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Exam Code: CNA Practice test 2022 by team
CNA Certified Nurse Assistant

Tests/Quizzes (Totals make up 25% of your overall grade)
Chapter Tests 100 points ea.
Chapter Quizzes (if given) 25 points ea.

Major Exams (Totals make up 25% of your overall grade)
Mid-term 500 points * Must have a 75% in class to take – must score 75% on test
Skills Final 400 points
Final 500 points * Must have a 75% in class to take – must score 75% on test
Classwork/Homework (Totals make up 25% of your overall grade)
Homework 50 points/week
Skills/Lab 50 points/per skill day
Career Portfolio 100 points
Research papers 100 points
Oral presentations 100 points
Employability (Totals make up 25% of your overall grade)
Weekly class employability grade semester 1 40 pts. /day = 200 points a week)
Weekly class employability grade semester 2 40 pts. / day = 120 points a week)
Weekly clinical employability points semester 2 40 pts / day or 80 pts on Saturday

Major Exams: The Arizona State Board of Nursing has determined that all students must achieve at least 75% or better on all major examinations. In keeping with the BON standard, the EVIT standard for NA students is that students score at least 75% on all major exams as well as maintain a 75% overall class average. Students scoring less than 75% on either the Mid-term or the Final test are considered to have failed and may petition the instructor to re-take the exam. Only one re-take will be permitted. Re-takes will be administered the next school day. The re-take test will address the same competencies as the first test but with different questions. The maximum score that will be posted in the grade book for a re-take test is 75%. Students with a permanent score of less than 75% for the midterm test will be referred to the counseling department. It is the students responsibility to arrange a time with the teacher if they need to re-take a major test due to a failing grade or to make-up a major test due to an excused absence.

Successful Completion Requires:
1. Students must demonstrate 100% accuracy on all skills taught in lab/ clinical setting in order to receive “Pass” for this portion of the Program.
2. Students must maintain 100% attendance rate in class/clinical. (If student misses a class they will have to wait until that class day is offered again and it is not guaranteed it will be available in the next class)
3. All Students must complete 100% of the clinical hours
4. All Students must get at least an 80% or above on all quizzes and exams when given
5. All Financial obligations to school must be satisNied before sitting for CNA State exam or accreditation testing or before receiving a completion of Achievement CertiNicate.

Course Objectives • Communication and Interpersonal Skills • Infection Control • Safety/ Emergency procedures- including, but not limited to the Heimlich maneuver • Promoting Residents independence • Respecting residents rights • Taking and recording vitals signs • Measuring and recording height and weight • Caring for the residents environment • Caring for residents when death is imminent • Recognizing abnormal changes in body function and the importance of reporting such changes to a supervisor • Bathing • Grooming • Dressing • Toileting • Assisting with eating and hydration • Proper feeding techniques • Skin care • Transfers, positioning and turning • Modifying aides behavior in response to residents behavior • Identifying development tasks associated with aging process • How to respond to residents behavior • Allowing the residents to make personal choices • Identifying psychiatric disorders • Techniques for addressing the unique needs and behaviors of individuals with dementia • Communicating with cognitively impaired residents • Understanding the behavior of cognitively impaired residents • Appropriate responses to behavior of cognitively impaired residents • Methods of reducing the effects of cognitive impairments • Training the residents in self care according to the residents abilities • Use of assistive devices in transferring, ambulation, eating & dressing • Maintaining range of motion • Proper turning and positioning in bed and chair • Bowel and Bladder training • Care and use of prosthetic and orthotic devices • Providing privacy and maintenance of conNidentiality • Promoting the residents right to make personal choices to accommodate their needs • Giving assistance in resolving grievances and disputes • Providing needed assistance in getting to and participating in resident and family groups and other activities • Maintaining care and security of residents personal possessions • Promoting the residents right to be free from abuse, mistreatment and neglect, and the need to report any such instance to appropriate facility staff • Avoiding the need for restraints in accordance with current professional standards

Certified Nurse Assistant
Medical Certified test Questions
Killexams : Medical Certified test Questions - BingNews Search results Killexams : Medical Certified test Questions - BingNews Killexams : NEJM Review CME Program NEJM CME  test and pencil on table

Comprehensive, Convenient, Cost Effective

The NEJM Review CME Program supports your commitment to lifelong learning while helping you meet requirements for licensure, certification, and credentialing. Redeem what you are already learning from the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) for up to:

  • 50 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™ or AAFP Prescribed credits
  • 50 ABIM Maintenance of Certification (MOC) points (if ABIM certified)

Enroll Now

Offered twice annually on a predetermined schedule, you get eight weeks to complete each NEJM Review CME Program on your own schedule, from the comfort of your home or office. Each activity features:

  • A 50-question, open-book paper test based on selected articles from six months of NEJM issues
  • Multiple-choice (best answer), board-certification style questions designed to maximize focus and learning
  • Case-based questions, written by practicing physicians, focused on the most clinically-relevant information with the greatest potential for improving your practice and patient care
  • A comprehensive list of all NEJM article citations that conveniently point you to the relevant articles on which the questions are based. (Online access to most articles requires a personal or institutional subscription.)
  • Scoring and detailed performance critique, explanations of correct answers, and valuable follow-up references for a complete educational review experience

Enroll in Two Programs and Save!

Earn up to 100 CME credits for as little as $3.09 each — far less than other CME programs. Enroll in a single NEJM CME Review Program for just $209 or save $109 by enrolling in two programs.

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“Great educational value. The value to me is making me aware of syllabus outside of my day-to-day practice. The activity of critically reading articles broadens my perspective of patient care.”

– J.D.

“Broadens my understanding of clinical medicine and assists in my practice.”

– M.J.C.

“I enjoy doing the questions and reading or reviewing the articles. Thank you for being an important part of my professional life.”

– M.H.W.

How The Program Works

  • When your Review CME test activity package arrives in the mail, use the article citations provided or access the citations page at to find the articles on which test questions are based. (Online access to most articles requires a personal or institutional subscription.)
  • Select the single best answer for each question and return your answer sheet in the envelope provided no later than the eight-week submission deadline.
  • If you are participating in ABIM’s Maintenance of Certification (MOC) program, and you wish the Massachusetts Medical Society to transmit your MOC points to ABIM, complete the ABIM MOC form indicating your ABIM ID – a six-digit number, and partial date of birth (month/day).
  • Expect to receive your score, performance critique, explanatory answer booklet, and follow-up educational resources within a month.
  • With an test score of 70% or better, you will successfully complete the activity and receive a certificate from the Massachusetts Medical Society for 50 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™ or AAFP Prescribed credits. Show patients and colleagues that you are current on the important advances in medicine. If needed, you will have one opportunity to Boost your score.
  • Complete and return your Review CME Program evaluation to provide much valued feedback about the program’s quality and effectiveness.

Accreditation Information

Accreditation Statement

The Massachusetts Medical Society is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

Credit Designation Statement

The Massachusetts Medical Society designates each journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 50 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

ABIM MOC Statement

Successful completion of each CME activity, which includes participation in the evaluation component, enables a program participant to earn up to 50 MOC points in the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Maintenance of Certification (MOC) program. Participants will earn MOC points equivalent to the amount of CME credits claimed for each activity. It is the CME activity provider’s responsibility to submit participant completion information to ACCME for the purpose of granting ABIM MOC credit.

American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP)

The AAFP has reviewed the NEJM Review CME Program, and deemed it acceptable for AAFP credit. Term of approval is from 03/01/2021 to 12/31/2021. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Credit approval includes the following session(s):

  • 50.00 Medical Journals, Self-Study AAFP Prescribed Credit(s) – NEJM Review CME Program #384
  • 50.00 Medical Journals, Self-Study AAFP Prescribed Credit(s) – NEJM Review CME Program #383

National Commission on Certification of Physician Assistants (NCCPA)

Physician Assistants may claim a maximum of 50.00 Category 1 credits for completing each activity. NCCPA accepts AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™ from organizations accredited by the ACCME or a recognized state medical society. NCCPA accepts AAFP Prescribed Credit.

Wed, 12 Aug 2020 19:15:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : 15 Certification Programs for Careers That Pay Well No result found, try new keyword!The National Healthcareer Association offers a CMAA (Certified Medical Administrative Assistant ... requires taking a three-hour test with 180 questions. Longer term, you might want to get ... Thu, 26 May 2022 09:22:00 -0500 text/html Killexams : Testing Troubles: Some COVID Testing Labs Certified Too Easily, With ‘Little Scrutiny' No result found, try new keyword!When pop-up COVID-19 testing sites opened all over Chicago and cities across the U.S. late last year, many had the same question on their minds: Where did they all come from, and who was authorizing ... Wed, 13 Jul 2022 15:30:46 -0500 en-us text/html Killexams : 4 of the best at-home celiac tests for 2022

We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. Here’s our process.

In celiac disease, the immune system reacts to gluten exposure and attacks the tissues in the gut, causing inflammation and damage to the small intestine. At-home celiac tests will report on a range of antibodies or test for food sensitivities.

A person with celiac disease may be unable to absorb minerals and nutrients from food due to damage to the small intestine from repeat exposure to gluten.

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) explains that the symptoms of celiac disease can be diverse and that a person may find they come and go. Symptoms can include bloating, chronic diarrhea, constipation, gas, and lactose intolerance.

According to a 2022 overview of medical issues associated with gluten, celiac disease mainly occurs in people with Northern European ancestry between the ages of 10–40 and recommends that people with these symptoms should get tested for the condition.

A person can use an at-home celiac test to check for antibodies associated with celiac disease. Genetic tests can also look for variations in a person’s DNA associated with celiac disease.

This article looks at 4 of the best at-home celiac tests a person can consider, discusses the symptoms of gluten sensitivity, and answers some of the most frequently asked questions about celiac tests.

Quick links

A celiac at-home test kit tests an individual, usually via a finger-prick test, to check if they have celiac disease.

A person can receive their results quickly with most test companies and can often access them remotely through online portals.

These tests can help a person understand what may be causing any digestive symptoms they are experiencing.

However, a person should always discuss their at-home celiac test results with a doctor, who will be able to deliver an accurate diagnosis and advice on the next steps.

Most at-home celiac tests are antibody tests. These tests check blood samples for antibodies associated with gluten sensitivity, such as:

  • Endomysial antibodies: (EMA) These antibodies consist of proteins that a person’s immune system produces. When the body perceives it is under attack, these antibodies cause intestinal swelling and prevent nutrient absorption into the blood. As such, people with celiac disease usually have high EMA levels.
  • Tissue transglutaminase (tTG): In celiac disease, tissue transglutaminase is an enzyme that can change the amino acid glutamine into glutamate. This change can cause certain cells to recognize glutamates in gliadin peptides present in gluten as foreign. In some people, this can cause a strong immune response, causing the symptoms of celiac disease. Celiac disease tests will look for tTG in the blood and, if present, will indicate that a person has celiac disease.

Other tests include genetic tests. These look for genetic markers associated with celiac disease. Those without the markers may not have celiac disease. Those with genetic markers are not guaranteed to develop celiac disease.

A person should always seek formal testing and diagnosis from a doctor to reach a correct conclusion.

MNT chooses at-home tests that meet the following criteria:

  • Laboratories: Where possible, MNT will choose companies that process test samples in CLIA-certified labs. This means they follow state and federal regulations.
  • Budget: MNT chooses at-home tests that suit a wide range of budgets.
  • Privacy: MNT includes companies that offer robust and transparent privacy measures, such as data protection and discreet packaging.
  • Test result speed: MNT selects companies that inform customers when they will receive their test results and whether they will receive them via email, app, or phone.
  • Further support: MNT will indicate whether a company offers further support, such as a follow-up phone consultation with a doctor to discuss test results.

Below is a range of the best at-home celiac tests a person can consider.

Best for fast results: LetsGetChecked Celiac Test

LetsGetChecked is a health testing company that sells a wide range of tests.

The company states that this celiac test is suitable for people who have had digestive discomfort or diarrhea for over 2 weeks.

LetsGetChecked also notes that a person must have been eating a diet that includes gluten for 6 weeks before taking its celiac test. Then, a person must activate their test online and collect their sample.

The company advises that a person takes their test in the morning. They should then return their demo on the same day.

LetsGetChecked states that a person can receive their results within 2–5 days via an online portal. According to the company, a person’s results are reviewed and broken down by board-certified physicians. Additionally, a LetsGetChecked nurse will call the person to explain any abnormal results and answer questions.

The advantages of the LetsGetChecked celiac test include:

Some disadvantages may include:

  • requires internet access and a smartphone to activate test and obtain results
  • expensive for a single test

Best for genetic testing: 23andMe Health + Ancestry Service

23andMe provides genetic testing that offers insights into a person’s DNA ancestry. People can use this information to build a family tree. However, a person can also get information on how their DNA can influence their health, including whether they are at a higher risk of developing celiac disease.

A person will provide a saliva demo for this test.

Their results will include 150 and a dedicated report on their celiac disease risk.

While this test cannot diagnose celiac disease, it can provide a starting point for a person to talk with a doctor about their risk if they are experiencing symptoms.

Additionally, a person should be aware that DNA testing can uncover information about their ancestry that some people may find upsetting.

The advantages of the 23andMe Health + Ancestry Service include:

  • includes genetic ancestry information
  • provides a report on celiac disease risk
  • FDA-authorized reports
  • eligible for HSA and FSA payments

Disadvantages include:

  • expensive
  • does not diagnose celiac disease
  • DNA ancestry information can be upsetting for some

Best for food sensitivity: Everlywell Food Sensitivity Test

The Everlywell Food Sensitivity Test analyzes a person’s demo for sensitivities to 96 foods and food components, including gluten.

Everlywell notes that this is not a food allergy test and cannot be used to diagnose celiac disease. However, a person can use this test to see which foods or food components may be causing their symptoms. A person can also use their test results to work with a doctor and inform a diagnosis of celiac disease.

Each food has a rating on a scale of 0–3, with 0 “normal” reactivity and 3 high reactivity.

It tests for a person’s immunoglobulin G (IgG) reactivity. IgG is the most common antibody found in the blood. Higher levels of IgG reactivity may indicate that a person is sensitive to a particular food.

To use the kit, a person must register it on the Everlywell website. They can then collect their demo and send it to the CLIA-certified Everlywell labs with a prepaid shipping label.

Everlywell states that a person can expect their results for most tests within 5–7 days but notes that it can take several weeks. A person will receive a personalized report, including their results and advice on the next steps.

Advantages of the Everlywell Food Sensitivity Test may include:

  • tests for a variety of food sensitivities
  • prepaid shipping
  • includes a personalized report with results
  • HIPAA compliant
  • uses CLIA-certified labs
  • accepts HSA and FSA payments

Cons may include:

  • tests for one antibody
  • cannot indicate a person has celiac disease specifically

Best blood test alternative: RxHomeTest Celiac Genetic Test

This test tests two genetic markers that the company describes as high, medium, and low risk:

  • high risk: DQ2, DQ8
  • medium risk: DQA1*05
  • low risk: DQA1*03

These genetic markers can indicate a person’s risk of having or developing celiac disease. A person may wish to take this test if they have a family history of celiac disease.

A person must provide a cheek-swab demo for this test. Once a person has taken their sample, they must send it back to the CLIA-certified labs in the prepaid shipping envelope.

The company writes that a person can expect their results within 3–5 business days of the lab receiving their sample. A person will then receive a report detailing their risk of having celiac disease based on whether they have high, medium, or low-risk genes.

The advantages of the RxHomeTest include:

  • fast results
  • does not involve a blood sample
  • tests for high-, medium-, and low-risk genes
  • useful for people with a family history of celiac

Disadvantages may include:

  • does not ship to all U.S. states

Gluten sensitivity is a type of gluten intolerance, and a person with gluten sensitivity does not necessarily have celiac disease.


There are many gluten sensitivity symptoms, which can last hours or days. Some of the most common symptoms include:

A 2020 study noted that study participants with non-celiac gluten sensitivity reported brain fog, headaches, and tingling. However, the study did not include a diverse cohort, with most participants being female and 47 years of age.


There is currently no cure for celiac disease or gluten intolerance. Experts generally agree that a gluten-free diet is the best way to manage gluten sensitivity symptoms. Working with a doctor can help a person plan a balanced gluten-free diet.

Probiotics are also considered useful for a person with gluten sensitivity. They help increase good bacteria in the gut and help reduce symptoms of gas, bloating and constipation.

Currently, there are efforts to create a vaccine or gluten-degrading enzymes that a person can take to counteract their gluten sensitivity and enable them to eat gluten-based products again. However, this 2017 study has found that further studies are needed before either the vaccine or enzymes can be made available to the public.

Foods to avoid

If a person has a gluten sensitivity, they should avoid foods containing rye, wheat, barley, farina and other known gluten products.

Some examples of common household foods containing gluten include:

  • bread
  • pasta
  • crackers
  • cakes
  • pastries
  • pies
  • beer
  • cereals
  • gravy and sauces

A person can eat the above foods if the label states “gluten-free,” meaning they have been made without gluten or have had the gluten removed.

Learn more about gluten-free diets.

A person should talk with a doctor if they are experiencing symptoms of gluten sensitivity, such as abdominal pain or bloating, and they last for 2 weeks or more.

If a person has taken an at-home celiac test, they should also consult a doctor about their results, particularly if they suggest celiac disease, food sensitivity, or intolerance.

Additionally, if a person is considering trying a gluten-free diet or changing their diet another way, getting advice from a doctor can ensure they can plan a balanced diet.

Below are answers to some of the most common frequently asked questions about at-home celiac tests.

Are at-home celiac tests accurate?

An older 2009 case report states that at-home celiac blood tests can be accurate. However, an intestinal biopsy is the only way to confirm if a person has celiac disease.

At-home tests cannot be considered 100% accurate or replace a diagnosis from a doctor.

What makes someone susceptible to celiac disease?

The precise cause of celiac disease is not known. However, some potential factors that may contribute to developing celiac disease are:

How does a person know if they are sensitive to gluten without a test?

The only way to know if a person is sensitive to gluten is by getting a diagnosis from a doctor. However, people can monitor their digestive symptoms when they eat foods containing gluten. Symptoms can include abdominal pain, flatulence, constipation, bloating, and brain fog. A person can use a food diary to monitor whether their symptoms Boost by trying a gluten-free diet for a short time. A person’s symptoms can Boost within a few days or weeks after removing gluten from their diet.

However, a person should consult a doctor before making extensive changes to their diet.

A person experiencing symptoms of celiac disease may wish to take an at-home celiac disease test. At-home celiac tests test for antibodies and enzymes associated with celiac disease.

A person can choose from a range of companies that provide simple celiac tests with fast results that can indicate whether a person is likely to have celiac disease or sensitivities to certain foods.

However, a person should consult a doctor to confirm a diagnosis of celiac disease and work with them to create a treatment plan.

Sat, 18 Jun 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : How to Become a Certified Nurse Technician

Lisa Mooney has been a professional writer for more than 18 years. She has worked with various clients including many Fortune 500 companies such as Pinkerton Inc. She has written for many publications including Woman's World, Boy's Life and Dark Horizons. Mooney holds bachelor's degrees in both English and biology from the University of North Carolina at Charlotte.

Wed, 18 Jul 2018 07:36:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : What Is the SAGE Test for Dementia? No result found, try new keyword!Unlike the SAGE exam, the MMSE is not designed to be self-administered – a health care professional administers the MMSE by asking a patient a series of questions that are designed to test a ... Sat, 28 May 2022 20:59:00 -0500 text/html Killexams : How much do nurses make? A breakdown of salaries by nursing career. cannot provide a good user experience to your browser. To use this site and continue to benefit from our journalism and site features, please upgrade to the latest version of Chrome, Edge, Firefox or Safari.

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Killexams : GGSIPU issues notice on inspection of evaluated Answer Sheets of MBBS 1st Professional Annual Exam, Details

New Delhi: Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University (GGSIPU) has issued notice related to the list of students who have applied for inspection/providing certified copies of evaluated answer sheets in respect of the annual examination of the MBBS (1st professional) program held in March 2022. As per the notification issued, GGSIPU has received students' applications for...

New Delhi: Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University (GGSIPU) has issued notice related to the list of students who have applied for inspection/providing certified copies of evaluated answer sheets in respect of the annual examination of the MBBS (1st professional) program held in March 2022.

As per the notification issued, GGSIPU has received students' applications for inspection/certified copy of evaluated answer sheets in respect of the annual examination of the MBBS (1st professional) program held in March 2022. The test was held in offline mode. The students who have applied need to go through the details mentioned in the enclosed lists Annexure-'A' and Annexure 'B'. Till today candidates can mail related to discrepancies at 

The students are notified that inspection/providing certified copies of evaluated answer sheets would be carried out as per the schedule mentioned for MBBS (1st professional) as Annexure-A on 6 July 2022 and Annexure-B on 7 July 2022 with reporting time as 2.00 p.m. in Examination Seminar Hall, Ground Floor, Examination Division, Administrative Block, GGSIPU, Sector-16C, Dwarka, New Delhi-110078.

The examinee students shall be present in person for inspection of the answer sheets as per the notified schedule. The students must bring their University/College/Institute ID Card or Admit Card. Calculators, mobile phones or other IT gadgets are not allowed inside the room where the inspection is conducted. They must bring a pencil and relevant question paper for perusal during the inspection.

The students should note that no representation other than totaling errors or unmarked questions/unevaluated answers shall be entertained. If examinee students fail to present themselves for inspection of the requested answer sheets as per the notified schedule, they will lose the right to inspect the answer sheets.

Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University is a state university located in Delhi, India. It was established in 1998 as a teaching-cum-affiliating university. Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University was established as Indraprastha University (IPU) on 28 March 1998 by the Govt. of NCT Delhi.

To view the notice, click

Sun, 03 Jul 2022 16:30:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : CBN Explained: Here's What to Know About the Cannabinoid Sleep Aid

Cannabidol, mostly known as CBD, has become mainstream over the last several years. CBD has infiltrated almost every part of life -- from activewear, to lattes, to pet products and much more -- and as it continues to gain popularity, more products hit the shelves every day. But another chemical that's derived from hemp and cannabis just like CBD is becoming increasingly popular as a sleep aid. It's called cannabinol (CBN) and it may be able to help you get better, more restful sleep.

As someone who doesn't respond well to melatonin, I've heard that CBD can help counteract the hangover effect that people can experience from melatonin. So I was intrigued when I heard from the CBN brand Sandland, which makes CBN supplements that contain microdoses of melatonin that promise to help you sleep without that groggy feeling. I hoped that CBN combined with a tiny dose of melatonin would be exactly what I needed on the occasional nights I have trouble sleeping. When I tried the supplements, I was pleasantly surprised when they helped me sleep without the typical next-day fog I usually feel. 

Currently, all types of CBD lack solid clinical research studies -- but many are in progress, and we are close to having more scientific explanations on exactly how CBD works. CBN is even newer to the scene: For now, the information we have is largely anecdotal or based on animal research, which is helpful but not as helpful as human clinical trials. With that in mind, I spoke to the Sandland Sleep CEO Josh Townsend to gather more information on CBN and how it works.

Read also: For better sleep, also check out our rundown of the best mattresses, the best pillows and the best alarm clocks of the year

What is CBN? How is it different from CBD?

Both CBD and CBN are cannabinoids, or compounds derived from cannabis plants. According to Sandland Sleep, CBN is the most sedative out of all the compounds in cannabis. CBN was discovered recently from decomposed THC (the psychoactive compound in cannabis). 

"Cannabinoids can be classified in several ways, one of which is Broad vs Narrow," Townsend says. "CBD is a very broad cannabinoid that does a good job in addressing general inflammation and potentially supporting mood stability. However, CBN is very specific and contributes to sleep and the decrease of anxiety."

Even though CBN comes from THC, Townsend says it doesn't have the psychoactive properties you might think of. "CBN is its own molecule and does not contain THC or any other psychoactive compound that could create a mind-altering event, or that could create a 'positive' drug-screening test result," says Townsend.

a hand holding a hemp leaf, casting a shadow against a yellow backdrop

CBN is a type of CBD that is derived from decomposed THC. 

Getty Images

CBN and sleep

If CBD research is still considered in its early stages, then CBN is in its infancy. According to Townsend, CBN has been studied even less than CBD. In a study by Steep Hill Labs, CBN seemed to show sedative properties, but the lab later said more research is needed to understand if that's true. 

Although we don't have the research (yet) to understand how CBN might Boost sleep, Townsend says it could be explained in part by terpenes. "Within a hemp or cannabis plant there are several other compounds than just the cannabinoids. It is generally believed that all these compounds work in synergy to deliver the cannabis/hemp plant its medicinal properties. This effect is called the entourage effect," says Townsend. 

You might have heard of "broad spectrum" vs "full spectrum" CBD -- many people debate whether one is better than the other. According to Townsend, this all comes down to terpenes. "Basically, the full spectrum camp claims that there is a greater entourage effect with full spectrum oil because none of the terpenes and flavonoids were removed. Whereas broad spectrum oil has removed most of the terpenes and flavonoids, leaving a more concentrated CBD," he says.

sandland Stay Asleep product package

Sandland is a product line that contains microdoses of melatonin with CBN.

Sandland Sleep

Terpenes are found in every type of plant, and they can explain both CBD's and CBN's medicinal effects. "Through scientific and some anecdotal research, it has become widely accepted that certain terpenes assist with relaxation and sleep, beta caryophyllene, cedrol, linalool and alpha pinene specifically," says Townsend. "We have been able to extract certain terpenes and combine them in our formulation to augment the effects of CBN. Our proprietary terpene package is delivered using dehydrated hops."

Melatonin and CBN

Melatonin is one of the most-hyped sleep supplements out there, and when combined with CBN it may offer an even better sleep-inducing effect. "Our bodies create very little melatonin naturally and a large dose of synthetic melatonin may very well have negative effects (read: hangover)," says Townsend. This is why he says Sandland's CBN products contain a small amount of melatonin, which is supposed to more closely emulate how the body naturally produces it. 

It turns out the small melatonin combined with CBN was a sweet spot for me: I felt a difference, though not dramatically, and most importantly, I woke up without a groggy hangover. The verdict is still out on the science behind CBN, but you should always consult with your doctor before adding any type of supplement. 

More recs for better sleep

The information contained in this article is for educational and informational purposes only and is not intended as health or medical advice. Always consult a physician or other qualified health provider regarding any questions you may have about a medical condition or health objectives.

Sun, 17 Jul 2022 03:00:00 -0500 See full bio en text/html
Killexams : Applied Biomedical Sciences BS Degree, Medical Laboratory Science Option

Our Grads are in High Demand: Three-Year Job Placement Rate of 100 Percent

Medical laboratory science professionals are highly skilled scientists who perform and analyze diagnostic tests that help physicians identify disease and treat their patients. With an average job placement rate of 100 percent, the UMass Lowell MLS program is highly regarded by employers.

Starting in your junior year, you'll gain experiences in clinical internships at hospitals and reference laboratories, helping you sharpen your skills and making you appealing to future employers.

Prepare for the Certification test with our Accredited Program

After completing the degree, you'll be qualified to take the Board of Certification examination for Medical Laboratory Scientists offered by the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP).

This program is fully accredited by the National Accrediting Agency for Clinical Laboratory Sciences (NAACLS), 5600 N. River Rd. Suite 720, Rosemont, IL 60018-5119, Contact: 847-939-3597 or 773-714-8880, email:, and the National Accrediting Agency for Clinical Laboratory Sciences website.

Admissions and Degree Pathways

Admission into the MLS Program is a two-step process.

  1. Apply or transfer to the Clinical Science (CS) Option of the Applied Biomedical Sciences (ABS) major. Internal transfers must have minimum basic science and cumulative GPAs of 2.500.
  2. After at least one successful semester in the CS Option, and upon meeting certain course and GPA pre-requisites, students will then be eligible to apply to the Medical Laboratory Science (MLS) Option.

Visit the Applied Biomedical Sciences degree program page for more information on admission and the degree pathway. For specific questions about the ABS-MLS option please contact Assoc. Prof. Nancy Goodyear, MLS Program Director, at

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