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Exam Code: NE-BC ANCC Nurse Executive Certification Free PDF January 2024 by Killexams.com team

NE-BC ANCC Nurse Executive Certification

Exam : NE-BC

Exam Name : ANCC Nurse Executive Certification

Number of Questions : 175

Scored Questions : 150

Unscored Questions : 25

Category Domains of Practice No. of Questions Percent

I Structures and Processes 27 18%

II Professional Practice 55 37%

III Leadership 33 22%

IV Knowledge Management 35 23%

Total 150 100%

There are 175 questions on this examination. Of these, 150 are scored questions and 25 are pretest questions that are not scored. Pretest questions are used to determine how well these questions will perform before they are used on the scored portion of the examination. The pretest questions cannot be distinguished from those that will be scored, so it is important for a candidate to answer all questions. A candidate's score, however, is based solely on the 150 scored questions. Performance on pretest questions does not affect a candidate's score.

I. Structures and Processes (18%)

A. Human Capital Management

Knowledge of:

1. Federal and state laws (e.g., Family and Medical Leave Act [FMLA], American with Disabilities Act [ADA], Fair Labor Standards Act [FLSA], wage and hour laws, equal employment opportunities, Occupational Safety and Health Administration [OSHA],

workers compensation)

2. Labor relations (e.g., collective bargaining, contract negotiations, grievances and arbitrations, National Labor Relations Board [NLRB])

3. Resource utilization (e.g., cross training, job descriptions )

4. Principles associated with human resources (e.g., employee assistance and counseling, compensation, benefits, coaching, performance management)

5. Organizational culture (e.g., just culture, transparency)

6. Organizational structure (e.g., chain of command, organizational chart, span of control)

Skills in:

7. Participating in developing and modifying administrative policies and procedures

8. Implementing and enforcing administrative policies and procedures (e.g., monitoring compliance)

9. Providing feedback on effectiveness of administrative policies and procedures

10. Evaluating the effectiveness of roles based on changing needs in the health care environment (e.g., new or expanded job descriptions, professional development)

B. Financial Management

Knowledge of:

1. Basic financial and budgeting principles (e.g., revenue cycle, supply and labor expenses, productivity, depreciation, return on investment [ROI], cost-benefit analysis)

2. Reimbursement methods (e.g., payor systems, pay for performance, payment bundling, value-based purchasing)

3. Contractual agreements (e.g., vendors, materials, staffing)

4. Principles of staffing workload (e.g., full-time equivalents [FTE], hours per patient day, skill mix)

Skills in:

5. Developing a budget (e.g., operational, capital)

6. Analyzing variances and managing a budget (e.g., operational, capital)

7. Efficient resource utilization (e.g., contractual agreements, outsourcing)

8. Determining appropriate staffing workload

C. Health and Public Policy

Knowledge of:

1. Legal issues (e.g., fraud, whistle-blowing, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act [HIPAA], corporate compliance, electronic access and security, harassment, malpractice, negligence)

2. Consumer-driven health care (e.g., public reporting, Community Health Needs Assessment [CHNA], Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems [HCAHPS], Healthgrades)

3. Emergency planning and response

4. Planning and responding to internal and external disasters

5. Planning and responding to health and public policy issues

6. Assessing, addressing, and preventing legal issues (e.g., violations, fraud, whistleblowing, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act [HIPAA], corporate compliance, electronic access and security, harassment)

II. Professional Practice (37%)

A. Care Management/Delivery

Knowledge of:

1. Health care delivery models and settings (e.g., accountable care organization [ACO], patient-centered medical home [PCMH], nurse-led clinic, telehealth, e-health, inpatient, ambulatory care, home health, rehabilitation, etc.)

2. Laws, regulations, and accrediting bodies (e.g., The Joint Commission, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Nurse Practice Act)

3. Standards of nursing practice (e.g., clinical practice guidelines, clinical pathways, ANA Scope and Standards of Practice, Nurse Practice Act)

Skills in:

4. Establishing staffing models (e.g., primary care nursing, team nursing, nurse-patient ratios, skill mix, acuity)

5. Designing workflows based on care delivery model and population served (e.g., patient centered medical home [PCMH], interdisciplinary team, case management, disease management, throughput, staffing assignment and scheduling)

6. Developing policies and procedures that ensure regulatory compliance with professional standards and organizational integrity

B. Professional Practice Environment and Models

Knowledge of:

1. Professional practice models

2. Role delineation (e.g., credentialing, privileging, certification)

3. Professional practice standards (e.g., ANA Scope and Standards of Practice, Nurses Bill of Rights, Nurse Practice Act)

4. Employee performance feedback (e.g., coaching, performance appraisal, Just Culture)

Skills in:

5. Developing clinical staff (e.g., orientation, continuing education, competency validation, performance appraisal, peer review, mentoring, planning, lifelong learning)

6. Creating a professional environment for empowered decision making (e.g., shared governance, staff accountability, critical thinking, civility)

7. Recruiting, recognizing, and retaining staff

8. Providing internal and external customer service (including service recovery)

9. Creating a vision for professional nursing practice that promotes patient and family centered care

C. Communication

Knowledge of:

1. Communication principles (e.g., active listening, reflective communication, two-way communication, interviewing)

2. Communication styles (e.g., persuasive, assertive, passive, aggressive, passiveaggressive)

3. Negotiation concepts and strategies (e.g., compromising, collaborating, win-win)

4. Communication processes that support safe patient care (e.g., documentation, handoffs or hand-overs, bedside reporting, incident reporting, reporting sentinel events)

Skills in:

5. Communicating using verbal (e.g., oral and written) and nonverbal methods (e.g., body language, eye contact, active listening)

6. Facilitating collaboration to achieve optimal outcomes (e.g., team building, group dynamics, leveraging diversity)

7. Selecting the appropriate communication method for the audience and situation (e.g., email, role playing, presentation, reports, staff meeting, board meeting, one-on-one conversation, patient/family council, consumer feedback)

8. Conflict management

III. Leadership (22%)

A. Leadership Effectiveness

Knowledge of:

1. Key elements of a healthy work environment

2. Leadership concepts, principles, and styles (e.g., pervasive leadership, servant leadership, situational leadership, appreciative inquiry, culture of transparency, change management theories)

3. Coaching, mentoring, and precepting

4. Emotional intelligence

5. Sources of influence and power

Skills in:

6. Self reflection and personal leadership evaluation

7. Integrating diversity and sensitivity into the work environment

8. Change management

9. Building effective relationships through listening, reflecting, presence, communication, and networking

10. Succession planning

11. Creating an environment to engage and empower employees

B. Strategic Visioning and Planning

Knowledge of:

1. Strategic planning principles (e.g., alignment of nursings strategic plan with the organizational plan, SWOT analysis, components of strategic planning)

2. New program development (e.g., proposals, pro forma, business plans, marketing)

3. Trends that effect nursing practice and the healthcare environment

4. Communicating and building consensus and support for the strategic plan

5. Establishing baselines for processes (i.e., measuring current performance)

6. Evaluating processes and outcome measures over time

7. Project management to support/achieve the strategic plan (e.g., planning, implementing, and monitoring action plans)

C. Ethics and Advocacy

Knowledge of:

1. Ethical principles

2. Business ethics (e.g., corporate compliance, privacy)

3. ANAs Code of Ethics

4. Patients Bill of Rights

Skills in:

5. Advocating for patients (e.g., patient rights, access, and safety)

6. Advocating for staff (e.g., healthy work environment, equipment, staffing)

7. Advocating for the nursing profession (e.g., professional organizations, promoting education, certification, legislative influence)

IV. Knowledge Management (23%)

A. Quality Monitoring and Improvement

Knowledge of:

1. Systems theory

2. Continuous performance improvement (The Plan-Do-Study-Act [PDSA] Cycle, Lean, root cause analysis, tracer methodology)

3. Process and outcome measures (e.g., clinical, financial, safety, patient satisfaction, employee satisfaction)

4. Culture of safety (e.g., risk management, employee engagement, employee safety technologies [patient lifts], patient safety technologies [bar coding])

Skills in:

5. Creating a culture of continuous performance improvement

6. Translating data into information (including use of internal and external benchmarks), and disseminating it at various levels within the organization

7. Evaluating and prioritizing outcomes of care delivery (e.g., nurse sensitive indicators, ORYX indicators, National Patient Safety Goals, core measures)

8. Selecting the appropriate continuous performance improvement technique

9. Action planning to address identified quality issues

B. Evidence-based Practice and Research

Knowledge of:

1. Institutional Review Board (IRB) requirements (e.g., protection of human research subjects)

2. Research and evidence-based practice techniques (e.g., literature review, developing research questions, study methods and design, data management, levels of evidence)

3. Distinguish between performance improvement, evidence-based practice, and research

4. Creating a culture and advocating for resources that support research and scholarly inquiry (e.g., journal club, grant writing, research councils, research participation)

5. Communicating research and evidence-based findings to internal and external stakeholders

6. Incorporating evidence into policies, standards, procedures and guidelines

7. Evaluating and incorporating new knowledge and published research findings into practice

C. Innovation

Knowledge of:

1. Clinical practice innovation

2. Leadership practice innovation

Skills in:

3. Creating a culture that values, encourages, and recognizes new and innovative ideas that benefit the patient, family, organization, or community

4. Developing a framework for implementing innovations (e.g., small tests of change, pilot studies)

5. Leveraging diversity to encourage new and innovative ideas or new patterns of thinking

6. Evaluating and applying technology to support innovation
ANCC Nurse Executive Certification
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ANCC Nurse Executive Certification
Question: 45
Which law mandates that employers must find, and use, safer medical devices to
ensure the safety of staff in the health care workplace?
A. The Occupational Safety Act
B. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Act
C. The Bloodborne Pathogens Act
D. The Needle stick Safety and Prevention Act
Answer: D
The Needle stick Safety and Prevention Act is the law that mandates employers to
find, and use, safer medical devices in order to ensure the safety of staff in the
health care workplace. This relatively new law intends to ensure workplace safety
in reference to sharps which is a major workplace safety threat. Among other
things that this law requires is a complete and accurate log of all sharps injuries,
and the active involvement of front line staff in the selection of safer sharps.
Category: Performance improvement - Monitoring/promoting workplace safety
Question: 46
What is an effective way with which you can prevent procrastination, particularly
when it comes to large and complex projects?
A. To understand that procrastination results from doing too much
B. First identify what things are leading to the procrastination
C. Select and do the most interesting part of the task first
D. Select and do the easiest part of the task first
Answer: B
An effective way with which you can prevent procrastination, particularly when it
comes to large and complex projects, is to first identify what things are leading to
the procrastination. You should then make at least one aspect of this project as
your next priority. Many procrastinators gain momentum when they attack the
most difficult and least interesting aspect of the project first. Then, the other
aspects may more readily fall into place and get done. Category: Strategic
management and technology - Managing projects
Question: 47
Which of the following steps, in correct sequence, are used in the project
management process?
A. Forming, storming and norming
B. Storming, forming and norming
C. Planning/design, Initiation, implementation, monitoring and completion
D. Initiation, planning/design, implementation, monitoring and completion
Answer: D
Initiation, planning/design, implementation, monitoring and completion are the
steps of the project management process in correct sequential order. These steps
are closely aligned with those of the problem solving process (defining the
problem, looking at and deciding among options, implementation and evaluation).
Category: Strategic management and technology - Managing projects
Question: 48
An example of an engineering control that promotes workplace safety is:
A. The adherence to standard precautions.
B. The solidification of blood.
C. The proper disposal of needles and other sharps.
D. The proper use of personal protective equipment.
Answer: B
An example of an engineering control that promotes workplace safety is the
solidification of blood. Some other engineering controls are needleless systems
and retractable scalpel blades. The adherence to standard precautions, the proper
disposal of needles, and other sharps, and the proper use of personal protective
equipment are considered work practice controls, and not engineering controls.
Category: Performance improvement - Monitoring/promoting workplace safety
Question: 49
The US military and their response teams should be part of a health care facility’s:
A. Flood contingency plan.
B. Storm contingency plan.
C. Workplace violence contingency plan.
D. Bioterrorism contingency plan.
Answer: D
The US military and their response teams should be part of a health care facility’s
bioterrorism contingency plan. Bioterrorism is a major threat in our nation,
especially after the World Trade Center’s destruction. Bioterrorism involves the
intentional act of releasing toxins, bacteria and viruses to harm others. Category:
Strategic management and technology - Contingency plans
Question: 50
The primary purpose of contingency plans in business is to:
A. Enhance efficiency, effectiveness and timeliness of service despite changes in
the external environment.
B. Enhance efficiency, effectiveness and timeliness of service despite changes in
the internal environment.
C. Reduce redundancies and to maintain quality despite the ever changing internal
D. Reduce risk and to maintain quality despite the ever changing internal and
external environments.
Answer: D
The primary purpose of contingency plans in business is to reduce risk and to
maintain quality despite the ever-changing internal and external environments.
For example, a business may have a contingency plan when sudden staff cuts are
needed (a change in the internal environment) to maintain quality and to reduce
the risks of profit losses associated with this sudden change. Efficiency,
effectiveness and timeliness are only some of the aspects of quality so the best
response is D. Additionally redundancies are often intentionally built into
processes in order to ensure safety and quality. Category: Strategic management
and technology - Contingency plans
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Medical Certification Free PDF - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/NE-BC Search results Medical Certification Free PDF - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/NE-BC https://killexams.com/exam_list/Medical Free Online Medical Billing And Coding Courses: 4 Options To Consider

Editorial Note: We earn a commission from partner links on Forbes Advisor. Commissions do not affect our editors' opinions or evaluations.

You can find medical billing and coding jobs in doctors’ offices, clinics, hospitals and other medical facilities across the country. Medical billers and coders ensure insurance companies have the information they need to pay doctors and medical facilities for the procedures and services they provide.

Are you considering a job in medical billing and coding, but you’re unsure if it’s right for you? You can get a feel for the field by taking a free medical billing and coding course. Online medical billing and coding courses can deliver you an overview of the field and its responsibilities to help you decide whether you want to become a medical coder.

This article highlights six free online medical billing and coding courses that can be a starting point for your career path. Some of the courses listed in our guide are more extensive than others, but most cover many of the basic concepts you’ll need to know to work in the field. If you are unsure about launching a medical billing and coding career, one of these free courses can help you decide.

What Is an Online Medical Billing and Coding Program?

Comprehensive online medical billing and coding programs offer training for careers in medical billing and coding, often preparing learners for field-specific certifications.

Course materials typically include video lectures and other online training materials. Some classes run synchronously, using web conferencing to replicate the classroom experience, while others are asynchronous, allowing students to peruse materials and complete assignments at their own pace.

4 Free Medical Billing and Coding Courses Available Online

Completing a comprehensive medical billing and coding program can qualify you for a medical billing and coding career. Many comprehensive options require payment, but tuition varies by program.

In contrast, if you want to explore the basic tenets of this career path without paying the full cost of a medical billing and coding program, consider a free online course. Note, however, that these no-cost classes do not replace paid certification programs, which provide more extensive training and prepare you for professional certification exams.

Below, we explore several options for free medical billing and coding courses.

1. What is Medical Coding and Billing?

Cost: Free
Time to completion: One hour
Overview of course: This course from Udemy and PPMC Academy introduces the basics of medical billing and coding, exploring courses such as diagnostic coding, procedural coding, and medical coder and biller tasks. It also covers other job duties such as processing claims and tracking and collecting payments. The free class also explains the required education and experience for medical biller and coder careers.

2. Introduction to Medical Coding Course (i2MC)

Cost: Free
Time to completion: Eight weeks
Overview of course: Absolute Medical Coding Institute (AMCI) offers a free, eight-week introductory course about medical coding. The class covers coding for diagnoses and procedures, including the major coding sets for outpatient, professional and facility coding.

After completing the i2MC course, you receive a 20% tuition discount for AMCI’s full medical coding class, which helps prepare you for two field-specific certification exams.

3. Basics of Medical Billing and Coding

Cost: Free
Time to completion: Four to five hours
Overview of course: This free course from Advance Learning and Alison explores classification and coding systems, electronic health records, coding techniques and practice management software.

Program training covers medical jargon and terminology, medical billing and coding procedures, legal compliance and auditing and how to work with medical insurance. The class also teaches you to identify the appropriate codes for various diagnoses, treatments and procedures.

4. Diploma in Medical Coding and Billing

Cost: Free
Time to completion: 15 to 20 hours
Overview of course: This course from Advance Learning and Alison offers an overview of many aspects of medical coding and billing. Class materials explore compliance and ethics issues, field-specific terminology and different coding systems. The course also examines health insurance companies, billing fraud, reimbursement methods and proper coding practices.

Though you receive a diploma upon completing this course, this credential does not equate to a professional certification in billing or coding.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) About Free Online Medical Billing and Coding Courses

How can I learn medical billing and coding for free?

Multiple organizations offer free medical billing and coding training courses online, including Udemy and PPMC Academy, Alison and Advance Learning, and Absolute Medical Coding Institute. If you want to start a career in this field, you usually need professional certification, which free courses do not prepare you for. But you can still find low-cost medical billing and coding certification courses online.

Can you learn medical billing and coding on your own?

Yes, it is possible to study medical billing and coding on your own through resources like free courses, books and videos. If you want to pursue this career path, consider taking a paid course to help prepare for professional certification, which can qualify you for more jobs.

What is the best medical and billing coding certification?

Organizations like the American Academy of Professional Coders and the American Health Information Management Association provide certification for medical billing and coding. Some certifications cover billing or coding only, while others cover both, so choose the certification that best aligns with your career goals.

Wed, 13 Dec 2023 22:13:00 -0600 Sheryl Grey en-US text/html https://www.forbes.com/advisor/education/free-medical-billing-and-coding-course-options/
Certification Training

We are actively building on-campus certification opportunities for our pre-health students.

For the academic year, 2023-2024 on-campus training and courses we will have:

EMT Certification

Through a generous collaboration with Mission College and the Cowell Health Center, we are offering an online lecture course with an in-person skills lab on SCU’s campus.  This course will be offered in the Fall and Winter/Spring to provide EMT training for 50 students per year.  With our own EMT equipped laboratory, we can dramatically increase the number of students that can complete this training and have a resource for recertification as well.

Check the Health Professions Camino page or email Dr. McNelis for more information.


Through a collaboration with Santa Clara Fire Department and the SCU EMT Squad, we will be offering CPR BLS certification starting this academic year. Since most healthcare experiential opportunities require CPR certification, we want to provide ready access for certification and recertification for our students to support clinical placement opportunities.

Check the Health Professions Camino page or email Dr. McNelis for more information.

On-campus certification training such as EMT empowers our students for securing meaningful clinical experience while at SCU and for post-graduate opportunities. 

We are seeking additional collaborations to bring more medical certification training to campus. 

Online Certifications

In addition, we are identifying on-line healthcare professional training that healthcare organizations require (or encourage) for their care providers. Having our students complete low-cost online HIPAA certification and Implicit bias training prepares our students to be most effective in clinical settings during their undergraduate years and in their future healthcare careers.

Other On-Campus training

We are exploring training opportunities that will ensure that our students are functioning effectively in their work in clinical placements and post-graduation employment experiences. 

For example, we are offering an Intermediate Spanish for Healthcare course starting Winter and Spring quarters in 2024.

  • Emphasis will be on communication, cultural fluency and medical Spanish
  • Highly capable students will be able to pursue certification as Medical Interpreters 
  • Possibility for training in other languages in the future with a healthcare focus
  • Medical Interpretation is a certification that our students can use to gain clinical experience and post-graduate training

Photo highlighting Medical Spanish course

Tue, 22 Aug 2023 01:47:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.scu.edu/health-professions/certification-training/
Medical Laboratory Science, Certificate

Saint Louis University's medical laboratory science certificate offers students who have already obtained an undergraduate degree in an alternate field and are pursuing a career change a certificate to become a medical laboratory professional.

The certificate has three concentration options: clinical hematology, clinical microbiology and clinical chemistry.

Curriculum Overview

SLU's medical laboratory science certificate program's curriculum provides students with a strong science background, medically applied coursework and corresponding practicum experiences in the clinical laboratory.

Each program consists of two semesters of didactic coursework at the undergraduate level, followed by a clinical practicum that varies in length between five to seven weeks. The typical program takes between 12-18 months to complete.

Clinical and Research Opportunities

Clinical internship experiences in clinical practice settings (e.g., hospitals, clinics, reference labs, etc.) are a required component of SLU's medical laboratory science certificate curricula. 


Graduates with a certificate in medical laboratory science are prepared to conduct and manage a broad spectrum of laboratory testing. Results of these tests are used to evaluate the health status of individuals, diagnose disease and monitor treatment efficacy. Graduates of this program frequently work in diagnostic, research and/or other laboratory settings.

Upon successfully completing the program, graduates are eligible for national certification by the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP) as categorical medical laboratory professionals.

Admission Requirements

  • Completion of a conferred degree from an institution that is accredited by one of the regional accreditation agencies is required.
  • Students must complete a combination of 30 credits (45 quarter credits) of biology, chemistry and/or medical sciences for program admission consideration.
  • A college minimum cumulative grade point average of 2.50 on a 4.00 scale, including a minimum 2.50 science/math GPA with at least a “C” in all biological sciences, chemistry and math is required.

Transcript Evaluation

Students interested in clinical hematology, clinical microbiology or clinical chemistry should contact Amanda Reed at amanda.reed@health.slu.edu or 314-977-8686 for transcript evaluation. 

Admission Decisions

The number of students admitted into each certificate program is based on the availability of clinical placement sites for practicum experiences. No student will be admitted until clinical placement for practicum experiences has been secured.

In the event of a limited number of available placement spots, a competitive entry process based on GPA, previous coursework, and letters of recommendation will be used to admit students. Admission decisions will be made on or before June 1 to enter the fall cohort.

All applicants must meet the professional performance standards required for the profession.

Required Background Check

Regulations require all students to complete a criminal background check and a drug test at least once during the program; either or both may be repeated as agency requirements demand. Positive results from the criminal background check or drug tests may result in ineligibility to attend clinical rotations and/or to graduate from the program. A felony conviction will affect a graduate’s professional certification and professional practice eligibility.


Tuition Cost Per Credit
Undergraduate Tuition $1,830

Additional charges may apply. Other resources are listed below:

Net Price Calculator

Information on Tuition and Fees

Miscellaneous Fees

Information on Summer Tuition

Scholarships and Financial Aid

Students who graduated with a bachelor's degree and are seeking a second bachelor's degree or post-baccalaureate certificate do not qualify for most SLU and federal financial aid. 
Financial aid may be available in the form of federal loans, which require repayment. Federal loan eligibility is based on what was borrowed as an undergraduate student. (Find more information on loan limits.) Federal loan consideration requires a completed Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA). 
Information on Federal and Private Loans

View the Preferred Private Lender List


The Medical Laboratory Science program at Saint Louis University has been continuously accredited since the graduation of its first class in 1933.

We are one of the oldest programs in the nation, founded in 1929, and boast over 90 years of educational service to the medical laboratory science profession.

Program Outcomes

The program is accredited by:

National Accrediting Agency for Clinical Laboratory Science 5600 N. River Road, Suite 720 Rosemont, IL 60018

phone: 773-714-8880
fax: 773-714-8886

BLS 4130 Principles & Techniques in Molecular Biology 0
BLS 4411 Fundamentals of Immunology 2
BLS 4420 Medical Immunology 2
MLS 3210 Clinical Education & Laboratory Management 2
MLS 3400 Laboratory Operations 1
Total Credits 21-23

Clinical Hematology Concentration 

BLS 3110 Urinalysis & Body Fluids 2
BLS 4210 Hematology 4
BLS 4220 Hemostasis and Thrombosis 2
MLS 3150 Urinalysis and Immunology Laboratory 1
MLS 4250 Hematology Laboratory 1
MLS 4740 Clinical Hematology Practicum 2
MLS 4750 Clinical Hematology 1
MLS 4821 Clinical Urinalysis and Phlebotomy 1
Total Credits 14

Clinical Microbiology Concentration 

BLS 4510 Medical Microbiology 4
MLS 4520 Medical Bacteriology 2
MLS 4541 Medical Mycology and Parasitology 3
MLS 4550 Medical Bacteriology Laboratory 2
MLS 4800 Clinical Microbiology Practicum 3
MLS 4811 Clinical Microbiology 1
Total Credits 15

Clinical Chemistry Concentration

BLS 3110 Urinalysis & Body Fluids 2
BLS 4110 Medical Biochemistry I 3
BLS 4120 Medical Biochemistry II 2
MLS 3150 Urinalysis and Immunology Laboratory 1
MLS 4150 Analytical Chemistry 2
MLS 4701 Clinical Chemistry Practicum 3
MLS 4710 Clinical Chemistry 1
MLS 4770 Clinical Phlebotomy Practicum 1
MLS 4820 Clinical Urinalysis Practicum 1
Total Credits 16

Continuation Standards

Students must maintain a minimum 2.50 grade point average (GPA).

Tue, 31 May 2022 05:27:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.slu.edu/doisy/degrees/undergraduate/medical-laboratory-science-certificate.php
Post-Baccalaureate Certificate, Pre-Medical

The undergraduate Post Baccalaureate Pre-Medical certificate is intended to deliver students who already possess a baccalaureate degree (bachelor's) the opportunity to complete or Boost their performance in courses required to successfully apply to medical school. This is an advanced undergraduate certificate for achievement. Each student will receive one-on-one advising on course selection to tailor the certificate to their individual needs. Along with coursework, this certificate program offers advising for MCAT prep, writing the personal statement, and other aspects needed to be a successful applicant. A committee letter is offered to students who complete the certificate and apply to medical school. The certificate requires 24 credits of coursework and should be completed in 12-24 months.

Required Courses (24 credits)

Choose from the following:

For additional information, contact Carol Myers, program coordinator.

Thu, 06 Oct 2022 04:04:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.uml.edu/catalog/undergraduate/post-baccalaureate-certificates/pre-medical-certificate.aspx The Process of Obtaining a Medical Certificate

I have a confession to make: I’ve been flying without a medical. Well, not a third-class medical, at least. As a light sport pilot and the first armless pilot, I’ve been using my driver’s license as my medical. Needless to say, my pathway to becoming a pilot was not typical. Navigating the skies with just my feet meant embracing challenges and redefining what’s possible. Now, I’m finally on the journey to getting my medical, the real medical, the third-class medical. Once again, I’m back in uncharted territory.

This medical adventure started with The Impossible Airplane project, a custom-controlled RV-10 that will be the first purpose-built airplane in history for a pilot flying with just their feet. I’ve been flying Ercoupes for a long time, but the RV-10 does not qualify for the current light sport rules. So if I’m ever going to solo The Impossible Airplane, I’ll need to get my private pilot certificate, which also means getting at least my third-class medical.

Even without arms, my formal application started like any nondisabled student pilot. I spoke to several pilot friends about an aviation medical examiner (AME) they would recommend. Unlike most other applicants, though, I wanted to find an AME who had experience with nonstandard applications. Over the years, I’ve heard horror stories from prospective pilots about how one poorly written statement caused months of delays and paperwork headaches. I also know that there is no established precedent for a pilot to receive a medical who is only flying with their feet. So, if we didn’t get the application right the first time, there’s no telling what other issues we would have to resolve.

Luckily, I found Dr. Douglas Little. He is an AME in my hometown of Tucson, Arizona, and has handled several other nontypical medical applications. I also felt reassured when Little explained the medical deferral process and that he would help me through the back and forth with the FAA. He must have done a good job because two months later I received a letter from the FAA that said I needed to see an orthopedic doctor for an evaluation and further documentation. 

When I first read the letter, I wondered why the FAA wanted an evaluation. I was born without arms. I’ve made it this far in life and aviation. But it was easy enough to schedule an appointment and send the evaluation back to the agency. When I sat down with the orthopedic doctor, it took a few minutes to explain the situation and what we were asking for. He wasn’t a pilot, but he was professionally curious. (I get a lot of professional curiosity from doctors, especially podiatrists who want to see how my feet have adapted.) The next day I had triplicates of his evaluation and sent two of them to the FAA. It was a pretty straightforward letter attesting to the functionality of my legs and feet with the absence of arms.

The FAA never asked for my medical history. I can see how that collection of documents would be difficult to assemble and then even harder to present to the agency in an organized manner. There are many services out there that specialize in assisting pilots with that process. Luckily for me, about two months after sending in my evaluation, the FAA approved a medical flight review. I can only guess that a combination of Little, the orthopedic doctor, and flying as a light sport pilot for several years helped the process.

The FAA gave me the option to choose the district office that would oversee the process. Naturally, I chose the Scottsdale, Arizona, FSDO. A couple of weeks after that, I got a call from an FAA representative. She informed me that I could select the examiner for my medical flight review and would have  a six-month window to complete it. That gave me pause for a moment. I know many student pilots were struggling to find examiners and take timely tests. On top of that, the Ercoupe I wanted to use was still undergoing a lot of maintenance. Plus, I needed a good refresher after a summer of not flying at all. However, the FAA official assured me that if I needed more time, then I just needed to call the office before the six-month window was up. 

And now I am waiting for the medical flight review. A CFI friend recommended an examiner who was properly qualified for these. I told him the situation, and he was happy to arrange a date toward the end of my six-month window. I’m both nervous and excited. If I fail my exam, then I will be disqualified from flying as a light sport pilot, and my days as a pilot are over. But if I pass—when I pass—many of the LSA restrictions will be lifted. There will be other restrictions, but I’ll overcome those too. 

Thanks to the light sport rules, the doors have been opened for more pilots like me to learn to fly. I’m so thankful that Able Flight is leading the charge for helping pilots with disabilities learn to fly. Able Flight gave me a scholarship for my light sport training. More and more of us are progressing on to the private pilot level and hopefully making it easier for the next pilot to follow after us. And who knows? Maybe after earning my private pilot certificate and instrument rating, I will start looking over the requirements for being a commercial pilot.

As I stand on the threshold of setting this next precedent, I’m reminded that every flight, every test, every hurdle overcome is not just for me, but for those who dream of taking to the skies regardless of the obstacles they face.

Thu, 21 Dec 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://www.flyingmag.com/the-process-of-obtaining-a-medical-certificate/
UPSC Medical Science Optional Syllabus for IAS Mains: PDF Download
  1. Human Anatomy:

Applied anatomy including blood and nerve supply of upper and lower limbs and joints of shoulder, hip and knee.

Gross anatomy, blood supply and lymphatic drainage of tongue, thyroid, mammary gland, stomach, liver, prostate, gonads and uterus.

Applied anatomy of the diaphragm, perineum and inguinal region.

Clinical anatomy of kidney, urinary bladder, uterine tubes, vas deferens.

Embryology: Placenta and placental barrier. Development of heart, gut, and kidney, uterus, ovary, testis and their common congenital abnormalities.

Central and Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System: Gross and clinical anatomy of ventricles of the brain, circulation of cerebrospinal fluid; Neural pathways and lesions of cutaneous sensations, hearing and vision; Cranial nerves distribution and clinical significance; Components of the autonomic nervous system.

  1. Human Physiology:

Conduction and transmission of impulse, mechanism of contraction, neuromuscular transmission, reflexes, control of equilibrium, posture and muscle tone, descending pathways, functions of the cerebellum, basal ganglia, Physiology of sleep and consciousness.

Endocrine System: Mechanism of action of hormones; formation, secretion, transport, metabolism, function and regulation of secretion of pancreas and pituitary gland.

Physiology of Reproductive System: Pregnancy menstrual cycle, lactation, pregnancy.

Blood: Development, regulation and fate of blood cells.

Cardio-vascular, cardiac output, blood pressure, regulation of cardiovascular functions.

  1. Biochemistry:

Organ function tests—liver, kidney, thyroid Protein synthesis.

Vitamins and minerals.

Restriction fragment length.

polymorphism (RFLP).

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Radio-immunoassays (RIA).

  1. Pathology:

Inflammation and repair, disturbances of growth and cancer, Pathogenesis and histopathology of rheumatic and ischaemic heart disease and diabetes mellitus. Differentiation between benign, malignant, primary and metastatic malignancies, Pathogenesis and histopathology of bronchogenic carcinoma, carcinoma breast, oral cancer, cancer cervix, leukaemia, Etiology, pathogenesis and histopathology of— cirrhosis liver, glomerulonephritis, tuberculosis, acute osteomyelitis.

  1. Microbiology:

Humoral and cell mediated immunity.

Diseases caused by and laboratory diagnosis of —

Meningococcus, Saimonella

Shigella, Herpes, Dengue, Polio

HIV/AIDS, Malaria, E. Histolytica, Giardia

Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus.

  1. Pharmacology:

Mechanism of action and side effects of the following drugs :

Antipyretics and analgesics, Antibiotics,

Antimalaria, Antikala-azar, Antidiabetics,

Antihypertensive, Antidiuretics, General and cardiac vasodilators, Antiviral, Antiparasitic, Antifungal, Immunosuppressants,


  1. Forensic Medicine and Toxicology

Forensic examination of injuries and wounds; Examination of blood and seminal stains; Poisoning, sedative overdose, hanging, drowning, burns, DNA and fingerprint study.

UPSC Medical Science Syllabus for Paper 2

The UPSC Medical Science Paper II Syllabus focuses on courses like General Medicine, Paediatrics, Dermatology, General Surgery,  Obstetrics and Gynaecology including Family Planning, and Community Medicine (Preventive and Social Medicine). Check the topic-wise UPSC Medical Science Optional Syllabus PDF for Paper II below.

  1. General Medicine
  • Aetiology, clinical features, diagnosis and principles of management (including prevention) of—Typhoid, Rabies, AIDS, Dengue, Kala-azar, and Japanese Encephalitis.
  • Aetiology, clinical features, diagnosis and principles of management of :
  • Ischaemic heart disease, pulmonary embolism.
  • Bronchial asthma.
  • Pleural effusion, tuberculosis, Malabsorption syndromes; acid peptic diseases, Viral hepatitis and cirrhosis of the liver.
  • Glomerulonephritis and pyelonephritis, renal failure, nephrotic syndrome, renovascular hypertension, complications of diabetes mellitus, coagulation disorders, leukaemia, Hypo and hyper thyroid, meningitis and encephalitis.
  • Imaging in medical problems, ultrasound, echocardiogram, CT scan, MRI.
  • Anxiety and Depressive Psychosis and schizophrenia and ECT. 
  1. Paediatrics

Immunization, Baby friendly hospital, congenital cyanotic heart disease, respiratory distress syndrome, broncho— pneumonia, kernicterus. IMNCI classification and management, PEM grading and management. ARI and Diarrhea of under five and their management.

  1. Dermatology

Psoriasis, Allergic dermatitis, scabies, eczema, vitiligo, Stevan Johnson’s syndrome, Lichen Planus.

  1. General Surgery
  • Clinical features, causes, diagnosis and principles of management of cleft palate, harelip.
  • Laryngeal tumour, oral and esophageal tumours.
  • Peripheral arterial diseases, varicose veins, coarctation of aorta.
  • Tumours of Thyroid, Adrenal, Glands.
  • Abscess cancer, fibroadenoma and adenosis of the breast.
  • Bleeding peptic ulcer, tuberculosis of the bowel, ulcerative colitis, cancer stomach.
  • Renal mass, cancer prostate.
  • Haemothorax, stones of the Gall bladder, Kidney, Ureter and Urinary Bladder.
  • Management of surgical conditions of Rectum, Anus and Anal canal, Gall bladder and Bile ducts.
  • Splenomegaly, cholecystitis, portal hypertension, liver abscess, peritonitis, carcinoma head of pancreas.
  • Fractures of the spine, Colles’ fracture and bone tumours.
  • Endoscopy.
  • Laparoscopic Surgery.
  1. Obstetrics and Gynaecology including Family Planning
  • Diagnosis of pregnancy.
  • Labour management, complications of 3rd stage, Antepartum and postpartum haemorrhage, resuscitation of the newborn, Management of abnormal life and difficult labour. Management of small for date or premature newborns.
  • Diagnosis and management of anaemia. Preeclampsia and Toxaemias of pregnancy, Management of Postmenopausal Syndrome.
  • Intra-uterine devices, pills, tubectomy and vasectomy. Medical termination of pregnancy including legal aspects.
  • Cancer cervix.
  • Leucorrhoea, pelvic pain; infertility, dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB), amenorrhoea, Fibroid and prolapse of uterus.
  1. Community Medicine (Preventive and Social Medicine)
  • Principles, methods approach and measurements of Epidemiology.
  • Nutrition, nutritional diseases/disorders and Nutrition Programmes.
  • Health information Collection, Analysis and Presentation.
  • Objectives, components and critical analysis of National programmes for control/eradication of :
  • Malaria, Kala-azar, Filaria and Tuberculosis,
  • HIV/AIDS, STDs and Dengue.
  • Critical appraisal of Health care delivery system.
  • Health management and administration; Techniques, Tools, Programme Implementation and Evaluation.
  • Objectives, Components, Goals and Status of Reproductive and Child Health, National Rural Health Mission and Millennium Development Goals.
  • Management of hospital and industrial waste.

How to Prepare the UPSC Medical Science Syllabus 2023?

Candidates must follow the UPSC Medical Science syllabus and reshape the preparation strategy. This will help them to get a strong grip on the concepts and advanced chapters important from the exam perspective. As the UPSC Medical Science optional syllabus is lengthy, aspirants should consider specific points during the IAS exam preparation.

  • Review the UPSC Medical Science optional syllabus thoroughly and segregate the courses based on marks weightage. This will enable them to finish the syllabus in a stipulated time period.
  • Pick the highly recommended books and study resources to understand the concepts easily and comprehensively.
  • Solve UPSC Medical Science's previous year's question paper to get an idea of the questions repeatedly asked over the years and question weightage.
  • Revise all the important courses and chapters covered so far to retain concepts for a definite period.

Booklist for UPSC Medical Science Optional Syllabus

Numerous UPSC Medical Science optional books are available to strengthen the basics. Once they learn fundamentals, they should start covering core courses for the advanced preparation. The right books will help them to cover all the important courses specified in the UPSC Medical Science Optional Syllabus. Some of the best UPSC Medical Science Optional books are as follows.


Book Name with Author


  • Human Anatomy by B D Chaurasia
  • Pathology by Robbins, and Cotran
  • Textbook of Pathology by Harsh Mohan
  • Embryology from I B Singh
  • Biochemistry by U. Satyanarayana book.
  • Illustrated Reviews Pharmacology by Lippincott
  • Essentials of Medical Pharmacology by K D Tripathi
  • Microbiology by D R Arora


  • General Medicine textbook of medicine by S N Chugh
  • Manipal Manual of Surgery by K. Rajgopal Shenoy
  • Pediatrics– Essential pediatrics by O P Ghai, Paul and Bagga.
  • Clinical surgery by S Das.
  • Emergency medicine by S N Chugh.
  • Practical Aspects Of Pediatrics by Dr. Mayoor K Chheda

Also Read,

Mon, 23 Oct 2023 12:03:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.jagranjosh.com/articles/upsc-medical-science-optional-syllabus-pdf-download-1698062228-1
Medical Imaging Certificate

Gain High-demand Medical Imaging Skills

It's easy to see why the call for medical imaging professionals continues to grow. Imaging technology, using both ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, is vital to medical diagnostics and therapeutics. Michigan Tech's Medical Imaging on-campus Certificate gives new graduates and experienced industry professionals thorough grounding in the basic skills essential to the principles, development, and characterization of medical imaging devices.

Who is This Certificate For?

This certificate is for qualified professionals who want to enhance their skill set and can be a foundation to continue toward a graduate degree. It is also valuable for degree-seeking students looking to develop a concentration that gives them an edge in their career path.

What You Need to Know

The graduate certificate in Medical Imaging program allows students to delve deeper into imaging requirements in biomedical applications, engineering and physics principles to specific biomedical imaging problems, imaging device development and theory of operation, and design of medical imaging tools. Develop an appreciation of the design, development, and applications of diagnostic and/or therapeutic imaging devices for biomedical applications. Get familiar with how to apply these skills in real-world problems and implement application-specific solutions.


To enroll in this certificate program, students must have a bachelor's degree in any engineering discipline. See complete admissions requirements.

Accelerated Option

Michigan Tech Bachelor's + 1 Semester = Accelerated Graduate Certificate

Current Michigan Tech undergraduates or latest alumni, get started right away. Our accelerated graduate certificates are a fast, affordable way to add graduate credentials to your bachelor's degree in as little as one semester. Be more marketable in your industry or prepare for your master's degree. Explore accelerated certificate options.


This graduate certificate requires a minimum of 10 total credits. Students may apply the credits earned for this certificate toward a graduate degree at Michigan Tech.

Related Certificates

You might also be interested in:

Wed, 12 May 2021 11:37:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.mtu.edu/gradschool/programs/certificates/medical-imaging/
What's the truth about chiropractors?

Chiropractors are not medical doctors, but undergo a lot of training and need a graduate degree to practice. Their treatments are usually safe but may not be right for every person.

Chiropractors attend graduate-level health colleges to treat bones, nerves, muscles, and ligament disorders. While chiropractors are widely known for treating back and neck pain, they also treat bone and soft tissue conditions.

In this article, we explore the myths and truths of chiropractic care. We also describe chiropractors’ training, the safety of these treatments, and the research behind the practice.

A common myth is that chiropractors do not undergo a significant amount of training. In fact, they typically complete about 8 years of higher education before they are licensed.

Chiropractors tend to have 4 years of undergraduate education. They usually complete college with a degree in biology or kinesiology after having taken courses in sciences, such as biology, chemistry, psychology, and physics.

They then attend a chiropractic graduate program. On average, these involve 4 years of education with a total of 4,200 instructional hours in course credits.

Chiropractic program specifics

Divided by year, a chiropractic graduate program usually involves:

  • First year: Courses in general anatomy, chiropractic principles, biochemistry, and spinal anatomy.
  • Second year: Courses in chiropractic procedures, pathology, clinical orthopedics, imaging interpretation, and research methods.
  • Third year: Courses in clinical internships, integrated chiropractic care, pediatrics, dermatology, practice management, and ethics and jurisprudence.
  • Fourth year: A clinical internship in which a student studies under a chiropractor and completes rotations in a hospital or veterans’ clinic.

Other studies often accompany those mentioned above.

After completing the educational and training requirements, an aspiring chiropractor in the United States will sit for their state licensing board.

Once they have obtained licensure and certification from the board, they will become a doctor of chiropractic.

Chiropractors often receive additional training and certification in a wide variety of specialties, including nutrition, sports medicine, and orthopedic rehabilitation.

Another common myth is that a chiropractor merely cracks a person’s back or bones.

Professionals center chiropractic care around spinal manipulation. However, they also study the spine and how its structures are related to the body’s function.

What do chiropractors attempt to heal?

A majority of a chiropractor’s work involves making adjustments to heal:

They may also provide services such as postural testing and analysis, as well as others designed to promote nutrition and healthful exercise.

Does it work?

Research suggests that chiropractic care can effectively relieve various types of acute and chronic pain — including neck pain, back pain, and certain types of headaches.

Studies have found that chiropractic therapy can benefit people with low back pain similarly to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs.)

Patients with back pain who receive chiropractic care may also be less likely to use opioids for pain relief.

In clinical studies, researchers found

chiropractic therapy reduced low back pain intensity and disability compared with a control group.

People sometimes use chiropractic care in conjunction with standard medical care, such as physical therapy, pharmacological treatment, and other therapies.

Like other forms of treatment, chiropractic care will not benefit all injuries. Doctors should tailor sessions to a person’s needs, and a licensed chiropractor should perform the procedure.

Chiropractic treatment may help reduce pain and disability in people with certain acute and chronic conditions, including:

Low back pain

Research on chiropractic therapy suggests it is an effective form of therapy for acute low back pain, which is pain that lasts for a few days or weeks.

Spinal manipulation therapy is associated with modest improvements in pain and function in patients with acute low back pain.

In a 2018 study, patients with low back pain who received usual medical care plus chiropractic care reported moderate improvements in pain intensity and disability compared with patients who received usual medical care without chiropractic care.

Neck pain

Neck pain is the second most prevalent health complaint reported by people seeking chiropractic care.

Research suggests chiropractic care may provide pain relief for people experiencing both chronic and acute neck pain.

Chiropractors use various techniques when treating neck pain — including thoracic manipulation, massage manipulation, and neck mobilization.

Chiropractic techniques for neck pain may be most successful when people use them as a complementary treatment alongside manual therapy, stretching, and exercise.


Some evidence suggests chiropractic therapy — specifically spinal manipulation — can Boost migraine headaches and cervicogenic headaches.


Chiropractic therapy is safe for people with back and neck pain from osteoarthritis, and people sometimes use it as a complementary treatment alongside traditional therapy.

However, doctors should not carry out chiropractic manipulations on joints that are actively inflamed.


Some people with asthma may benefit from using chiropractic treatment as a complementary therapy, but they should not use it as a replacement for traditional treatment.

A 2018 review included 17 years of studies involving spinal manipulation or mobilization.

The studies investigated the effects of these treatments on chronic lower back pain, and the authors concluded that the chiropractic methods were likely to reduce pain and Boost function.

A 2017 review examined the effectiveness of spinal manipulation in treating lower back pain. The authors concluded that treatment improved both function and pain

in patients with acute low back pain.

The American College of Physicians recommends those with lower back pain use a variety of non-pharmacological treatments, including spinal manipulation.

Researchers generally agree that they need more studies to determine the ideal length and frequency of chiropractic sessions and to identify what injuries may benefit from specific treatments.

One of the most common sources of contention regarding chiropractic treatments concerns safety.

A person may experience side effects of spinal manipulation, including:

There have been occasional reports of long-term danger related to chiropractic care.

The European Spine Journal reports that a rare complication of spinal manipulations is cauda equina syndrome, which involves nerve damage in the lower spinal cord. However, people have only reported a few cases of this.

According to the American Chiropractic Association, most discomfort and soreness subsides within 24 hours of spinal manipulation.

The World Health Organization (WHO) states that it is unsafe for people with certain health conditions to undergo chiropractic manipulation. These conditions include:

An aspiring chiropractor must spend thousands of hours studying before obtaining a license. In 2020, an estimated 51,400 chiropractors were practicing in the U.S., according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Chiropractic care is a drug-free, non-invasive, and affordable form of therapy that may treat some musculoskeletal problems. While this form of alternative medicine may not benefit everyone, professionals generally consider it to be safe for most people.

Wed, 03 Jan 2024 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/322038
Should Patients Be Allowed to Die From Anorexia?

The doctors told Naomi that she could not leave the hospital. She was lying in a narrow bed at Denver Health Medical Center. Someone said something about a judge and a court order. Someone used the phrase “gravely disabled.” Naomi did not think she was gravely disabled. Still, she decided not to fight it. She could deny that she was mentally incompetent — but this would probably just be taken as proof of her mental incompetence. Of her lack of insight. She would, instead, “succumb to it.”

It was early 2018. She had come to the hospital voluntarily, because she was getting so thin. In the days before, she had felt her electrolyte levels dip toward the danger zone — and she had decided that, even after everything, she did not want to be dead. By then, Naomi was 37 and had been starving herself for 26 years, and she was exquisitely attuned to her body’s corrupted chemistry. At the hospital, she was admitted to the ACUTE Center for Eating Disorders & Severe Malnutrition for medical stabilization. There, doctors began what was once called refeeding but is now more commonly called nutritional rehabilitation, using an intravenous line that fed into her neck. Reintroducing food to an emaciated body can be dangerous and even lethal if done too quickly. Physicians identified this phenomenon in the aftermath of World War II, when they observed skeletal concentration-camp survivors and longtime prisoners of war eat high-caloric foods and then drop dead of cardiac failure.

“Well, here I am,” Naomi said in a video message that she recorded for her parents. “I am alive, but am I happy? I don’t know. … It’s pretty pathetic. I don’t know how I feel about the fact that I would have died had I not come.” In the video, she was wearing a hot pink tank top, even though it was cool in the hospital room, because she wanted to shiver, because shivering burned calories.

A few days later, when she was not imminently dying anymore, Naomi announced that she was going home — and the hospital responded by placing her on a 72-hour mental-health hold. Clinicians then obtained what Colorado calls a short-term certification, which required, by judicial order, that Naomi be detained and treated, in her case until she reached what physicians determined to be 80 percent of her “ideal body weight.” In Colorado, as in most states, a patient can be treated against her will if she is mentally ill and found incapable of making informed decisions. That day, Naomi was transferred to a residential program at Denver’s Eating Recovery Center (E.R.C.).

“I’m so mad, I’m so mad,” Naomi said in another video message, her voice dull and impassive. “I was completely disrespected. I was tricked.” Naomi could feel that her mind was diminished — it was too slow, too slack — but she found that she could think in a straight line. She could reason. So why did the doctors claim otherwise? By then, she had been in and out of hospitals and psychiatric wards and eating-disorder programs, including the E.R.C., more times than she could recall. Was it really so irrational for her to assume that trying the same treatment for the hundredth time would be futile?

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Tue, 02 Jan 2024 20:00:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.nytimes.com/2024/01/03/magazine/palliative-psychiatry.html
Professional Certificate in Medical Retina

This online course, accredited by The College of Optometrists, aims to provide community and hospital based optometrists with enhanced knowledge in a variety of common medical retina conditions such as diabetic retinopathy and macular degeneration.

It includes courses on screening, referral and treatment pathways, and has an emphasis on optical coherence tomography (OCT) interpretation. It is taught by optometrists and ophthalmologists with expertise in the area of medical retina.

Accredited by The College of Optometrists

Professional Certificate in Medical Retina accredited by the College of Optometrists.

Content includes

  • OCT use and interpretation
  • AMD assessment and management
  • diabetic retinopathy screening and grading
  • acute retinal pathology assessment and management

Why do a Professional Certificate in Medical Retina?

This new course is an exciting opportunity for optometrists to refresh and enhance their knowledge and clinical skills in the area of medical retina.

The aim of this College of Optometrists accredited course is to provide community and hospital based optometrists with enhanced knowledge of common medical retina conditions. It includes courses on screening, diagnosis, referral and treatment of common medical retina conditions.

The course has an emphasis on optical coherence tomography (OCT) interpretation, diabetic retinopathy grading, AMD classification and the identification and management of acute retinal pathology.

What is the course content?

Anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology of the retina. Risk factors, differential diagnosis and pathogenesis of retinal and macular pathology. Current treatments of medical retina disorders. Communication. Imaging the eye for detection of diabetic retinopathy.

OCT imaging and fundus photography in medical retina. Fluorescein angiography, ICG angiography and auto fluorescence.

Detecting and classifying diabetic retinal disease. National diabetic retinopathy screening programmes. Acute macular and retinal pathology detection and management.

Current treatments of medical retina disorders and pertinent treatment trials.

Further details

The next course will run from September 2023. For further details please contact Dr. Raymond Beirne.

Sun, 19 Jun 2022 23:23:00 -0500 en-GB text/html https://www.ulster.ac.uk/optometry/courses/professional-certificates/professional-certificate-in-medical-retina

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