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H12-261 HCIE-R&S (Written) (Expert -Routing & Switching) 2023

Huawei Certification follows the "platform + ecosystem" development strategy, which is a new collaborative architecture of ICT infrastructure based on "Cloud-Pipe-Terminal". Huawei has set up a complete certification system consisting of three categories: ICT infrastructure certification, Platform and Service certification and ICT vertical certification, and grants Huawei certification the only all-range technical certification in the industry.

Huawei offers three levels of certification: Huawei Certified ICT Associate (HCIA), Huawei Certified ICT Professional (HCIP), and Huawei Certified ICT Expert (HCIE).

Huawei certification covers all ICT fields, which is in line with the trend of ICT convergence. With its leading talent development system and certification standards, Huawei is committed to developing new ICT professionals in the digital era and building a healthy ICT talent ecosystem.

HCIE-Routing & Switching V3.0 certification is intended for experts in routing and switching network planning, design, and O&M.

To adapt to the development of network technologies and meet the requirements for data communication talent capabilities, HCIE-Routing & Switching V3.0 has been greatly optimized and improved based on V2.0, mainly in terms of new SDN technologies and IPv6 network technologies, in addition, many outdated network technologies, such as RIP and FR, are reduced. The experimental architecture also changes greatly to match the applications and scenarios on the live network, so that the HCIE-Routing & Switching certification owners have more practical network technologies and can adapt to the development trend of network technologies.

Product Overview
Through the HCIE-Routing & Switching V3.0 learning, trainees understand and master the L2 and L3 network technologies, IPv4 and IPv6 network protocols, routing control technologies, MPLS and MPLS L3 VPN technologies, multicast technologies, network security technologies, QoS technologies, SDN technologies, network management, and network performance optimization technologies.

The following materials will be included in the HCIE-Routing & Switching V3.0 certification training suite.

- HCIE-Routing & Switching V3.0 Training Outline

- HCIE-Routing & Switching V3.0 test Outline

- HCIE-Routing & Switching V3.0 Training Materials

- HCIE-Routing & Switching V3.0 Lab Guide

- HCIE-Routing & Switching V3.0 LAB Mock Exam

- HCIE-Routing & Switching V3.0 Timetable

- HCIE-Routing & Switching V3.0 ilearningX Learning

The training materials of HCIE-Routing & Switching V3.0 are as follows:

- Layer 2 network technology

- IP Unicast Routing Technology

- MPLS VPN and inter-AS technology

- IP Features, such as security technology, HA, NMS, and QoS

- SDN technology

- Network planning and troubleshooting

The Lab guides of HCIE-Routing & Switching V3.0 are as follows:

- LAN and WAN Experiment

- IPv6 Transition Technology Experiment

- IP Unicast Routing Dual-Stack Experiment

- Route Import and Control Experiment

- Multicast Experiment


- IP Features experiment

HCIE-Routing & Switching V3.0 uses Huawei official simulator eNSP as the lab test platform. Therefore, it is recommended that each training institution and examinee use eNSP as the teaching and experimental tool. This version does not provide the physical lab equipment list and the corresponding lab environment setup guide, please build the required lab topology and environment on the eNSP platform based on the lab guide by yourself.
HCIE-R&S (Written) (Expert -Routing & Switching) 2023
Huawei Switching) candidate

Other Huawei exams

H12-721 HCNP-Security-CISN (Huawei Certified Network Professional - Constructing Infrastructure of Security Network)
H12-221 Huawei Certified Network Professional-Implementing Enterprise Routing Network
H13-622 HCNP-Storage-HCNP-CBDS (Huawei Certified Network Professional- Constructing Big Data Solution
H12-211 Huawei Network Technology and Device (HCNA-HNTD)
H12-261 HCIE-R&S (Written) (Expert -Routing & Switching) 2023
H12-222 HCNP-R&S-IESN (Implementing Enterprise Routing & Switching)
H12-223 HCNP-R&S-IENP(Improving Enterprise Network Performance)
H12-311 HCIA-WLAN (Huawei Certified ICT Associate-WLAN)
H12-711 HCNA-Security-CBSN(Constructing Basic Security Network)
H13-511 HCNA-Cloud-BCCP (Building Cloud Computing Platform)
H13-611 HCNA-Storage-BSSN(Building the Structure of Storage Network)
H13-612 HCNA - Storage (HCNA-Storage-BSSN) V3.0
H13-629 HCIE-Storage (Written) (Internetwork Expert-Storage)
H31-211 Huawei Certified Network Associate - HCDA (Carrier IP)
H31-523 HCIE-Cloud Data Center Operations (Written)
H13-523 HCNP-Cloud-FCDS
H11-861-ENU HCNP-VC(Huawei Certified Network Professional Video Conference)
H12-111_V2.5-ENU HCIA-IoT V2.5
H12-311-ENU Huawei Certified Network Professional Wireless Local Area
H12-322_V1.0-ENU HCIP-WLAN-POEW V1.0
H13-711_V3.0-ENU HCIA-Big Data V3.0 Certification
H13-811_V3.0-ENU HCIA-Cloud Service V3.0
H35-210_V2.5-ENU Huawei HCIA-Access V2.5
H13-311_V3.0-ENU HCIA-AI V3.0 Certification
H35-582-ENU Huawei Certified ICT Expert-5G-Radio
H35-660 HCIA-5G V1.0
H35-480_V3.0-ENU HCIA-5G-RAN V3.0
H35-660_V2.0-ENU HCIA-5G V2.0
H35-462 HCS-5G RF Advanced

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HCIE-R&S (Written) (Expert -Routing & Switching)
Question: 256
In RSTP (Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol) what is a port that provides an alternate path to the leaves of the Spanning Tree and
what state is this port in when it is not in the active topology?
A. Root port and listening
B. Alternate port and forwarding
C. Alternate port and learning
D. Designated port and learning
E. Backup port and discarding
F. None of the other
Answer: E
Question: 257
On a switch running the rapid spanning tree protocol, which port will send a BPDU with the proposal flag?
A. Designated port in forwarding state
B. Designated port in non-forwarding state or the Root port in forwarding state
C. Root port in blocking state
D. Alternate port
E. None of the other
Answer: B
Question: 258
Which of the following statements regarding Transparent Bridge tables are FALSE? (Select 2 s)
A. Decreasing the bridge table aging time would reduce flooding
B. Increasing the bridge table aging time would reduce flooding
C. Bridge table entries are learned by way of examining the source MAC address of each frame
D. Bridge table entries are learned by examining destination MAC addresses of each frame.
E. The bridge aging time should always be more than the aggregate time for detection and recalculation of the spanning
Answer: AD
Question: 259
802.1s defines deployment for which of the following?
A. One STP instance per set of Bridges
B. One global instance for all VLANs
C. One STP instance for each VLAN
D. One STP instance per set ofVLANs
Answer: D
Question: 260
If on a LAN switch Gigabit Ethernet or 10-Gigabit Ethernet port receive buffer becomes full what protocol can be used to
request remote port to delay sending frames for a specified time?
A. 802.1U
B. 802.3Z
C. 802.1D
D. 802.3
E. 802.3AF
Answer: B
Question: 261
Which of the following is used in Ethernet networks? (Select 3 s)
A. Non Canonical format MAC addresses.
B. CSMA/CD for media access.
C. Canonical format MAC addresses.
D. 802.5 encapsulated frames.
E. 802.3 encapsulated frames
Answer: BCE
Question: 262
Which of the following IEEE standards are used for Gigabit Ethernet? (Select 2 s)
A. 802.3z
B. 802.3ab
C. 802.3ad
D. 802.3af
E. All of the other
Answer: AB
Question: 263
Why does RSTP have a better convergence time than 802.1D?
A. it is newer
B. it has smaller timers
C. it has less overhead
D. it is not timer-based
Answer: D
Question: 264
Under which two circumstances would an RSTP bridge flush its Mac address table? (Select 2 s)
A. Upon a port state change
B. Upon receiving a topology change notification
C. When transitioning from discarding to forwarding
D. When transitioning from forwarding to discarding
E. Only when changing from listening to discarding
F. When CAM resources have been completely used up
Answer: BC
Question: 265
Spanning Tree Protocol calculates path cost based on which of these?
A. Interface bandwidth
B. Interface delay
C. Interface bandwidth and delay
D. Hop count
E. Bridge priority
Answer: A
Question: 266
When connecting a switch to another switch using Ethernet ports, what pinout should be used?
A. min_height 25
min_width 173
B. min_height 25
min_width 171
C. min_height 25
min_width 170
D. min_height 25
min_width 171
E. min_height 25
min_width 178
Answer: E
Question: 267
What spanning-tree protocol timer determines how often the root bridge send configuration BDPUs?
A. Forward Delay Timer
B. Hold Timer
C. STP Timer
D. Max Age Timer
E. Hello Timer
Answer: E
Question: 268
While troubleshooting a LAN issue on the HW network, you notice a number of unicast frames.Having multiple unknown
unicast frames in a switch would most likely deplete which of the following resources?
A. Power Consumption
B. MAC Addresses available in the system
C. Memory available for frame buffering
D. Available bandwidth
E. None of the other
F. TCAM entries
Answer: D
Question: 269
A cable one end connecting to port G0/0/17 and the other to port G0/0/18 in a stp enabled. Which of the following statements
is true?
A. port G0/0/17 will be stuck in the learning states
B. Both ports will be forwardin
C. port G0/0/17 will be blocke
D. port G0/0/18 will be blocke
E. port G0/0/18 will continuously move between the listening and learning states.
F. Both ports will be blocke
Answer: D
Question: 270
The LAN network is running the 802.1D spanning tree protocol. Which of the following are parameters that a bridge will
receive from the root bridge?
A. Forward delay
B. Root Cost
C. Maxage
D. A,B, and C
E. None of the other
Answer: D
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Huawei Switching) candidate - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/H12-261 Search results Huawei Switching) candidate - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/H12-261 https://killexams.com/exam_list/Huawei 3Com Confirms Huawei Switch Plans

As first reported by CRN last week, the networking hardware vendor is OEMing the switch from Huawei, the Chinese vendor involved in a patent infringement suit with Cisco Systems.

The 3Com Switch 7700 is a high-performance, Layer 3 modular LAN switch for campus core applications and supports convergence of voice, video and data with Quality of Service (QoS), bandwidth management and high-density Gigabit and Fast Ethernet, said Patrick Guay, vice president, LAN infrastructure at 3Com. The switch is also 10-gigabit capable, he said.

Slated to be unveiled Wednesday, the switch is "only the beginning," Guay said. The company is developing a full product roadmap based on the platform, he said.

The seven-slot starter kit for the 7700 will have a U.S. list price of $21,995, 3Com said. In general, the switch will price out from 15 percent to 40 percent less than competing solutions from Cisco, Guay said. The 7700 is designed to compete head-to-head with Cisco's Catalyst 4500 series switches, he said.

Glenn Perkal, vice president of Albuquerque, N.M., solution provider Integrity Networking Systems, called the 7700 platform a "good midrange chassis that will work well as a core product for midsize enterprise customers." The switch "will supply us the opportunity to do more for our customers that are looking for more capability at a lower price," Perkal said.

The 7700 is a solid offering to go against Cisco's Catalyst 4500 and Extreme Network's Alpine switch line, Perkal said, but "we still have customers that will only buy Cisco," he added.

Integrity sells Cisco and Foundry gear as well as 3Com.

While Perkal said he is excited about the launch of the 7700, scheduled for late July, he is looking forward to more products from the 3Com-Huawei joint venture.

"This is just the beginning. There are a lot more products to come on the higher end that we're excited about," he said. "I'm especially happy to see a company like 3Com enter the router market. The fact that somebody else is making a major play in the router market is a good thing for everybody."

Dave Smith, vice president of sales at 3Com, said the company will recruit its current Gold and Silver partners to sell the new switch line. "There is a good portion of our partner base that can scale to this market right now," he said. Many 3Com partners have been selling other products into the enterprise space because 3Com didn't offer any, Smith said.

"Our channel partners will now be able to compete in this market with a lower acquisition cost and still have higher product margins," he said. "We also expect an influx of new partners who are tired of competing for low or no margins."

Unlike other 3Com switches, partners will have to undergo training and be certified to sell the new modular line, Smith said. 3Com plans to sponsor a large national training session in late July, he said.

3Com also plans Wednesday to unveil the XRN GBIC Fabric Interconnect, a new method of XRN technology implementation that enables customers to extend XRN connections across distances up to 70 kilometers. Launched last year, 3Com's XRN connects stackable switches, allowing them to be managed as a single switch fabric. The XRN GBIC Fabric Interconnect is expected to be available in September and be part of a chargeable software upgrade.

3Com also plans to introduce the Switch 4070, an XRN-enabled switch that lets IT managers to dictate the mixture of 1000BASE SX and 1000BASE LX ports to meet their specific requirements, using SFP transceivers. The Switch 4070 is expected to be available in July at a list price of $8,995.

As well, 3Com will announce Wednesday that it plans to add new enterprise-level capabilities on its Gigabit Ethernet switches to support the advanced enterprise routing protocol OSPF.

As for the lawsuit between Cisco and Huawei, Perkal said he isn't worried. "3Com guaranteed us they would bring products to market that would not be affected by this suit, and I believe them," he said.

3Com last week asked the U.S. Court for the Eastern District of Texas in Marshall, Texas, to intervene in the litigation between Cisco and Huawei. 3Com asked the court to declare that the products it OEMs from Huawei and later sells through a planned joint venture do not infringe on Cisco's intellectual property. Also last week, Huawei asked the court to declare that its new products do not infringe Cisco's Intellectual property.

3Com in said in March that it had formed a joint venture with Huawei to produce a high-end line of enterprise switches and routers.

Last week's moves follow a preliminary injunction issued by the court June 6 that bars Huawei from selling products that use Cisco documentation, online help files and source code. Huawei said it already has pulled the products in question from U.S. markets.

Mon, 16 Jun 2003 11:44:00 -0500 text/html https://www.crn.com/news/networking/18824485/3com-confirms-huawei-switch-plans
Huawei: Ministers signal switch in policy over 5G policy

The government has signalled it is set to take a tougher line against Chinese telecoms equipment-maker Huawei.

A review is under way into how new US sanctions would affect the UK's continued use of its products.

"Given that these sanctions... are extensive, it is likely to have an impact on the viability of Huawei as a provider for the 5G network," said Digital Secretary Oliver Dowden.

He added he wanted Samsung and NEC to become 5G network kit providers.

They would help make the UK's mobile networks become less dependent on the other two suppliers: Ericsson and Nokia. Mr Dowden said the current situation represented a "market failure".

Defence Secretary Ben Wallace added that the sanctions - which are set to come into full effect in September - had specifically been designed to force the UK into a rethink.

"It is a better set of sanctions than the earlier set, and it's specifically clearly designed in a smarter way to put countries that have high-risk vendors - specifically Huawei - under greater pressure."

The sanctions forbid Huawei and the third parties that manufacture its chips from using "US technology and software to design and manufacture" its products.

One consequence of this is that the company could lose access to software it relies on to design and test its processors as well as being able to put some of its most advanced chips into production.

The US cites national security concerns as the cause for its intervention. American politicians have suggested that Beijing might exploit Huawei to spy on or even sabotage communications.

And this Tuesday, the Federal Communications Commission also designated Huawei a national security risk, blocking local telecom companies from drawing on the agency's funds to buy the Chinese firm's equipment.

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Huawei denies claims that it would help the Chinese government compromise its clients or otherwise deliberately harm them.

"We are investing billions to make the Prime Minister's vision of a 'connected Kingdom' a reality so that British families and businesses have access to fast, reliable mobile and broadband networks wherever they live," said the firm's UK chief Victor Zhang following the hearing.

"We have been in the UK for 20 years and remain focused on working with our customers and the government."

Feeling 'cagey'

The two cabinet ministers were giving testimony to the House of Commons Defence sub-committee.

Mr Dowden noted that it was already the government's ambition to remove Huawei from the UK network "over time".

However, under plans announced in January, current plans are limited to excluding the company from the most sensitive parts of the network - the so-called core - and capping Huawei's market share of base stations and other equipment at the "edge" to 35% by 2023.

It is unusual for two cabinet ministers to supply evidence at the same committee hearing

Mr Dowden said this might now change.

"We won't hesitate in taking decisions that will impose additional costs on mobile network operators, the primary consideration is national security," he said.

But he added he was "a little cagey" about providing further detail as final "decisions haven't been made" and "any changes in policy would be exceedingly market sensitive".

The Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport is still studying what impact excluding Huawei altogether or other new restrictions might have.

Backbench threat

The DCMS has also asked GCHQ's National Cyber Security Centre to advise it on the security implications of the US sanctions.

NCSC has previously raised concerns about the "shoddy quality" of Huawei's hardware and the potential for vulnerabilities this creates. But it currently manages the risk by carrying out checks on the products.

One concern is that if Huawei were forced to start relying on components sourced from other vendors, NCSC would not longer believe the risks involved to be manageable.

NCSC's chief Ciaran Martin told MPs that "the bulk of the analysis" was now done, but that further discussions with DCMS were required before a recommendation could be made to the prime minister.

Committee member Labour MP Kevan Jones raised concerns that the government was being "bullied into doing what the Americans want".

But Mr Wallace responded: "The Americans can do what they like with their own IP [intellectual property]... it's not an attack on us, it's just a fact that if Huawei doesn't work any more because it can't use a certain type of chip or whatever... we'd have to get something else."

Conservative MP Mark Francois also noted that the government faces a backbench revolt over its Telecommunications Infrastructure Bill if it does not commit to a ban.

"The bill is already as dead as a dodo unless it effectively excludes Huawei," the MP said.

"Wouldn't it just save everybody a lot of time if you came to the House tomorrow and put your hand up?"

Mr Dowden responded that he was "mindful" of the threatened rebellion but added: "You just have to wait and see," as to what the government's decision would be.

Ministers made clear the ambition is to not have any "high-risk vendors" like Huawei in the UK's 5G network.

But the crucial question is whether we are about to see a firm commitment to achieve that "ambition" and within a specific time frame.

The review of the impact of US sanctions looks set to take the UK in that direction.

While there may be technical reasons for the shift, it would also prove politically convenient amid continued pressure from Washington and backbench Conservatives, as well as deteriorating relations with China.

But it still remains to be seen exactly how far and fast the government will move.

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Fri, 03 Nov 2023 03:05:00 -0500 text/html https://www.bbc.com/news/technology-53239789 The HUAWEI ban explained: A complete timeline and everything you need to know

If you’ve been following the tech industry over the past few years, you no doubt know that HUAWEI is in a heap of trouble. Since May 2019, the Chinese company has been under fire from the United States government, resulting in what is colloquially referred to as the “HUAWEI ban.” This ongoing battle has forced HUAWEI to change its business practices drastically. Subsequently, the company now has no ability to keep its products on the list of the best Android phones you can buy.

If you are curious about how the HUAWEI-US ban came to be, the details surrounding it, and what it means for HUAWEI going forward, this is the place to be.

Below, you’ll find all the integral info related to the ban. We’ve also got some helpful tips related explicitly to HUAWEI’s smartphones and how the ban affects current and future handsets.

Editor’s note: This HUAWEI ban summary is current as of November 2023. Since this is an ongoing situation, we will regularly update it with new content. However, we advise you to check our latest HUAWEI news articles for the most up-to-date info on HUAWEI.

Why is HUAWEI banned? A (very) quick summary

Although this article is an in-depth examination of the HUAWEI ban, you might be happy with a shortened version of the story. The basic gist is as follows:

  • HUAWEI is one of the largest telecommunications companies in the world. At the start of 2019, the company was expected to become the world’s largest smartphone manufacturer by the end of that year, stealing the crown from Samsung.
  • Despite this success, HUAWEI has dealt with numerous accusations of shady business practices over the years. It also has been accused — although with no hard proof — of using its products to spy on other nations. Considering the company’s close ties to the Chinese government, this is a worrisome thought.
  • In May 2019, then-United States President Donald Trump announced that HUAWEI and several other Chinese companies were now on the “Entity List.” Companies on this list cannot do business with any organization that operates in the United States.
  • The HUAWEI ban thus begins, with HUAWEI suddenly unable to work with companies such as Google, Qualcomm, and Intel, among many others. In the case of Google, this means new HUAWEI smartphones can no longer ship with Google-owned applications pre-installed.

With the HUAWEI-US ban in effect, the company has had to completely revamp how it creates and releases smartphones. It also faces mounting scrutiny from other nations, many of which rely on HUAWEI for wireless networking equipment.

Since May 2019, HUAWEI has had some minor wins, but the bulk of the ban is still in place. It appears the HUAWEI ban will be in effect in perpetuity, and the company will need to strategize around it until further notice.

Yes, despite Donald Trump’s exit from the White House, the HUAWEI ban remains in effect. We will have to wait and see if it is repealed in the future — though it seems unlikely.

The HUAWEI ban went into effect on May 15, 2019, as part of an executive order from then-president Donald Trump. The order banned the use of telecommunications equipment from foreign firms that are deemed national security risks.

No. Although Donald Trump is no longer president, his executive order remains in effect. HUAWEI is still releasing flagship devices in Europe and Asia, but they are still not available in the United States.

It does not appear as though the US has any plans to end the HUAWEI ban at this time. According to Reuters, President Biden signed the Secure Equipment Act in November 2021, which prevents companies from receiving equipment licenses from US regulators.

No, the HUAWEI ban only affects products released after May 15, 2019. The HUAWEI P30 Pro launched on March 26, 2019, which means it can still feature Google apps.

HUAWEI history: The background info you need

In the grand scheme of things, HUAWEI is a relatively young company. Ren Zhengfei started HUAWEI in 1987 after being discharged from China’s People’s Liberation Army. Zhengfei’s military history helped HUAWEI get some of its first big contracts. This is one of the main reasons HUAWEI is viewed as a de facto branch of the Chinese government.

HUAWEI has faced scrutiny from the beginning for allegedly stealing intellectual property. In brief, the company would be repeatedly accused of stealing technology from other companies over the decades and then passing it off as its own. There are a few times in which this has been proven, such as with a 2003 case filed by Cisco, but there are many other times where accusations didn’t lead to confirmation.

In the late 2000s, HUAWEI was growing at an incredibly fast pace. The company started acquiring other companies to expand its operations. It attempted to buy non-Chinese companies several times, and regulatory bodies would block the sale. This happened in the US and the UK, among other areas. Each time, the reasoning behind the block would be related to HUAWEI’s deep ties to China and the possible security threat that it represents.

Eventually, HUAWEI started making smartphones. Its phones became popular immediately as they were well-designed devices with very reasonable price tags. In 2016, HUAWEI boasted it would be the world’s largest smartphone manufacturer within five years. By 2018, it had taken second place ahead of Apple and just behind Samsung. This is a remarkable feat, considering HUAWEI was handicapped by not having any presence in the United States, now the world’s third-largest market.

Donald Trump, China, and the ongoing trade war

While HUAWEI was growing at an astounding rate in 2018, all was not well regarding its home country. Donald Trump started to flex his power as POTUS to combat China and its “unfair trade practices,” as he called them. This began the still-ongoing US/China trade war.

Although the trade war has much to do with politics, tariffs, and international law, it also touches on intellectual property theft. Since HUAWEI has a reputation as a repeat offender regarding IP theft, this put the company in Trump’s crosshairs.

A major aspect of the US/China trade war is IP theft, something that has dogged HUAWEI's reputation for decades.

However, critics at the time noted that a long-term US/China trade war would hurt both countries significantly. Because of this, it was assumed that Trump would try to strongarm deals from China that would be advantageous to the US and then be done with it. This isn’t how things went, though.

Even though the trade war is associated very closely with Donald Trump, it is actually one of the few moves he made during his presidency with bipartisan support. Current US President Joe Biden has made no efforts to remove the HUAWEI ban or weaken the US/China trade war. Members of his staff and the people he appointed have also signaled support for continuing the ban.

In other words, HUAWEI isn’t out of the woods even with Trump out of the White House.

The HUAWEI ban begins on May 15, 2019

On May 15, 2019, President Trump issued an executive order that bans the use of telecommunications equipment from foreign firms deemed a national security risk. The order itself doesn’t mention HUAWEI (or even China) specifically. However, the US Department of Commerce created what it refers to as an “Entity List” related to the order that does contain HUAWEI’s name.

Since the order didn’t reference HUAWEI specifically, its effect on the company and its various lines of business wasn’t obvious. It appeared the order was primarily directed towards HUAWEI’s telecom operations, which would mean its wireless networking equipment, especially those related to 5G.

Trump's executive order for the HUAWEI ban left out many crucial details.

The order also didn’t make it clear whether the US government would help carriers pay for removing HUAWEI equipment. It also didn’t clarify any punishments US companies would face if they didn’t comply with the order. In brief, the HUAWEI ban seemed serious, but there were too many unknowns to understand where it would go.

HUAWEI, in a statement to Android Authority that day, said this: “Restricting HUAWEI from doing business in the US will not make the US more secure or stronger; instead, this will only serve to limit the US to inferior yet more expensive alternatives, leaving the US lagging behind in 5G deployment.” Even this statement made it seem like Trump’s order would only apply to HUAWEI’s networking gear and not its smartphones or other products.

That all changed a few days later.

Goodbye Google: The HUAWEI Google ban, explained

On Sunday, May 19, 2019, Google publicly declared that it would comply with Trump’s HUAWEI ban. Interpreting the language of the order, Google determined that the proper course of action would be to cut HUAWEI off from Google’s suite of digital products.

This meant that HUAWEI would no longer have access to the fundamentals of Android smartphones. Gmail, YouTube, Google Drive, and even the Google Play Store itself were now no longer available for HUAWEI to use on new products.

This news sent a shockwave through the tech world. Remember that at this point, HUAWEI is the second-largest smartphone manufacturer globally, and every single one of its phones runs on Android. Without access to Google apps, millions of HUAWEI smartphone owners were understandably concerned that their phones would suddenly stop working correctly.

When the dust settled, it became clear that HUAWEI phones certified by Google and launched before May 15, 2019, would continue to operate as usual. However, any uncertified phones, tablets, or other products released by HUAWEI after that date would be Google-less.

Not long after Google made its announcement, other US-based companies followed suit. This included Qualcomm, Intel, ARM, Microsoft, and many more.

HUAWEI tries to fight back

HUAWEI consumer business group CEO Richard Yu on a red chair.

Bogdan Petrovan / Android Authority

HUAWEI wasn’t about to take this lying down. Only a few days after the HUAWEI-US ban took effect, the company issued several sternly worded statements declaring its intentions to fight the order. By the end of May, the company had filed a legal motion declaring the ban unconstitutional. Towards the end of June 2019, HUAWEI filed a lawsuit against the US Department of Commerce over the Entity List.

Unfortunately, these legal maneuvers didn’t bear much fruit. After all, an executive order from the US president isn’t easy to fight.

Interestingly, US-based companies came out in support of HUAWEI while simultaneously cutting commercial ties. Even Google declared that — if given the opportunity — it would want to continue working with HUAWEI. HUAWEI’s biggest telecom rival, Ericsson, also criticized the ban. In addition, tech industry analysts noted that the HUAWEI ban hurts US-based companies, too, because HUAWEI is such a massive business.

HUAWEI found out very quickly that it is not easy to overturn an executive order from the US president.

Eventually, China tried to turn the tables by threatening to create its own Entity List. HUAWEI then upped the ante by accusing the US of cyberattacks and employee harassment. However, the company supplied no evidence to support these accusations, and they led nowhere.

By mid-2020, HUAWEI had apparently accepted its fate. It stopped filing new lawsuits and stopped making any public declarations that it’s still trying to overturn the HUAWEI ban.

In 2021, though, with Trump’s exit from the White House, HUAWEI started making new attempts. HUAWEI founder Ren Zhengfei stated that he would welcome a chat with President Biden. Elsewhere, the company filed a new lawsuit against the FCC related to the HUAWEI ban. However, so far, these efforts have proved fruitless.

Full HUAWEI ban gets delays, license system established

Not even a week after Trump issued the executive order that kickstarted the HUAWEI ban, the US issued a 90-day reprieve of the ban’s full effects. This gave HUAWEI and its clients until August 19, 2019, to make arrangements for the weight of the ban.

As luck would have it, this 90-day reprieve would be extended three consecutive times. By February 2020, HUAWEI had had nearly a year of living without the full ramifications of the ban. That same month, the US government issued a final 45-day reprieve, allowing the HUAWEI ban to take full and permanent effect by April 1, 2020. Before that date arrived, Donald Trump signed a law banning rural US carriers from using HUAWEI equipment.

The US government gave HUAWEI nearly a year before the ban took full effect. Now, though, all bets are off.

While that was all happening, the US government rolled out a licensing system for US firms that wished to work with HUAWEI. The government allegedly received 130 applications for licenses but granted none of them. The government stated that licenses would go to companies whose work with HUAWEI would not pose a security threat. Google — which applied for one of these licenses — apparently didn’t fall into this category.

Towards the end of 2020, companies started to receive approval for partial deals with HUAWEI. Qualcomm, Sony, and Samsung can sell particular pieces of smartphone manufacturing parts to HUAWEI. However, these small wins won’t help the company return to business as usual.

Harmony OS: The alternative to Android

While HUAWEI cannot use Google-owned services and products in its phones, that doesn’t mean it can’t use Android itself. Android is an open-source operating system, which means that any person or company can use it for whatever they like without cost. However, many of the integral features of Android that users rely on aren’t included with “pure” Android and are actually owned by Google.

Theoretically, HUAWEI could indefinitely use Google-less Android to power its smartphones and tablets. In the background, though, HUAWEI claimed to have been working on a so-called “Plan B” operating system that would act as a fallback should a situation such as this HUAWEI ban ever come to pass. On August 9, 2019, the company launched “Plan B” as Harmony OS.

According to HUAWEI, Harmony OS is based on Linux, which is the same open-source platform on which Android is based. This means that Harmony and Android can share compatibilities. Theoretically, if a developer wished to do the work to make it compatible, any Android app can work within Harmony OS.

Initially, HUAWEI declared it would only use Harmony OS on Internet of Things (IoT) products. This means it would stick with Android for smartphones. However, the company later asserted that Harmony OS will become akin to a “HUAWEI OS” that will power pretty much everything it makes. This would free it from ever needing to be concerned about a HUAWEI-US ban again.

If any company can create a true rival to Android and iOS, it's HUAWEI.

Most would think that a new OS going up against Android and iOS is a fool’s errand. However, HUAWEI is so huge and has so much influence in China that it’s actually totally capable of pulling that off. Remember that, since Harmony OS is based on Linux, it would also be an open-source operating system. This means other companies could use Harmony OS instead of Android. It’s not at all out of the realm of possibility that other Chinese smartphone companies would adopt Harmony OS on at least some of their devices.

In early 2021, though, Ron Amadeo at Ars Technica gained beta access to an early version of Harmony OS. He discovered that, up until that point, Harmony OS was pretty much just Android 10 with a few cosmetic alterations. Eventually, HUAWEI launched some tablets with Harmony OS as its platform, and it will eventually launch new Harmony OS smartphones. It also will push Harmony OS to older products in its roster, effectively removing Google-powered Android from its entire portfolio.

HUAWEI Mate 30 series launches, first flagships without Google

If you’ll remember, the HUAWEI ban only affects products released after May 15, 2019. That means HUAWEI’s most accurate flagship launch before that date — the HUAWEI P30 and P30 Pro, which launched on March 26, 2019 — continued to run the full suite of Google apps.

However, HUAWEI traditionally releases its Mate series — its other family of flagship phones — in the last half of the year. At first, rumors swirled that HUAWEI simply would skip the HUAWEI Mate 30 Pro launch. Ultimately, though, it went forward with the launch of a flagship phone without any Google apps whatsoever.

The HUAWEI Mate 30 Pro was the first bonafide flagship from the company to launch without any Google apps.

For the first few months, the phone was only available in China and several other smaller countries. Eventually, it made its way to the West (although not the US). The phones received stellar reviews, but few publications would recommend consumers buy the device due to its software shortcomings.

Unbelievably, the Mate 30 series still sold exceptionally well. Never underestimate the enormous population of China supporting one of their own. However, outside of China, the phone only made it into the hands of die-hard HUAWEI followers.

A workaround: HUAWEI repackages older devices

HUAWEI quickly found a loophole related to the HUAWEI ban and Google’s adherence to Trump’s executive order. The company realized that Google approves Android phones not based on their name or design but only on a few core components — most specifically, the processor. This means that HUAWEI could rebrand and repackage a phone that Google approved prior to the ban and resell it without violating the order.

Obviously, this wasn’t a long-term solution to the company’s woes. HUAWEI couldn’t perpetually re-release the P30 Pro over and over again, for example. However, that didn’t stop it from doing just that — twice. First, it issued two new colorways for the P30 Pro series, which it announced in September 2019. Then in early May 2020, it announced its intention to launch what it called the HUAWEI P30 Pro New Edition, which added yet another new colorway and lowered the price.

HUAWEI’s then-subsidiary HONOR also got into the re-release game by rebranding a few of its phones. Ultimately, this was a last-ditch effort to milk every dollar out of the most recently approved phones. Google and the US government made no publicized efforts to stop HUAWEI from doing this.

HUAWEI in 2020: A very different environment

Throughout 2019, HUAWEI probably hoped the US government would either weaken or remove the ban entirely. However, by the time 2020 came around, there were no indications that the HUAWEI ban was going to let up any time soon.

This put the company’s standing in the smartphone market in serious doubt. If you’ll remember, HUAWEI originally boasted in 2016 that it would be the world’s number-one smartphone manufacturer by the end of 2020. In early 2019, it was nearly a certainty that it would achieve that goal a full year ahead of schedule. Now, with the HUAWEI ban, the company’s long-running string of success was poised to come to a screeching halt.

Without Google apps on its phones, HUAWEI can't compete outside of China. In 2020, the company needed to start developing a way to fix that problem.

Although the Mate 30 series had sold well in HUAWEI’s native China and made comfortable sales throughout the rest of the world, it was no runaway success. Consumers outside of China simply aren’t ready for a premium smartphone that can’t access the Google Play Store or even popular third-party apps such as Uber.

HUAWEI’s answer to this was App Gallery — its proprietary Android apps store. Like the Play Store or Samsung’s Galaxy Store, App Gallery hosts a bunch of Android apps you can install on your phone. HUAWEI is spending millions on enticing developers to port their apps to App Gallery with varying degrees of success. While App Gallery has certainly come a long way in a short period of time, it’s by no means at all a solid replacement for the Play Store.

These efforts, though, paved the way for HUAWEI’s next flagship phones.

HUAWEI P40 and Mate 40 series: Still no Google

On March 26, 2020, HUAWEI unveiled the HUAWEI P40, P40 Pro, and P40 Pro Plus. The three phones feature all the flagship hardware one would expect from a P series device, including an absolutely incredible rear camera system.

On October 22, 2020, HUAWEI unveiled the Mate 40, Mate 40 Pro, and Mate 40 Pro Plus. These phones also were marvels when it comes to hardware and design.

Of course, none of the phones had Google apps. All the hardware in the world can’t make up for that.

As with the Mate 30 series, the P40 and Mate 40 series received great reviews. Once again, though, most publications — including Android Authority — advised against buying the phones due to the lack of Google services.

HUAWEI’s sales peak and then slide

You might think that throughout 2020, HUAWEI would have been struggling to stay afloat. However, HUAWEI actually made good on its promise and passed Samsung as the number one smartphone manufacturer as assessed by units shipped.

How is this possible? As mentioned before, you should never underestimate the power of 1.4 billion Chinese citizens all backing up their beloved homegrown brand. Also, don’t forget that HUAWEI doesn’t just make smartphones. It also still supplies networking systems to multiple countries all around the world.

However, HUAWEI couldn’t sustain that momentum forever. By the end of 2020, the company saw its market share dwindle. Samsung once again became the world’s largest smartphone manufacturer. Meanwhile, 2021 proved to be a dismal year for HUAWEI’s smartphone division. HUAWEI dropped out of the top-five smartphone OEMs by the end of Q1 2021 and limited the HUAWEI P50 series to China only. Now, in 2023, HUAWEI is not even among the top ten global smartphone manufacturers.

HUAWEI ban brings the end of Kirin chipsets

Unlike many smartphone manufacturers, HUAWEI almost exclusively uses its own chipsets in its smartphones and tablets. Its Kirin processors are designed by HUAWEI and then produced by a company called TSMC.

At first, TSMC assured HUAWEI — and the tech industry in general — that it would continue to produce HUAWEI’s Kirin chipsets. However, it rolled back on that declaration, likely because the HUAWEI ban was now in full effect (i.e., all the extensions are over).

Without TSMC, HUAWEI is essentially unable to create Kirin chipsets. At first, we assumed the Mate 40 would be the final phone launched with a Kirin chipset. However, rumors abounded that the 2021 HUAWEI P50 could have the same Kirin processor as the Mate 40. It turns out that HUAWEI went half-and-half, with some P50 models having leftover Kirin chips while others have Qualcomm chips.

There aren’t many other companies out there that could create processors for HUAWEI that don’t involve US-based companies or equipment. The only real option is MediaTek, a Taiwanese firm. As such, it’s very likely we’ll see HUAWEI flagships with MediaTek chips in the future.

HUAWEI sells off HONOR sub-brand

Although HUAWEI’s sub-brand HONOR operated semi-independently, it was still officially part of the HUAWEI family. This meant that the effects of the HUAWEI ban carried over to it. In November 2020, HUAWEI sold off HONOR to a Chinese company called Shenzhen Zhixin New Information Technology Co.

In an official statement on the matter, HUAWEI attributed the quick sale to the “tremendous pressure” it’s under from the US government.

With the completion of this sale, HONOR will have no direct connection to HUAWEI. This will free it up to act as its own brand without any of the limitations related to the US sanctions.

In late January 2021, HONOR launched its first phone since leaving HUAWEI: the HONOR V40. However, it and a few other phones it launched since are China-exclusive. HONOR said the HONOR Magic 3 series would have Google apps onboard and land in Western countries. That never happened, however. It said the same thing in 2022 for the Magic 4 series but actually followed through this time. HONOR’s most accurate phone is the Magic 5 series, launched in early 2023. The series comes with Google apps.

2021 and beyond: Can HUAWEI survive?

HUAWEI has had a rocky time since May 15, 2019, to put it mildly. So far, it’s weathered the storm pretty well. However, how long can it keep the ship afloat with so much stacked against it?

HUAWEI knows that no matter what, the HUAWEI-US ban can’t touch its Chinese business. The company is so beloved in China that it could become a China-only brand and survive handily for decades. HUAWEI isn’t the kind of company that would roll over that easily, though.

As far as we can tell, HUAWEI plans to move forward with its usual plans of releasing at least one major flagship phone each year and other smaller launches whenever it’s appropriate. It can’t use Google apps, but it can still use Android. The Play Store is off-limits, but App Gallery is getting stronger. It can’t make its own processors, but there are other companies from which it can buy chips.

The question then becomes how long the company can keep this up before the smartphone division loses more money than it makes. But don’t write HUAWEI off — it’s already proven it can survive things that many other companies couldn’t.

Do you currently own a HUAWEI phone?

If you currently own a HUAWEI or HONOR phone, you might have some questions about how the HUAWEI ban affects you. Below are some frequently asked questions.

HUAWEI is almost certainly tracking how you use your device — but every smartphone company does this. Smartphone OEMs want to know how often you unlock your phone, charge it, open certain apps, etc., so they can use that info to make better products. However, do not be scared that HUAWEI is actively monitoring you specifically for nefarious purposes. There has never been any evidence to support this claim.

It’s not illegal to own a HUAWEI device anywhere in the world. The HUAWEI ban prevents HUAWEI from working with US-based companies in the creation of its products. It doesn’t apply to consumers who currently own a HUAWEI product and doesn’t prevent them from buying new ones, either.

As long as there are no laws in your location preventing it, you’re free to sell your HUAWEI device. Trump’s executive order says nothing about reselling used HUAWEI products.

You don’t need to worry about this. Although your phone obviously won’t last forever, HUAWEI will not “brick” your device. You can continue using it for as long as it’s physically capable.

This is a tricky question. If you own a Google-less HUAWEI device launched after June 2019, you’ll continue to see Android upgrades and security patches on the schedule to which HUAWEI commits for that particular device. However, if you own a HUAWEI phone with Google services onboard launched before May 2019, the HUAWEI ban prevents the company from issuing Google-sanctioned updates going forward. HUAWEI has iterated its commitment to delivering patches and upgrades moving forward in spite of this, but there are no long-term guarantees.

Yes. Many companies offer apps and services that do this for you, including Samsung and OnePlus, for example. Keep in mind that some forms of data and some apps won’t be available across different devices, but almost all of your data will transfer successfully.

Please recycle your smartphone using the proper methods. This is a great resource for ethically disposing of your used electronics.

Should you avoid buying HUAWEI phones or other products?

HUAWEI has already released multiple high-profile smartphones since the HUAWEI-US ban took effect. We fully expect there to be more phones on the way, too. As such, you might want to buy a HUAWEI phone even though the ban would prevent it from being a “normal” experience.

Here are the answers to some questions you might have about buying a new HUAWEI device.

Yes, it is perfectly legal to buy new HUAWEI products of all kinds. The HUAWEI ban only prevents HUAWEI from working with US-based companies. This might affect the hows and wheres of buying a HUAWEI phone, but it has no effect on your purchase or ownership of the device.

Yes, you can do all those things and more. The only difference will be the apps you use to perform those functions will probably be different than the ones you currently use. For example, Google Chrome will not be available on new HUAWEI phones, so you’ll need to use a different app for browsing the web. HUAWEI’s app store (called App Gallery) will have many of the apps you need.

You can sideload Android apps onto HUAWEI phones, and a lot of them will work correctly. However, many prominent apps use something called Google Play Services to function. This Google product won’t be on new HUAWEI phones. There are several methods that have been used to sideload Google Play Services on HUAWEI phones successfully, but these are extremely unofficial, could potentially damage your phone, have no certain of working long-term, and potentially leave your device open to security risks. We do not recommend using this as a viable solution.

HUAWEI is spending millions of dollars on convincing app developers to port their products to App Gallery. As such, there are a lot of Android apps already available through App Gallery. HUAWEI adds more all the time. You can install App Gallery on your current Android phone and search for the apps you depend on the most, which should help you decide if it can fully replace the Play Store.

Yes, in almost all cases. HUAWEI devices still run on Android, and Bluetooth is a cross-platform service, so everything should function as you would expect. Obviously, there’s no way to say every single device will work perfectly, but most everything should work.

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New 3Com Enterprise Switch Could Raise Issues In Cisco-Huawei Suit

3Com last week asked the U.S. Court for the Eastern District of Texas in Marshall, Texas, to intervene in the litigation between Cisco and Huawei. 3Com, based here, wants the court to declare that the products it OEMs from Huawei and later sells through a planned joint venture do not infringe on Cisco's intellectual property. Also last week, Huawei asked the court to declare the same

for its new products.

In March, 3Com said it had formed a joint venture with Huawei to produce a high-end line of enterprise switches and routers.

Last week's moves follow a June 6 preliminary injunction issued by the court to bar Huawei from selling products that use Cisco

documentation, online

help files and source code. Huawei said it already has pulled the products in question from U.S. markets.

Cisco has no problem with 3Com being heard in the case as long as it doesn't delay the process, said a Cisco spokesperson, who called the preliminary injunction a significant victory for the networking hardware vendor.

Kevin Johnson, an intellectual property litigator at law firm Fish & Neave, said he also views the injunction as a Cisco victory. "Preliminary injunctions aren't granted unless you can show a significant likelihood of winning your case," he said.

But 3Com general counsel Mark Michael said the preliminary injunction merely ratifies what Huawei had already agreed to do. "Huawei admitted there were mistakes," Michael said. "It said it was going to fix them." 3Com is confident that the case won't prevent it from bringing the planned products to market, Michael said.

Bruce Claflin, president and CEO of 3Com, recently told CRN that the vendor initiated joint venture talks with Huawei in June 2002, conducting a full intellectual property review months before Cisco's January suit. "We did the full review and came away very impressed," Claflin said.

For their part, 3Com

solution providers seem unconcerned by the courtroom drama. Michael LeBlanc, CEO of LeBlanc Communications, Trumbull, Conn., said he's confident that 3Com has Verified that the products it plans to sell don't infringe on Cisco's intellectual property. "I've seen the product road maps, and I'm very impressed with what they're planning," LeBlanc said.

Meanwhile, 3Com said last week that it plans to lay off 10 percent of its staff over the next two quarters.

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Huawei 5G kit must be removed from UK by 2027

By Leo KelionTechnology desk editor

The UK's mobile providers are being banned from buying new Huawei 5G equipment after 31 December, and they must also remove all the Chinese firm's 5G kit from their networks by 2027.

Digital Secretary Oliver Dowden told the House of Commons of the decision.

It follows sanctions imposed by Washington, which claims the firm poses a national security threat - something Huawei denies.

Mr Dowden said the supply ban would delay the UK's 5G rollout by a year.

The technology promises faster internet speeds and the capacity to support more wireless devices, which should be a boon to everything from mobile gaming to higher-quality video streams, and even in time driverless cars that talk to each other. 5G connections are already available in dozens of UK cities and towns, but coverage can be sparse.

Mr Dowden added that the cumulative cost of the moves when coupled with earlier restrictions announced against Huawei would be up to £2bn, and a total delay to 5G rollout of "two to three years".

"This has not been an easy decision, but it is the right one for the UK telecoms networks, for our national security and our economy, both now and indeed in the long run," he said.

Watch: The digital secretary says providers must remove all of Huawei's 5G kit from their networks by 2027

Because the US sanctions only affect future equipment, the government has been advised there is no security justification for removing 2G, 3G and 4G equipment supplied by Huawei.

However, when swapping out the company's masts, networks are likely to switch to a different vendor to provide the earlier-generation services.

Huawei said the move was "bad news for anyone in the UK with a mobile phone" and threatened to "move Britain into the digital slow lane, push up bills and deepen the digital divide."

The action, however, does not affect Huawei's ability to sell its smartphones to consumers or how they will run.

China's ambassador to the UK said the decision was "disappointing and wrong".

"It has become questionable whether the UK can provide an open, fair and non-discriminatory business environment for companies from other countries," tweeted Liu Xiaoming.

But US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo welcomed the news, saying: "The UK joins a growing list of countries from around the world that are standing up for their national security by prohibiting the use of untrusted, high-risk vendors."

Broadband switch

New restrictions will also apply to use of the company's broadband kit.

Operators are being told they should "transition away" from purchasing new Huawei equipment for use in full-fibre networks, ideally within the next two years.

Many of Huawei's products are developed at its labs near Shenzhen, China

Mr Dowden said the government would "embark on a short technical consultation" with industry leaders about this.

He explained that the UK needed to avoid becoming dependent on Nokia - which is currently the only other supplier used for some equipment - and he wanted to avoid "unnecessary delays" to the government's gigabit-for-all by 2025 pledge.

BT's Openreach division told the BBC it had in fact recently struck a deal to buy full-fibre network kit from a new supplier - the US firm Adtran - but first deliveries would only start in 2021.

Chip concerns

The UK last reviewed Huawei's role in its telecoms infrastructure in January, when it was decided to let the firm remain a supplier but introduced a cap on its market share.

But in May the US introduced new sanctions designed to disrupt Huawei's ability to get its own chips manufactured. The Trump administration claims that Huawei provides a gateway for China to spy on and potentially attack countries that use its equipment, suggestions the company strongly rejects.

The sanctions led security officials to conclude they could no longer assure the security of its products if the company had to start sourcing chips from third-parties for use in its equipment.

The minister cited a review carried out by GCHQ's National Cyber Security Centre as being the motivation for the changes.

TSMC - one of the world's biggest chip manufacturers - has stopped taking orders from Huawei as a consequence of the US sanctions

NCSC has said Huawei products adapted to use third-party chips would be "likely to suffer more security and reliability problems".

But other political considerations are also likely to have also come into play, including the UK's desire to strike a trade deal with the US, and growing tensions with China over its handling of the coronavirus outbreak and its treatment of Hong Kong.

Some backbench Tory MPs had pressed for a shorter time-span for its removal, in particular there had been calls for the 5G ban to come into effect before the next election in May 2024.

However, Mr Dowden said that "the shorter we make the timetable for removal, the greater the risk of genuine disruption to mobile phone networks".

BT and Vodafone had warned that customers could face mobile blackouts if they were forced to remove all of Huawei's 5G kit in less time.

Labour's shadow technology minister Chi Onwurah said the government was incapable of sorting "this mess out on their own".

It had "refused to face reality" and been "incomprehensively negligent" in allowing matters to get to this point, she added, and a taskforce of experts now needed to be created.

Hopes on the part of government that this decision may put the Huawei issue to bed may be optimistic.

The reason that we are here again despite a decision in January is because one of the key players - the US - played a new card in the form of sanctions.

And there is still time between now and legislation coming to parliament in Autumn for others to do the same - whether Conservative backbenchers or Beijing.

In the long run, many countries will be watching carefully how China reacts.

Will it feel it needs to punish the UK in order to discourage others from following its lead on 5G? Or will it want to avoid being seen as a bully and prefer to try and influence the decision more subtly? Whatever the case, the Huawei story in the UK is not over yet.

Chairman resigns

Huawei says it employs about 1,600 people in the UK and claims to be one of Britain's largest sources of investment from China.

The firm - whose shares are not publicly traded - does not provide a regional breakdown of its earnings. But on Monday, it announced a 13% rise in sales for the first half of 2020 compared to the same period in 2019, totalling 454bn yuan ($64.8bn; £51.3bn).

The UK will have accounted for a fraction of that. The firm's UK chief recently noted that Huawei had only deployed a total of 20,000 5G base stations - the radio receiver/transmitter equipment fitted to a mast - in the UK so far. By contrast it expects to deliver a total of 500,000 globally this year.

Even so, what the firm fears and Washington hopes is that other countries will now follow Westminster's lead with bans of their own.

Despite there seeming little chance of a U-turn, Huawei said it was still urging UK ministers to reconsider.

"We will conduct a detailed review of what today's announcement means for our business here and will work with the UK government to explain how we can continue to contribute to a better connected Britain," spokesman Ed Brewster said.

Shortly before the announcement Sky News revealed that Lord Browne, Huawei's UK chairman and the ex-chief executive of BP, would be leaving the Chinese company before his term had expired. It said he had given his notice a few days ago and would formally step down in September.

Lord Browne is stepping down six months before his time at Huawei was due to end

Lord Browne had led efforts to Excellerate the company's image in the UK and had tried to prevent a ban.

"He has been central to our commitment here dating back 20 years, and we thank him for his valuable contribution," said Huawei, confirming the report.

Industry reaction

BT is set to be the telecoms operator most affected by the decision given it runs both the EE mobile network and Openreach, which provides fixed-line infrastructure to individual internet providers.

"We need to further analyse the details and implications of this decision before taking a view of potential costs and impacts," it said.

The move should, however, benefit Nokia and Ericsson, which are the two other main 5G kit vendors.

"We have the capacity and expertise to replace all of the Huawei equipment in the UK's networks at scale and speed... with minimal impact on the people using our customers' networks," said Nokia.

Huawei still supplies masts and other 5G equipment to Germany, Switzerland and China among other countries

Ericsson added: "Today's decision removes the uncertainty that was slowing down investment decisions around the deployment of 5G in the UK... and we stand ready to work with the UK operators to meet their timetable."

However, both firms manufacture some of their 5G equipment in China, which has also caused concern in Washington.

In June, the US Department of Defense published a list of 20 companies it claimed had close ties to the Chinese military.

It included Panda Electronics - the firm with which Ericsson jointly runs a manufacturing facility in the Chinese city of Nanjing.

"A lot of companies assemble equipment or have some type of manufacturing in China," Ericsson's head of corporate communications Peter Olofsson told the BBC, when asked about this.

"Our trade compliance people have looked at this [list] and they concluded that it's not something that has an impact on Ericsson or our operations."

Ultimately Huawei believes that this was a political decision and not a business one.

And if the political winds change, then Huawei's fortunes may too.

My understanding is that a longer time frame for the removal of its 5G kit from UK networks was a relatively desirable outcome for Huawei.

So even though no new Huawei UK equipment can be bought by UK mobile carriers after the end of this year, the fact that the UK has until 2027 to remove Huawei's 5G kit from all of its network could be seen as a potential positive.

A new US administration in November could markedly change Washington's position on Huawei.

So for Huawei, playing the long game makes sense.

And one thing that was crystal clear to me from meeting Ren Zhengfei, the company's founder is that he's a fighter.

Ren Zhengfei told the BBC: 'If the lights go out in the West, the East will still shine. And if the North is dark, then there is still the South.'

Nothing he has said indicates he is willing to supply up.

For now though, the immediate impact of the UK decision will be seen as a signal that Washington's campaign on Huawei has worked.

And the Chinese firm will not want that replicated in other countries around the world.

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Mon, 13 Jul 2020 20:37:00 -0500 text/html https://www.bbc.com/news/technology-53403793 Parties will not switch candidates for general elections

Dechen Dolkar 

As the nomination of candidates is underway, the Bhutan Tendrel Party (BTP) and the People’s Democratic Party (PDP), the two political parties that will contest in the general elections, have decided not to switch candidates from other political parties.

Although the rules and regulations permit the switching of candidates after the primary elections, the two political parties have chosen to retain their original candidates for the general elections.

According to the rules of election conduct, a candidate for an elective office in Bhutan will not switch political parties during an election until after the conclusion of the primary round of elections.

The rules state that both the candidate and the political party, which the candidate is seeking to join, will submit an application to the Commission before the candidate is allowed to switch political parties, and provide all information and documents that the Commission may seek.

It further states that a candidate may only switch political parties after it has received the prior written approval of the Commission.

The Party President of BTP, Pema Chewang, said that he does not believe in horse trading because every party has its ideology, and their candidates also believe in the party’s ideology. “The party will not switch candidates.”

However, he said that the party would leave it up to the candidates. 

If the candidates feel uncomfortable in their constituency, they may withdraw their candidacy and offer it to another candidate. The party may accept this depending on the situation. 

Pema Chewang said that, so far, the party has not received any withdrawal application from candidates.

The general secretary of the PDP, Kuenga Tashi, said that the party deeply value the appreciation for the diverse perspectives and insights provided by all parties involved in the electoral process.

“Our focus is not on switching candidates, but on embracing collaborative wisdom and counsel from all corners,” he said.

He said that the party believes in the strength of a team comprised of individuals committed to the welfare and progress of Bhutan. “Our candidates have been chosen after careful consideration, not just for their capabilities, but for their dedication to serving our nation.”

Moving forward with the general election strategy, Pema Chewang said that the party must stick to its pledges to secure more seats. 

“We will work harder as a team.

Our strategy is in place and its evolving timely and concretizing, we are confident, “ the president said.

Kuenga Tashi said that the strategy revolves around a continuation of the party’s focus on the holistic development of Bhutan. 

“Our approach centers on ensuring that the comprehensive manifesto we offer is not merely a pledge but a steadfast promise to the citizens of Bhutan,” he said.

He said that this reflects the voices, hopes, and dreams of the citizens, guiding them towards a future that resonates with the needs of Bhutan and its people.

Both the political parties are confident in forming the government. 

Pema Chewang said that the party was formed to establish a government. “The results for the general round of elections will be determined by the maximum number of seats the party secures…We are not concerned about the significant differences in votes secured during the primary round.” 

Kuenga Tashi said that the party would strive even harder to meet and exceed the people’s aspirations, adding that this is not a moment to rest on laurels but a call to action and a reminder of the weight of responsibility on their shoulders.

“Our hope for the general elections is fuelled by optimism and a profound sense of duty towards the voters,” he said.

Wed, 06 Dec 2023 10:00:00 -0600 text/html https://kuenselonline.com/parties-will-not-switch-candidates-for-general-elections/
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