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Exam Code: AEMT Practice test 2023 by Killexams.com team
AEMT NREMT Advanced Emergency Medical Technician

Exam : AEMT

Exam Name : Advanced Emergency Medical Technician

Number of Questions : 135

Live Questions : 100

Pilot Questions : 35

Time : 2hrs 15 min.

The primary focus of the Advanced Emergency Medical Technician is to provide basic and limited advanced emergency medical care and transportation for critical and emergent patients who access the emergency medical system. This individual possesses the basic knowledge and skills necessary to provide patient care and transportation. Advanced Emergency Medical Technicians function as part of a comprehensive EMS response, under medical oversight. Advanced Emergency Medical Technicians perform interventions with the basic and advanced equipment typically found on an ambulance. The Advanced Emergency Medical Technician is a link from the scene to the emergency health care system.

The National Registry Advanced Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) cognitive test is a linear computer based test (CBT). Each candidate will answer 135 questions (items). Each test will have 100 ‘live items that count toward the final score. The test will also have 35 pilot questions that do not affect the final score. The maximum amount of time given to complete the test is 2 hours and 15 minutes.

The test will cover the entire spectrum of EMS care including:


Respiration & Ventilation

Cardiology & Resuscitation




EMS Operations

Items related to patient care are focused on adult and geriatric patients (85%) and pediatric patients (15%). In order to pass the exam, candidates must meet a standard level of competency. The passing standard is defined by the ability to provide safe and effective entry level emergency medical care.

- Airway, Respiration & Ventilation 18%-22% 85% Adult; 15% Pediatric

- Cardiology & Resuscitation 21%-25% 85% Adult; 15% Pediatric

- Trauma 14%-18% 85% Adult; 15% Pediatric

- Medical; Obstetrics & Gynecology 26%-30% 85% Adult; 15% Pediatric

- EMS Operations 11%-15% N/A

Traditional refresher course: Completion of a State or CAPCE(F1, F2, F5) approved 36 hour AEMT refresher course.
NCCR 25 hours of continuing education: Completion of the 25 hour National Competency Component from the NCCP model.
Continuing education subject hours: Advanced EMT remedial may be completed by continuing education* and must include the Topics and hours listed here under Traditional Model.

NREMT Advanced Emergency Medical Technician
Medical Technician study tips
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Editorial Note: We earn a commission from partner links on Forbes Advisor. Commissions do not affect our editors' opinions or evaluations.

To someone with minimal understanding of the health sector, the title of “physician assistant” may conjure up an image of someone whose job involves running professional errands for doctors. However, physician assistants (PAs) are highly trained professionals qualified to diagnose, monitor and prescribe medication to patients.

PA duties often overlap with doctors’, yet both medical experts have varying levels of autonomy at work. Doctors are legally allowed to practice independently, but PAs typically need a physician’s supervision to treat patients.

The rising demand for PAs goes to show that medical school and nursing school aren’t the only paths to an advanced career in healthcare. In this article, we discuss how to become a physician assistant, including common specializations and salary and job outlook data for these professionals.

What Is a Physician Assistant?

Also called physician associates, PAs are licensed healthcare personnel who support physicians in providing medical care. They work alongside doctors, giving treatment and monitoring patients’ health.

Although some states allow physician assistants to work independently, most require them to work under doctors’ supervision. PAs administer tests, prescribe medication and conduct physical examinations. Other PA responsibilities include:

  • Taking patients’ medical histories
  • Ordering and interpreting diagnostic tests
  • Assisting in surgical procedures
  • Referring patients to specialists
  • Developing treatment plans
  • Counseling patients on preventive care
  • Monitor patients’ progress
  • Conducting clinical research

Physician assistants work in various settings such as hospitals, medical offices, outpatient clinics and surgery wards. Outside of from medical environments, PAs also work in educational facilities, military organizations and sports settings.

Most PAs work full time, with varying work schedules that may include weekends and holidays. Like doctors, they may be on call, having to work on short notice for long periods. Interacting with patients and colleagues for hours can become fatiguing, so PAs should have good stamina and interpersonal skills.

How To Become a Physician Assistant

Earn a Bachelor’s Degree

Obtaining a bachelor’s degree from an accredited college is the first step to becoming a physician assistant. PA programs typically accept applicants from various backgrounds, but we recommend a science-focused major, which will help you apply credits from your undergraduate coursework toward your PA prerequisites.

Gain Healthcare Experience (HCE) or Patient Care Experience (PCE)

The American Academy of Physician Associates recommends that prospective PAs gain healthcare or patient care experience before applying to graduate school. HCE refers to paid or unpaid work where you’re not directly responsible for patient care, but you may still interact with patients. PCE, on the other hand, requires hands-on involvement in treating patients.

Most PA programs require at least 1,000 HCE or PCE hours, typically earned after working for about a year in the health sector. Roles that meet clinical experience requirements include paramedic, medical technician, surgical assistant, hospice worker, dental assistant, physical therapy aide and phlebotomist.

Enroll in an Accredited PA Program

In a PA graduate program, you’ll gain the advanced knowledge needed to pass the national certifying test and begin your physician assistant career. A PA program involves coursework in clinical anatomy, histology, clinical therapeutics and medicine principles. You may also undergo clinical rotations or clerkships, which involve shadowing licensed PAs.

Several colleges offer online PA programs, for distance learners. Such PA programs often offer concentrations, allowing students to tailor their degrees to suit their career goals. Common PA specializations include family medicine, geriatrics, women’s health, psychiatry, pediatrics and general internal medicine.

Students can apply for admission via the Centralized Application Service for Physician Assistants (CASPA). CASPA requires PA applicants to submit college transcripts, recommendation letters, résumés, personal statements, and HCE and PCE records.

Ensure your chosen program is approved by the Accreditation Review Commission on Education for the Physician Assistant (ARC-PA) before applying.

Obtain Licensure

Graduates from programs that hold accreditation from ARC-PA qualify to sit for the Physician Assistant National Certifying test (PANCE). The test is administered by the National Commission on Certification of Physician Assistants (NCCPA).

The PANCE is a five-hour, multiple-choice test that assesses candidates’ medical and surgical knowledge. Passing the PANCE is required to earn PA licensure in all U.S states. Other specific licensing requirements may vary by state.

How Long Does it Take To Become a Physician Assistant?

Completing all of the above steps often takes at least seven years. You can expect to spend four years in your undergraduate program, one year gaining healthcare experience and two years completing a PA program. The path to becoming a PA may take longer if you spend more time gaining experience between undergrad and grad school or if you need extra time to study for and pass the PANCE.

Physician Assistant Salary and Job Outlook

According to the U.S Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), physician assistants earned a median annual salary of $126,010 as of May 2022. Individual salaries vary based on industry, experience level and geographical location. For example, PAs in Washington earn $145,390 per year on average, whereas Florida PAs average $110,930 yearly.

Physician assistants are highly sought-after in certain parts of the U.S., including Connecticut, New York, North Carolina, Nebraska and Montana, which sport the highest concentrations of PA jobs. The BLS projects employment for these professionals to increase by 28% from 2021 to 2031—three times the projected job growth rate for other health practitioners nationwide, and nearly six times the projected growth rate for all U.S. jobs.

Physician Assistant Specializations

Physician assistants, just like nurses and clinicians, can specialize in various areas of healthcare according to their strengths and interests. PAs’ specialties largely determine their salary range and the kind of patients they’ll work with.

Most PA programs offer elective options, and some require students to complete supervised clinical experience in multiple specialty areas. We recommend deciding your PA specialization before enrolling in graduate school so you can choose a program offering in-depth training in your area of interest.

Below we list some common specializations for PA students and professionals.

Emergency Medicine

This specialty teaches prospective PAs how to triage, stabilize and manage patients experiencing urgent health problems. In the emergency medicine specialty, students also learn how to present cases to doctors and develop skills to work with urgent care teams.

Obstetrics and Gynecology

This concentration equips PA students with extensive knowledge on childbirth, midwifery and the female reproductive system in general. They learn to provide prenatal and postpartum care to women and offer counseling on family planning.


Pediatric PAs support pediatricians by caring for infants and children in ambulatory settings. Students in this concentration learn to evaluate common pediatric problems, offer preventive care and interpret treatment plans to their patients’ guardians.


The surgery specialization prepares PA students to evaluate and monitor surgical patients. They learn how to provide preoperative and postoperative care to surgical patients.

Behavioral health

This specialization focuses on caring for and supporting patients living with psychiatric challenges. Students in this specialty learn how to conduct psychiatric evaluations, monitor patients’ progress and refer people to behavioral health specialists.

Certifications for Physician Assistant


The certified physician assistant (PA-C) credential is the primary certification for PAs, earned only after passing the physician assistant national certifying exam. The PANCE is a five-hour test comprising 300 multiple choice questions, administered in five blocks of 60 questions. Candidates are allowed to take 45-minute breaks between sessions.

Before sitting for the PANCE, candidates must graduate from a program accredited by the ARC-PA. Prospective PAs can apply for the test within 180 days of their graduation date, but they can only sit for the test starting seven days after graduation. You must submit a $550 fee and an application, after which you’ll receive an acknowledgement email from NCCPA with further instructions. If you fail the first attempt, you can retake the test after 90 days.

Other Credentials

Aside from the PA-C, NCCPA offers voluntary credentials for 10 PA specialties:

  • Cardiovascular and thoracic surgery
  • Dermatology
  • Emergency medicine
  • Hospital medicine
  • Nephrology
  • Orthopedic surgery
  • Pediatrics
  • Pallitive medicine and hospice care
  • Psychiatry
  • Obstetrics and gynecology

These credentials are called certificates of added qualifications (CAQs). They provide PAs with recognition for their specialized skills.

Professional Organizations for Physician Assistant

Although not required, joining a professional organization can boost a PA’s credibility and expand their opportunities for career development. Below we highlight two professional organizations created to support physician assistants.

  • American Academy of Physician Assistants (AAPA): Founded in 1968, AAPA is the leading national PA professional organization. It represents over 168,000 PAs across all 50 U.S states. The AAPA empowers its members to advance their careers and Strengthen patient health.
  • Physician Assistant Education Association (PAEA): PAEA represents PA educational programs in the U.S. It supports programs in recruiting and retaining qualified faculty and PA students. It also provides various study tools for PA certifications.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) About How to Become a Physician Assistant

Is a PA equal to a doctor?

PAs are not equal to doctors because doctors have more extensive training in the medical field and the authority to treat patients autonomously. In most states, PAs can only provide medical care according to doctors’ instructions.

What is the difference between a PA and MD?

PAs and MDs undergo different training experiences. While it takes about seven years to become a PA, MDs require 10-14 years of training. MDs also typically earn more salary than PAs.

Is a PA higher than an RN?

A PA typically has more training and clinical experience than a registered nurse. PAs, like physicians, can diagnose illnesses and prescribe medication. RNs cannot.

Wed, 23 Aug 2023 03:55:00 -0500 Nneoma Uche en-US text/html https://www.forbes.com/advisor/education/how-to-become-a-physician-assistant/
Killexams : Top Tips for Internship Success

by MaryAlice Bitts-Jackson

Google. Dow Jones. The National Institutes of Health. Capital One. The WNBA’s Chicago Sky. This time of year, Dickinson students are completing internships at top organizations around the world.

How did they get them? What are the internships like? And how did they make the most of these game-changing experiences—which can make all the difference in their career decisions and future job searches? We asked a sampling of students those very questions.

Omar Ali ’24, University of Maryland-Baltimore Dental School

Omar Ali

After completing an internship at a small dental practice in Egypt last summer, Ali, a neuroscience major, discovered this internship--at a high-level, shock trauma hospital--through Dickinson’s Handshake system. He was one of two Dickinson students to take part in this exceptional opportunity, thanks to a Dickinson alum who hosted them. As he learns what it's like to work at a large practice within a U.S. university system, Ali is developing practical skills and confirming his career goals. This summer's experience is also reinforcing his understanding of the need to keep learning throughout a medical career. 

"Approach your internship with a positive mindset, a willingness to learn and a proactive attitude. Seek feedback and make the most of the opportunities." —Omar Ali '24 

Emma Agro ’24, Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center

Emma Argo

Emma Agro '24 (left) observed nurse practitioners in a variety of cancer-care settings and affirmed her passion for the field.

Agro (biology, health studies) observes nurse practitioners in different oncology settings. On the day shift, she attends patient appointments and listens in on case presentations. During nights in urgent care, she sees how to respond to a cancer patient in distress. These experiences are solidifying her desire to become a nurse practitioner. "I was nervous about being around such highly educated professionals, but I gained so much knowledge and preparation for my future, and I am forever grateful," Agro says.

"You'll never know if you will like or dislike something if you don't deliver it a chance." —Emma Agro '24 

Katie Chapis ’24, UPMC of Central Pennsylvania

Katie Chapis

Chapis is a biology major with a Spanish minor who’s pursuing a health studies certificate and learned about this internship through Dickinson’s Career Center. Chapis shadows and works with health care professionals in general and orthopedic surgery, family and internal medicine, pediatrics and obstetrics. “I have gotten to figure out which departments align best with my preferences and career interests,” says Chapis, who intends to enroll in medical school.

"Try to connect with and talk to as many people involved in your work as possible. This will enable you to make friends and feel more comfortable in your work environment, and it will open up new possibilities and networking opportunities." —Katie Chapis '24 

Allie Charnas ’24, WNBA: Chicago Sky

Allie Charnas

Charnas, an environmental science major, has always loved sports. She found this WNBA internship by "name dropping friends" in a cold email to the president of Chicago Sky. As a game-operations intern, she compiles information, hires anthem singers and half-time and prime-time performers and ensures that games run smoothly, handling everything from compiling and distributing schedules, getting players on and off the court, making announcements, managing entertainment groups and more. Previously, Charnas had a marketing/PR/operations internship with Chicago City S.C., a preprofessional soccer club. As a result of these experiences, she knows she wants a career in the sports industry.

"Be persistent, and always follow up with people." —Allie Charnas '24 

Jacob Choudhri ’24, Dow Jones

Jacob Choudhri

Choudhri is a data analytics major with minors in math and economics. He’s a financial planning, analysis and business intelligence intern at Dow Jones—a position he secured by responding to an online job post. Day to day, Choudhri works on a SQL learning series to help teach SQL to new hires.

"Apply to as many internships as possible, and really build your LinkedIn profile." —Jacob Choudhri '24 

Vanessa Daniels ’24, PA Department of Health

PA department of health logo

A biology major who’s pursuing a pre-health certificate, Daniels was a community-health intern at the Boys and Girls Club of Lancaster last summer. She found her 2023 internship through a search on the PA Commonwealth Internship website, after interviewing for a different internship through the state. Daniels' epidemiology internship focuses on alpha-gal syndrome, an allergy to red meat and mammal products that’s believed to develop after a tick bite. She develops surveys and interviews patients, helps create educational materials, attends meetings and works on West Nile virus data and tick surveillance. “This internship has been a great networking opportunity and has allowed me to see the wide range of public health and biology jobs that are offered by the state," Daniels says.

"Apply early and across a wide range of positions. Rejection is part of the process. It can feel overwhelming and uncertain when others around you are locking down internships, but persistence pays off." —Vanessa Daniels ’24

Scarlett Davidovich ’24, Enterprise Knowledge 

Scarlett Davidovich '24 (right) and Zach Wahl '98, president and founder of Enterprise Knowledge.

Scarlett Davidovich '24 with Zach Wahl '98, president and founder of Enterprise Knowledge.

Davidovich (international business & management) learned about internship opportunities at Enterprise Knowledge through an on-campus Career Center information session with Zach Wahl '98, the company's president and founder. After a winter break externship at EK, she’s now a summer strategy intern, working on client projects, attending meetings, creating slide decks and collaborating with fellow interns and managers. “It’s been a transformative experience,” Davidovich says.

"Don't hesitate to try new interests, and learn how to fail upward." —Scarlett Davidovich '24 

Jack Drda '24, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute

Jack Drda '24 with Dr. Francis Collins of the NIH National Cancer Institute.

Jack Drda '24 (right) with Dr. Francis Collins of the National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute. 

Drda (biology, pre-health) is a Cancer Research Trainee Award Fellow in the metabolism lab at the National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute. He uses advanced biochemical techniques to understand the contributions of the microbiome and metabolites to colon cancer growth. Drda learned about this opportunity and got a foot in the door through connections he made during previous summer internships with UPMC Central PA and Georgetown University. As a result of those prior internships, he presented research last year at the American Physiological Summit and is assisting in drafting research results for publication. 

"Not everyone will respond to your cold emails. Sometimes, funding runs dry. Never let setbacks define your story. I promise that you will find those amazing mentors who see your potential." —Jack Drda '24

Bella Gerkin '26, Boston Children's Hospital

Bella Gerkin

After hearing about a family friend’s research internship, Gerkin, a neuroscience major, emailed a few of the doctors whose research she was interested in and asked if they wanted help over the summer. That strategy paid off: Working with a research assistant to study post-stroke language development, she learns what life in the lab is like while connecting with doctors and certified in her intended field.

"Take in as much as you can, and meet as many people as you can. You never know who is going to be help you in the future." —Bella Gerkin '26 

Katie Le '24, Google

This summer, Katie Le '24 completes her second internship at Google.

This summer, Katie Le '24 completes her second internship at Google.

Le, a computer science major, found out about a coveted Google internship from friends working in the tech industry and applied for it online through the company's website. It's Le’s second internship at Google.

As a software engineer intern in a fast-paced environment, Le works on a cross-platform tool to enhance productivity. A typical day includes collaborating across teams on feature launches, coding and testing, updating documents and connecting with fellow interns and professionals. “It’s been a rewarding experience, exposing me to real-world problems and a vibrant community of high-achieving tech enthusiasts,” Le says. “I’ve honed my critical reasoning and soft skills, and I've learned to focus on what matters most.”

"Be open to changing your mind multiple times, and embrace learning from everyone around you. It's a numbers game: Keep applying, stay persistent and get enough sleep!" —Katie Le '24 

Han Nguyen ’24, Kudu Investment Management

Han Nguyen '24

Nguyen—a double major in data analytics and quantitative economics who previously interned as a research assistant in the blockchain-technology industry—learned about this data science internship through Dickinson’s Handshake system. Tasks include daily meetings with supervisors and project leaders, using Power BI to transform static information into interactive visuals and using Python and SQL to streamline processes and ensure ease of use. These experiences help clarify Nguyen’s job interests while sharpening in-demand skills.

"Be proactive, open-minded and self-reliant. When reporting on your progress or projects, strive for a professional and polished presentation.
Networking is essential: A good starting point is to talk to your professors, advisors and other faculty members at Dickinson. They can provide guidance and support, connect you with relevant professionals and help you navigate the networking process." —Han Nguyen ’24  

Josephine Rodriguez ’24, Community Development Bankers Association

Josephine Rodriguez '24

With a major in international business & management and minors in German and economics, Rodgriguez found this policy and communications internship through Dickinson’s AlumniFire network. She assists with industry and policy communications and gathers and organizes data to support comment letters and grant applications. “This internship opens a door to a world I knew very little about and shows me what a Dickinson education can do,” says Rodriguez, who also completed a market research internship the summer after sophomore year.

"Use your resources! The Dickinson Career Center does an amazing job of advising and putting together resources to help you field an internship." —Josephine Rodriguez ’24 

Skylar Skarupa '25, UPMC Community General, Harrisburg and West Shore Hospitals

Skylar Skarupa '25

Skarupa, a biochemistry & molecular biology major, worked with Dickinson’s pre-health staff to obtain this alumnus-sponsored medical internship, which involves shadowing a new physician every week. While observing daily activities of physicians with different specialties, a clearer career path comes into view. “I knew from the moment that I witnessed the first case that I wanted to be a surgeon. It was similar to visiting a college campus and having a gut feeling of belonging,” Skarupa says.

"Don’t simply perform tasks that you are told to do; instead, really take in everything around you. Embrace your opportunity to really consider your career goals and determine what your true passions are." —Skylar Skarupa '25 

Rahma Semma '25, Seattle Children's Research Institute

Rahma Semma '25

To find this research-tech internship, Semma emailed a Dickinson alum working in the field. A double major in data analytics and biochemistry & molecular biology, Semma cultures and cultivates cells to study responses in the liver and also conducts reporter assays and western blots to assess the signaling levels associated with this response. “This internship has provided me with valuable insights into the real-world application of my studies,” Semma says.

"Reach out to people in your field of interest. Even if they can’t offer you an internship, they will still guide you." —Rahma Semma '25

Riley Teresi ’24, Burke Neurological Center

Riley Teresi

To obtain this internship, Teresi (neuroscience, health studies) went right to the source, reaching out to the primary investigator of the lab. She helps with data collection, training and data logging in a study concerning adults with cerebral palsy. Through a second project focusing on children with cerebral palsy, she assists with training, helps with setup, inputs data and engages with kids and their families. “This internship has reinforced so many of the Topics that I have learned at Dickinson. This has allowed me the opportunity to really envision my future career and gain a greater understanding of the research field, while also gaining applicable skills,” she says.

"Don’t be afraid to reach out to professionals! Usually, they’re willing to take in students and provide a learning experience." —Riley Teresi '24 

Anh Tran ’26, The Trout Gallery

Anh Tran

Tran, a double major in psychology and neuroscience, learned about on-campus internship opportunities while visiting Dickinson’s Trout Gallery. As a Trout summer-program intern, she researches exhibition content, develops curricula based on current exhibitions, teaches local students and assists with the gallery’s marketing and communications work. She says her public speaking and networking skills, her confidence in her abilities and her insights into the arts have grown exponentially. Working with local children through this internship has also allowed her to apply her understanding of developmental psychology.

"Seek out opportunities to learn and contribute." —Anh Tran '26 

Chase Weller ’25, Capital One

Chase Weller

Weller majors in international business & management with minors in economics and Spanish. He found this internship by networking with a connection from middle school who put him in touch with a recruiter. As a business-analyst intern with Capital One, Weller uses SQL and Google Sheets to help the company predict consumer behavior. In previous internships, he worked in sales at a clothing company and in social-media marketing with a baseball scouting service.

"Apply to everything you're interested in and network. Take pride in doing the little things right. People will notice." —Chase Weller '25 

Learn more about internships.

Support the Dickinson Internship Fund, making internships available to students who may otherwise be unable to take advantage of them.


Published August 9, 2023

Wed, 09 Aug 2023 18:30:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.dickinson.edu/news/article/5484/top_tips_for_internship_success
Killexams : No AI Can Learn the Art of Medicine

A 49-year-old female notices new-onset vaginal bleeding over the past several days. She becomes concerned and seeks advice from her long-time family physician. When she calls, she is surprised to hear responses from an artificial intelligence (AI) platform. The longtime secretary, who knew her well and would quickly arrange appointments or connect her with the doctor, has been replaced by this expensive new AI-based system. The call begins with an extensive library of prompts. When she presses 0 to speak with a human, she is told the next available appointment is in nine weeks. She hangs up and redials to discuss her problem with a pleasant computer voice, which almost sounds like a real person and asks her to describe her problem—eventually responding with a long-winded response with possible explanations for her bleeding. It then utilizes a proprietary algorithm to make recommendations which include lifestyle changes and watchful waiting, with instructions to dial back if the problem persists.

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Eventually, she loses patience and decides to visit the office in person. After briefly seeing her in the office, her doctor is concerned and orders a CT scan with the smart scheduler that uses a complex triage algorithm to schedule her imaging in 1-2 days. She then receives the results of the CT scan in an email and again goes through the scheduler system to book her surgery, which is again triaged based on perceived medical urgency. The night before the operation, the pre-operative anesthesia system automatically calls and asks dozens of questions through various menus, ending with lengthy instructions regarding eating, drinking, and pre-operative care. The program does not offer time to address her fears of going under anesthesia.

The day of surgery, everything is increasingly efficient due to new AI-based systems. The operating room team already has her medical history in the electronic record, and she immediately goes to the operating room without needing to meet with the anesthesiologist or surgeon. All goes well, and four days later she gets an email with instructions to call a number and use a six-digit code to get information on the results of an ovarian biopsy. She won’t need to waste any time traveling to the doctor’s office or sitting in the waiting room for her appointment. Instead, a computer-generated AI voice informs her that she has high-grade serous ovarian cancer with metastasis.

The platform then automatically redirects her to a line where a compassionate, AI voice explains the prognosis and her various treatment options based on the latest research. She breaks down and drops the phone in tears. There is nobody to comfort her, let alone answer her endless questions. Is this the nightmare scenario for future patients in our rapidly evolving healthcare system, or a reality in the setting of ongoing physician shortages, skyrocketing medical costs, and “manmade medical errors”? Will this Strengthen patient health and reduce obstacles to accessing care, or will it create discomfort and dissatisfaction in the healthcare setting?

A recent piece by New York Times health columnist, Gina Kolata, hints that such a future, encompassing such a nightmare patient encounter with our tech-enabled and evolving AI-paradigm of care, may not be far off.

In order to preserve our sense of  compassion and humanity, healthcare providers must prioritize human-to-human communication when we deliver delicate news in order to foster caring relationships with our patients. This forms the basis of the humanity of medicine and the sacred doctor-patient relationship.

That said, no health care provider can disagree that tedious tasks currently take us away from face-to-face, direct patient care. A study in JAMA Internal Medicine found that AI assistants may hold value in composing routine notes or drafting responses to a skyrocketing number of electronic messages from patients as physician demands and burnout rise. Simply put, this work is a call to action for the medical establishment to look inward and determine how we can prioritize the human connection among doctors and patients while taking advantage of AI.

Overall, it appears that doctors are optimistic—but also expressing caution—regarding the potential for AI and large language models becoming part of a toolkit for promoting more effective communication between patients and healthcare providers. Certainly, this technology holds promise, as science communication for years has been marred by complexity and inaccessibility to the lay public. Using AI to better communicate health advice and medical literature with the public will be valuable.

There is certainly promise of large language models to help busy health care professionals with composing emails, reviewing medical records, and answering prior authorizations. Moreover, AI may help triage the patients and the questions that reach physicians, with more routine or unnecessary items being answered by technology. The potential to reduce time spent on tasks that lead to anger, frustration, and ultimately burnout is invaluable. Additionally, administrative costs are estimated to drop by over 35% given this evolution.

As total medical knowledge grows exponentially, it is impossible for doctors to stay abreast of all medical advances and retain such detailed knowledge in our brains. On the contrary, both AI and robotics will inevitably be more effective in cataloging constantly changing medical knowledge. This can support evidence-based management for patients. However, physicians must hold onto their unique and special gifts of humanism and empathetic care for patients.

But let’s be clear—practicing medicine is an art, and no technology can take away that fact. When facing patients themselves, human interaction with a doctor is vital. Patient satisfaction and shared decision-making will continue to rely heavily on this humanism. Medicine is a profession that still requires compassion, reassurance, and most importantly, empathy. Even with the advent and ongoing evolution of AI and other large language models, empathy is best learned and communicated in the form of bedside teaching by humans—not AI or chatbots.

However, considering that AI and chatbots were supported by some experts in Kolata’s piece as an approach for teaching healthcare professionals how to express empathy and compassion to patients or families, it’s likely time for us to hit the “reset button” on how we approach conversations and communications with patients.

We feel that the most effective way to restore empathy and compassion as the cornerstone of physician communication to patients is not by modeling or a framework suggested by AI or chatbots; instead, this requires a focus on human-to-human teaching and dialogue. Education surrounding humanities, social sciences, and the science of communication are just as vital as teaching physicians about anatomy and physiology. This applies to not only medical students, but to those in residency, and all healthcare professionals. Certainly, education about emerging technologies and medical devices will also become important so providers can best incorporate these innovations to Strengthen care without compromising patient experiences.

In the past, bedside teaching in medical school was an art practiced by careful observation and listening, with particular attention to eyes and body language as our professors handed down the invaluable unwritten and unspoken ways to express care, concern, and empathy for our patients. This human interaction has proven implications for patient satisfaction, motivation, and adherence to treatment recommendations.

Such unique and unspoken methods of communication of human emotions and interactions cannot be taught by AI or chatbots. Granted, medicine is often criticized for being decades behind in innovation, and as AI technology grows, health professionals should certainly embrace its benefits. However, they must also remain true to their values and the oath they have taken to serve their patients. Upholding these professional standards requires a strong adherence to humanistic care and continued development of communication skills. It is in the patient’s best interest to stay attuned to these trends and understand the benefits and risks of modern innovations in care.

More Must-Reads From TIME

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Tue, 22 Aug 2023 22:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://time.com/6306922/artificial-intelligence-medicine-doctors/
Killexams : 15 Medical Certifications That Are In Demand No result found, try new keyword!A certificate only medical career offers great wages, opportunities, and low barrier to entry. It can take anywhere from 2-24 months to kick-off that new career as a healthcare worker. In this article ... Fri, 11 Aug 2023 04:08:00 -0500 en-us text/html https://www.msn.com/ Killexams : Follow These Expert Tips To Protect Your Eyes From Digital Eye Strain

A diet loaded with vitamin A can help boost eye health

In this tech era, screens have become an inseparable part of our lives. Be it working diligently in the office, leisurely scrolling through social media or enjoying a movie night, our attention remains fixated on screens. This prolonged exposure often leads to nagging headaches and potential harm to our eyesight. Addressing this concern, nutritionist Lovneet Batra, via Instagram Stories, shares invaluable "tips to keep eyes healthy in the digital world." She suggests eating a nutritious diet, taking frequent breaks, adjusting the brightness of the screen, using anti-reflective coating lenses, and maintaining a good posture.

1) Nourish with Vitamin A and omega-3 fatty acids:

Elevate your eye health with Vitamin A-rich foods like kale, spinach, broccoli, and mustard leaves. These are vital for maintaining optimal vision.

2) Stick to 20-20-20 approach:

Regularly break the screen gaze cycle by adhering to the 20-20-20 rule. Every 20 minutes, pause for a 20-second breather and focus on something around 20 feet away.

3) Prioritise your posture:

Maintain a correct posture to shield your vision in the long run.

4) Opt for anti-reflective lenses: 

When working, opt for glasses with anti-reflective coating to reduce strain caused by glare.

5) Adjust screen brightness:

Tailor the brightness of your device to a comfortable level to prevent unnecessary strain on your eyes.

According to health experts, kids are susceptible to poor eyesight due to their ongoing eye development. Some children are born with or develop slightly misshapen eyes, resulting in various vision issues like nearsightedness, farsightedness and astigmatism. Furthermore, prolonged exposure to electronic screens puts them at risk of eye strain and exhaustion.

Here are effective ways to protect your child's eyesight and ensure their vision stays healthy:

Embrace outdoor playtime: Outdoor activities under natural light can reduce the risk of nearsightedness. Encourage your child to spend more time playing outside.

Monitor screen exposure: Prolonged screen time can lead to eye strain and dryness. Limit your child's screen time and encourage frequent breaks.

Illuminate well: Proper lighting minimises eye strain. Set up your child's study area with ample light, avoiding glare and screen reflections.

Choose a balanced diet: Nourishing foods are essential for good vision. Encourage a diet filled with leafy greens, fruits, and vegetables.

Schedule eye check-ups: Regular eye exams catch issues early. Book routine eye check-ups for your child to prevent and address vision concerns.

Disclaimer: This content including advice provides generic information only. It is in no way a substitute for a qualified medical opinion. Always consult a specialist or your own doctor for more information. NDTV does not claim responsibility for this information.

Mon, 21 Aug 2023 18:09:00 -0500 text/html https://www.ndtv.com/health/follow-these-expert-tips-to-protect-your-eyes-from-digital-eye-strain-4318140
Killexams : Bad luck for fresh-faced graduates who have splashed thousands on a degree: Job ads not requiring one is up 90%, according to LinkedIn data

Lockdown-era graduates have had it bad enough, forced to study alone on Zoom during the pandemic rather than share the valuable coming-of-age university experience enjoyed by their parents. Now they’re about to find out the university diploma they paid a pretty penny for is no longer even in demand. 

According to new research from LinkedIn, skills now trump degrees in the eyes of recruiters. In fact, the share of job ads in the U.K. that didn’t list the qualification as a requirement surged by 90% on the platform between 2021 and 2022. Meanwhile, recruiters globally are now five times more likely to search for new hires by skills over higher education.

The shift comes as companies like Google, Microsoft, IBM, and Apple have eliminated their long-held degree requirements for jobs to remove barriers to entry and recruit more diverse talent.

And it’s a trend that’s not waning any time soon, with 75% of recruiting professionals predicting skills-first hiring will be a priority for their company in the next 18 months, according to LinkedIn.

It comes as graduates are being told they lack skills

The shift to skills-based hiring is a fresh sting to COVID-era grads, who have also recently been told they lack some of the “basic” social skills needed to navigate the working world. 

Two of the world’s Big Four accounting firms found that junior employees often exhibit weaker teamwork and communication skills, having spent part of their education isolated from their peers.

Deloitte and PwC, who run some of the largest graduate recruitment programs in Britain, are now offering extra training to young new hires that have “less confidence doing basic tasks” such as making presentations and speaking up in meetings.

Even colleges are stepping up to close the social skills gap between their students and the wider workforce. Michigan State University is getting its graduates ready for the job market with lessons on how to handle a networking conversation—including how to look for signs that the other party is starting to get bored and that it’s time to move on, as per the Wall Street Journal.

The school is also asking companies to deliver explicit guidance on a hire’s first day, including what to wear and where to get lunch. Miami University even organized a dinner with senior leaders in order to teach proper mealtime etiquette, such as how to engage in conversation on neutral topics. 

Young people in Japan have become so used to socializing while wearing a face mask that they are now paying $55 an hour just to learn how to smile again—and some schools have even added the smiling class to their curriculum to prepare students for the job market.

Degrees still hold some value

As employers place more importance on young workers’ skills than their qualifications, have young highly qualified (but perhaps socially inept) Gen Z graduates wasted their time and money on the once sought overqualification? Yes and no. 

First, it depends on the industry in which you want to work. As Zahra Amiry, Omnicom Media Group’s associate director of talent attraction, says, “You wouldn’t want to go to a doctor without a medical degree.” But for other industries, such as media and marketing, she says it’s becoming less of a requirement.

Even when scouring experienced professionals to fill senior roles, Amiry says she doesn’t necessarily look all the way back to somebody’s degree. 

“What I do look at is their experience, their skills, how have they managed the team, how their CV is worded, how they come across in an interview, their attitude to work, and their energy,” she tells Fortune. “I would consider all of this before looking for a degree.”

Still, she doesn’t regret getting a degree herself. “I personally would never take back going to university. I think the experience itself was valuable and a good learning curve. It almost gives you the university of life,” says Amiry. “But bear in mind, it’s not necessary and very expensive.”

Despite a degree being a very costly route into the workforce—setting students back by more than $35,000 a year in the U.S. and around £9,250 a year in the U.K.—Lewis Maleh agrees that a diploma still holds value. 

“A degree is very useful,” the CEO of the global executive recruitment agency Bentley Lewis tells Fortune. “On average people with degrees earn more money than people without degrees, and the vast majority of people in leadership roles are degree-educated.”

What’s more, he suspects that these nondegree job ads may be nothing more than smoke and mirrors. 

“I don’t think we’re seeing job ads not requiring degrees increase because companies don’t want people with degrees,” Maleh says. “It’s marketing. A job ad is to attract people to apply, then hiring managers screen candidates based on whatever criteria they’ve decided.”

Ultimately, what goes on behind closed doors during the recruitment process could be a world away from what a company has published online.

“Also a lot of companies want to be perceived as open to people from different backgrounds in public,” Maleh cautions, “but when it comes down to selection, it’s a different story.”

Subscribe to Well Adjusted, our newsletter full of simple strategies to work smarter and live better, from the Fortune Well team. Sign up today.
Tue, 22 Aug 2023 02:36:00 -0500 en text/html https://fortune.com/2023/08/15/linkedin-employment-recruiting-college-graduates-university-degrees-job-ads/
Killexams : 5 Medical Breakthroughs that Will Shape the Future of Healthcare

Scientists and medical professionals worldwide are tirelessly weaving threads of discovery, innovation, and collaboration to find the next medical breakthrough that will revolutionize healthcare. Gone are the days when scientific progress was confined to a single laboratory or institution. Today, researchers from diverse backgrounds and corners of the globe unite their expertise and resources to solve complex medical puzzles. 

With the advent of digital communication and data sharing, scientists are able to pool their findings and accelerate the pace of discovery. Collaborative efforts such as international research consortia, open-access databases, and virtual conferences have become the cornerstones of modern medical advancement.

2023 is a promising year for scientific discoveries and successful clinical trials, proving that the medical field is stepping an inch closer to filling in the gaps in modern healthcare. Here are 5 medical breakthroughs that will shape the future of healthcare:

Curcumin-QingDai Against IBD

Just recently, healthtech startup Evinature conducted a significant trial affirming Curcumin-QingDai’s potential against IBD. This double-blinded, randomized study had two parts. In Part I, active UC patients were tested using the Colitis Activity Index and endoscopic subscore. Part II comprised a placebo-controlled trial in Israel and Greece, where active UC patients were randomly assigned CurQD or placebo for 8 weeks (2:1 ratio).

Responses were gauged by UC score improvement, fecal calprotectin reduction, and pathway activation. Part I saw 7 out of 10 patients responding to CurQD, with 3 out of 10 achieving remission. In Part II, 43% of patients treated with CurQD attained the intended result by the eighth week, in contrast to the 8% success rate observed in the placebo group. CurQD displayed superior clinical, remission, and endoscopic improvement responses. Promisingly, the positive response continued up to week 16 for patients on curcumin.

TUBB4a Leukodystrophy

Oxford-based company SynaptixBio specializes in addressing the genetic central nervous system disorder known as TUBB4A-related leukodystrophy. In its most recent funding initiative, the company has successfully secured £11.05 million, a notable addition to the £2.125 million in seed funding acquired over the past two years. Notably, all significant funding rounds have been derived exclusively from private investments.

Initially identified in 2015, TUBB4A-related leukodystrophy primarily affects infants and young children. The disorder is triggered by a mutation in the TUBB4A gene and currently lacks a cure. As a consequence, it disrupts communication between nerve cells in the brain and leads to impairments in motor skills such as walking, sitting, and swallowing.

First Authorized Allogeneic T-cell Immunotherapy

The European Commission (EC) has granted global authorization for the first allogeneic T-cell immunotherapy, with Ebvallo™ (tabelecleucel) receiving marketing approval. This authorization applies to patients over the age of two who are dealing with relapsed or refractory Epstein-Barr virus positive post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (EBV+ PTLD) and have undergone at least one prior treatment. For solid organ transplant recipients, prior therapy encompasses chemotherapy, unless deemed inappropriate.

This approval follows the positive evaluation by the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) in October 2022 and is effective across all 27 European Union Member States, as well as Iceland, Norway, and Liechtenstein. The CHMP’s favorable stance is rooted in the outcomes of the Phase III ALLELE study, which indicated that Ebvallo™ exhibited a promising balance between risks and benefits.

Choroideremia (CHM) Cure

Kiora Pharmaceuticals, Inc. a clinical-stage company in the field of ophthalmic pharmaceuticals focused on innovative therapies for patients with significant unmet needs, has joined forces with the Choroideremia Research Foundation (CRF), the largest global organization dedicated to finding a cure for choroideremia (CHM). This collaboration aims to advance a potential fresh treatment for individuals suffering from CHM, a rare inherited retinal disease that leads to blindness. 

The incidence of CHM in the United States and Europe is estimated to affect around 12,000 individuals, categorizing it as a rare disease according to the US Orphan Drug Act. Despite its relatively low occurrence, CHM contributes to approximately 4% of all cases of blindness due to its unique characteristics. CHM exhibits similarities with another inherited retinal disease called Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP).

Novel Immunotherapy ISA103 in Uveal Melanoma

Earlier this year, biotech company ISA Pharmaceuticals B.V. partnered with Cancer Focus Fund, LP, an exceptional investment fund established in collaboration with The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. This collaboration aims to support and advance ISA103, an immunotherapy developed by ISA Pharmaceuticals. This immunotherapy, designed to target PRAME (PReferentially expressed Antigen in MElanoma), a cancer-testis antigen excessively expressed in different types of cancers, is set to undergo its inaugural human study for treating uveal melanoma, a rare ocular cancer.

ISA103 operates by directing its focus towards PRAME, a critical cancer testis antigen implicated in tumor survival and metastasis. This breakthrough was formulated using ISA’s distinctive Synthetic Long Peptide (SLP®) technology, skillfully designed to effectively mobilize the body’s immune defenses against the disease.

Sun, 13 Aug 2023 17:38:00 -0500 Adil Husnain en-US text/html https://techbullion.com/5-medical-breakthroughs-that-will-shape-the-future-of-healthcare/
Killexams : Robotic Patients? They're Useful but Have Limitations

Doctors treated a robot in Trieste, Italy. Is this a scene straight out of a science fiction movie? Not this time. The robot is HAL s5301, one of the most advanced patient simulators in existence. The product of a collaboration between Italian company Accurate, headquartered in Cesena, and American organization Gaumard, HAL s5301 first came to Europe this past May, when it was set up at the University of Trieste's Cattinara Hospital in its Medical Simulation and Advanced Training Center.

HAL s5301 was created to deliver students the chance to practice key medical techniques used in emergency medicine, intensive care, and surgery. The aim is to simulate the hospital setting: the robot, managed by a "control room," simulates a clinical case proposed by a teacher, and the students try to make the diagnosis in as real-life a scenario as possible. HAL is a humanoid robot that can not only move its arms and eyes and even sweat, but can also speak and recognize tone, thanks to artificial intelligence. 

More importantly, it reproduces cardiac, respiratory, vascular, and cerebrovascular physiology. Doctors can apply real tools of clinical practice, like stethoscopes, defibrillators, sensors, probes, and ventilators, to the robot. You can even insert a catheter or do a blood draw. At the end of the session of simulated diagnosis, the debrief allows students and professors to identify errors and highlight corrections and strategies. 

The Latest Model 

Accurate and Gaumard's robot is just one of the recent examples of an approach used in medical teaching and training in Italy and worldwide. The first steps in the use of simulation in the medical field date back to 1963, when neurologist Howard S. Barrows introduced the use of "simulated patients" in his classes; these were actors who acted out different medical conditions. The first robotic simulators arrived not long after, with the Sim One and Harvey mannequins between 1968 and 1969. Harvey, a cardiology simulator capable of imitating various functions such as blood pressure; jugular, venous, and arterial pulsation; and normal and abnormal heart sounds, was the first great success of simulation in clinical training. It is continually being updated and is still on the market today. 

Various studies have indicated that simulators are beneficial, especially for students, in honing individual and team skills in all sorts of specialties. A 1987 study showed that the Harvey simulator improved the diagnostic skills of medical students in some areas. Nowadays, we have proof of the teaching benefits afforded by simulators, covering a wide range of surgical skills and more: from keyhole surgery to stroke management, from venous catheterization to EEG interpretation. 

More realistic simulator mannequins, like Gaumard's HAL s5301, newly in use in Trieste, as well as the SimMan (Laerdal, Norway) or METI-HPS (CAE Healthcare, Sarasota, Florida) can now imitate a range of symptoms and vital signs that respond to treatment and can be linked, for example, to software that simulates hemodynamic parameters. They also allow students to repeatedly simulate and train themselves in responding to rare or unexpected events, and even to hone nontechnical skills, such as working as a team, making decisions in an emergency, and communicating. 

Educational Worth

Even mannequins without HAL s5301's level of sophistication are an integral part of the medical curriculum in Italy. One example is the four high-fidelity simulators (three adults and one child) in use at University of Turin's Advanced Medical Simulation Center. "High-fidelity scenarios are usually postgraduate training tools, but we also use our high-tech simulators for third-year medical students who learn to take vital signs, read ECG traces, and recognize situations that are clinically unstable," said Grazia Papotti, MD, the center's coordinator. "Different scenarios are simulated using role play to teach students how to tackle physical examinations and approach the diagnostic process, working as part of a team. In their sixth year of study, when they are close to graduating, we switch to SimTo for training in an emergency setting," 

The aim, said Alberto Milan, MD, another coordinator at the center, is to enable students to overcome their self-doubt. "There is a feeling that students can ask questions and make mistakes more freely, which ultimately means they learn at a much faster rate." 

And the students seem to support this. Miriam Rosso, who underwent training involving the use of simulators at the University of Turin, told Univadis, "This experience was essential to my learning, because it meant that by the time I got to my hospital placement, I already felt pretty confident in my ability to approach patients and how to correctly distinguish different clinical signs. In my sixth year, the simulated training was even more useful, as the setting was emergency medicine and urgent care. Without a doubt, if I hadn't had training with the simulator, I would have been much more insecure and disoriented during my first shift at the hospital."

Virtual Alternatives

As with any technology, simulator mannequins have been met with criticism. Above all, robots tend to be costly. HAL s5301 costs around $100,000. Add to that $16,000 in service costs, and you can generally expect to pay up to $250,000 dollars for a realistic simulator. 

Can similar results be achieved without spending so much money? Maybe. One aspect still to be clarified in scientific literature is whether the use of simulators translates into better patient outcomes. The few systematic reviews available find no statistically significant advantage of training with simulators, compared with traditional teaching, when it comes to patient outcomes in endoscopy or in the surgical field. 

In the case of the University of Turin, we have to make do for now with perceived competence, but more in-depth studies analyzing quantifiable skill acquisition are on the horizon. "By analyzing a large amount of scientific data collected to date (from March 2021 to July 2023 we have trained 3500 medical students), we can show that students significantly Strengthen their perceived competence for each of the practical tasks for which they undergo training. We will also try to obtain objective measurements and to compare our students with cohorts of students who have undergone traditional training without simulation techniques,” said Papotti. 

It is interesting to note that, when comparing different types of simulation technology, virtual reality techniques seem, at least in some cases, to be as useful as mannequins, and are 22 times cheaper. A 2021 randomized pilot study found no differences between robotic mannequins and virtual reality simulations in managing emergency medicine cases. A 2023 study on diagnostic bronchoscopy had similar results.

Conversely, at least two studies, one from 2021 and the other 2022, showed that students were more comfortable and found it more informative to practice with human-simulated patients than with robots, which were perceived as being less realistic. 

However, it must be said that even during simulation using mannequins, it is still possible to add verbal human feedback, as Papotti confirmed. "In some cases, we can simulate making the mannequin speak using a tutor or actor's voice from the control room. Some mannequins let you do this directly; for others, we make do by tying a small amplifier under the bed. 

"The student is fully aware that it isn't the mannequin talking, but this method is nearly always more effective in helping them immerse themselves in the scenario and relate fully with their pretend patient. This is excellent practice: the students begin to understand how difficult it is and how careful they must be when choosing the language they use and the tone they take when communicating with their patients."

Being Too Precise

Finally, there is a risk that simulations could be misleading, as feared in a 2015 debate on the topic. Indeed, neither mannequins nor other simulation methods are capable of correctly imitating all symptoms and types of illness. For example, in the field of neurology, human simulators cannot correctly imitate epileptic seizures, aphasia, or stroke. An actor imitating an epileptic seizure will, in reality, be acting out seizures recognized by an expert eye to be psychogenic. These are different and require alternative treatment to that used for epileptic seizures. 

Conversely, a mannequin runs the risk of being too "honest" in its imitation of symptoms, without the ambiguities doctors are faced with in real life. The risk of "mistraining" also results from the imperfect anatomic accuracy of mannequin simulators, as has been shown in various studies. For example, one 2021 study on premature neonate respiratory tract simulators found numerous differences between infant anatomy and the simulated one, which may lead to medical students being taught — and therefore putting into use — excessively intensive ventilation techniques, potentially endangering patients. 

Medical students are aware of these limitations, as Miriam Rosso noted: "As realistic as these clinical cases are, they remain somewhat standardized (they hardly include all of the comorbidities that 'real' patients have on a daily basis), and interaction with the patient is reduced (taking their history, accurately investigating their pain, et cetera)."

Therefore, to ensure that students receive a full and accurate learning experience, simulator mannequins must only be used by appropriately trained teachers, who are capable of understanding and maneuvering around the potential limitations of simulators, said Papotti. "To ensure high-quality training, even tutors will need specific training, monitoring, and support in the use of such devices. The technology is complex and requires care and skill. 

"It's my belief that, if a student learns incorrectly, the cause will never be the simulator's lack of realism, but rather a failing on the part of the person who planned the activity or supported it as a tutor or facilitator. Tutors must always provide honest feedback on which aspects are most and least realistic. They must have a wealth of experience in the field and put it to good use."

This article was translated from Univadis Italy, which is part of the Medscape professional network.

Tue, 22 Aug 2023 01:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/robotic-patients-they-re-useful-have-limitations-2023a1000jev
Killexams : Magenta Medical completes enrollment in trial of tiny heart pump

Magenta Medical Logo

Magenta Medical Logo

Magenta Medical announced today that it completed enrollment for the early feasibility study of its Elevate heart pump device.

The FDA-approved study evaluates the percutaneous left ventricular assist device (pLVAD) for high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention (HR-PCI). Investigators enrolled and successfully treated 15 study patients. Treatments took place at Mount Sinai Hospital, St. Francis Hospital and Heart Center and North Shore University Hospital.

Magenta won FDA approval to evaluate the safety and feasibility of Elevate in providing temporary mechanical support in HR-PCI procedures. It constitutes the first step in a clinical program aimed at securing approval for Elevate — the world’s smallest heart pump — in the U.S.

Dr. Samin Sharma, director of interventional cardiology at Mount Sinai, performed the first U.S. procedure. Sharma cited “three cardinal features” of Elevate — small insertion profile, ease of use and high pump flow. He said these enable surgeons to benefit many more appropriate selected complex PCI patients.

Sharma also noted the ability to navigate the device smoothly, despite hostile vascular environments.

More about the Magenta Medical miniature heart pump

Magenta’s high-flow, low-profile device holds a duo of FDA breakthrough device designations. The agency deemed it a breakthrough option for high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention and cardiogenic shock. Magenta completed a first-in-human study in Tbilisi, Georgia, and presented results last year.

The company now plans to launch clinical programs in the U.S., beginning with this early feasibility study. Earlier this year, Magenta raised $55 million in a financing round geared toward advancing these programs toward FDA approval.

The proprietary technology miniaturizes the powerful, percutaneous LVAD to fit an 8 Fr delivery system. Magenta says this marks the smallest crimping profile of any such device.

Inserted over a guidewire, through the aorta and across the aortic valve using 10 Fr introducer sheaths, the system offers ease of use, safety, physician access and vascular access closure. Once deployed, the speed of the pump can adjust to provide more than 5 L/min of mean blood flow at physiological blood pressures.

Magenta says that represents the full cardiac output of an adult. Its peak flows exceed 7 L/min, making it the most powerful known percutaneous pump.

“Magenta is honored to have partnered with top cardiology centers in the US to further validate its technology and provide cardiologists with a powerful tool to support their high-risk patients during complex procedures,” said Dr. David Israeli, CEO of Magenta Medical. “We are thrilled to have completed enrollment so quickly, which speaks to both the clinical need and the wonderful enthusiasm and support of our clinical partners. The Magenta team is looking forward to offering the advantages of the Elevate System to a wide range of complex cardiac patients in our expanding clinical program towards eventual market approval.”

Tue, 22 Aug 2023 06:46:00 -0500 Sean Whooley en-US text/html https://www.massdevice.com/magenta-medical-enrollment-feasibility-trial-heart-pump/
Killexams : Screen time linked with developmental delays in toddlerhood, study finds

Handing your baby a phone or tablet to play with may seem like a harmless solution when you're busy, but it could quickly affect their development, a new study has found.

Having anywhere from one to four hours of screen time per day at age 1 is linked with higher risks of developmental delays in communication, fine motor, problem-solving and personal and social skills by age 2, according to a study of 7,097 children published Monday in the journal JAMA Pediatrics.

"It's a really important study because it has a very large demo size of children who've been followed for several years," said Dr. Jason Nagata, associate professor of pediatrics at the University of California, San Francisco, who wasn't involved in the study.

"The study fills an important gap because it identifies specific developmental delays (in skills) such as communication and problem-solving associated with screen time," said Nagata, noting there haven't been many prior studies that studied this issue with several years of follow-up data.

The children and their mothers were part of the Japan-based Tohoku Medical Megabank Project Birth and Three-Generation Cohort Study and were recruited from 50 obstetric clinics and hospitals in the Miyagi and Iwate prefectures between July 2013 and March 2017.

The study measured how many hours children used screens per day at age 1 and how they performed in several developmental domains — communication skills, fine motor skills, personal and social skills, and problem-solving skills — at ages 2 and 4. Both measures were according to the mothers' self-reports.

By age 2, those who had had up to four hours of screen time per day were up to three times more likely to experience developmental delays in communication and problem-solving skills.

Those who had spent four or more hours with screens were 4.78 times more likely to have underdeveloped communication skills, 1.74 times more likely to have subpar fine motor skills and two times more likely to have underdeveloped personal and social skills by age 2. By age 4, risk remained only in the communication and problem-solving categories.

"One of the areas that's relatively understudied in the whole screen time literature is looking at impacts of screen exposure on very young kids, especially when screens are introduced to babies," said Dr. John Hutton, associate professor of general and community pediatrics at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, who wasn't involved in the study. "It's definitely a global concern, and I think the findings (here) should apply to, really, other countries as well."


The potential harms of screen time on communication skills may have to do with children being robbed of drivers for language development, Hutton said.

"Kids learn how to talk if they're encouraged to talk, and very often, if they're just watching a screen, they're not having an opportunity to practice talking," he said. "They may hear a lot of words, but they're not practicing saying a lot of words or having a lot of that back-and-forth interaction."

Technology use can take time away from interpersonal relationships that nurture social skills since real people are more multidimensional than characters on a screen, Hutton added. Looking at people's faces is when our brains turn on to figure out how to interact with them.

"Also, (with) passive screen viewing that doesn't have an interactive or physical component, children are more likely to be sedentary and then aren't able to practice motor skills," Nagata said.

If children don't have enough time to play or are handed a tablet to pacify negative emotions, that could prevent the important developmental milestone that is the ability to navigate discomfort.

"Longer term, one of the real goals is for kids just to be able to sit quietly in their own thoughts," Hutton said. "When they're allowed to be a little bit bored for a second, they get a little uncomfortable, but then they're like, 'OK, I want to make myself more comfortable.' And that's how creativity happens."

There are other factors that can affect a child's development, such as genetics, adverse experiences such as neglect or abuse, and socioeconomic factors, Nagata said.

In the latest research, mothers of children with high levels of screen time were more likely to be younger, have never given birth before, have a lower household income, have a lower education level and have postpartum depression.

The study does have limitations. Due to social desirability bias — wanting to say the "right" or socially acceptable thing — parents may underreport their child's screen time and overreport how their child is doing developmentally, experts said.

Additionally, the authors didn't have details on what children's screen time involved, and not all forms are equal in their capacity to harm or benefit, experts said.

"The other question that's always really important is, is the parent watching with the child?" Hutton said. "When a parent is watching with a child, that tends to mitigate a lot of the negatives."


If you need to keep your toddler busy so you can get things done or have some solitude, try giving them a book, colouring materials or toys, experts said. They can even sometimes enjoy these activities while secured in a highchair.

If you need to rely on screens sometimes, opt for educational content or video chats with a loved one so they can still get some social interaction, Nagata said.

One issue with some online children's content is that parents will think it's educational because it's marketed as such and has lots of information about the alphabet, colours, numbers or animals their children can see and hear, Hutton said. But what jumpstarts learning is content that helps children apply their knowledge beyond just rote memorization — so they can "navigate the real world, where things are more unpredictable and require more creativity and resilience," he said.

Hutton and Nagata recommended choosing longer videos since watching lots of short videos could affect children's attention span and ability to understand what they're watching.

Be choosy about when you rely on screen time, and turn devices off when they're not in use, Nagata said. "Aimless viewing can also distract kids from then focusing on an activity that's at hand or in-person communication."

Additionally, live by example by not having an excessive amount of screen time yourself, since kids tend to mimic what they see, experts said.The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends considering the quality of screen time rather than just quantity, but the organization does have resources for determining guidelines and limits for your family — such as its family media plan you can tailor to your own family's needs and advice for helping your kids build healthy habits.

"We need to just slow down and … be as careful and mindful as we can about keeping kids anchored in the real world, which is really how we evolved as humans," Hutton said. "There's going to be plenty of time for screen time later once we get a better sense of who the kids are and what they need."

Mon, 21 Aug 2023 05:18:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.ctvnews.ca/health/screen-time-linked-with-developmental-delays-in-toddlerhood-study-finds-1.6527974
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