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Nokia Optical Networking Fundamentals
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Question: 1
How does a Raman pump work in the 1830 specific implementation?
A. The amplification is done simultaneously for all channels as they enter the board.
B. As the incoming signal power increase, the gain of the amplifier is reduced.
C. The pump light travels in the same direction of the signal, amplifying it while it flows in the fiber towards the
following node.
D. The pump light travels in the opposite direction of the signal to be amplified, amplifying it while it arrives from the
adjacent node.
Answer: C
In the 1830 implementation, the Raman pump uses a technique called co-propagation, where the pump light (which
provides the energy for amplification) travels in the same direction as the signal. This setup is used to amplify the
signal as it flows through the fiber towards the next node
Question: 2
Which of the following sentences about FlexGrid is false?
A. FlexGrid allows a more efficient channel spacing.
B. Channels in FlexGrid systems are allocated with a granularity of 27.5GHz.
C. FlexGrid systems use specific sets of boards. Old generation WDM systems need to be upgraded to support
D. The FlexGrid is currently standardized by ITU-
Answer: B
This statement is false. In a FlexGrid system, the channels are allocated with a granularity of 6.25 GHz, not 27.5 GHz.
This allows for more efficient use of the optical spectrum and better flexibility.
Question: 3
Which of the following statements is true about chromatic dispersion (CD)?
A. Different channels have different bandwidth and this causes different CD performances.
B. The fiber attenuation changes along the fiber, and when the light crosses these differences the CD takes place.
C. Different wavelengths propagate at different speeds within the same media and therefore different colors travel in
the fiber with different speed.
D. The fiber attenuation introduces inter-channel interference.
Answer: C
Different wavelengths propagate at different speeds within the same media and therefore different colors travel in the
fiber with different speed. This phenomenon is known as chromatic dispersion and causes light to spread out as it
travels through the fiber over distance, leading to signal attenuation and distortion. The fiber attenuation does not
introduce inter-channel interference, but it can cause attenuation of the signal. Different channels have different
bandwidths, but this does not affect CD performance.
Question: 4
Which of the following applications is related to Wavelength Tracker tool?
A. Collecting logs related to possible issue affecting a wavelength path
B. Tracking the protection path for a specific wavelength
C. Tracing the end-to-end wavelength optical power
D. Correcting errors related to wavelength inconsistencies
Answer: C
The Wavelength Tracker tool is used for real-time tracking and monitoring of wavelength paths in an optical network.
Its key function is to trace the end-to-end optical power of a particular wavelength. This aids in network
troubleshooting and performance optimization.
Question: 5
What is the purpose of the validate step in the EPT design process?
A. During this step, the configuration available on the involved network elements is compared with the design
provided byEP
B. This step is used to measure optical power performances over an existing network before making changes.
C. This step is optional and is useful to verify the network element layout before going through the commission step.
D. During this step, the run design action is triggered for network design consistency check and errors fixing.
Answer: A
In the EPT design process, the validate step is crucial to compare the genuine configuration of network elements with the
design provided by EPT (Engineering Planning Tool). This step ensures that the network has been set up correctly
according to the design.
Question: 6
What is a degree-1 node?
A. A node with only one direction and therefore a terminal node
B. A node with only one express channel and therefore made of two sides
C. A node with only east and west sides without directions towards north and south
D. A node with one direction only and therefore used as In-Line-Amplifier (ILA)
Answer: A
A degree-1 node is a node that only has one direction, and it is therefore a terminal node. This means that the node
only has one input and one output port. It does not have any other ports to connect to other nodes or fibers. This is a
common feature of some optical transport networks, such as ring networks, where a degree-1 node serves as the
endpoint of the ring.
Question: 7
What is the function of a pre-amplifier in an optical network?
A. Through the pre-amplifier, the optical signal is amplified at the receiver side after it travels along the fiber from
another node.
B. Through the pre-amplifier, the optical signal is amplified at the transmitter side before it is sent to the line span.
C. Through the pre-amplifier, the optical signal is amplified both the receiver side and at the transmitter side.
D. Through the pre-amplifier, the optical signal is amplified within the node internally to recover internal losses due,
for instance, to cascaded filters.
Answer: A
The main function of a pre-amplifier in an optical network is to amplify the optical signal at the receiver end after it
has travelled along the fiber from the transmitter side. This ensures that the signal power is strong enough for detection
at the receiver side.
Question: 8
What does it take to get connected to the NSP platform?
A. A browser and the NSP IP address; and from the landing page, the NSP application should be downloaded and
B. A browser and the NSP IP address. Then, a browser plugin needs to be installed and the laptop rebooted before the
NSP can be correctly reached.
C. A browser, the NSP IP address, and the credentials to access the web-based interface (WebUI).
D. The NSP package should be downloaded from the Nokia website and properly licensed for thespecific workstation
to be used.
Answer: C
To get connected to the Nokia Service Platform (NSP) platform, you need a browser and the NSP IP address. Then,
you need the credentials to access the web-based interface (WebUI) for the NSP platform. Once you have these, you
can access the NSP platform from a web browser.
Question: 9
Is it possible to mix PSS-24x and PSS-8x shelves In an SWDM configuration?
A. Yes, as both can be equipped within the same node
B. No, as they are not compatible and cannot be used within the same node
C. Yes, but the PSS-24X shelf must be configured as a master
D. Yes, but the PSS-8X shelf must be configured as a master
Answer: A
PSS-24x and PSS-8x are Nokia Photonic Service Switches that can be equipped within the same node. They have
different capacities but can coexist in the same configuration.
Question: 10
What is the metro area network?
A. The metro area network is that portion of network that passes through a city to provide connections to several
B. The metro area network is located between access and core domains.
C. The metro area network is made of OCS/SWDM nodes only, as no pure photonic nodes are used here.
D. The metro area network is located in between two access area networks and made of photonic nodes only (no
OCS/SWDM nodes are used there).
Answer: B
A Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) typically spans a city or campus and is larger than a local area network (LAN)
but smaller than a wide area network (WAN). It often serves as the link between access and core networks,
aggregating traffic from multiple access networks and transporting it to the core network.

Nokia Fundamentals benefits - BingNews Search results Nokia Fundamentals benefits - BingNews Employee Benefits to Consider During Your Job Search No result found, try new keyword!Whether you have already received a job offer or are starting to apply for job positions, it's important to be aware of the different types of employee benefits and what is available to you by a ... Fri, 28 May 2021 01:15:00 -0500 nokia 3310


Remember all of those fantastically horrible handheld LCD games that hit the toy stores back in the ’90s. You know, the ones that had custom LCD screens to make for some fake animation. Here’s an example of what those should have been. It’s an LCD-based handheld with some soul.

The entire thing is roughly the size of a television remote, with a 3D printed case making it very presentable. But looking at the wiring which hides inside proves this is one-of-a-kind. The Arduino Pro Mini is probably the biggest difference in technology from back in the day compared to now. It has plenty of space for all of the different settings and games shown off in the clip below. The user interface itself is definitely a throw-back though. The Nokia 3310 screen boasts a whopping 84×48 pixel monochrome area. There are four buttons serving as a d-pad, and two as action buttons. Perhaps the greatest feature (besides the printed case we already mentioned) is the ability to recharge the internal battery via USB.

[Zippy314] built this with his son. What’s more fun: learning to program the games, or mastering them and discovering the bugs you missed along the way?

Continue reading “Throwback Handheld Built With Modern Hobby Hardware”

Thu, 03 Apr 2014 12:00:00 -0500 en-US text/html
The Fundamentals Of Cryptocurrency Investment

(Disclaimer: Author holds investments in ether, bitcoin, EOS and Bitcoin Cash.)

2018 has already been another stellar year for organizations raising money for blockchain and cryptocurrency projects. While initial coin offerings (ICOs) reportedly raised more than $3.69 billion in 2017, the total amount raised this year already stands at a staggering $17.25 billion in late July, according to CoinSchedule.

Should the current trend I've observed in crowdsourced funding for technology companies continue, it will be important for investors to discern the nuances of investing in blockchain technologies and the virtual assets created on top of them, as ICO investors usually receive virtual assets in the form of coins or tokens in return for ether or bitcoin. Here's what you need to know about common blockchains and assets.

Fundamentals Of Currency

To understand cryptocurrencies, investors should first recall the fundamental tenets of currencies: They are typically units of measurement, stores of value and mediums of exchange. Blockchain-based virtual assets — such as cryptographic tokens — often demonstrate these three characteristics of currency. However, as an investor, I advise you to consider if and when these functions are only a byproduct of the objective inscribed by the creators into the asset's software code before investing in a cryptocurrency.

Ethereum's Ether

Ether is a virtual asset on Ethereum. Even in the current bear market, one ether trades at about $292 as of this writing, according to CoinDesk. That puts the market cap of the Ethereum blockchain at $29.66 billion — which isn't far off from the current valuation of NASDAQ-traded Vanguard Total Bond Market ETF.

Ethereum’s Virtual Machine, which allows developers to write programs called "smart contracts," executes if the user makes a payment in its native currency ether. These transaction costs on the Ethereum blockchain are consequently labeled as "gas." Like its real-world counterpart, gasoline, I believe this virtual gas should be valued by investors — not for its currency properties or inherent value but for the utility it fulfills in the Ethereum network. The more applications that are being built and used on the blockchain, the more demand ether is likely to have.


EOS is the virtual asset native to the recently launched blockchain EOS.IO. While providing similar functions as Ethereum, users of the EOS.IO blockchain are not required to pay for transactions in the blockchain’s native asset, "EOS.", which raised a reported $4 billion to fund the launch and rollout of EOS.IO, has according to a July 2018 report allocated about $700 million to grow the EOS.IO ecosystem. Like with other cryptocurrencies, one benefit to investors is that EOS token holders may receive free tokens from projects funded by venture firms supporting blockchain in what is referred to as an airdrop. I believe investors in Ethereum’s ether might also find it valuable to keep at least a small number of EOS in their digital wallets as an easy way to keep track of applications being launched on EOS.IO.

Tokens On The Ethereum Blockchain

The Ethereum blockchain provides an easy-to-navigate, token-generation interface referred to as the ERC20 Token Standard. This standard ensures that all people who control electronic wallets that comply with this standard can receive new tokens generated this way. These tokens can also easily be listed on exchanges that support this Ethereum standard, and most of the more than 200 virtual asset exchanges do.

Tokens created by software engineers on the public Ethereum blockchain are usually coded to fulfill a specific function, such as triggering an event, allowing access or assigning other rights. These tokens are therefore not created as "units of measurement." Consequently, I advise investors to value these tokens according to the overall validity of the system they are being deployed in, using startup investment criteria such as the state of the technology, experience of the team and product market fit. Good starting points for an investor’s research are the LinkedIn profiles of the team members (for qualifications) and activity of the GitHub repository of the project (to track progress). Positive signs are teams led by previously successful technologists and depositories with code development stretching back over a year or more.


The Bitcoin blockchain and its currency, bitcoin (the lower case "b" differentiates the currency from the blockchain and concept), is identified by its original creators in their 2008 whitepaper on the currency as electronic cash (registration required). However, unlike fiat currencies  which are created continuously and as needed by governments — bitcoin's total supply is limited by code to a total of 21 million, making bitcoin inherently scarce. Even though a number of major currencies accept bitcoin as a form of payment, most signals seem to suggest that bitcoin is mostly bought for its "store of value" function. I recommend, therefore, that investors approach bitcoin purchases in the same manner as they would approach the purchase of gold: as a hedge against their stocks or bond holdings.

Pure Cryptocurrencies

A few virtual assets were created for the specific purpose of functioning solely as a cryptocurrency. These cryptocurrencies include Zcash, Dash, Monero and Bitcoin Cash. Zcash publishes transactions on its public blockchain, but the currency's privacy features enable users to conceal the sender, recipient and amount being transacted. Dash  launched as "Darkcoin"  also provides privacy functions to users and is using a self-governed organizational structure referred to as a Decentralized Autonomous Organization.

The value of any currency is mostly determined by the soundness of its monetary policies and inflationary tendencies. Investors seeking to add cryptocurrencies to their portfolio should familiarize themselves with the government models of the blockchains these assets are being created on and follow their specific use cases, which can generally be found in the whitepapers published by these projects. Mainstream adoption, such as when well-known merchants accept the currencies and when U.S. exchanges such as Coinbase add them, is also a positive signal for investors to look as they build a cryptocurrency portfolio.


I believe that blockchains and their applications, such as cryptocurrencies, are likely to play a central role in the future of any investment strategy. However, investing in these assets is not yet well understood. This is likely in part because of their nascent history and because of contradictory handling by government agencies in the U.S. and abroad that seem to incorrectly conflate cryptocurrencies with other blockchain-based assets and functions. I advise investors to look at each blockchain project's individual merits. They should use standard venture investment criteria such as the team or community supporting the technology, the size of the market opportunity and the current development status of the product while differentiating cryptographic currencies from cryptographic assets.

Wed, 29 Aug 2018 00:30:00 -0500 Christian Kameir en text/html
Employee Benefits

This page is intended for current UW employees, new employees please review the New Employee - Information and Onboarding webpage.

Your benefits are an important part of your overall compensation package, and the University of Wyoming is pleased to offer benefits-eligible employees a comprehensive array of benefits. These benefits are designed to help protect and enhance the overall well-being and way of life for you and all eligible family members. Your robust benefits package can include medical, dental and vision insurance, retirement accounts, life insurance, short and long term disability insurance, wellness programs, and mental health support, among others. Some benefits are provided automatically and at no cost to you, while others will require your enrollment. Take time to familiarize yourself with what’s available and the coverage options. When it comes to your health and wellbeing, we understand “one size” does not fit all. That’s why the University of Wyoming offers a variety of coverage levels and rates, providing employees the flexibility to choose the plan(s) that are best suited for their needs and the needs of their eligible family members. Questions? Contact our Benefits Team using the information outlined below.

The Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires that the University of Wyoming provide its employees who are eligible for health insurance with the following information: New Health Insurance Marketplace Coverage Options and Your Health Coverage Notice. You may not be eligible for a subsidy as described in this Notice because the State of Wyoming plan meets the standards set by the ACA.

Meet our Benefits Staff

Kira Poulson, Manager, Benefits
(307) 766-4220
Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), Unemployment, Leave Without Pay, Sick Leave Donations

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(307) 766-2437
Retirement, Insurance (Life, Health, Dental), Flexible Spending Plan, Open Enrollment, Tuition Waivers, Cooperating Agency List, New Employee Orientation

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(307) 766-5693
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(307) 766-2290
Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), Leave Without Pay

Sun, 12 Nov 2023 06:40:00 -0600 en text/html
Military and Veteran Benefits 2024 Military Pay Charts

Military pay will increase 5.2% for 2024, compared to 2023 levels, now that President Joe Biden has signed the new rate into law. These military pay tables apply to active members of the Navy, Marine Corps, Army, Air Force, Coast Guard and Space Force.

Sat, 01 Jan 2022 19:41:00 -0600 en text/html
Transistor Fundamentals Animated

When we were in school, every description of how transistors work was pretty dry and had a lot of math involved. We suppose you might have had a great instructor who was able to explain things more intuitively, but that was luck of the draw and statistically unlikely. These days, there are so many great videos on the Internet that explain things that even if you know the subject matter, it is fun to watch and see some of the great animations. For example [Sabin] has this beautifully animated explanation of how MOSFETs work that you can see below.

It uses the same basic graphics and style as his earlier video on bipolar transistors (second video, below) which is a great one to watch, too. In all fairness to your electronics teacher, the kind of graphics in these videos would have cost a fortune to do back in the 20th century — just watch some of the videos we talk about in some of our historical posts.

Even if you are well versed in device physics, these videos are great if you want some help explaining electron and hole motion through semiconductors. One thing we were pleased to see is the smiley-faced electrons don’t frown when they are doped like on the bipolar transistor. We hate to think of our friendly electrons being unhappy.

In today’s world, you can get by without knowing how devices work. After all, a Raspberry Pi works great without knowing what’s happening at this level. Of course, you can drive a car without understanding the engine, but you can bet every driver at the Indy 500 knows exactly how the engine works.

If you want a more hands-on look at using FETs, we did that. Once you understand what’s really happening at the electron level, it makes reading about semiconductor advances more interesting.

Sat, 01 Sep 2018 16:34:00 -0500 Al Williams en-US text/html
Fundamentals of Mechanics

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Thu, 04 Jan 2024 12:11:00 -0600 en text/html
Nokia to cut up to 10,000 jobs worldwide

Finnish telecoms giant Nokia is to axe between 5,000 and 10,000 jobs worldwide in the next two years as it cuts costs.

It is unclear where the bulk of the cuts will fall, but it said about 96 jobs in the UK were under threat as part of the €600m (£518m) cost cuts.

Nokia is playing catch-up on 5G, and also plans to invest in cloud computing and digital infrastructure research.

The company currently has 90,000 employees around the world, and has cut thousands of jobs since 2015.

"We currently expect the consultation process in the UK to cover an estimated 96 roles," a Nokia spokesperson said.

"At this stage, however, these are only estimates. It is too early to comment in detail, as we have only just informed local works councils and expect the consultation processes to start shortly, where applicable."

Last year, Nokia employed almost 40,000 people in Europe, 20,500 in the Asia-Pacific region, 13,700 in China, 12,000 in North America and 3,700 in Latin America.

In Finland, the company's base, about 300 jobs are likely to go, mainly from its Helsinki headquarters, a union representative said.

France, where the company slashed more than 1,000 jobs last year, will be spared in the latest round of cuts.

Chief executive Pekka Lundmark said: "Decisions that may have a potential impact on our employees are never taken lightly. My priority is to ensure that everyone [that will be hit] is supported through this process."

After taking the top job last year, Mr Lundmark has made changes after product missteps under the company's previous management hurt Nokia's 5G ambitions and dragged on its shares.

The restructuring is intended to boost Nokia's performance against rivals such as Sweden's Ericsson and China's Huawei.

Nokia was once the biggest handset manufacturer in the world, but it failed to anticipate the popularity of internet-enabled touchscreen phones such as Apple's iPhone and Samsung's Galaxy and was spectacularly knocked from its perch by rivals.

After selling its handset business to Microsoft, which the software giant later wrote off, Nokia concentrated on telecoms equipment. It also later went into a licensing deal for Nokia-branded handsets.

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Tue, 16 Mar 2021 00:06:00 -0500 text/html Nokia Oyj ADR NOK

Nokia provides telecom equipment and services that are used to build wireless and fixed-line networks, operating in four segments. The firm’s mobile networks segment, which sells equipment and services to telecom carriers to power public wireless networks, is its largest, followed closely by network infrastructure. Network infrastructure focuses on fixed networks, including infrastructure, solutions, and components for IP networks, optical networks, and submarine networks. Cloud and network services is a nascent segment catering to enterprises with “as-a-service” platforms. Nokia also has a sizable research division and patent business where the firm licenses technology used by handset providers, consumer electronics firms, and other firms making electronic and Internet of Things products.

Fri, 29 Dec 2023 02:00:00 -0600 en text/html
Nokia slips as Goldman Sachs downgrades on product, competition concerns No result found, try new keyword!Nokia (NYSE:NOK) shares slipped in premarket trading on Monday after Goldman Sachs downgraded the telecom equipment company, citing concerns over its product roadmap and rising competition. Sun, 17 Dec 2023 23:47:00 -0600 en-us text/html

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