limited by weather influences on station accessibility. However, the key benefits of a laser momentum transfer ground station are the accessibility of high-power lasers, the lack of electrical power restrictions, the ability to maintain or repair the system, the continuity of operation, and upgradeability and integration with laser tracking systems.

The researchers discussed the significant findings from the "Laser ranging and momentum transfer systems evolution study" (LARAMOTIONS) activity emphasizing ground-based implementation.

The primary goal of the LARAMOTIONS project was to conduct a conceptual examination and a viability study on the potential effects of using laser photon pressure technology for space debris collision avoidance.

Laser Ranging and Momentum Transfer Systems Evolution Study and Its Technical Feasibility

The LEO orbital regime has been the primary focus of the study. All the investigations have been based on a subset of LEO space debris consisting of 9101 resident space objects (RSOs) that were all inactive and larger than 10 cm in size, taking into account both unimpaired objects and fragments.

Decisions about maneuvering depend on the probability of collision (PoC) during close approach situations.

The PoC mostly depends on the separation between RSOs and their orbit uncertainty. As a result, the PoC can be decreased by improving the precision and accuracy of the RSOs' orbits or by changing the trajectories of the objects. Both these methods have been addressed in the current study to make satellite laser ranging feasible.

Based on two mechanisms - photon pressure and ablation - two distinct ground-based laser momentum transfer models have been presented, depending on the laser beam parameters.

In the photon pressure technique, the resultant thrust is slight and the laser intensity is lower than what would be needed for surface vaporization. Regarding collision avoidance, this laser momentum transfer strategy works better than for removal. In contrast, at higher laser fluence values over the ablation threshold, the laser beam vaporizes some of the debris, causing a jet of debris to move away from the target. According to a NASA concept validation study, the increased recoil that results might be used to remove debris.

The two primary tasks of the LTMT network's ground stations are laser momentum transfer and laser tracking. There are various options for an LTMT station's design.

The space debris tracking laser and the laser momentum transfer uses the same telescope mount and beam path in a so-called hybrid station. It is a suitable alternative to bistatic installations that separate the laser momentum transfer and the laser tracking telescope sites.

The Promising Potential of Ground-Based Tracking Stations in Space Debris Collision Avoidance

The significant findings of the LARAMOTIONS study, presented in the current work, show that using an LTMT network to achieve collision avoidance is feasible. This idea has been researched while considering a specific population of LEO space debris and various factors, such as astrodynamics restrictions, atmospheric laser propagation, and associated station needs.

When a 40-kW continuous wave laser is utilized and a tracking accuracy of 0.1 arcsec is guaranteed using adaptive optics, comprehensive calculations on the laser-matter interaction have shown that successful collision avoidance maneuvers may be performed on several operational orbital regime (OOR) objects. Therefore, the data proves the feasibility of satellite laser ranging in debris management.

The network performance analysis in the laser catalog scheme has shown that even 24 globally dispersed stations operational around the clock are insufficient to maintain accurate orbit data for the OOR population. In contrast, a system of nine stations will be able to maintain a catalog of 1500 LEO objects under pragmatic weather conditions.

The collision rate (CR) may be reduced by 95% due to a network for on-demand tracking made up of five European stations. Even though a global network would not be required, it is undoubtedly recommended in light of the enhanced performance of networking the current and future satellite laser ranging stations.


E. Cordelli, A.D. Mira, T. Flohrer et al. Ground-based laser momentum transfer concept for debris collision avoidance. 2022. Journal of Space Safety Engineering.

Disclaimer: The views expressed here are those of the author expressed in their private capacity and do not necessarily represent the views of Limited T/A AZoNetwork the owner and operator of this website. This disclaimer forms part of the Terms and conditions of use of this website.

Thu, 28 Jul 2022 19:22:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Opinion: Networking the microbiome and the rise of next-generation food

Eagle Genomics’ Sven Sewitz outlines how a truly data-driven partnership between biology and technology will help companies looking to innovate in the food and nutrition space.

It has become increasingly apparent that the human microbiome plays a critical role in all aspects of health, from metabolic conditions and infectious disease through to patient response to chemotherapy – even overall mood and wellbeing.

It is little wonder, then, that there is increased interest in the life sciences and food sector in understanding this hidden ecosystem of microorganisms coexisting inside and outside our bodies and our environment, which carries out essential processes such as the processing and breakdown of food and associated nutrients in the gut.

Knowing this, researchers want to develop functional foods and nutrition solutions targeting the restoration of an altered microbiome, as well as architecting novel probiotics that meet specific nutrition requirements. And with increasing interest in the gut microbiome and its links with disease, health and wellbeing, the number of probiotics and other microbiome-restoring formulations has surged in accurate years.

This is because the microbiome can be a vector for the discovery of highly-useful functional ingredients, such as micronutrients and novel probiotic strains with specific health-promoting roles, which can be formulated as over-the-counter (OTC) products. Other OTC products supporting sports nutrition, the promotion of sustainable weight loss and metabolism management solutions based on microbiome targeting are also gaining traction. Plus, foods and ingredients that modulate and restore the gut microbiome have moved to the forefront of the nutraceuticals and food and beverage innovation landscape.

The question is how?

Opening the data analytics mystery box

Identifying product opportunities for microbiome-based solutions and benefits can only be done by applying a network-centric view to the datasets, called ‘network science,’ in combination with advanced analytical tools. This is because the multi-omic big data wave resulting from complex biological systems is too tough a nut to crack without a more sophisticated understanding and application of the microbiome than we currently have.

Gaining such a deep understanding is a challenge with conventional approaches. Finding a way to break down all the complex and large datasets relating to the microbiome has been a significant barrier to deeper functional understanding and identifying causal relations.

Significant wasted time and effort associated with working with unreliable data, along with siloed and outdated processes difficult to scale up to further stages of development, have bedevilled far too much new food research so far. Teams struggle with data quality, storage, process, easy FAIR compliance, integration and analysis, as a Visioneers study recently showed. It has been reported that scientists spend on average 40% to 80% of their time just finding, categorising, organising and validating input data sets.

The tough realities of multi-omics data management demonstrate the need for technology and platforms that can handle these challenges and provide valuable outputs. These platforms must enable data wranglers, including scientists, data scientists, product markets, researchers, members of legal and compliance and beyond, to fully understand and digest outputs. There is a significant desire and need in the market for a connected computational platform, that combines analytics, data exploration and standardisation and is at the same time easy to use and scales across many business cases and scientific questions.

The good news is that such platforms suited to these challenges are becoming available. Key to these advances is better ways of working with connected data. Innovators see automation and artificial intelligence (AI)-based platforms that perform contextualised data capture, curation and reporting on microbiome data as being genuine game-changers.

As a result, AI and machine learning tools are beginning to be integrated with microbiome analysis platforms to develop microbiome-modulating food and beverage products that can prevent and manage a wide range of diseases. The results of this AI-based analytics approach can be highly predictive: analysis of gut microbiome data can be used to predict disease susceptibility and assess individual metabolic responses to food, for example.

It’s personal 

The results can also be personalised, with work commencing on sequencing and analysis of individual gut microbiomes to develop specific nutrition and dietary recommendations. Opportunities that arise from such data being tractable include better analysis of the gut microbiome, highlighting associations between phenotypic traits such as inflammation, fitness, obesity and corresponding changes in microbiome composition, which can be integrated with network analysis to identify novel strains that can be used as probiotics.

AI-enabled algorithms coupled with microbiome profiling platforms can provide personalised diet recommendations for specific requirements and can assist in novel probiotic formulations in sports drinks and supplements. Other opportunities include developing affordable nutrition (eg. microbiota directed foods) for lower-income groups at a higher risk of malnutrition. Ensuring nutritional interventions (eg. with essential micronutrients) in early-life diets can help in preventing later deficits that burden healthcare systems with long-term interventions.

Finally, there is evidence of a strong link between immunity and microbiome composition. AI and next-generation sequencing technologies are already exposing highly-promising truly microbiome-based therapeutics and functional ingredients.

The hard work to do this has already begun – and in many places

There’s a growing body of market experiences and trends that backs this up. Cargill Health Technologies, a recently-spun off division of the agricultural giant, is using this data-driven approach to start optimising its supply chain through understanding what makes healthier, faster growing, disease-resistant animals. By revealing relationships between microbiome data entities using relevant multi-omics data, the project aims to further enable Cargill to advance the understanding of the complex association between the microbiome and digestive and immune health in humans and animals.

DuPont’s 2011 $6 billion swoop on Danisco has been a story all about developing new microbes, but also molecules like prebiotics or postbiotics that only help “friendly” microbial species to grow. This is an approach beginning to be used more successfully in human and animal health to develop superior ingredients modulating the microbiota.

The Danone Nutricia Research and the Center for Microbiome Innovation (CMI) at the University of California San Diego recently decided to team up with citizen scientists around the world. The result is the Human Diets & Microbiome Initiative, which is now the world’s largest international microbiome citizen science programme and which aims to discover the best diets and foods on the planet that can nourish the gut microbiome by using the latest sequencing technology. In parallel, Danone North America is funding a study currently underway at Rutgers on the potential connection between the microbiome and Covid-19.

Pulling all this together, it is clear that work unlocking the microbiome via a data-driven partnership between science and technology offers immeasurable potential for arriving at solutions to challenges in human health and nutrition. Such an approach will contribute to a better quality of life for us, as well as the animals we share our planet with.

Wed, 03 Aug 2022 20:00:00 -0500 en-GB text/html
Killexams : Study: AI-enhanced advancements in dynamic brain imaging

New research introduces a novel, AI-based dynamic brain imaging technology alternative which could map out rapidly changing electrical activity in the brain with high speed, high resolution, and low cost.

Brain electrical activity is distributed over the three-dimensional brain and rapidly changes over time. Many efforts have been made to image brain function and dysfunction, and each method bears pros and cons. For example, MRI has commonly been used to study brain activity, but is not fast enough to capture brain dynamics. EEG is a favorable alternative to MRI technology however, its less-than-optimal spatial resolution has been a major hindrance in its wide utility for imaging.

Electrophysiological source imaging has also been pursued, in which scalp EEG recordings are translated back to the brain using signal processing and machine learning to reconstruct dynamic pictures of brain activity over time. While EEG source imaging is generally cheaper and faster, specific training and expertise is needed for users to select and tune parameters for every recording. In new published work, He and his group introduce a first of its kind AI-based dynamic brain imaging methodology, that has the potential of imaging dynamics of neural circuits with precision and speed.

"As part of a decades-long effort to develop innovative, non-invasive functional neuroimaging solutions, I have been working on a dynamic brain imaging technology that can provide precision, be effective and easy to use, to better serve clinicians and researchers," said Bin He, professor of biomedical engineering at Carnegie Mellon University.

He continues, "Our group is the first to reach the goal by introducing AI and multi-scale brain models. Using biophysically inspired neural networks, we are innovating this deep learning approach to train a neural network that can precisely translate scalp EEG signals back to neural circuit activity in the brain without human intervention."


In He's study, which was recently published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences(PNAS), the performance of this new approach was evaluated by imaging sensory and cognitive brain responses in 20 healthy human subjects. It was also rigorously validated in identifying epileptogenic tissue in a cohort of 20 drug-resistant epilepsy patients by comparing AI based noninvasive imaging results with invasive measurements and surgical resection outcomes.

Results wise, the novel AI approach outperformed conventional source imaging methods when precision and computational efficiency are considered.

"With this new approach, you only need a centralized location to perform brain modeling and training deep neural network," explained He. "After collecting data in a clinical or research setting, clinicians and researchers could remotely submit the data to the centralized well trained deep neural networks and quickly receive accurate analysis results. This technology could speed up diagnosis and assist neurologists and neurosurgeons for better and faster surgical planning."

As a next step, the group plans to conduct larger clinical trials in efforts to bring the research closer to clinical implementation.

"The goal is for efficient and effective dynamic brain imaging with simple operation and low cost," explained He. "This AI-based brain source imaging technology makes it possible."


Tue, 02 Aug 2022 06:06:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Pore Size Distribution Study Aims to Boost Nanofiltration Membrane

Researchers led by Wan Yinhua, PhD, from the Institute of Process Engineering (IPE) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences say they have developed a novel antifouling nanofiltration membrane for various types of industrial liquid separation. The membrane applies new knowledge about the role of pore size distribution in filtration, according to the scientists, who published their study (“Enhancing the Antifouling Ability of a Polyamide Nanofiltration Membrane by Narrowing the Pore Size Distribution via One-Step Multiple Interfacial Polymerization”) in ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces.

Nanofiltration membranes have received a lot of attention in the field of water purification and biomanufacturing due to their ability to accurately separate targeted solutes from other components. However, the application of nanofiltration membranes in industry suffers from membrane fouling that causes a significant decline in separation performance.

For example, for the most prevalent polyamide thin-film composite membrane prepared by interfacial polymerization (IP), the intrinsic heterogeneous mass transfer of the IP process results in wide pore size distribution and causes uneven permeation flux distribution on the membrane during filtration, thus weakening the antifouling ability of the nanofiltration membrane.

Moreover, commonly used nanofiltration membranes have abundant hydrophobic sites (i.e., benzene rings) in their polyamide chains. These sites are prone to adsorb hydrophobic foulants.

Goal to enhance antifouling membrane performance

The researchers attempted to enhance the antifouling performance of a polyamide nanofiltration membrane by narrowing its pore size distribution via a one-step multiple IP process.

“Application of nanofiltration membranes in industries still has to contend with membrane fouling that causes a significant loss of separation performance. Herein, an innovative approach to design antifouling membranes with a narrowed pore size distribution by IP assisted by silane coupling agents is reported,” the investigators wrote.

“An aqueous solution of piperazine anhydrous (PIP) and γ-(2,3-epoxypropoxy) propytrimethoxysilane (KH560) is employed to perform IP with an organic solution of trimesoyl chloride and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) on a porous support. In accordance with the results of molecular dynamics and dissipative particle dynamics simulations, the reactive additive KH560 accelerates the diffusion rate of PIP to enrich at the reaction boundary.

Enhancing the antifouling ability of a polyamide nanofiltration membrane by narrowing pore size distribution via one-step multiple interfacial polymerization. [LIU Lulu]
“Moreover, the hydrolysis/condensation of KH560 and TEOS at the aqueous/organic interface forms an interpenetrating network with the polyamide network, which regulates the separation layer structure. The characterization results indicate that the polyamide–silica membrane has a denser, thicker, and uniform separation layer. The mean pore size of the polyamide–silica membrane and the traditional polyamide membrane is 0.62 and 0.74 nm, respectively, and these correspond to the geometric standard deviation (namely, pore size distribution) of 1.39 and 1.97, respectively.

“It is proved that the narrower pore size distribution endows the polyamide–silica membrane with stronger antifouling performance (flux decay ratio decreases from 18.4 to 3.8%). Such a membrane also has impressive long-term antifouling stability during cane molasses decolorization at a high temperature (50 °C),” the authors wrote.

The reactive additive KH560 accelerates the diffusion rate of PIP so it becomes enriched at the reaction boundary. Moreover, the hydrolysis/condensation of KH560 and TEOS at the aqueous/organic interface forms an interpenetrating network with the polyamide network, thus regulating the separation layer structure.

“This work not only provides a novel one-step multiple IP strategy to prepare antifouling nanofiltration membranes, but also emphasizes the importance of pore size distribution in fouling control for various industrial liquid separations,” said Luo Jianquan, PhD, of IPE, corresponding author of the study. “Such a nanofiltration membrane promises to Boost the robustness of thin-film composite nanofiltration membranes in industrial liquid separation.”

Thu, 28 Jul 2022 00:00:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Novel Platform Could Help Diagnose Diseases by Isolating Biomarkers in Tears

Going to the doctor might make you want to cry, and according to a new study, doctors could someday put those tears to good use. In ACS Nano, researchers report a nanomembrane system that harvests and purifies tiny blobs called exosomes from tears, allowing researchers to quickly analyze them for disease biomarkers. Dubbed iTEARS, the platform could enable more efficient and less invasive molecular diagnoses for many diseases and conditions, without relying solely on symptoms.

Diagnosing diseases often hinges on assessing a patient’s symptoms, which can be unobservable at early stages, or unreliably reported. Identifying molecular clues in samples from patients, such as specific proteins or genes from vesicular structures called exosomes, could Boost the accuracy of diagnoses. However, current methods for isolating exosomes from these samples require long, complicated processing steps or large sample volumes. Tears are well-suited for sample collection because the fluid can be collected quickly and non-invasively, though only tiny amounts can be harvested at a time. So, Luke Lee, Fei Liu and colleagues wondered if a nanomembrane system, which they originally developed for isolating exosomes from urine and plasma, could allow them to quickly obtain these vesicles from tears and then analyze them for disease biomarkers.

The team modified their original system to handle the low volume of tears. The new system, called “Incorporated Tear Exosomes Analysis via Rapid-isolation System” (iTEARS), separated out exosomes in just 5 minutes by filtering tear solutions over nanoporous membranes with an oscillating pressure flow to reduce clogging. Proteins from the exosomes could be tagged with fluorescent probes while they were still on the device and then transferred to other instruments for further analysis. Nucleic acids were also extracted from the exosomes and analyzed. The researchers successfully distinguished between healthy controls and patients with various types of dry eye disease based on a proteomic assessment of extracted proteins. Similarly, iTEARS enabled researchers to observe differences in microRNAs between patients with diabetic retinopathy and those that didn’t have the eye condition, suggesting that the system could help track disease progression. The team says that this work could lead to a more sensitive, faster and less invasive molecular diagnosis of various diseases — using only tears.

Reference: Hu L, Zhang T, Ma H, et al. Discovering the secret of diseases by incorporated tear exosomes analysis via rapid-isolation system: itears. ACS Nano. 2022:acsnano.2c02531. doi: 10.1021/acsnano.2c02531

This article has been republished from the following materials. Note: material may have been edited for length and content. For further information, please contact the cited source.

Wed, 20 Jul 2022 21:11:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : BioMedNewsBreaks – Silo Pharma Inc. (SILO) Reports Positive Results from Research on Novel Liposomes No result found, try new keyword!To view the full article, visit About Silo Pharma Inc. Silo Pharma is a developmental-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on merging traditional therapeutics with psychedelic research for people ... Thu, 04 Aug 2022 07:20:00 -0500
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