Review FPGEE Latest Topics with Exam Questions exam simulator

At killexams.com, we provide completely valid Medical FPGEE actual Questions and Answers that are required for passing FPGEE exam. We help people to prep the Foreign Pharmacy Graduate Equivalency Questions and Answers before they actually face FPGEE exam. There are no steps involved. Just register on website and download FPGEE exam dumps.

Exam Code: FPGEE Practice exam 2022 by Killexams.com team
FPGEE Foreign Pharmacy Graduate Equivalency

The Foreign Pharmacy Graduate Equivalency Examination®, or FPGEE®, is one of the examinations required as part of the FPGEC Certification Program (You must also take and pass the TOEFL iBT, the English-language exam administered by Educational Testing Service. Applications submitted after January 1, 2020 must complete the TOEFL iBT requirement prior to sitting for the FPGEE).

The FPGEE is offered once per year, and it is administered at Pearson VUE test sites throughout the continental United States. Only individuals made eligible during the FPGEC application process can take the FPGEE.

You will be notified via your e-Profile that you are eligible to sit for the FPGEE after successfully completing the FPGEC evaluation process. You must pass the FPGEE within two years of having your FPGEC application accepted or your application will expire, and you will need to submit a new FPGEC application.

An overview of FPGEC Certification
FPGEC and ECE application procedures
Documentation of pharmacist credentials
Registering for the FPGEE
FPGEE administration
FPGEE score results

The FPGEE Competency Statements provide a blueprint of the subjects covered on the examination. A strong understanding of the Competency Statements will aid in your preparation to take the examination. The 200 questions on the FPGEE are divided among four content areas:

Basic biomedical sciences – 10%
Pharmaceutical sciences – 33%
Social, behavioral, administrative pharmacy sciences – 22%
Clinical sciences – 35%
The statements can be found in the FPGEC Candidate Application Bulletin.

Foreign Pharmacy Graduate Examination Committee™ (FPGEC®) Certification is required for foreign-educated pharmacists seeking to apply for the pharmacy licensing exams (including the North American Pharmacist Licensing Examination® (NAPLEX®) and Multistate Pharmacy Jurisprudence Examination® (MPJE®)) in the United States and NABP member jurisdictions. To obtain FPGEC Certification, a candidate must have their required documentation and application accepted, including a passing score on the Test of English as a Foreign Language Internet-based Test (TOEFL iBT), and pass the Foreign Pharmacy Graduate Equivalency Examination® (FPGEE®). The information below is provided to guide you through the key steps in applying for FPGEC Certification, including instructions for registering to take the FPGEE. It answers the most frequently asked questions about the FPGEC application process. Please read this information carefully and refer to the appropriate sections of this Application Bulletin for detailed information.

NABP provides the FPGEC Certification Program to document the educational equivalency of a candidates foreign pharmacy education, as well as their license and/or registration to practice pharmacy. To achieve FPGEC Certification, candidates must:
• Provide documents that verify their education background.
• Provide documents that verify licensure and/or registration to practice pharmacy.
• Pass the Test of English as a Foreign Language Internet-based Test (iBT).
• Pass the FPGEE.
Candidates who receive an FPGEC Certificate may be qualified to take the pharmacy licensing examination in jurisdictions that accept this Certification. All 50 US states, the District of Columbia, Guam, and Puerto Rico require foreign-trained pharmacists to achieve FPGEC Certification before applying for a license from a state board of pharmacy

- Physiology
- Function of the major body systems and homeostatic impact at organ and system level
- Biochemistry
- Chemistry and utilization of biomacromolecules including proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acid, intermediary metabolism of energy and nutritional molecules
- Enzymology and coenzymes and kinetics
- Cell chemistry, signal transduction pathways
- Transport and mobility
- Recombinant DNA and molecular biotechnology
- mRNA translation and protein synthesis
- Microbiology Related to Human Disease
- Structure, function, and characteristics of microorganisms: microbe classification, structure, metabolism, genetics
- Pathogenic microorganisms of humans
- Immunology
- Innate and adaptive immunity
- Principles of antibody actions
- Hypersensitivity and types of reactions

Area 2.0 - Pharmaceutical Sciences (Approximately 33% of Test)
- Medicinal Chemistry
- Physicochemical properties of drugs in relation to drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME)
- Chemical basis for drug action
- Fundamental pharmacophores for drugs used to treat diseases
- Structure-activity relationships in relation to drug-target interactions
- Chemical pathways of drug metabolism
- Applicability to making drug therapy decisions
- Pharmacology and Toxicology
- Mechanisms of action of drugs of various categories including biologics
- Pharmacodynamics of drug binding and response
- Adverse effects and side effects of drugs
- Mechanisms of drug-drug interactions
- Drug discovery and development
- Acute and chronic toxic effect of xenobiotics, including drug and chemical overdose and antidotes
- Pharmacognosy and Dietary Supplements
- Concepts of crude drugs, semi-purified, and purified natural products
- Classes of pharmacologically active natural products
- Science and regulation of dietary supplements (vitamins, minerals, and herbals)
- Pharmaceutics/Biopharmaceutics
- Biopharmaceutical principles of drug delivery to the body via dosage forms: liquid, solid, semisolid, controlled release, patches, implants
- Materials and methods used in preparation of drug forms
- Physicochemical properties relating to drug entities and dosage forms
- Principles of drug and dosage form stability, including chemical degradation and physical instability
- Pharmacokinetics
- Basic principles of in-vivo drug kinetics (linear and nonlinear)
- Principles of bioavailability and bioequivalence
- Physiologic determinates of drug onset and duration, including disease and dietary influences on absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion
- Pharmacogenomics and Genetics
- Molecular genetics, genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic principles that serve as a foundation for pharmacogenomics and the genetic basis of disease
- Genetic variants affecting drug action and metabolism, adverse drug reactions, and disease risk that influence the practice of personalized medicine
- Sterile and Nonsterile Compounding
- United States Pharmacopeia guidelines on sterile and nonsterile compounding, hazardous drugs, and FDA regulation of compounding
- Techniques and principles used to prepare and dispense individual extemporaneous prescriptions, including dating of compounded dosage forms
- Dosage form preparation calculations
- Sterile admixture techniques, including stability, clean-room requirements, sterility testing, and dating

Area 3.0 – Social/Behavioral/Administrative Sciences (Approximately 22% of Test)
- Health Care Delivery Systems and Public Health
- Organization of health care delivery systems at the national, state, and local levels: various settings where pharmacy is practiced and the structure of health care delivery systems such as managed care organizations, accountable care organizations, health departments
- Health care delivery financing in the United States
- Social, political, and economic factors that influence the delivery of health care in the United States
- Public Health and Wellness: chronic disease prevention, health promotion, infectious disease control, demographics, physical, social, and environmental factors leading to disease, comparing and contrasting public health with individual medical care
- The health care delivery system compared and contrasted with that of other industrialized nations
- Population-Based Care and Pharmacoepidemiology
- Data sources and analytic tools that provide an estimate of the probability of beneficial or adverse effects of medication use in large populations
- Application of epidemiological study designs to evaluate drug use and outcomes in large populations
- Methods for continually monitoring unwanted effects and other safety-related aspects of medication use in large populations
- Economic and Humanistic Outcomes of Health Care Delivery
- General microeconomic and general macroeconomic principles
- Pharmacoeconomic analysis and its application to Strengthen the allocation of limited health care resources
- Humanistic outcomes and their application to Strengthen the allocation of limited health care resources
- Pharmacy Practice Management
- Management principles (planning, organizing, directing, and controlling pharmacy resources) applied to various pharmacy practice setting and patient outcomes
- Personnel management
- Planning, including delineation between business and strategic planning
- Marketing of goods and services: product versus service pricing, distribution, promotion
- Accounting and financial management
- Budgeting
- Risk management
- Pharmacy Law and Regulatory Affairs
- Legal and regulatory principles applied to pharmacy practice: dispensing, professional services, drug use control
- Administrative, civil, and criminal liability
- Authority, responsibilities, and operation of agencies and entities that promulgate or administer laws, regulations, or guidances related to practice and prescription and nonprescription medications
- Biostatistics and Research Design
- Research study designs used in medical research
- Application and interpretation of statistical tests and data collection instruments
- Ethical Decision Making
- Principles of biomedical ethics
- Ethical dilemmas in the delivery of patient-centered care including, conflicts of interest, end-of-life decision making, use of codes of ethics, oaths of the pharmacist
- Research ethics
- Professional Communication
- Communication abilities (appropriate verbal, nonverbal, visual, and written) with patient and caregivers, including empathetic communication
- Communication abilities with other health care providers
- Assertiveness and problem-solving techniques in relation to difficult social and professional conflicts and situations
- Measurement and use of health literacy in pharmacy communications
- Development of cultural competency in pharmacy personnel such that services are respectful of and responsive to the health beliefs, practices, and cultural and linguistic needs of diverse patient populations
- Social and Behavioral Aspects of Pharmacy Practice
- Health-, illness-, and sick-role behaviors of patients
- Principles of behavior modification
- Patient adherence to therapies and recommendations
- Caregiving throughout the lifecycle
- Death and dying
- Medication Dispensing and Distribution Systems
- Systems for safe and effective preparation and dispensing of medications in all types of practice settings
- Role of automation and technology: pharmacy informatics, information management
- Continuous quality improvement programs or protocols in the medication-use process, including identification and prevention of medication errors, and establishment of error reduction programs

Area 4.0 – Clinical Sciences (Approximately 35% of Test)
- Evidence-based Practice
- Interpret and evaluate drug information
- Apply drug-information skills for the delivery of medication therapy management
- Evaluate the reliability of various sources of information
- Interpret guidelines as they apply in a clinical setting
- Utilize core scientific and systems-based knowledge in the patient care decision-making process
- Utilize basic science principles in the development and/or implementation of drug treatment protocols and clinical practice guidelines
- Evaluate clinical trials that validate clinical appropriateness
- Clinical Pathophysiology
- Apply concepts of pathophysiology to clinical decision making
- Clinical Pharmacokinetics
- Utilize pharmacokinetics to calculate, evaluate, and individualize drug therapy
- Interpret clinical pharmacokinetics of commonly used and low-therapeutic-index drug
s - Clinical Pharmacogenomics
- Utilize pharmacogenomics to calculate, evaluate, and individualize drug therapy
- Disease Prevention and Population Health
- Recognize the proper use of nonpharmacologic therapies, including complementary and alternative medicines
- Describe measures to promote wellness and disease prevention
- Identify the role of immunizations in disease prevention and health promotion
- Patient Assessment
- Describe techniques for obtaining a comprehensive patient history
- Describe how to perform patient physical assessments: inspection, palpation, percussion, auscultation
- Differentiate between normal physical assessment findings and modifications caused by common disease states and drug therapy
- Interpret common clinical laboratory values and diagnostic tests
- Perform calculations related to patient assessment: BMI, CrCl, lab adjustments
- Describe the use of OTC point-of-care testing devices: glucometers, pregnancy tests, home testing for HbA1c, drug screening
- Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutic Decision Making
- Make therapy recommendations based on dosage calculations, specific uses and indications of drugs and nutritional and support therapy
- Interpret therapeutic drug concentrations
- Assess pharmacotherapy considering contraindications, therapeutic duplications, dietary interactions, adverse drug reactions and interactions, and allergies
- Triage and identify when to refer patients to other health professionals
- Design patient-centered, culturally-relevant treatment plans
- Apply evidence-based decision making to patient care
- Recommend nonprescription and natural product therapies
- Identify and manage drug toxicity, drug-induced diseases, and misuse or abuse
- Monitor drug therapy for misuse, abuse, and non-adherence

Foreign Pharmacy Graduate Equivalency
Medical Equivalency information
Killexams : Medical Equivalency information - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/FPGEE Search results Killexams : Medical Equivalency information - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/FPGEE https://killexams.com/exam_list/Medical Killexams : Counting steps? Here's how many you need to boost health

Taking that often-cited 10,000 steps a day—or even slightly fewer—may indeed be enough to Strengthen your health, a new study suggests.

Researchers found that among 6,000 middle-aged and , those who got at least 8,000 to 9,000 daily had reduced risks of developing an array of conditions over seven years. The list included obesity, , diabetes, , acid reflux and clinical depression.

That step count is equivalent to walking roughly four miles, depending on the pace.

However, experts who were not involved in the study cautioned against getting too caught up in a magic number of daily steps: If you can be more active, do it.

In fact, the study found that when it came to warding off obesity and certain other , the more steps the better.

It's a straightforward formula, said Dr. Chip Lavie, medical director of cardiac rehabilitation and prevention at John Ochsner Heart and Vascular Institute in New Orleans.

If the goal is , he said, the more you walk or run, the more calories you burn.

"Generally, we say 100 calories are burned per mile walked or run," said Lavie, who was not involved in the study.

Of course, he noted, if people substantially boost their activity levels, they may eat more. But the "net effect" of being highly active will still translate to weight loss, Lavie said. And that, he added, can cut the risks of heart disease, diabetes and a range of other ills.

Lavie also pointed to a factor that may be just as important as step count: stepping speed, which is key for boosting .

"Fitness," Lavie said, "is one of the strongest protectors against most diseases."

All of that said, the central message of the study is a good one, said Lavie: Get moving, and you may reduce your risk of a host of chronic health conditions.

The study, published Oct. 11 in Nature Medicine, involved just over 6,000 adults aged 41 to 67 who used Fitbit devices to track their daily steps. Researchers at Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville, Tenn., were allowed access to their , to see how their daily step counts correlated with their risk of being diagnosed with various chronic ills.

Participants' activity levels were tracked over an average of four years. The median number of daily steps for the group was around 7,700 (roughly 3.5 miles)—which means half took more, and half took fewer.

Over seven years, the study found, people who averaged at least 8,200 steps a day were less likely to develop obesity. They also had lower risks of two conditions often related to obesity: sleep apnea, a nighttime breathing disorder; and acid reflux disease. The odds of being diagnosed with major depression also went down.

But more steps were even better.

People in the top 25% for step count—who typically got close to 11,000 steps per day—were about 30% to 50% less likely to develop those conditions, versus people in the bottom 25%, whose step count hovered around 6,000.

The researchers pointed to a more specific example: If an overweight person increased his or her daily step count from 6,000 to 11,000, that could cut the odds of becoming obese by 64%.

When it came to diabetes and high blood pressure, the study found a "plateau" effect—where the risks of those conditions were reduced when people got between 8,000 and 9,000 steps a day. But moving more did not offer additional protection.

However, Lavie cautioned against studying too much into that finding. "To think that one gets a maximal benefit at 9,000 steps is pretty naive," he said.

Dr. Andrew Freeman is director of cardiovascular prevention and wellness at National Jewish Health in Denver. He agreed that the study does not define a "magic number" of steps for the human body.

"Before cars, people easily walked 10 miles a day," noted Freeman, who had no role in the new research.

Beyond that, exercise is only one ingredient to staying physically and mentally healthy. A diet high in plant foods, adequate sleep and social connection are all critical, too, Freeman said.

This study lacked information on those factors. It also had other limitations, Freeman and Lavie said: People who use a Fitbit are likely health-conscious and motivated, and relatively higher-income. So it's unclear how well these findings might generalize.

Still, the central message—get moving—is sound, both doctors said.

Fitness trackers are not necessary, Freeman said, but if the devices keep you motivated, that's great. He did recommend keeping tabs in some way, such as walking a certain distance or amount of time each day, for the sake of consistency.



More information: The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recommendations on exercise.

Fitbit step counts clarify the association between activity and chronic disease risk, Nature Medicine (2022). DOI: 10.1038/s41591-022-02013-9

Copyright © 2022 HealthDay. All rights reserved.

Citation: Counting steps? Here's how many you need to boost health (2022, October 17) retrieved 17 October 2022 from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2022-10-boost-health.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

Mon, 17 Oct 2022 05:10:00 -0500 en text/html https://medicalxpress.com/news/2022-10-boost-health.html
Killexams : Increasing daily step count may boost health Researchers found that among 6,000 middle-aged and older adults, those who got at least 8,000 to 9,000 steps daily had reduced risks of developing an array of conditions over seven years. Photo by Christopher Gannon/Iowa State University © Christopher Gannon/Iowa State University Researchers found that among 6,000 middle-aged and older adults, those who got at least 8,000 to 9,000 steps daily had reduced risks of developing an array of conditions over seven years. Photo by Christopher Gannon/Iowa State University

Taking that often-cited 10,000 steps a day -- or even slightly fewer -- may indeed be enough to Strengthen your health, a new study suggests.

Researchers found that among 6,000 middle-aged and older adults, those who got at least 8,000 to 9,000 steps daily had reduced risks of developing an array of conditions over seven years. The list included obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes, sleep apnea, acid reflux and clinical depression.

That step count is equivalent to walking roughly four miles, depending on the pace.

However, experts who were not involved in the study cautioned against getting too caught up in a magic number of daily steps: If you can be more active, do it.

In fact, the study found that when it came to warding off obesity and certain other health conditions, the more steps the better.

It's a straightforward formula, said Dr. Chip Lavie, medical director of cardiac rehabilitation and prevention at John Ochsner Heart and Vascular Institute in New Orleans.

If the goal is weight control, he said, the more you walk or run, the more calories you burn.

"Generally, we say 100 calories are burned per mile walked or run," said Lavie, who was not involved in the study.

Of course, he noted, if people substantially boost their activity levels, they may eat more. But the "net effect" of being highly active will still translate to weight loss, Lavie said. And that, he added, can cut the risks of heart disease, diabetes and a range of other ills.

Lavie also pointed to a factor that may be just as important as step count: stepping speed, which is key for boosting cardiovascular fitness.

"Fitness," Lavie said, "is one of the strongest protectors against most diseases."

All of that said, the central message of the study is a good one, said Lavie: Get moving, and you may reduce your risk of a host of chronic health conditions.

The study, published Oct. 11 in Nature Medicine, involved just over 6,000 adults aged 41 to 67 who used Fitbit devices to track their daily steps. Researchers at Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville, Tenn., were allowed access to their electronic health records, to see how their daily step counts correlated with their risk of being diagnosed with various chronic ills.

Participants' activity levels were tracked over an average of four years. The median number of daily steps for the group was around 7,700 (roughly 3.5 miles) -- which means half took more, and half took fewer.

Over seven years, the study found, people who averaged at least 8,200 steps a day were less likely to develop obesity. They also had lower risks of two conditions often related to obesity: sleep apnea, a nighttime breathing disorder; and acid reflux disease. The odds of being diagnosed with major depression also went down.

But more steps were even better.

People in the top 25% for step count -- who typically got close to 11,000 steps per day -- were about 30% to 50% less likely to develop those conditions, versus people in the bottom 25%, whose step count hovered around 6,000.

The researchers pointed to a more specific example: If an overweight person increased his or her daily step count from 6,000 to 11,000, that could cut the odds of becoming obese by 64%.

When it came to diabetes and high blood pressure, the study found a "plateau" effect -- where the risks of those conditions were reduced when people got between 8,000 and 9,000 steps a day. But moving more did not offer additional protection.

However, Lavie cautioned against studying too much into that finding. "To think that one gets a maximal benefit at 9,000 steps is pretty naive," he said.

Dr. Andrew Freeman is director of cardiovascular prevention and wellness at National Jewish Health in Denver. He agreed that the study does not define a "magic number" of steps for the human body.

"Before cars, people easily walked 10 miles a day," noted Freeman, who had no role in the new research.

Beyond that, exercise is only one ingredient to staying physically and mentally healthy. A diet high in plant foods, adequate sleep and social connection are all critical, too, Freeman said.

This study lacked information on those factors. It also had other limitations, Freeman and Lavie said: People who use a Fitbit are likely health-conscious and motivated, and relatively higher-income. So it's unclear how well these findings might generalize.

Still, the central message -- get moving -- is sound, both doctors said.

Fitness trackers are not necessary, Freeman said, but if the devices keep you motivated, that's great. He did recommend keeping tabs in some way, such as walking a certain distance or amount of time each day, for the sake of consistency.

More information

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recommendations on exercise.

Copyright © 2022 HealthDay. All rights reserved.

 

Read More

Mon, 17 Oct 2022 05:32:30 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.msn.com/en-us/health/medical/increasing-daily-step-count-may-boost-health/ar-AA1342uD
Killexams : ORVANA ACHIEVES FY2022 GUIDANCE WITH 57,658 GOLD EQUIVALENT OUNCES PRODUCED

Ortosa-Godán Drilling Success Continues

TORONTO, Oct. 17, 2022 /PRNewswire/ - Orvana Minerals Corp. (TSX: ORV) (the "Company" or "Orvana") is pleased to report production results and drilling updates from Orovalle, Orvana's unit in Spain, for the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2022 ended September 30, 2022 ("Q4 FY2022").

Highlights
  • Q4 FY2022 production of 15,344 gold equivalent ounces
  • FY2022 total production of 57,658 gold equivalent ounces (44,698 gold ounces, 4.8 million copper pounds and 157,207 silver ounces)
  • 5,408 m of Infill and Brownfield Drilling
  • 1,300 m of Greenfield Drilling at Ortosa-Godán. Intercepts:
    • 33.12 g/t Au over 1.10 m in DDH 22ORW11
    • 4.39 g/t Au over 3.30 m in DDH 22ORW11
    • 4.55 g/t Au over 2.30 m in DDH 22ORW10

Juan Gavidia, CEO, commented:

"During second half of fiscal 2022 Orovalle operations performed mostly according to expectations, recovering well from the unprecedented COVID-related operational difficulties, European supply chain constraints, and Spain's nationwide transportation strike that impacted the operation in the first half of fiscal 2022".

"Coming out of fiscal 2022 with recovered productivity ratios, we now enter fiscal 2023 mindful of inflationary pressures and high energy prices. Nonetheless, we remain committed to safe and stable production with the continuous implementation of operational efficiencies to enhance our production plan, while keeping costs at the lowest possible level".

"On the strategic side, encouraging exploration results keep coming. The last drill holes at Ortosa-Godan highlight the excellent continuity of mineralization and the potential to provide long-term resources for our Spanish operations".

Q4 FY2022 Q3 FY2022 Q4 FY2021 FY2022 FY 2022 Guidance
Ore milled (tones) 174,493 176,401 134,626 673,352
Gold Equivalent (oz) 15,344 15,798 12,042 57,658
Gold
     Grade (g/t) 2.36 2.39 2.18 2.25
     Recovery (%) 92.7 91.2 91.3 91.6
     Production (oz) 12,272 12,354 8,621 44,698 44,000 – 46,000
Copper
     Grade (%) 0.40 0.40 0.52 0.39
     Recovery (%) 83.2 82.5 80.9 82.7
     Production (K lbs) 1,267 1,293 1,253 4,808 4,800 – 5,200

Q4 FY2022 Exploration Drilling

Summary Infill Brownfield Greenfield TOTAL
Ortosa-Godán - - 1,300 1,300
El Valle Boinás
     Boinas South (SB) 3,641 - - 3,641
     Breccia East (BX) 1,104 - - 1,104
     E2 - 407 - 407
     High Angle East (HE) - 256 - 256
TOTAL 4,745 663 1,300 6,708
Ortosa-Godán

Ortosa-Godán is located three kilometers northwest of OroValle's Carles mine, within the same gold belt. Orovalle commenced the drilling program in Ortosa West in August 2021 to define skarns continuity and to verify mineralization related to N40ºE structures.

During the fourth quarter of fiscal 2022, 1,300 meters were completed in three drill holes, targeting to intersect mineralization throughout N40ºE structures. DDH 22ORW10 intersected 2.30 m with 4.55 g/t Au in a piroxenic-garnet skarn with sulfides; DDH 22ORW11 intersected 1.10 m with 33.12 g/t Au in an altered endoskarn with garnets and disseminated sulfides, and 3.30 m with 4.39 g/t Au in an altered piroxenic skarn with garnets and sulfides, extending the mineralization 50 meters to the Northeast, and confirming the continuity of the mineralization along 300 m Northeast-Southwest trend (see Figure 1). DDH 22ORW12 was planned to define the continuity at depth; demo assays are pending.

Between August 2021 and September 2022, 12 drill holes were completed, totaling 4,983 m. The Company disclosed previous results in Press Releases dated January 18, 2022 and July 18, 2022.

The drilling campaign continues focused on defining mineralization, with 3,800 meters planned for FY2023. DDH 22ORW13 is currently in progress, with the target to intersect structures 100 meters to the Southwest (See Figure 1).

Figure 1: Ortosa West Intersections (CNW Group/Orvana Minerals Corp.)

Table 1: Intercepts

DDH From (m) To (m) Thick* (m) Au(gpt)
22ORW10 140.00 142.30 2.30 4.55
22ORW11 145.30 146.40 1.10 33.12
22ORW11 339.00 342.30 3.30 4.39
22ORW12  Pending results

El Valle Boinás

The drilling program continued with its focus on upgrading inferred resources, with a total of 4,745 m of infill drilling completed in Boinas South and Breccia East. Also, 663 m of brownfield drilling were executed in High Angle East and E2 to extend the mineralization areas and add inferred resources.

Quality Control

Greenfield drill hole samples were sent to an external laboratory (ALS Laboratory) for analyses. Infill and brownfield drill holes samples were analyzed in Orovalle's Laboratory.

Sample preparation was carried out at the El Valle facility. All diamond core samples have been prepared using the following procedure, once split:

  • The core samples are dried at a temperature of 105ºC and then crushed through a jaw crusher to 95%<6 mm. The coarse-crushed demo is further reduced to 95%<425 microns using an LM5 bowl-and-puck pulverizer. An Essa rotary splitter is used to take a 450 g to 550 g sub-sample of each split for pulverizing. The remaining reject portion is bagged and stored. The demo is reduced to a nominal -200 mesh using an LM2 bowl-and-puck pulverizer. 140 g sub-samples are split using a special vertical-sided scoop to cut channels through the demo which has been spread into a pancake on a sampling mat. Samples are then sent to the laboratory for gold and base metal analysis. Leftover pulp is bagged and stored.
  • After demo preparation, 30g samples are analyzed (in Orovalle Laboratory) for Au by fire assay with an atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) finish and two-gram samples for Ag, As, Bi, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb, Se, and Zn by ICP-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) after an aqua regia digestion.
  • In case of the samples sent to an external laboratory, 30 g samples are analyzed for Au by fire assay with an atomic absorption (Au AA-25) and 35 elements by ICP (ME-ICP41) after an aqua regia digestion. When Au and Ag values are >100 ppm and Cu and As values are >10,000 ppm, specific analysis methods are used to determinate the final grade.

The reported work has been completed using industry standard procedures, including a quality assurance/quality control ("QA/QC") program consisting of the insertion of certified reference material, blanks and duplicates samples into the demo stream.

The exploration update was prepared under the supervision of Guadalupe Collar Menéndez, a qualified person for the purposes of NI 43-101 and an employee of Orovalle Minerals S.L., a subsidiary of Orvana.

Financial Performance & FY2023 Guidance:

Q4 FY2022 financial highlights will be released with the year-end financials, expected mid-December, 2022. FY2023 guidance will be released with FY2022 year-end financials.

Cautionary Statements – Forward-Looking Information

Certain statements in this presentation constitute forward-looking statements or forward-looking information within the meaning of applicable securities laws ("forward-looking statements"). Any statements that express or involve discussions with respect to predictions, expectations, beliefs, plans, projections, objectives, assumptions, potentials, future events or performance (often, but not always, using words or phrases such as "believes", "expects", "plans", "estimates" or "intends" or stating that certain actions, events or results "may", "could", "would", "might", "will", "are projected to" or "confident of" be taken or achieved) are not statements of historical fact, but are forward-looking statements.

The forward-looking statements herein relate to, among other things, Orvana's ability to achieve improvement in free cash flow; the ability to maintain expected mining rates and expected throughput rates at El Valle Plant; the potential to extend the mine life of El Valle and Don Mario beyond their current life-of-mine estimates including specifically, but not limited to, in the case of Don Mario, the processing of the mineral stockpiles and the reprocessing of the tailings material, and sufficient funding to proceed with the processing; Orvana's ability to optimize its assets to deliver shareholder value; the Company's ability to optimize productivity at Don Mario and El Valle; estimates of future production (including without limitation, production guidance), operating costs and capital expenditures; mineral resource and reserve estimates; statements and information regarding future feasibility studies and their results; future transactions; future metal prices; the ability to achieve additional growth and geographic diversification; and future financial performance, including the ability to increase cash flow and profits; future financing requirements; mine development plans; and the possibility of the conversion of inferred mineral resources to mineral reserves.

Forward-looking statements are necessarily based upon a number of estimates and assumptions that, while considered reasonable by the Company as of the date of such statements, are inherently subject to significant business, economic and competitive uncertainties and contingencies, which includes, without limitation, as particularly set out in the notes accompanying the Company's most recently filed financial statements. The estimates and assumptions of the Company contained or incorporated by reference in this information, which may prove to be incorrect, include, but are not limited to the various assumptions set forth herein and in Orvana's most recently filed Management's Discussion & Analysis and Annual Information Form in respect of the Company's most recently completed fiscal year (the "Company Disclosures") or as otherwise expressly incorporated herein by reference as well as: there being no significant disruptions affecting operations, whether due to labour disruptions, supply disruptions, power disruptions, damage to equipment or otherwise; permitting, development, operations, expansion and acquisitions at El Valle and Don Mario being consistent with the Company's current expectations; political developments in any jurisdiction in which the Company operates being consistent with its current expectations; certain price assumptions for gold, copper and silver; prices for key supplies being approximately consistent with current levels; production and cost of sales forecasts meeting expectations; the accuracy of the Company's current mineral reserve and mineral resource estimates; labour and materials costs increasing on a basis consistent with Orvana's current expectations; and the availability of necessary funds to execute the Company's plan. Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, this news release also contains certain "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of applicable securities legislation, including, without limitation, references to the results of the Company's exploration activities, including but not limited to, drilling results and analyses, mineral resource estimation, conceptual mine plan and operations, internal rate of return, sensitivities, taxes, net present value, potential recoveries, design parameters, operating costs, capital costs, production data and economic potential; the timing and costs for production decisions; permitting timelines and requirements; exploration and planned exploration programs;; and the Company's general objectives and strategies.

A variety of inherent risks, uncertainties and factors, many of which are beyond the Company's control, affect the operations, performance and results of the Company and its business, and could cause actual events or results to differ materially from estimated or anticipated events or results expressed or implied by forward looking statements. Some of these risks, uncertainties and factors include: the potential impact of the COVID-19 on the Company's business and operations, including: our ability to continue operations; our ability to manage challenges presented by COVID-19; the accounting treatment of COVID-19 related matters; Orvana's ability to prevent and/or mitigate the impact of COVID-19 and other infectious diseases at or near our mines; the general economic, political and social impacts of  the continuing conflict between Russia and Ukraine, our ability to support the sustainability of our business including through the development of crisis management plans, increasing stock levels for key supplies, monitoring of guidance from the medical community, and engagement with local communities and authorities; fluctuations in the price of gold, silver and copper; the need to recalculate estimates of resources based on actual production experience; the failure to achieve production estimates; variations in the grade of ore mined; variations in the cost of operations; the availability of qualified personnel; the Company's ability to obtain and maintain all necessary regulatory approvals and licenses; the Company's ability to use cyanide in its mining operations; risks generally associated with mineral exploration and development, including the Company's ability to continue to operate the El Valle and/or ability to resume long-term operations at the Carlés Mine; the Company's ability to successfully implement a sulphidization circuit and ancillary facilities to process the current oxides stockpiles at Don Mario; the Company's ability to successfully carry out development plans at Taguas; sufficient funding to carry out development plans at Taguas and to process the oxides stockpiles at Don Mario; the Company's ability to acquire and develop mineral properties and to successfully integrate such acquisitions; the Company's ability to execute on its strategy; the Company's ability to obtain financing when required on terms that are acceptable to the Company; challenges to the Company's interests in its property and mineral rights; current, pending and proposed legislative or regulatory developments or changes in political, social or economic conditions in the countries in which the Company operates; general economic conditions worldwide; the challenges presented by COVID-19; fluctuating operational costs such as, but not limited to, power supply costs; current and future environmental matters; and the risks identified in the Company's disclosures. This list is not exhaustive of the factors that may affect any of the Company's forward-looking statements and reference should also be made to the Company's Disclosures for a description of additional risk factors.

Any forward-looking statements made herein with respect to the anticipated development and exploration of the Company's mineral projects are intended to provide an overview of management's expectations with respect to certain future activities of the Company and may not be appropriate for other purposes. Forward-looking statements are based on management's current plans, estimates, projections, beliefs and opinions and, except as required by law, the Company does not undertake any obligation to update forward-looking statements should assumptions related to these plans, estimates, projections, beliefs and opinions change. Readers are cautioned not to put undue reliance on forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements made in this information are intended to provide an overview of management's expectations with respect to certain future operating activities of the Company and may not be appropriate for other purposes.

Cision View original content to obtain multimedia:https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/orvana-achieves-fy2022-guidance-with-57-658-gold-equivalent-ounces-produced-301650591.html

SOURCE Orvana Minerals Corp.

Sun, 16 Oct 2022 23:07:00 -0500 en text/html https://markets.businessinsider.com/news/stocks/orvana-achieves-fy2022-guidance-with-57-658-gold-equivalent-ounces-produced-1031809547
Killexams : New report ranks the states on how good they are for mental health Mental Health America released a report that ranks all 50 states’ overall mental health. © Adobe.com Mental Health America released a report that ranks all 50 states’ overall mental health.

Mental Health America released “The State of Mental Health in America 2023,” a report that analyzes the prevalence of mental illness in the United States, and how much access to mental health care is available in each state. Using this data and other measures, each state, including the District of Colombia, was ranked from best to worst for mental health.

Purpose in research

Mental Health America believes that advocating for better mental health for Americans requires research to identify areas of need throughout the country.

“We believe that gathering and providing up-to-date data and information about disparities faced by individuals with mental health problems is a tool for change,” the report says.

Their goal in completing this research is to identify areas of need within the country to “understand how changes in national data reflect the impact of legislation and policies, and to increase dialogue and Strengthen outcomes for individuals and families with mental health needs.”

Key findings

  • The report found that in 2019-2020, 20.78% of adults in the U.S. were experiencing a mental illness, equivalent to over 50 million people.
  • Over half — 54.7% — of adults with mental illness do not receive treatment.
  • Over 1 in 10 youth in the U.S. are currently experiencing depression that impairs their ability to function at work or school, or within their families and social life.
  • There are 350 people for each mental health provider in the United States.

Methodology

The report used public health data for both adults and youth and ranked the states on overall mental health quality, taking into account the size of each state.

To rank the states, 15 measures were used to make up the overall ranking:

  1. Adults with any mental illness.
  2. Adults with substance use disorder in the past year.
  3. Adults with serious thoughts of suicide.
  4. Youth with at least one major depressive episode in the past year.
  5. Youth with substance use disorder in the past year.
  6. Youth with severe major depressive episodes.
  7. Adults with any mental illness who did not receive treatment.
  8. Adults with any mental illness reporting unmet needs.
  9. Adults with any mental illness who are uninsured.
  10. Adults reporting 14+ mentally unhealthy days a month who could not see a doctor due to costs.
  11. Youth with major depressive episodes who did not receive mental health services.
  12. Youth with severe major depressive episodes who received some consistent treatment.
  13. Youth with private insurance that did not cover mental or emotional problems.
  14. Students grades K-12 who identified with emotional disturbance for an individualized education program.
  15. Mental health workforce ability.

Ranking

Based on the data and criteria listed, these are the U.S. states — including Washington, D.C., — ranked from best to worst for overall mental health.

  1. Wisconsin.
  2. Pennsylvania.
  3. Massachusetts.
  4. Delaware.
  5. Connecticut.
  6. New Jersey.
  7. District of Colombia.
  8. New York.
  9. Illinois.
  10. Maryland.
  11. Kentucky.
  12. Vermont.
  13. Rhode Island.
  14. New Hampshire.
  15. South Carolina.
  16. North Carolina.
  17. Michigan.
  18. Hawaii.
  19. California.
  20. Iowa.
  21. North Dakota.
  22. New Mexico.
  23. Oklahoma.
  24. Georgia.
  25. Mississippi.
  26. Maine.
  27. Tennessee.
  28. Minnesota.
  29. Nevada.
  30. Colorado.
  31. Montana.
  32. Washington.
  33. Ohio.
  34. Alaska.
  35. Florida.
  36. Louisiana.
  37. South Dakota.
  38. Virginia.
  39. Indiana.
  40. Missouri.
  41. Utah.
  42. West Virginia.
  43. Arkansas.
  44. Nebraska.
  45. Wyoming.
  46. Texas.
  47. Idaho.
  48. Alabama.
  49. Arizona.
  50. Oregon.
  51. Kansas.
Sun, 16 Oct 2022 02:00:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.msn.com/en-us/health/health-news/new-report-ranks-the-states-on-how-good-they-are-for-mental-health/ar-AA131vkN
Killexams : Health visitor numbers in Suffolk have halved since 2019

The number of health visitors operating in Suffolk has almost halved since 2019, new information reveals.

Suffolk County Council has revealed that it now has 65 full-time equivalent health visitors operating in Suffolk, compared to 120 two years ago.

Health visitors work with families of children up to five years old to help identify health needs, Strengthen wellbeing, prevent ill health and reduce inequalities.

They carry out five mandatory developmental checks - antenatal, new baby, six-eight weeks, one year and two or 2.5 years.

In June 2019, it was reported that 31 of Suffolk County Council's 120 health visitor roles were being eyed for cuts.

Four months later in October, final numbers revealed that 41 had disappeared as a result of budget cuts.

However, as of September 2022, this number sunk even further to 65 - almost half the original figure.

Healthwatch Suffolk chief executive Andy Yacoub. - Credit: Gregg Brown

Andy Yacoub, chief executive of Healthwatch Suffolk emphasised the importance of children having the best start in life, saying: "This includes ensuring interventions in early infancy and making sure support is there for those who need it.

"We would therefore expect it to follow that local commissioning arrangements for services in the future will seek to ensure families are supported throughout the early stages of their child's life."

He pointed to the pressure that maternity care is currently facing, adding: "This includes people having often struggled to access postnatal care and support extending beyond their discharge from hospitals."

Mr Yacoub commented that the "guidance of a friendly professional" in the time immediately following the birth of a baby is vital.

Home-Start in Suffolk chief executive Tara Spence. - Credit: Sarah Lucy Brown

Tara Spence, chief executive of family charity Home-Start in Suffolk highlighted the importance of the first 1,001 days of a child's life - from conception to two years old.

"We recognise that for many parents the early days and months after having a baby can be daunting and challenging," said Ms Spence.

She added that Home-Start offer many group services as well as home visiting which are designed to support parents during this time.

This newspaper contacted Suffolk County Council for comment.

Sun, 02 Oct 2022 22:34:00 -0500 en-UK text/html https://www.ipswichstar.co.uk/news/health/health-visitor-numbers-halved-in-suffolk-9304586
Killexams : TikTok takes actions against public health and election misinformation

TikTok, a popular short-form video social media platform, published its April-June Community Guidelines Enforcement report, which aims to show the improvements it has made in countering misinformation spread by its users.

The company's "harmful misinformation" policies prohibit content that could mislead the community about civic processes, public health or safety. For instance, TikTok does not allow medical misinformation about vaccines or Covid-19.

To promote election integrity, TikTok created an Elections Center to provide access to authoritative information about voting in elections in the US from organisations like the National Association of Secretaries of State and Ballotpedia, though it has yet to create an equivalent means of preventing misinformation about elections taking place in all countries where it operates.

According to TikTok, in order to help keep the platform welcoming and authentic for everyone, it removes content that violates its policies.

"Misinformation is not a new problem, but the internet provides a new avenue to an old challenge. We recognize the impact misinformation can have in eroding trust in public health, electoral processes, facts, and science,” said Cormac Keenan, Head of Trust and Safety at TikTok.

TikTok reported that since starting their programme last quarter, they had identified 33 new misinformation claims that resulted in the removal of 58,000 videos from the platform.

Based on TikTok’s data, in Cambodia the total removals are at 796,453 clips with 99.5 per cent of the clips removed before users reported them along with a removal rate of videos with zero views of 90.1 per cent and a removal rate within 24-hours of being posted at 94.4 per cent.

It said that its platform uses a combination of technology and thousands of content moderation professionals who work together to enforce its community guidelines and that the company intends to continually invest in technology-based flagging as well as human moderation.

The platform relies on automated moderation when its systems have a high degree of confidence that content is in violation of its terms so that it can expeditiously remove anything against its policies.

In addition to removing content that is inaccurate and harms the community, TikTok also removes accounts that seek to mislead people or use TikTok to deceptively sway public opinion. These activities range from inauthentic or fake account creation to more sophisticated efforts to undermine public trust.

“We are committed to being part of the solution. We treat misinformation with the utmost seriousness. We take a multi-pronged approach to stop it from spreading, while elevating authoritative information and investing in digital literacy education to help get ahead of the problem at scale,” Keenan said.

TikTok said it has more than a dozen fact-checking partners around the world that review content in over 30 languages and that all of its fact-checking partners are accredited by the International Fact-Checking Network as Checked signatories of the International Fact-Checking Network's code of principles. Khmer is not one of the 30 languages.

TikTok states that it has developed some key features to Strengthen detecting and removing misinformation through continuing investment in machine learning models and increased capacity to iterate on these models rapidly given the fast-changing nature of misinformation, improving detection of known misleading audio and imagery to reduce manipulated content and introducing a database of previously fact-checked claims to help misinformation moderators make swift and accurate decisions.

Lastly, the platform said it will continue with a proactive detection programme with fact-checkers who flag new and evolving claims they're seeing across the internet allowing TikTok to look for these claims on its platform and remove violations.

While violations of TikTok's integrity and authenticity policies make up less than one per cent of overall video removals, these continued investments have brought gains to TikTok's proactive detection and enforcement of these policies, TikTok claimed.

Wed, 05 Oct 2022 21:20:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.phnompenhpost.com/national/tiktok-takes-actions-against-public-health-and-election-misinformation
Killexams : Utah man arrested after child abuse that caused injuries equivalent to car crash, police say

A Pleasant Grove man was arrested for allegedly hitting, throwing and dropping his 2-month-old daughter, according to police. (Brian A Jackson, Shutterstock)

Estimated read time: 3-4 minutes

PLEASANT GROVE — A Pleasant Grove man has been arrested for allegedly causing injuries to his 2-month-old daughter that one doctor told police were equivalent to being in a car crash.

The 30-year-old man was booked into the Utah County Jail on Monday for investigation of two counts of aggravated child abuse.

The investigation began when a 2-month-old girl was taken to American Fork Hospital by her parents just after midnight on Monday. The girl was flown by medical helicopter to Primary Children's Hospital where it was determined that she was suffering from a skull fracture, brain bleed, fractures to both of her legs and bruising on her arms, legs and back, according to a police booking affidavit.

One doctor "equated the damage similar to being in a car crash, or being thrown down stairs" and explained to police that these types of injuries "typically occur after shaking, and/or incur due to being slammed on a hard surface."

After initially stating that his dog had knocked the infant out of his arms, the girl's father was again interviewed by police and admitted that he was stressed over being a new father and losing his job about the same time, according to the affidavit. He admitted to becoming frustrated when his daughter was fussy and cried and was hard to console.

On Oct. 5, when the baby was fussy and not eating, the father "threw" her across a couch, "slammed" her into her swing carrier and "smacked her across the head," the affidavit states. Then on Sunday, after again becoming frustrated with her not eating, the father "dropped" her into her crib from about shoulder height, and later "smacked her with a cushion" and then "dropped her to the floor," according to police.

After allegedly being dropped on the floor, the infant became quiet and lethargic and began throwing up. The father told police he was too scared to call 911, the affidavit states. The girl was taken to the hospital a couple of hours later after the girl's mother got home from work.

Help with Children

Those who feel stressed out with a child, who need a break or who feel like they need counseling or training can reach out to one of the following agencies:

Most accurate Police & Courts stories

Pat Reavy is a longtime police and courts reporter. He joined the KSL.com team in 2021, after many years of reporting at the Deseret News and KSL NewsRadio before that.

Tue, 11 Oct 2022 04:32:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.ksl.com/article/50493144/utah-man-arrested-after-child-abuse-that-caused-injuries-equivalent-to-car-crash-police-say-
Killexams : NJ Mom Was Homeless, Now She’s Working In Health Care Programs at New Community Corporation, a Newark-based nonprofit, have helped Ilene Villanueva to launch a career in the health care field. © Photo: New Community Corporation Programs at New Community Corporation, a Newark-based nonprofit, have helped Ilene Villanueva to launch a career in the health care field.

NEWARK, NJ — The following article comes courtesy of New Community Corporation. Find out how to post announcements or events to your local Patch site.

Ilene Villanueva has always wanted to work in the medical field. She said even as a child, people would seek her out for help translating or other tasks when she would go to doctor appointments or the emergency room.

Her hopes of becoming a doctor seemed out of reach when she became a mother at a young age and was unable to finish high school. She worked for a catering service and at a pharmacy in New York before moving to New Jersey. She found herself in a situation where her landlord only wanted rent payments in cash and he wouldn’t provide a lease. He changed the locks and she ended up homeless with her children.

Villanueva then found Harmony House, New Community’s transitional housing facility for homeless families. She spent time there in 2017 and 2018 before moving to permanent housing. Harmony House employees informed her that New Community Career & Technical Institute (NCCTI) offered a High School Equivalency (HSE) program, which was conveniently located right next door. She took advantage of the opportunity and earned her GED in 2018.

While in the HSE program, Villanueva learned about the accredited post-secondary medical programs NCCTI offered. She decided to enroll in the Medical Assistant Clinical (MAC) program to put herself on the path to a career.

The accurate death of Villanueva’s father renewed her interest in a medical career.

“I thought, I really want to go into the medical field so that I can be able to be one person to change it, to be there for the people,” she said.

She completed the MAC program in 2020 and began working full-time at University Hospital in April of this year as an ambulatory care technician. In that role, she takes patients’ vitals; provides customer service to patients; schedules, cancels and reminds patients about appointments; and discharges patients.

Villanueva said she enjoys the first job of her medical career.

“I’ve gotten way farther than other people that have been working there for years. And that’s all thanks to the school because they taught me,” she said.

At age 29, Villanueva hopes to continue her education and become a registered nurse.

Her journey shows how NCCTI can serve as a bridge to get students where they ultimately want to be.

“NCCTI provides the stepping stones for students to create a foundational layer for them to expand upon or build up from,” said NCCTI Director Dr. Sylvia McCray. “The work we do here is to blow life back into a dead dream or a buried goal. We know the way to Strengthen one’s life and circumstances begins with education and training. That is our main goal. Our mission is to push students so they can see what we see: opportunity, growth and choice for themselves.”

Odette Phillip was one of Villanueva’s HSE instructors who helped her earn her GED.

“At first, it was a challenge for her in terms of attendance due to the fact that she had limited support out of school. She pushed through this by staying after classes when she could to catch up on missed work. Ilene did her best and I admire her determination,” Phillip said. “I am really proud of her achievements thus far.”

Villanueva said Phillip, her MAC instructor and everyone else she encountered at New Community helped her.

“They actually cared and said I see what you’re going through. I want to be here. I’m open ears and open hands and open information. Everything they could think of, they would always push me to do it,” Villanueva said. “They’ve been there for me like you couldn’t imagine. At my lowest, they were there. They didn’t judge me. And they helped me.”

In addition to being happy about going to school and starting a career she’s passionate about, Villanueva is proud to be a good role model for her four children.

“My kids have seen the steps I’ve been taking so they’ve been trying to do the same thing,” she said. “So everybody’s been coming home with honor roll certificates.”

Don’t forget to visit the Patch Newark Facebook page. Send local news tips and correction requests to eric.kiefer@patch.com. Learn more about advertising on Patch here.

The article NJ Mom Was Homeless, Now She’s Working In Health Care appeared first on Newark Patch.

Thu, 06 Oct 2022 05:59:21 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.msn.com/en-us/news/us/nj-mom-was-homeless-now-she-s-working-in-health-care/ar-AA12GegF
Killexams : Young Women With Heavy Periods Fails To Get Help, Can Lead To Big Health Problems
Many of us have no idea whether or not our period is “normal”. It’s no wonder, since not only is everyone different, but the stigma still keeps many of us from asking questions or discussing what we go through every month with friends and family.

But there is such as thing as bleeding too much. In fact, around a quarter of women experience a clinical condition known as menorrhagia – also called heavy menstrual bleeding. This is when your period is abnormally heavy or prolonged. Here’s what you need to know about the condition.

What counts as a heavy period?

Typically, during a “normal” period, you lose between 70ml and 80ml of fluid (the equivalent of around two double espressos). Around 50% of the fluid lost is blood. But people with heavy menstrual bleeding may lose around 160ml-400ml of fluid (a little less than a pint of liquid).

The most common symptoms of heavy menstrual bleeding are:

  • Bleeding through pads or tampons every one to two hours,
  • A period that lasts more than seven days,
  • Passing blood clots larger than 1 inch (around the size of a 10p coin).

Impacts of Heavy Periods

Despite how common it is, most women with the condition aren’t even aware they have it. Many even assume their period is “normal”. But this way of thinking can be a problem, as heavy menstrual bleeding can sometimes be a sign of an underlying issue – such as fibroids, endometriosis, or a pelvic infection or bleeding illnesses. A recently fitted intrauterine device (IUD) may also temporarily cause heavy menstrual bleeding.

Around two-thirds of women with heavy menstrual bleeding also go on to have long-term iron deficiency anaemia as a result.

When we menstruate, we lose red blood cells which are integral for carrying oxygen (a source of energy) throughout the body. If you bleed heavily every month, you lose more red blood cells than normal.

Anaemia can take a while to develop, but can cause a range of symptoms that can have a major effect on your daily life.

While pale skin or lips are tell-tale physical signs, a person with anaemia may also feel more tired than usual, irritable, dizzy, confused and even depressed. Anaemia can also cause headaches, brain fog, increased heart rate and even weight loss.

What can you do about heavy periods?

If you suspect you may have heavy menstrual bleeding, it’s important to speak to your doctor as soon as you can. Diagnosis can take up to several months after you first visit your GP, so it’s important not to put it off.

Going to your appointment armed with information is always useful. For example, it’s good to have an idea of your usual blood loss either by using menstrual cups to measure volume or tracking how many sanitary items you use every cycle.

Keeping a menstrual diary or using a tracker app can also help, as well as knowing if the condition runs in the family. If you haven’t done this, it’s likely your doctor will ask you to track these things for a few months before diagnosing you.

Keeping track of your period can be useful when speaking to your GP. Kaspars Grinvalds

Your doctor will be able to prescribe you certain medications that may lessen the effect of heavy menstrual bleeding – including the contraceptive pill or tranexamic acid (which controls bleeding and helps blood clots). Surgical options may also be needed should the condition be caused by another issue, such as fibroids.

If you suspect you may have anaemia, it’s similarly important to track your symptoms carefully, especially how you feel both before and after your period. Many common conditions, such as anxiety, cough, flu, and food allergies, have overlapping symptoms with iron-deficiency anaemia, so asking your doctor for a blood test is important as it will tell you whether or not you’re anaemic.

If you’re diagnosed with anaemia, iron supplements may be prescribed to help your body generate new red blood cells. A healthy, balanced diet containing foods high in iron – such as dark meats, chickpeas, beans, leafy greens and nuts – may also help.


Suggested Reading- Periods Are Culturally Stigmatised, Yet Why Do Women Follow Period Tradition


Why it’s important to receive help

But as many women with heavy menstrual bleeding know, it often takes far too long before they get the help they need. This can mean years of unnecessary suffering, with the condition affecting everything from their personal life, school attendance, participation in sports and even their work. Those who develop anaemia, as a result, will experience even more effects on their physical and mental health.

This is why there needs to be far more openness and education about women’s health. Not only does this mean talking more about what is and isn’t normal when it comes to periods, it also means making sure healthcare providers are properly educated about the signs and symptoms of this condition – and the harms that can come from it. Having a more open discussion and raising awareness may help more women get the help and treatment they need sooner.

Suzannah Williams is an Associate Professor in Ovarian Physiology, Lead for Ovarian Cryopreservation and Fertility Preservation Research, Lead of Rhino Fertility Project, University of Oxford. Tomi Adeniran is a DPhil in Women’s and Reproductive Health, University of Oxford, published article first with The Conversation. 

Wed, 12 Oct 2022 06:35:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.shethepeople.tv/health/impacts-of-heavy-periods-on-young-women/
Killexams : Human 'blastoids' offer medical hope but also deep ethical challenges

The study of blastoids, a research model of an early embryo derived from stem cells rather than from a father's sperm or a mother's egg, offers great hope for researchers investigating why pregnancies are lost at an early stage, what causes birth defects, and other subjects related to early human development. Their use potentially avoids the challenges of scarcity and potential ethical problems of using actual embryos for the same sort of research.

But a group of ethicists and a cellular biologist have warned that blastoids are not without their own set of ethical considerations. While mammalian blastoid research has advanced rapidly in accurate years, often using mouse blastoids, there has been insufficient consideration of how to regulate the creation and research use of human blastoids -- feasible only since 2021.

A paper outlining some of these ethical challenges appeared in the journal EMBO Reports on September 14.

Blastoids, sometimes called embryoids, resemble the cells, structure (morphology) and genetics of the very earliest form an embryo takes. Such an early embryo is called a blastocyst. Blastoids mimic early embryonic development up to and potentially just beyond the blastocyst stage five to six days after the first cell division. A major step forward in accurate years has been the ability to grow blastocyst-like structures from pluripotent stem cells (cells that are able to take on many different cell types or tissue forms).

"But whereupon implantation into the uterus, blastocysts ultimately develop into a fetus, blastoids do not, and so are considered a model of an embryo rather than an actual embryo," said bioethicist and Associate Professor Tsutomu Sawai of the Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences at Hiroshima University, a co-author of the paper. "Or, more precisely, there is so far no evidence that they can develop into a fetus, which is the crux of the ethical conundrum."

The scholars in their paper did not set out to make an argument for or against different regulatory or ethical attitudes toward human blastoid research, but instead wanted to explore what problems might arise around regulation of them to inform political, scientific and societal conversation about this research.

What makes the issue ethically fraught is that just as people have different views as to the moral status of embryos, especially in the context of research, they are likely to have different views on the moral status of blastoids. Some feel that the key question is whether embryos or blastoids have properties such as sentience -- the ability to feel pain or experience consciousness, while others feel that the key question is whether they have the potential to do so.

Some scientists have argued that blastoids and blastocysts are not functionally equivalent, and would therefore not require the same level of oversight and regulation as human embryos.

An opposing camp however has argued that blastoids will become functionally closer to blastocysts sooner or later if they are morphologically and genetically similar to normal blastocysts. As a result, this camp feels that blastoids and blastocysts should be treated the same by regulators as they may become functionally equivalent in the future.

There have been no reports yet of mouse blastoids developing to the fetal stage, and so it is believed that mouse blastoids do not possess the ability to do so. In turn, it is assumed that human blastoids are similarly incapable.

However, while mice are useful models, they are not the same as humans. Yet it would not be socially and legally permissible to implant a blastoid into the uterus of a woman to find out whether human blastoids can develop further than mouse ones do.

In addition, it may be the case that the failure of a mouse blastoid to develop into a fetus is the result of the 'culture technique', or method of growing the blastoid in a lab, which necessarily will be different from the environment of a uterus. Theoretically then, whether mouse or human, blastoids might indeed be able to develop further if culture techniques became available that perfectly mimic in utero development.

"The feasibility of lab techniques perfectly mimicking in utero however remains speculative, and policy-makers, researchers and wider society need to assess what to do right now, not wait until such technological advances occur," added Professor Sawai.

Taking these arguments into account, there are two options for regulating blastoid research. One is to differentiate between blastoids and blastocysts since there is currently no convincing evidence to demonstrate that blastoids and blastocysts are functionally equivalent or are likely to become functionally equivalent in the near future. The other possibility is to regulate them in the same way, regardless of whether they are functionally equivalent or not by emphasizing the genetic and structural similarities between the two.

For example, Japan, the UK and US have taken a regulatory approach that embraces the first option, while Australia has chosen a path that embraces the latter option.

The scholars also note that such research regulation can be affected by whether human blastoids are derived from stem cells that come from embryos (ESC) or from what are called induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). This latter type comes from skin or blood cells that have been reprogrammed back into a pluripotent state akin to that of embryo stem cells. The ethical issues related to iPSC research are usually considered less severe than those for ESC research, as the latter involves the destruction of embryos.

But if regulators opt for a preference for iPSC-derived blastoids over ESC blastoids, thinking that they have avoided an ethical minefield, they may find that they are in one nevertheless.

This is because iPSCs have the same genetic information as the donor, and so it may be reasonable to consider iPSC-derived blastoids as falling within the regulatory framework of cloned embryos. In the public consciousness, human cloning for research purposes has proven to be just as if not more ethically fraught than creating human embryos for research purposes.

The very accurate advent of the capacity to make human blastoids has meant that the debate over human blastoids has so far yet to leap much beyond the lab bench or regulatory office and pierce the public's consciousness in the way that the moral status of human embryos in scientific research has. But this situation is unlikely to remain the case for long, and the scholars feel this is a good thing.

"The rules for early developmental research, whether on blastoids or embryos, should not be decided by scientists or bioethicists alone," concluded Professor Sawai. "Instead, a wider societal discussion must take the lead."

Other contributors include Kyoko Akatsuka of the Uehiro Research Division for iPS Cell Ethics at the Center for iPS Cell Research and Application at Kyoto University, Go Okui of the Institute for the Advanced Study of Human Biology (ASHBi) at Kyoto University, and Tomohiro Minakawa of the Department of Cellular and Tissue Communication at the Graduate School of Medicine at The University of Tokyo.

Wed, 28 Sep 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2022/09/220929204107.htm
FPGEE exam dump and training guide direct download
Training Exams List