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Dietetic Technician Registered
Medical Technician test
Killexams : Medical Technician test - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/DTR Search results Killexams : Medical Technician test - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/DTR https://killexams.com/exam_list/Medical Killexams : Visibility into medical device inventories ‘paramount’ to securing healthcare

The challenges of securing the medical device ecosystem in healthcare are well-known.

As healthcare continues its digitization expansion and interoperability efforts expand endpoint connections, gaining visibility into device inventories and connections and the risks posed to patient safety is “paramount to protecting healthcare,” Elisa Costante, vice president of research for Forescout, told SC Media.

“By knowing exactly which devices are on their networks, healthcare security leaders can create a strategy that is tailored to their environment and take actions to reduce their risk.”

A new report from Forescout’s Vedere Labs examines the increasing expansion of devices across all sectors, including an examination of the state of medical device security in healthcare. Namely, these devices pose obvious risks if exploited due to the potential impact on healthcare delivery and patient safety.

And while the ranking of riskiest devices didn’t considerably change within the industry, it did confirm nearly every industry is facing a growing attack surface with the rapid expansion of information technology (IT), internet of things (IoT) and operational technology (OT). Healthcare also has the unique addition of internet of medical things (IoMT) devices.

To compile the report, Vedere Labs researchers analyzed millions of devices from Forescout’s Device Cloud between Jan. 1 and April 30, which contained data from almost 19 million devices.

The data revealed that healthcare and retail have the lowest risk overall, with just 20% of devices having medium or high risk. Meanwhile, the government has 43% and financial 37%. In light of the research demonstrating the complex device challenges, the statistic stands out.

But as Cosante points out, the stat doesn’t necessarily reflect that healthcare devices aren’t as risky, rather “the availability of this information and the visibility into which devices are vulnerable and what risk they bring is still scarce.”

It’s a notable statement given researchers are increasingly looking at medical device vulnerabilities, as evidenced by multiple reports in the last few years and congressional testimonies.

For the healthcare sector, the report examines the ease in which medical devices can be exploited as they’re often used with a default configuration and many have default open ports or credentials when they are configured by a manufacturer, which are sometimes left unchanged even when deployed within the healthcare environment, explained Costante.

In addition to the well-known security challenges, like the long lifespan, operating on decades-old code, and unpatched devices, “medical devices require special upgrading procedures that delay patching,” she added. “Due to specialized software and firmware running on many medical devices, the patching procedure is not as easy as in a traditional computer. Not only is applying patches more difficult, but even the existence of patches is not guaranteed for vulnerabilities affecting third-party components.”

Unlike in other industries where the risk of device vulnerabilities can only lead to business disruptions and data or privacy exposure, medical device exploits can lead to patient impacts.

WannaCry was a prime example of a ransomware attack with rippling effects where the initial impact was seen in the health system’s corporate IT networks and “spilled over to medical devices, rendering them unusable.” A 2019 attack on an Alabama hospital disrupted fetal monitors, while a cyberattack on Elekta left cancer patients without treatment for several weeks due to device impacts.

However, the researchers note that in healthcare, the ranking of the riskiest medical devices is not nearly as “important than the fact they reflect the ongoing trend toward digitalization in healthcare, where medical devices are connected to the IT network and can generate and exchange patient data with other systems.”

One of healthcare’s most problematic challenges is its use on vulnerable devices, particularly those tied to medical imaging. A previous SC Media exclusive examined the U.S. health sector’s lack of action after a 2019 ProPublica report showing millions of medical images were actively being exposed online through unsecured Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS).

As reported, the U.S. continues to utilize PACS without first closing major security gaps, and the same health systems employing unsecured PACS have also failed to close other critical vulnerabilities/

PACS are used by most healthcare delivery organizations for archiving medical images and for quickly sharing patient records and images between connected providers. But the tool, which relies on the highly vulnerable Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) protocol, is ranked as one of the riskiest devices employed in the sector.

The latest Vedere report reaffirms the criticality of these medical imaging devices, tied to the frequent reliance on legacy IT operating systems, extensive network connectivity, and as noted, the “use the DICOM standard for sharing these files.”

“DICOM defines both the format for storing medical images and the communication protocol used to exchange them. The protocol supports message encryption, but its usage is configured by individual healthcare organizations,” the report authors wrote. “We observe unencrypted communications in many organizations, which could allow attackers to obtain or tamper with medical images.”

Patient monitors are also among the most vulnerable devices as “they often communicate with unencrypted protocols.”

However, the report authors note that focusing defenses on only whether a device is risky won’t solve these challenges as actors can exploit any exposed vulnerability to gain access to the network and pivot to other connections. What’s truly needed is a proper risk assessment to understand the attack surface and its growth, including granular classification into device types, vendors, models and firmware versions.

Thu, 13 Oct 2022 09:52:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.scmagazine.com/analysis/device-security/visibility-into-medical-device-inventories-paramount-to-securing-healthcare
Killexams : Should You Look at Your Medical Test Results Early?

Photo: Shutterstock (Shutterstock)

Some of us are just curious. If you had a medical test done, and the results are sitting in your chart, don’t you want to know what they say right now? But especially if it’s bad news, it may be better to wait until you can speak with your provider to find out what the test results really mean.

Instant results are more common now than they were years ago, thanks to a provision in the 21st Century Cures Act. Test results must be released to patients without delay in most circumstances. That means you may get an email or an app notification before your doctor even gets to see the results.

Why you might not want to look at your test results

Traditionally, test results were often given to you by the doctor who ordered them. There might be a distinction based on whether the results were routine, or something serious: you might get a bad diagnosis broken to you in person, versus a phone call to say everything was fine. In some cases, no news was good news, and you’d only get a call if there was a problem.

That system had its issues, of course. But it also meant that if you are going to get a serious diagnosis, or if you might have to make an important decision (like whether you get surgery), you can do so in the presence of a provider who can explain what they do and don’t know about your condition, and can walk you through the next steps in the process.

Even for routine tests, getting the results from your provider directly can mean you get context. Maybe one of your lab values was a bit high, but that’s to be expected given your health issues. Or maybe you see a scary-sounding medical term that turns out to be a jargon-y way for saying that everything was normal.

It’s easy to spiral into worry if you see something that you think is problematic, and you don’t have somebody to talk to about it. And if your first step is to google what you see, you may end up going down some deep rabbit holes, convincing yourself that you either do or don’t have a terrifying medical condition. It may be best to skip this step entirely and wait to find out until you have a person to talk things over with.

Why you might want to look at your test results

While you certainly risk jumping to conclusions, worrying yourself unnecessarily, or getting hit with bad news when you least expect it, there are also upsides to getting your test results right away. (After all, they are your results, and the law now recognizes that it’s your right to read them if and when you want.)

For one thing, routine tests usually provide routine results. Either your cholesterol is high or it isn’t. So you can look, and now you know what you’ll be talking about with your doctor when you do finally get that call or show up to your next appointment. If you were expecting the result and feel comfortable viewing it, knock yourself out.

Now, that’s not true of all tests; sometimes there are unexpected findings, so you have to be okay with the risk that you might see something confusing or worrying.

Even if you’re expecting potentially life-changing news, you may still want to know sooner rather than later. I remember missing a call from my dog’s veterinarian at the beginning of a long holiday weekend; I knew she probably had a terminal illness but I didn’t appreciate the extra three days of wondering about it. Just provide me the bad news already. Similarly, in a study of cancer patients in Sweden, some said that seeing their results immediately reduced their anxiety over bad news.

For many of us, getting results sooner helps us to feel more in control of our care and our medical decisions, and gives us an opportunity to be better informed. We can make a list of questions to ask at the follow-up visit. We can also be sure that the test has actually been done and the results delivered, instead of assuming that any results we haven’t seen must be good news.

How to look at your test results responsibly

Ultimately, it’s your choice whether you want to look at your test results the second they arrive. (You can also ask your doctor to delay releasing information that might be serious, but not all computer systems have an easy way for them to indicate that.) So here’s how to manage some of the pros and cons.

First, turn off MyChart alerts (or however you might be interrupted with the news.) A New York Times article on the downsides of studying your own results includes a story of someone who had experienced a pregnancy loss getting a surprise notification for a fetal autopsy report. The surprise seems like it was the most upsetting part.

By turning off notifications, you won’t get interrupted with test results, whether you’re expecting them or not. This way, you can check for them when you feel ready. I recommend turning the notifications off by default, and then if there is a test result you really do want to see instantly, you can go ahead and turn the notifications back on temporarily.

Next, make sure you think through the possibilities before the results come in. Before you get the test or the scan, ask your provider what the possible results might be, and what each would mean. (I’d argue this question should be part of the conversation anytime you’re offered a test or treatment. What will we be doing differently if the test comes back positive versus negative?)

Also make sure to ask when you’ll be able to discuss the test results. Will you get a call? Will there be a follow-up appointment? When will that be? This way if you do need to talk to somebody about the results, you know when you’ll have the opportunity.

You do have to figure out whether you are ready for bad news, and what you’ll do if you get it—and, similarly, whether you can handle getting confusing news, like if you read the report and aren’t sure what it means. Will you spend the next few days googling the report and asking health care worker friends to read it with you? Will that make you feel better or worse about it?

Most importantly, do not make assumptions until you’ve talked to the doctor. Whatever information you gather from looking up the terms on your report or asking your nurse friend what they think, view all of those things as possibilities to discuss with your provider.

And if you find yourself spiraling into worry while you await the appointment, recognize when you’re gathering information and when you’re just doomgoogling. Call a friend (or call the office, if they’re open) and make sure you’re taking care of your mental as well as your physical health.

  

Tue, 11 Oct 2022 12:01:00 -0500 en text/html https://lifehacker.com/should-you-look-at-your-medical-test-results-early-1849643612
Killexams : What is a tilt table test, and how does it work?

Tilt table tests help doctors find possible causes of repeated fainting. During this test, a person lies on a tiltable table. Doctors fasten them to the table before tilting it upright. Doctors may acquire information about the fainting episodes by monitoring the person in this upright position.

This article details the purpose of tilt table tests and what to expect from them.

It will also discuss their risks and results, frequently asked questions about them, and more.

Syncope” is the medical term for fainting. The tilt table test allows doctors to acquire information about people’s syncope.

If a person regularly experiences syncope and doctors have ruled out other causes, they may recommend a tilt table test. This test changes a person’s position — from lying down to upright — while they are strapped in place.

This change in position may cause the person to faint, and doctors will monitor the person’s blood pressure and ECG readings. This can help them determine what causes the syncope.

A person experiences syncope when there is reduced blood flow to their brain. This causes loss of consciousness and loss of postural control. A tilt table test can sometimes determine the underlying cause of syncope.

Potential causes of syncope include:

  • Arrhythmia: This is an irregular heartbeat. The body may not receive enough blood flow when someone has an arrhythmia.
  • Vasovagal syndrome: Also called vasovagal syncope, this is fainting that results from a sudden decrease in blood pressure or heart rate.
  • Heart disease: Structural heart disease, such as an enlarged heart or problems with the heart valves, may block blood flow and cause fainting.
  • Heart attack: A heart attack damages the heart, reducing blood flow.
  • Cardiomyopathy ventricular dysfunction: The heart ventricles fail or become weak and therefore have a reduced ability to pump blood around the body.

Several conditions, including a variety of cardiac problems and certain blood flow disorders, can lead to syncope.

Tilt table tests can help doctors determine the underlying cause. Tilt table tests are helpful when an individual:

  • has experienced multiple episodes of syncope of unknown origin
  • has experienced a single syncope of an unknown origin and sustained a traumatic injury
  • experiences a single syncope of unknown origin without any preceding symptoms
  • experiences a fall that may be due to syncope
  • produces jerking movements during a syncope-like episode

Tilt table tests can also help doctors differentiate syncope from other conditions, such as epilepsy.

This section discusses the different stages of a tilt table test.

Before

Before the test, an individual should fast for a minimum of 4 hours.

This is because a tilt table test may cause loss of consciousness. In very rare cases, people can vomit and choke while unconscious. Fasting reduces the chance of vomiting.

The medical staff will explain what happens during the test and can answer any questions a person may have. They will discuss the risks of urinary incontinence and vomiting while unconscious.

Before the test, medical staff may ask a person to remove all jewelry, tight clothing, and clothes above the waist. They will provide a gown for the person to wear.

In preparation for the test, the individual should empty their bladder before lying on the table. Medical staff will secure them to the table using straps.

They will attach blood pressure (BP) monitors and electrodes to record changes.

They may insert an IV line so they can easily administer medicines and fluids if they need to.

During

The test begins with the individual lying on the table. This is the passive phase of the test. It should last 20–45 minutes.

Toward the end of the passive phase, medical staff may ask the person to take medication, which can make the person more sensitive to the tilt test.

The medication is usually a pill containing 0.4 mg of nitroglycerine. However, the staff may instead administer it through the IV line.

The medical staff then tilts the table upward, so the person is in an upright “standing” position. The person must remain in this position while staff monitor their BP and heart rate for at least 15 minutes.

After

Once the staff has obtained the results, the tilt table test will end. However, it may end earlier if, for instance, the individual loses consciousness. Staff may also end the test if the individual has prolonged low blood pressure.

Medical staff will be on hand to reassure the person after any loss of consciousness. A person who has fainted will have to stay lying down until their BP and ECG readings return to typical levels.

When the individual has recovered, medical staff may ask them to compare the experience to previous fainting episodes.

Tilt table tests are largely safe. However, some potentially serious complications can occur, including:

Serious cardiovascular complications are most likely to occur in people with narrowed arteries.

Severe reactions are generally rare. Nonetheless, medical staff must have basic emergency training to perform a tilt test.

Side effects

There are some other non-serious potential side effects of the tilt table test. Headaches are common after the test.

According to a 2021 review published in the European Heart Journal, a tilt table test is unlikely to cause syncope in people without an underlying condition. But it may cause dizziness or lightheadedness.

A consensus statement published in Clinical Autonomic Research details how doctors collect results from the tilt table test.

The tilt table test helps determine whether changes in position cause loss of consciousness and why. If loss of consciousness does occur, doctors will make a note of it.

Doctors will ask their patients whether their loss of consciousness felt like previous episodes. They may also ask family, friends, or partners to be present during the test. These individuals can compare previous episodes to any test-induced loss of consciousness.

Doctors will combine this information with data from blood pressure and heart activity monitors. They must consider all this information when making a diagnosis.

Tilt table tests are useful for diagnosing the underlying causes of syncope.

For instance, some people faint after getting up from sitting or lying down. This is because their blood pressure suddenly drops. The phenomenon is called orthostatic hypotension. Tilt table tests are useful in determining whether someone’s syncope is due to orthostatic hypotension.

The tilt table test can also reliably detect postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS).

POTS is a condition in which someone’s heart rate increases when they stand up. In some cases, this can cause syncope.

Doctors will move on to further testing if a tilt table test is positive. Several conditions can cause orthostatic hypotension and POTS.

Possible causes of orthostatic hypotension include:

Similarly, POTS may arise for several reasons. For example, POTS sometimes occurs because of elevated adrenaline levels. In other cases, it occurs because of blood loss.

Both orthostatic hypotension and POTS can arise as a result of a lack of physical fitness.

This section answers some frequently asked questions about the tilt table test.

What causes a positive tilt table test?

The change from lying down to upright may lead to an atypical response of the nervous and circulatory systems, resulting in a decrease in blood pressure.

What medication is given during a tilt table test?

If the test produces a decrease in blood pressure, medical staff will return the person to the lying position to recover. They will not administer any medication.

If the test does not lead to a decrease in blood pressure, medical staff may provide a person nitroglycerin under the tongue or via IV to increase their sensitivity or provoke a response.

How accurate is a tilt table test for POTS?

Tilt table tests can reliably detect POTS in those who have it.

A tilt table test involves strapping a person to a table and moving it from a lying position to upright. This can help doctors identify the underlying cause of syncope.

The test can also help distinguish syncope from other causes of loss of consciousness.

In the vast majority of cases, this test is very safe.

Possible side effects of the test include headache, dizziness, and lightheadedness.

Wed, 12 Oct 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/tilt-table-test
Killexams : Highest and lowest paying health care jobs in Columbus

Anybody who has taken a course in marketing, psychology, or sociology is likely familiar with Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. First detailed by psychologist Andrew Maslow in his 1943 work “A Theory of Human Motivation,” the hierarchy breaks down the complex network of human thoughts into a categorical triage, placing self-development at the top and security and physical health at the bottom. In setting up this pyramid, Maslow framed self-recognition and creative development as ultimate goals, while also prioritizing personal safety and strong physical health.

As such, it has never been more important to recognize the healthcare professionals who work tirelessly to keep the population healthy. In 2020, the United States spent 19.7% of its GDP on health. While it’s encouraging to know that the country is investing in those responsible for maintaining the nation’s well-being, not all healthcare professionals receive equal compensation.

Stacker compiled a list of the highest and lowest-paying healthcare jobs in Columbus using data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Jobs are ranked by 2020 annual mean wage. Job descriptions are from O*NET. Keep studying to see which healthcare jobs make the most and least in your city.

1 / 50 Goldsithney // Shutterstock

#50. Psychiatric technicians

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $33,400
– #76 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 390

National
– Annual mean salary: $38,080
– Employment: 85,330
– Entry-level education requirements: Postsecondary nondegree award
– Metros with highest average pay:
— Stockton-Lodi, CA ($69,970)
— Bakersfield, CA ($69,960)
— Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura, CA ($69,140)
– Job description: Care for individuals with mental or emotional conditions or disabilities, following the instructions of physicians or other health practitioners. Monitor patients’ physical and emotional well-being and report to medical staff. May participate in rehabilitation and treatment programs, help with personal hygiene, and administer oral or injectable medications.

2 / 50 Tyler Olson // Shutterstock

#49. Phlebotomists

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $33,420
– #201 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 680

National
– Annual mean salary: $37,280
– Employment: 128,020
– Entry-level education requirements: Postsecondary nondegree award
– Metros with highest average pay:
— Redding, CA ($52,770)
— San Diego-Carlsbad, CA ($51,920)
— Santa Rosa, CA ($51,620)
– Job description: Draw blood for tests, transfusions, donations, or research. May explain the procedure to patients and assist in the recovery of patients with adverse reactions.

3 / 50 Milkovasa // Shutterstock

#48. Medical assistants

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $35,140
– #171 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 4,860

National
– Annual mean salary: $36,930
– Employment: 710,200
– Entry-level education requirements: Postsecondary nondegree award
– Metros with highest average pay:
— San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA ($53,960)
— Vallejo-Fairfield, CA ($53,660)
— Santa Rosa, CA ($52,520)
– Job description: Perform administrative and certain clinical duties under the direction of a physician. Administrative duties may include scheduling appointments, maintaining medical records, billing, and coding information for insurance purposes. Clinical duties may include taking and recording vital signs and medical histories, preparing patients for examination, drawing blood, and administering medications as directed by a physician.

4 / 50 Canva

#47. Dietetic technicians

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $36,000
– #26 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 170

National
– Annual mean salary: $32,920
– Employment: 26,430
– Entry-level education requirements: Associate’s degree
– Metros with highest average pay:
— Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson, IN ($55,310)
— Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura, CA ($49,860)
— Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro, OR-WA ($46,450)
– Job description: Assist in the provision of food service and nutritional programs, under the supervision of a dietitian. May plan and produce meals based on established guidelines, teach principles of food and nutrition, or counsel individuals.

5 / 50 Maria Sbytova // Shutterstock

#46. Veterinary technologists and technicians

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $37,650
– #100 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 1,000

National
– Annual mean salary: $37,860
– Employment: 109,490
– Entry-level education requirements: Associate’s degree
– Metros with highest average pay:
— Harrisburg-Carlisle, PA ($56,020)
— Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA ($53,580)
— San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA ($53,440)
– Job description: Perform medical tests in a laboratory environment for use in the treatment and diagnosis of diseases in animals. Prepare vaccines and serums for the prevention of diseases. Prepare tissue samples, take blood samples, and execute laboratory tests, such as urinalysis and blood counts. Clean and sterilize instruments and materials and maintain equipment and machines. May assist a veterinarian during surgery.

6 / 50 Canva

#45. Ophthalmic medical technicians

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $37,930
– #118 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 540

National
– Annual mean salary: $40,010
– Employment: 59,960
– Entry-level education requirements: Postsecondary nondegree award
– Metros with highest average pay:
— San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA ($67,300)
— San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA ($57,190)
— Duluth, MN-WI ($56,200)
– Job description: Assist ophthalmologists by performing ophthalmic clinical functions. May administer eye exams, administer eye medications, and instruct the patient in care and use of corrective lenses.

7 / 50 Pixabay

#44. Psychiatric aides

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $38,730
– #18 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 180

National
– Annual mean salary: $33,300
– Employment: 51,550
– Entry-level education requirements: High school diploma or equivalent
– Metros with highest average pay:
— Utica-Rome, NY ($50,890)
— Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA ($49,610)
— Rochester, NY ($48,300)
– Job description: Assist mentally impaired or emotionally disturbed patients, working under direction of nursing and medical staff. May assist with daily living activities, lead patients in educational and recreational activities, or accompany patients to and from examinations and treatments. May restrain violent patients. Includes psychiatric orderlies.

8 / 50 Syda Productions // Shutterstock

#43. Medical transcriptionists

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $40,300
– #57 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 110

National
– Annual mean salary: $37,310
– Employment: 49,530
– Entry-level education requirements: Postsecondary nondegree award
– Metros with highest average pay:
— Hagerstown-Martinsburg, MD-WV ($58,050)
— Bend-Redmond, OR ($56,450)
— Lakeland-Winter Haven, FL ($55,720)
– Job description: Transcribe medical reports recorded by physicians and other healthcare practitioners using various electronic devices, covering office visits, emergency room visits, diagnostic imaging studies, operations, chart reviews, and final summaries. Transcribe dictated reports and translate abbreviations into fully understandable form. Edit as necessary and return reports in either printed or electronic form for review and signature, or correction.

9 / 50 Rido // Shutterstock

#42. Opticians, dispensing

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $40,470
– #114 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 700

National
– Annual mean salary: $41,380
– Employment: 68,180
– Entry-level education requirements: High school diploma or equivalent
– Metros with highest average pay:
— Utica-Rome, NY ($71,220)
— Danbury, CT ($68,590)
— Norwich-New London-Westerly, CT-RI ($66,900)
– Job description: Design, measure, fit, and adapt lenses and frames for client according to written optical prescription or specification. Assist client with inserting, removing, and caring for contact lenses. Assist client with selecting frames. Measure customer for size of eyeglasses and coordinate frames with facial and eye measurements and optical prescription. Prepare work order for optical laboratory containing instructions for grinding and mounting lenses in frames. Verify exactness of finished lens spectacles. Adjust frames and lens position to fit client. May shape or reshape frames. Includes contact lens opticians.

10 / 50 Canva

#41. Medical equipment preparers

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $41,150
– #47 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 510

National
– Annual mean salary: $41,070
– Employment: 56,870
– Entry-level education requirements: High school diploma or equivalent
– Metros with highest average pay:
— Vallejo-Fairfield, CA ($65,400)
— San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA ($65,280)
— Sacramento–Roseville–Arden-Arcade, CA ($64,970)
– Job description: Prepare, sterilize, install, or clean laboratory or healthcare equipment. May perform routine laboratory tasks and operate or inspect equipment.

11 / 50 Syda Productions // Shutterstock

#40. Dental assistants

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $46,390
– #63 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 2,220

National
– Annual mean salary: $42,310
– Employment: 312,140
– Entry-level education requirements: Postsecondary nondegree award
– Metros with highest average pay:
— Santa Rosa, CA ($58,570)
— Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI ($56,240)
— Vallejo-Fairfield, CA ($54,550)
– Job description: Perform limited clinical duties under the direction of a dentist. Clinical duties may include equipment preparation and sterilization, preparing patients for treatment, assisting the dentist during treatment, and providing patients with instructions for oral healthcare procedures. May perform administrative duties such as scheduling appointments, maintaining medical records, billing, and coding information for insurance purposes.

12 / 50 Canva

#39. Recreational therapists

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $46,700
– #73 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 110

National
– Annual mean salary: $51,260
– Employment: 20,080
– Entry-level education requirements: Bachelor’s degree
– Metros with highest average pay:
— Vallejo-Fairfield, CA ($92,840)
— San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande, CA ($89,970)
— Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA ($85,230)
– Job description: Plan, direct, or coordinate medically-approved recreation programs for patients in hospitals, nursing homes, or other institutions. Activities include sports, trips, dramatics, social activities, and crafts. May assess a patient’s condition and recommend appropriate recreational activity.

13 / 50 Jacob Lund // Shutterstock

#38. Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $46,800
– #211 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 6,710

National
– Annual mean salary: $50,090
– Employment: 676,440
– Entry-level education requirements: Postsecondary nondegree award
– Metros with highest average pay:
— San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA ($75,950)
— Santa Rosa, CA ($74,820)
— San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA ($74,520)
– Job description: Care for ill, injured, or convalescing patients or persons with disabilities in hospitals, nursing homes, clinics, private homes, group homes, and similar institutions. May work under the supervision of a registered nurse. Licensing required.

14 / 50 Canva

#37. Exercise physiologists

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $47,990
– #34 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 70

National
– Annual mean salary: $54,020
– Employment: 7,330
– Entry-level education requirements: Bachelor’s degree
– Metros with highest average pay:
— Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA ($81,780)
— New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA ($70,420)
— Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL ($65,000)
– Job description: Assess, plan, or implement fitness programs that include exercise or physical activities such as those designed to Boost cardiorespiratory function, body composition, muscular strength, muscular endurance, or flexibility.

15 / 50 Gerain0812 // Shutterstock

#36. Surgical technologists

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $49,330
– #120 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 760

National
– Annual mean salary: $51,510
– Employment: 107,400
– Entry-level education requirements: Postsecondary nondegree award
– Metros with highest average pay:
— San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA ($79,230)
— San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA ($74,080)
— Vallejo-Fairfield, CA ($73,460)
– Job description: Assist in operations, under the supervision of surgeons, registered nurses, or other surgical personnel. May help set up operating rooms, prepare and transport patients for surgery, adjust lights and equipment, pass instruments and other supplies to surgeons and surgeons’ assistants, hold retractors, cut sutures, and help count sponges, needles, supplies, and instruments.

16 / 50 DenisProduction.com // Shutterstock

#35. Athletic trainers

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $50,250
– #87 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 220

National
– Annual mean salary: $52,230
– Employment: 27,430
– Entry-level education requirements: Bachelor’s degree
– Metros with highest average pay:
— Trenton, NJ ($71,890)
— Macon, GA ($68,350)
— Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX ($67,280)
– Job description: Evaluate and treat musculoskeletal injuries or illnesses. Provide preventive, therapeutic, emergency, and rehabilitative care.

17 / 50 NDAB Creativity // Shutterstock

#34. Massage therapists

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $57,070
– #29 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 570

National
– Annual mean salary: $47,350
– Employment: 85,040
– Entry-level education requirements: Postsecondary nondegree award
– Metros with highest average pay:
— Port St. Lucie, FL ($81,640)
— Anchorage, AK ($77,530)
— Boston-Cambridge-Nashua, MA-NH ($72,730)
– Job description: Perform therapeutic massages of soft tissues and joints. May assist in the assessment of range of motion and muscle strength, or propose client therapy plans.

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#33. Physical therapist assistants

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $57,730
– #176 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 920

National
– Annual mean salary: $59,440
– Employment: 92,740
– Entry-level education requirements: Associate’s degree
– Metros with highest average pay:
— Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX ($81,510)
— Sacramento–Roseville–Arden-Arcade, CA ($78,370)
— Visalia-Porterville, CA ($78,240)
– Job description: Assist physical therapists in providing physical therapy treatments and procedures. May, in accordance with state laws, assist in the development of treatment plans, carry out routine functions, document the progress of treatment, and modify specific treatments in accordance with patient status and within the scope of treatment plans established by a physical therapist. Generally requires formal training.

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#32. Occupational therapy assistants

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $58,960
– #124 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 470

National
– Annual mean salary: $63,420
– Employment: 42,750
– Entry-level education requirements: Associate’s degree
– Metros with highest average pay:
— Sacramento–Roseville–Arden-Arcade, CA ($89,380)
— McAllen-Edinburg-Mission, TX ($86,850)
— Visalia-Porterville, CA ($84,370)
– Job description: Assist occupational therapists in providing occupational therapy treatments and procedures. May, in accordance with state laws, assist in development of treatment plans, carry out routine functions, direct activity programs, and document the progress of treatments. Generally requires formal training.

20 / 50 Dmytro Zinkevych // Shutterstock

#31. Respiratory therapists

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $59,830
– #136 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 980

National
– Annual mean salary: $65,640
– Employment: 131,890
– Entry-level education requirements: Associate’s degree
– Metros with highest average pay:
— San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA ($104,200)
— San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA ($100,710)
— Vallejo-Fairfield, CA ($100,080)
– Job description: Assess, treat, and care for patients with breathing disorders. Assume primary responsibility for all respiratory care modalities, including the supervision of respiratory therapy technicians. Initiate and conduct therapeutic procedures; maintain patient records; and select, assemble, check, and operate equipment.

21 / 50 lenetstan // Shutterstock

#30. Radiologic technologists and technicians

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $60,540
– #138 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 1,530

National
– Annual mean salary: $64,840
– Employment: 206,720
– Entry-level education requirements: Associate’s degree
– Metros with highest average pay:
— Vallejo-Fairfield, CA ($120,270)
— San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA ($116,250)
— San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA ($114,850)
– Job description: Take x-rays and CAT scans or administer nonradioactive materials into patient’s bloodstream for diagnostic or research purposes. Includes radiologic technologists and technicians who specialize in other scanning modalities.

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#29. Dietitians and nutritionists

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $61,260
– #133 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 400

National
– Annual mean salary: $64,150
– Employment: 66,330
– Entry-level education requirements: Bachelor’s degree
– Metros with highest average pay:
— Santa Rosa, CA ($95,140)
— San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA ($95,060)
— Vallejo-Fairfield, CA ($93,640)
– Job description: Plan and conduct food service or nutritional programs to assist in the promotion of health and control of disease. May supervise activities of a department providing quantity food services, counsel individuals, or conduct nutritional research.

23 / 50 Halfpoint // Shutterstock

#28. Cardiovascular technologists and technicians

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $62,280
– #63 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 250

National
– Annual mean salary: $60,940
– Employment: 55,980
– Entry-level education requirements: Associate’s degree
– Metros with highest average pay:
— Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura, CA ($104,430)
— San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA ($89,930)
— Vallejo-Fairfield, CA ($88,450)
– Job description: Conduct tests on pulmonary or cardiovascular systems of patients for diagnostic, therapeutic, or research purposes. May conduct or assist in electrocardiograms, cardiac catheterizations, pulmonary functions, lung capacity, and similar tests.

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#27. Orthotists and prosthetists

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $63,640
– #45 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 130

National
– Annual mean salary: $74,120
– Employment: 9,550
– Entry-level education requirements: Master’s degree
– Metros with highest average pay:
— Jackson, MS ($122,240)
— New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA ($94,190)
— Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI ($88,210)
– Job description: Design, measure, fit, and adapt orthopedic braces, appliances or prostheses, such as limbs or facial parts for patients with disabling conditions.

25 / 50 SofikoS // Shutterstock

#26. Diagnostic medical sonographers

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $67,350
– #161 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 410

National
– Annual mean salary: $77,790
– Employment: 73,920
– Entry-level education requirements: Associate’s degree
– Metros with highest average pay:
— Sacramento–Roseville–Arden-Arcade, CA ($138,130)
— Santa Rosa, CA ($126,610)
— Stockton-Lodi, CA ($121,710)
– Job description: Produce ultrasonic recordings of internal organs for use by physicians. Includes vascular technologists.

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#25. Magnetic resonance imaging technologists

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $68,810
– #100 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 160

National
– Annual mean salary: $75,960
– Employment: 39,270
– Entry-level education requirements: Associate’s degree
– Metros with highest average pay:
— Vallejo-Fairfield, CA ($140,980)
— San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA ($126,590)
— Modesto, CA ($112,080)
– Job description: Operate Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanners. Monitor patient safety and comfort, and view images of the area being scanned to ensure quality of pictures. May administer gadolinium contrast dosage intravenously. May interview patient, explain MRI procedures, and position patient on examining table. May enter into the computer data such as patient history, anatomical area to be scanned, orientation specified, and position of entry.

27 / 50 Rawpixel.com // Shutterstock

#24. Registered nurses

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $69,410
– #204 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 24,860

National
– Annual mean salary: $80,010
– Employment: 2,986,500
– Entry-level education requirements: Bachelor’s degree
– Metros with highest average pay:
— San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA ($149,200)
— San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA ($146,870)
— Vallejo-Fairfield, CA ($142,140)
– Job description: Assess patient health problems and needs, develop and implement nursing care plans, and maintain medical records. Administer nursing care to ill, injured, convalescent, or disabled patients. May advise patients on health maintenance and disease prevention or provide case management. Licensing or registration required.

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#23. Audiologists

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $72,160
– #66 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: data not available

National
– Annual mean salary: $89,230
– Employment: 13,300
– Entry-level education requirements: Doctoral or professional degree
– Metros with highest average pay:
— Reno, NV ($151,460)
— Tulsa, OK ($128,620)
— Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway, AR ($127,210)
– Job description: Assess and treat persons with hearing and related disorders. May fit hearing aids and provide auditory training. May perform research related to hearing problems.

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#22. Speech-language pathologists

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $74,510
– #225 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 1,150

National
– Annual mean salary: $83,240
– Employment: 148,450
– Entry-level education requirements: Master’s degree
– Metros with highest average pay:
— Modesto, CA ($128,540)
— Santa Rosa, CA ($120,920)
— Santa Maria-Santa Barbara, CA ($115,480)
– Job description: Assess and treat persons with speech, language, voice, and fluency disorders. May select alternative communication systems and teach their use. May perform research related to speech and language problems.

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#21. Dental hygienists

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $74,570
– #152 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 1,200

National
– Annual mean salary: $78,050
– Employment: 194,830
– Entry-level education requirements: Associate’s degree
– Metros with highest average pay:
— Santa Maria-Santa Barbara, CA ($133,730)
— San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA ($120,340)
— Santa Rosa, CA ($118,980)
– Job description: Administer oral hygiene care to patients. Assess patient oral hygiene problems or needs and maintain health records. Advise patients on oral health maintenance and disease prevention. May provide advanced care such as providing fluoride treatment or administering topical anesthesia.

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#20. Nuclear medicine technologists

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $78,630
– #41 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 100

National
– Annual mean salary: $82,080
– Employment: 17,510
– Entry-level education requirements: Associate’s degree
– Metros with highest average pay:
— San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA ($139,410)
— San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA ($136,650)
— Sacramento–Roseville–Arden-Arcade, CA ($135,660)
– Job description: Prepare, administer, and measure radioactive isotopes in therapeutic, diagnostic, and tracer studies using a variety of radioisotope equipment. Prepare stock solutions of radioactive materials and calculate doses to be administered by radiologists. Subject patients to radiation. Execute blood volume, red cell survival, and fat absorption studies following standard laboratory techniques.

32 / 50 ABO PHOTOGRAPHY // Shutterstock

#19. Occupational therapists

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $80,410
– #226 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 910

National
– Annual mean salary: $87,480
– Employment: 126,610
– Entry-level education requirements: Master’s degree
– Metros with highest average pay:
— The Villages, FL ($115,920)
— Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV ($115,060)
— Modesto, CA ($112,870)
– Job description: Assess, plan, and organize rehabilitative programs that help build or restore vocational, homemaking, and daily living skills, as well as general independence, to persons with disabilities or developmental delays. Use therapeutic techniques, adapt the individual’s environment, teach skills, and modify specific tasks that present barriers to the individual.

33 / 50 Aykut Erdogdu // Shutterstock

#18. Physical therapists

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $87,950
– #215 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 1,430

National
– Annual mean salary: $91,680
– Employment: 220,870
– Entry-level education requirements: Doctoral or professional degree
– Metros with highest average pay:
— El Centro, CA ($143,500)
— Modesto, CA ($123,370)
— Visalia-Porterville, CA ($119,510)
– Job description: Assess, plan, organize, and participate in rehabilitative programs that Boost mobility, relieve pain, increase strength, and Boost or correct disabling conditions resulting from disease or injury.

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#17. Radiation therapists

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $95,060
– #19 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 40

National
– Annual mean salary: $94,300
– Employment: 17,390
– Entry-level education requirements: Associate’s degree
– Metros with highest average pay:
— San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA ($150,950)
— Sacramento–Roseville–Arden-Arcade, CA ($145,420)
— San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA ($141,130)
– Job description: Provide radiation therapy to patients as prescribed by a radiation oncologist according to established practices and standards. Duties may include reviewing prescription and diagnosis; acting as liaison with physician and supportive care personnel; preparing equipment, such as immobilization, treatment, and protection devices; and maintaining records, reports, and files. May assist in dosimetry procedures and tumor localization.

35 / 50 Ohiodominican // Wikimedia Commons

#16. Physician assistants

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $103,180
– #249 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 660

National
– Annual mean salary: $116,080
– Employment: 125,280
– Entry-level education requirements: Master’s degree
– Metros with highest average pay:
— Salinas, CA ($168,220)
— Waterbury, CT ($165,230)
— Portsmouth, NH-ME ($158,020)
– Job description: Provide healthcare services typically performed by a physician, under the supervision of a physician. Conduct complete physicals, provide treatment, and counsel patients. May, in some cases, prescribe medication. Must graduate from an accredited educational program for physician assistants.

36 / 50 Monkey Business Images // Shutterstock

#15. Nurse practitioners

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $103,750
– #272 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 1,620

National
– Annual mean salary: $114,510
– Employment: 211,280
– Entry-level education requirements: Master’s degree
– Metros with highest average pay:
— Vallejo-Fairfield, CA ($188,070)
— San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA ($177,800)
— Salinas, CA ($155,310)
– Job description: Diagnose and treat acute, episodic, or chronic illness, independently or as part of a healthcare team. May focus on health promotion and disease prevention. May order, perform, or interpret diagnostic tests such as lab work and x rays. May prescribe medication. Must be registered nurses who have specialized graduate education.

37 / 50 Kzenon // Shutterstock

#14. Optometrists

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $105,060
– #127 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 270

National
– Annual mean salary: $125,440
– Employment: 36,690
– Entry-level education requirements: Doctoral or professional degree
– Metros with highest average pay:
— Columbia, SC ($228,340)
— New Haven, CT ($186,950)
— Evansville, IN-KY ($182,980)
– Job description: Diagnose, manage, and treat conditions and diseases of the human eye and visual system. Examine eyes and visual system, diagnose problems or impairments, prescribe corrective lenses, and provide treatment. May prescribe therapeutic drugs to treat specific eye conditions.

38 / 50 Grace Nichols // U.S. Air Force

#13. Pharmacists

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $111,790
– #355 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 2,270

National
– Annual mean salary: $125,460
– Employment: 315,470
– Entry-level education requirements: Doctoral or professional degree
– Metros with highest average pay:
— Madera, CA ($165,350)
— Santa Maria-Santa Barbara, CA ($162,540)
— Vallejo-Fairfield, CA ($161,120)
– Job description: Dispense drugs prescribed by physicians and other health practitioners and provide information to patients about medications and their use. May advise physicians and other health practitioners on the selection, dosage, interactions, and side effects of medications.

39 / 50 Suzanne M. Day // Wikimedia Commons

#12. Nurse midwives

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $114,540
– #14 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: data not available

National
– Annual mean salary: $115,540
– Employment: 7,120
– Entry-level education requirements: Master’s degree
– Metros with highest average pay:
— Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA ($191,440)
— Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA ($171,000)
— San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA ($167,870)
– Job description: Diagnose and coordinate all aspects of the birthing process, either independently or as part of a healthcare team. May provide well-woman gynecological care. Must have specialized, graduate nursing education.

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#11. Pediatricians, general

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $114,860
– #74 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: data not available

National
– Annual mean salary: $184,570
– Employment: 27,550
– Entry-level education requirements: Doctoral or professional degree
– Metros with highest average pay:
— Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA ($280,860)
— State College, PA ($275,730)
— Salt Lake City, UT ($275,610)
– Job description: Diagnose, treat, and help prevent diseases and injuries in children. May refer patients to specialists for further diagnosis or treatment, as needed.

41 / 50 KSai23 // Shutterstock

#10. Chiropractors

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $116,100
– #16 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 260

National
– Annual mean salary: $83,830
– Employment: 34,760
– Entry-level education requirements: Doctoral or professional degree
– Metros with highest average pay:
— Spokane-Spokane Valley, WA ($273,530)
— Raleigh, NC ($149,430)
— New Orleans-Metairie, LA ($139,970)
– Job description: Assess, treat, and care for patients by manipulation of spine and musculoskeletal system. May provide spinal adjustment or address sacral or pelvic misalignment.

42 / 50 Austin Community College // Flickr

#9. Veterinarians

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $131,110
– #19 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 690

National
– Annual mean salary: $108,350
– Employment: 73,710
– Entry-level education requirements: Doctoral or professional degree
– Metros with highest average pay:
— Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX ($169,220)
— Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk, CT ($150,370)
— Akron, OH ($150,330)
– Job description: Diagnose, treat, or research diseases and injuries of animals. Includes veterinarians who conduct research and development, inspect livestock, or care for pets and companion animals.

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#8. Podiatrists

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $151,570
– #21 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 70

National
– Annual mean salary: $151,110
– Employment: 9,710
– Entry-level education requirements: Doctoral or professional degree
– Metros with highest average pay:
— Youngstown-Warren-Boardman, OH-PA ($229,330)
— Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC ($226,260)
— Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia, NC-SC ($221,380)
– Job description: Diagnose and treat diseases and deformities of the human foot.

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#7. General internal medicine physicians

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $183,510
– #87 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 440

National
– Annual mean salary: $210,960
– Employment: 50,600
– Entry-level education requirements: Doctoral or professional degree
– Metros with highest average pay:
— Rochester, MN ($315,830)
— Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia, NC-SC ($314,080)
— Wichita Falls, TX ($311,260)
– Job description: Diagnose and provide nonsurgical treatment for a wide range of diseases and injuries of internal organ systems. Provide care mainly for adults and adolescents, and are based primarily in an outpatient care setting.

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#6. Dentists, general

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $191,900
– #117 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 580

National
– Annual mean salary: $180,830
– Employment: 95,920
– Entry-level education requirements: Doctoral or professional degree
– Metros with highest average pay:
— Dover-Durham, NH-ME ($286,540)
— North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton, FL ($278,790)
— Portland-South Portland, ME ($278,390)
– Job description: Examine, diagnose, and treat diseases, injuries, and malformations of teeth and gums. May treat diseases of nerve, pulp, and other dental tissues affecting oral hygiene and retention of teeth. May fit dental appliances or provide preventive care.

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#5. Family medicine physicians

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $193,390
– #206 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 280

National
– Annual mean salary: $214,370
– Employment: 98,590
– Entry-level education requirements: Doctoral or professional degree
– Metros with highest average pay:
— Bloomsburg-Berwick, PA ($309,800)
— Napa, CA ($302,040)
— Gadsden, AL ($292,110)
– Job description: Diagnose, treat, and provide preventive care to individuals and families across the lifespan. May refer patients to specialists when needed for further diagnosis or treatment.

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#4. Nurse anesthetists

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $207,930
– #17 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 600

National
– Annual mean salary: $189,190
– Employment: 41,960
– Entry-level education requirements: Master’s degree
– Metros with highest average pay:
— Duluth, MN-WI ($271,940)
— Ann Arbor, MI ($262,890)
— Green Bay, WI ($239,140)
– Job description: Administer anesthesia, monitor patient’s vital signs, and oversee patient recovery from anesthesia. May assist anesthesiologists, surgeons, other physicians, or dentists. Must be registered nurses who have specialized graduate education.

48 / 50 LightField Studios // Shutterstock

#3. Psychiatrists

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $221,360
– #55 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 90

National
– Annual mean salary: $217,100
– Employment: 25,540
– Entry-level education requirements: Doctoral or professional degree
– Metros with highest average pay:
— Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA ($297,710)
— Santa Rosa, CA ($289,580)
— Kansas City, MO-KS ($287,220)
– Job description: Diagnose, treat, and help prevent mental disorders.

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#2. Obstetricians and gynecologists

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $246,360
– #24 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 180

National
– Annual mean salary: $239,120
– Employment: 18,900
– Entry-level education requirements: Doctoral or professional degree
– Metros with highest average pay:
— Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis, WI ($294,450)
— Tulsa, OK ($294,400)
— Albuquerque, NM ($292,740)
– Job description: Provide medical care related to pregnancy or childbirth. Diagnose, treat, and help prevent diseases of women, particularly those affecting the reproductive system. May also provide general care to women. May perform both medical and gynecological surgery functions.

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#1. Surgeons, except ophthalmologists

Columbus, OH
– Annual mean salary: $271,990
– #30 highest pay among all metros
– Employment: 350

National
– Annual mean salary: $251,650
– Employment: 37,900
– Entry-level education requirements: Doctoral or professional degree
– Metros with highest average pay:
— Sioux City, IA-NE-SD ($305,480)
— Akron, OH ($297,710)
— Lincoln, NE ($296,150)
– Job description: Diagnose and perform surgery to treat and prevent rheumatic and other diseases in the musculoskeletal system.

Sat, 15 Oct 2022 22:30:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.nbc4i.com/news/local-news/columbus/highest-and-lowest-paying-health-care-jobs-in-columbus%ef%bf%bc/
Killexams : How Much Money Do Medical Assistants Make? Medical clinic worker helping elderly patient in wheelchair with paperwork © Prostock-studio/Shutterstock Medical clinic worker helping elderly patient in wheelchair with paperwork

A lot of moving pieces are required to make a medical clinic run smoothly, and each position is of great value. From nurses and physician assistants to laboratory technicians and medical assistants, it takes a team to heal. 

If you're just starting out in the workforce or looking to make a career change, you may consider healthcare, which is truly indispensable. Medical workers have the job security that has seemingly slipped away from other fields, and the industry continues to add more jobs every year than any other field (via Hospital Careers).

Location, education, and experience are all contributing factors to how much money you'll make in any position. But, wherever you reside and whatever credentials are on your resume, you can begin serving in healthcare as a medical assistant fairly quickly with an accurate prediction of how much money you'll make. 

How Much You Can Expect To Make As Medical Assistant

Man handing paycheck © Andrey_Popov/Shutterstock Man handing paycheck

You'll recognize a medical assistant as the kind face who ushers you to the test room when you're a patient. They're responsible for taking vitals, recording medical notes, assisting physicians with exams, and sometimes giving injections or drawing blood (via Indeed). They help the test flow smoothly and are a key piece in your doctor's appointment.

So, how much do these healthcare professionals make? According to LiveAbout, the median annual salary for a medical assistant is $33,610. Again, location and experience affect the pay scale for medical assistants, and the annual salary can range from nearly $50,000 to around $26,000.

Medical assistants aren't required to have formal education beyond a high school diploma to work in the field, but those with training from a vocational school are more likely to be hired by employers, per LiveAbout. Here's what you'll need to consider when becoming a medical assistant.

How To Become A Medical Assistant

Medical assistant studying at laptop © Vincent B David/Shutterstock Medical assistant studying at laptop

A degree is helpful in becoming a medical assistant, but, if you don't yet have one, you can gain valuable skills as an entry-level assistant while working to earn a medical certification (Indeed). This will help you get your foot in the door if you're interested in starting ASAP.

Many online medical assistant certification programs are flexible, so you can go at your own pace. According to Verywell Health, the top overall online certification program is the Herzing Diploma in Medical Assisting, which can be completed in about 10 months. The best accelerated program is through the U.S. Career Institute, and you can wrap it up in as little as four months. 

Whichever route you take in starting your career as a medical assistant, keep in mind that your work environment will be an office setting, and you'll be sitting at a computer screen for portions of your shift. Strong communication skills, attention to detail, and a good bedside manner are all key to success in this role. 

With job security, the ability to relocate, and the opportunity to help heal others, medical assistant may just be the role you've been seeking.

Read this next: Ways To Care For Your Mental Health If You Can't Afford Therapy

Sun, 09 Oct 2022 01:56:41 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.msn.com/en-us/health/other/how-much-money-do-medical-assistants-make/ar-AA12LyYb
Killexams : Lander Medical Clinic and Western Family Care are celebrating Breast Cancer Awareness Month with big news!

This October, take the time to think about your breast health. Take action by spreading awareness and scheduling your mammogram!

Lander Medical Clinic & Western Family Care will offer Breast Cancer Screenings with tomosynthesis mammography starting in November 2022. Adding Tomosynthesis, described as “3D” imaging, to the standard two-view mammography improves the detection of breast lesions.

Tomosynthesis offers exceptional image clarity and detail by imaging the breast in several ‘layers’ and angles. By looking at each layer separately, a potential cancer is less likely to be obstructed from view by overlapping breast tissue. This will result in fewer biopsies and additional tests as well as increased accuracy. Tomosynthesis more effectively pinpoints the size, shape, and location of abnormalities.

“We are excited to be able to offer mammography services with the best equipment and experienced technicians.”

These screenings will be available at the main office in Lander at 745 Buena Vista Drive. Call 307-332-2941 to schedule an appointment.

Lander Medical Clinic and Western Family Care, let’s stay healthy TOGETHER!


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Mon, 17 Oct 2022 08:45:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://county10.com/lander-medical-clinic-and-western-family-care-are-celebrating-breast-cancer-awareness-month-with-big-news/
Killexams : Medical Penlights Market is projected to amass a revenue of around US$ 362.1 billion by 2032

[342 Pages Report] Medical penlights are preferred over flashlights in all the medical settings due to the professional look and more visual clarity than flashlights. Medical penlights are the used by doctors, nurses and emergency medical technicians for a general examination of mouth, ear, eyes etc. 

Medical penlights are preferred by medical professionals due to a compact size and they are easy to fit into pocket or clip board. Medical penlights are mainly used for pupil test. The most common test performed using medical penlights is consensual constriction test –a test used to check reflex and brain function. Medical penlights are either disposable or reusable. 

Reusable medical penlights are preferred over disposable medical penlights as they have long battery life and low lumen focus. Based on the light source, medical penlights can be classified as LED lights and medical penlights with an incandescent bulb. Disposable LED medical penlights are generally used by emergency medical technicians who have different needs in penlight. 

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LED medical penlights are brighter than penlights with an incandescent bulb. Emergency medical technicians prefer disposable medical penlight as they do not require to carry extra batteries. New features in medical penlights such as integrated pupil gauge and stylus make it more attractive to medical professionals as these medical penlights allow professionals to check on patients and immediately update their record. 

Some of the leading brands in medical penlights market include Thrunite TI4T, BOVIE FLUORO-DOT, Welch Allyn Professional Penlight, Stylus, Dixie EMS Disposable Penlight, Escolite, etc. among others. 

Medical Penlights Market: Drivers and Restraints 

The market for medical penlights is ever growing as medical penlights are essential in every clinic or medical settings which provide primary healthcare. However, technological advances in medical penlights such as UV medical penlights for use in minor surgical procedures, LED medical pens, etc. are expected to fuel the growth of global medical penlights market. 

Medical penlights with metal light beams such as cobalt light, halogen lights etc. Availability of special pediatric medical penlights further increases the demand for medical penlights across the globe. However, alternatives for pupil test such as visual screeners are expected to deter the demand for medical penlights over the forecast period. 

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Medical Penlights Market: Overview 

Availability of durable medical penlights for hospitals and clinic settings and disposable penlights for emergency medical technicians is attributed to continuous and steady consumption of these products in the global market. 

Among both LED and incandescent bulb medical penlights, incandescent medical penlights are preferred and expected to dominate the global market as they provide better tissue color rendition which could be important to doctors and nurses. Among all end users of medical penlights, clinics segment is expected to dominate due to the high density of primary care services provided by them. 

Medical Penlights Market: Regional Outlook 

Geographically, global medical penlights market is classified into regions viz. North America, Latin America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, Asia-Pacific, Japan, Middle East and Africa. North America is expected to dominate global medical penlights market due to a high number of hospitals and independent medical practitioners. Western Europe is expected to be the second largest market medical penlights. 

Asia Pacific market is expected to experience the highest growth rate in terms of volume due to numerous local suppliers from China and Japan. 

Medical Penlights Market: Key Players 

Some of the players identified in global medical penlights market include ThruNite, Bovie Medical Corporation, Welch Allyn Inc., Streamlight Inc., Dixie USA EMS Supply Company, Beaver Visitec International, American Diagnostic Corporation, GF HEALTH PRODUCTS, INC., BV Medical, Medline Industries Inc., Rudolf Riester GmbH, Essilor etc. among others. 

The report is a compilation of first-hand information, qualitative and quantitative assessment by industry analysts, inputs from industry experts and industry participants across the value chain. The report provides in-depth analysis of parent market trends, macro-economic indicators and governing factors along with market attractiveness as per segments. The report also maps the qualitative impact of various market factors on market segments and geographies. 

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Key Segments Profiled in the Medical Penlights Market Survey

By Method:

  • LED Medical Penlights
  • Medical Penlights with incandescent bulb

By Light Output:

  • White Light
  • Blue Light
  • Red Light
  • Green Light
  • UV Light

By Usage:

  • Disposable Medical Penlights
  • Reusable Medical Penlights

By End Use:

  • Hospitals
  • Clinics
  • Diagnostic Centers
  • Emergency Medical Camps
  • Others

By Region:

  • North America
  • Latin America
  • Western Europe
  • Eastern Europe
  • Asia Pacific
  • Japan
  • The Middle East and Africa

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Future Market Insights (ESOMAR certified market research organization and a member of Greater New York Chamber of Commerce) provides in-depth insights into governing factors elevating the demand in the market. It discloses opportunities that will favor the market growth in various segments on the basis of Source, Application, Sales Channel and End Use over the next 10-years.

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Sun, 09 Oct 2022 23:16:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.pharmiweb.com/press-release/2022-10-10/medical-penlights-market-is-projected-to-amass-a-revenue-of-around-us-3621-billion-by-2032
Killexams : Medical Swab for COVID-19 Test Market 2022 Statistics, Share Price, Growth Prospects, Industry Trends till 2029 | 101 Pages Report

The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content.

Oct 13, 2022 (The Expresswire) -- According to this latest study, In 2022 the growth of Medical Swab for COVID-19 Test Market is projected to reach Multimillion USD by 2029, In comparison to 2021, Over the next Seven years the Medical Swab for COVID-19 Test Market will register a magnificent spike in CAGR in terms of revenue, In this study, 2021 has been considered as the base year and 2022 to 2029 as the forecast period to estimate the market size for Medical Swab for COVID-19 Test.

Global “Medical Swab for COVID-19 Test Market" Report is a detailed and comprehensive analysis for global Door and Medical Swab for COVID-19 Test market. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses are presented by manufacturers, by region and country, by Type and by Application. As the market is constantly changing, this report explores the competition, supply and demand trends, as well as key factors that contribute to its changing demands across many markets. Company profiles and product examples of selected competitors, along with market share estimates of some of the selected leaders for the year 2022, are provided.

Medical Swab for COVID-19 Test Market Research Report is spread across 101 Pages and provides exclusive data, information, vital statistics, trends, and competitive landscape details in this niche sector.

Final Report will add the analysis of the impact of COVID-19 on this industry.

TO KNOW HOW COVID-19 PANDEMIC AND RUSSIA UKRAINE WAR WILL IMPACT THIS MARKET - REQUEST SAMPLE

COVID-19 can affect the global economy in three main ways: by directly affecting production and demand, by creating supply chain and market disruption, and by its financial impact on firms and financial markets. Our analysts monitoring the situation across the globe explains that the market will generate remunerative prospects for producers post COVID-19 crisis. The report aims to provide an additional illustration of the latest scenario, economic slowdown, and COVID-19 impact on the overall industry.

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Chapter 3focuses on analyzing the current competitive situation in the Medical Swab for COVID-19 Test market and provides basic information, market data, product introductions, etc. of leading companies in the industry. At the same time, Chapter 3 includes the highlighted analysis--Strategies for Company to Deal with the Impact of COVID-19, Top Key Players are as follows :

● Copan Group
● Wujiang Evergreen
● Kangjian Medical
● Deltalab
● FL Medical
● Puritan Medical Products
● Quidel Corporation
● Orasure Technologies
● Medical Wire(MWE)

Scope Of the Medical Swab for COVID-19 Test Market:

The Global Medical Swab for COVID-19 Test market is anticipated to rise at a considerable rate during the forecast period, between 2022 and 2029. In 2020, the market is growing at a steady rate and with the rising adoption of strategies by key players, the market is expected to rise over the projected horizon.

North America, especially The United States, will still play an important role which cannot be ignored. Any changes from United States might affect the development trend of Medical Swab for COVID-19 Test. The market in North America is expected to grow considerably during the forecast period. The high adoption of advanced technology and the presence of large players in this region are likely to create ample growth opportunities for the market.

Europe also play important roles in global market, with a magnificent growth in CAGR During the Forecast period 2022-2029.

Medical Swab for COVID-19 Test Market size is projected to reach Multimillion USD by 2029, In comparison to 2022, at unexpected CAGR during 2022-2029.

Despite the presence of intense competition, due to the global recovery trend is clear, investors are still optimistic about this area, and it will still be more new investments entering the field in the future.

This report focuses on the Medical Swab for COVID-19 Test in global market, especially in North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa. This report categorizes the market based on manufacturers, regions, type and application.

Get a trial Copy of the Medical Swab for COVID-19 Test Market Report 2022

Report further studies the market development status and future Medical Swab for COVID-19 Test Market trend across the world. Also, it splits Medical Swab for COVID-19 Test market Segmentation by Type and by Applications to fully and deeply research and reveal market profile and prospects.

Chapter 4 provides breakdown data of different types of products, as well as market forecasts.

● PE
● PP

Different application fields have different usage and development prospects of products. Therefore, Chapter 5 provides subdivision data of different application fields and market forecasts.

● Hospital
● Clinic
● Others

Chapters 7-26 focus on the regional market. We have selected the most representative 20 countries from ;197 countries in the world and conducted a detailed analysis and overview of the market development of these countries.

● North America (United States, Canada and Mexico) ● Europe (Germany, UK, France, Italy, Russia and Turkey etc.) ● Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India, Australia, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, Malaysia and Vietnam) ● South America (Brazil, Argentina, Columbia etc.) ● Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa)

This Medical Swab for COVID-19 Test Market Research/Analysis Report Contains Answers to your following Questions

● Which Manufacturing Technology is used for Medical Swab for COVID-19 Test? What Developments Are Going On in That Technology? Which Trends Are Causing These Developments? ● Who Are the Global Key Players in This Medical Swab for COVID-19 Test Market? What are Their Company Profile, Their Product Information, and Contact Information? ● What Was Global Market Status of Medical Swab for COVID-19 Test Market? What Was Capacity, Production Value, Cost and PROFIT of Medical Swab for COVID-19 Test Market? ● What Is Current Market Status of Medical Swab for COVID-19 Test Industry? What’s Market Competition in This Industry, Both Company, and Country Wise? What’s Market Analysis of Medical Swab for COVID-19 Test Market by Taking Applications and Types in Consideration? ● What Are Projections of Global Medical Swab for COVID-19 Test Industry Considering Capacity, Production and Production Value? What Will Be the Estimation of Cost and Profit? What Will Be Market Share, Supply and Consumption? What about Import and Export? ● What Is Medical Swab for COVID-19 Test Market Chain Analysis by Upstream Raw Materials and Downstream Industry? ● What Is Economic Impact On Medical Swab for COVID-19 Test Industry? What are Global Macroeconomic Environment Analysis Results? What Are Global Macroeconomic Environment Development Trends? ● What Are Market Dynamics of Medical Swab for COVID-19 Test Market? What Are Challenges and Opportunities? ● What Should Be Entry Strategies, Countermeasures to Economic Impact, and Marketing Channels for Medical Swab for COVID-19 Test Industry?

Our research analysts will help you to get customized details for your report, which can be modified in terms of a specific region, application or any statistical details. In addition, we are always willing to comply with the study, which triangulated with your own data to make the market research more comprehensive in your perspective.

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Major Points from Table of Contents

Global Medical Swab for COVID-19 Test Market Research Report 2022-2029, by Manufacturers, Regions, Types and Applications

1 Introduction
1.1 Objective of the Study
1.2 Definition of the Market
1.3 Market Scope
1.3.1 Market Segment by Type, Application and Marketing Channel
1.3.2 Major Regions Covered (North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Mid East and Africa)
1.4 Years Considered for the Study (2015-2029)
1.5 Currency Considered (U.S. Dollar)
1.6 Stakeholders

2 Key Findings of the Study

3 Market Dynamics
3.1 Driving Factors for this Market
3.2 Factors Challenging the Market
3.3 Opportunities of the Global Medical Swab for COVID-19 Test Market (Regions, Growing/Emerging Downstream Market Analysis)
3.4 Technological and Market Developments in the Medical Swab for COVID-19 Test Market
3.5 Industry News by Region
3.6 Regulatory Scenario by Region/Country
3.7 Market Investment Scenario Strategic Recommendations Analysis

4 Value Chain of the Medical Swab for COVID-19 Test Market

4.1 Value Chain Status
4.2 Upstream Raw Material Analysis
4.3 Midstream Major Company Analysis (by Manufacturing Base, by Product Type)
4.4 Distributors/Traders
4.5 Downstream Major Customer Analysis (by Region)

Get a trial Copy of the Medical Swab for COVID-19 Test Market Report 2022

5 Global Medical Swab for COVID-19 Test Market-Segmentation by Type

6 Global Medical Swab for COVID-19 Test Market-Segmentation by Application

7 Global Medical Swab for COVID-19 Test Market-Segmentation by Marketing Channel

7.1 Traditional Marketing Channel (Offline)
7.2 Online Channel

8 Competitive Intelligence Company Profiles

9 Global Medical Swab for COVID-19 Test Market-Segmentation by Geography

9.1 North America
9.2 Europe
9.3 Asia-Pacific
9.4 Latin America

9.5 Middle East and Africa

10 Future Forecast of the Global Medical Swab for COVID-19 Test Market from 2022-2029

10.1 Future Forecast of the Global Medical Swab for COVID-19 Test Market from 2022-2029 Segment by Region
10.2 Global Medical Swab for COVID-19 Test Production and Growth Rate Forecast by Type (2022-2029)
10.3 Global Medical Swab for COVID-19 Test Consumption and Growth Rate Forecast by Application (2022-2029)

11 Appendix
11.1 Methodology
12.2 Research Data Source

Continued….

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Wed, 12 Oct 2022 23:45:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.marketwatch.com/press-release/medical-swab-for-covid-19-test-market-2022-statistics-share-price-growth-prospects-industry-trends-till-2029-101-pages-report-2022-10-13
Killexams : A medical journey comes full circle

Standing on a step stool just beyond a protective surgical curtain in the operating room at Children's Health of Orange County this past summer, student intern Rosa Rodríguez looked down at the life-saving procedure unfolding in front of her. The patient, just six days old, lay in the center of a cluster of nurses and technicians whose precise movements were orchestrated by the maestro in charge: Surgeon-in-Chief Richard Gates, director of cardiothoracic surgery at CHOC. Over the course of six hours, these experts would repair a hole in the patient's tiny heart, ensuring a healthy future for the infant.

From atop her perch a few feet away, Rodríguez felt galvanized. Inspired. "Fastest and most amazing six hours of my life," she says later with a laugh. The experience, she says, confirmed for her that she was meant to pursue a career in pediatric surgery. And that she was on the right path to ensure that future for herself, as a senior at Johns Hopkins University who took the MCATs, those vastly challenging medical entrance exams, before returning to the university's Homewood campus for her final semester.

But witnessing the surgery was also, in some ways, the culmination of a journey. The last time she was in an operating room—could it have been that very room?—was 21 years ago, and she had been the baby on the table.

The last time she was in an operating room was 21 years ago, and she had been the baby on the table.

"I don't even have the words to describe the feeling," says Rodríguez, who, at just four months old, had open-heart surgery to correct a ventricular septal defect in her cardiac tissue that caused blood to mix in the lower two chambers of her heart. Her operation had also been performed by the surgeon she was now shadowing—Richard Gates. "It was inspiring and exhilarating and kind of trippy, to be honest."

It was a summer that Rodríguez describes as "magic." In her third year with the internship program organized by CHOC's Medical Intelligence and Innovation Institute, Rodríguez spent the summer shadowing physicians at CHOC and mentoring and advising other student interns as they developed abstracts for new medical technologies.

And yet the internship presented challenges that pushed Rodríguez out of her comfort zone, she says. The med tech aspect of the internship almost prevented Rodríguez from taking part in it—she was not as passionate about technology as she was about medicine, she says, and she was on the fence about whether the internship would be a good fit. But the opportunity revealed to her new ways of improving patient care and a new passion for doing so through technology. Two summers ago, after talking with her mother about the anxiety a parent goes through when their child is in surgery, Rodríguez devised a virtual assistant for operating rooms that listens for a surgeon's verbal cues and provides real-time updates to families in the waiting room. Last year, she proposed an AI-powered pharmacist that can cross-reference prescriptions and prevent doctors from over-prescribing medicines. This past summer, she helped student interns develop and perfect their own devices.

She was also hesitant about spending part of her internship shadowing Jessica McMichael, an orthopedic surgeon—a specialization that caused some trepidation for Rodríguez.

"I'm not going to lie—the fact that they use tools that look like something I could have gotten out of my shed in the backyard kind of freaks me out," she says.

And yet it turned out to be among the most rewarding aspects of the experience.

"It was inspiring because she's a woman, especially in surgery, and finding a female mentor was really special for me," Rodríguez says. "Seeing how she runs her OR really taught me the kind of person and surgeon and leader that I want to be. So even though I don't necessarily want to go into her specialty, I want to be her. Spending time with Dr. McMichael in her OR was definitely one of the most profound experiences I have ever had."

As she prepares to graduate early this December with a degree in molecular and cellular biology, Rodríguez is driven by that sense of purpose and of drive. She plans to take a gap year before medical school and to find a job either as an emergency medical technician or a certified nursing assistant to get more real-world experience.

She's eager, she says, to experience more of that magic of medicine.

Fri, 14 Oct 2022 00:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://hub.jhu.edu/2022/10/14/rosa-rodriguez-medical-journey-full-circle/
Killexams : How medical records can foster discrimination

David Confer, a bicyclist and an audio technician, told his doctor he “used to be Ph.D. level” during a 2019 appointment in Washington, D.C. Confer, then 50, was speaking figuratively: He was experiencing brain fog — a symptom of his liver problems. But did his doctor take him seriously? Now, after his death, Confer’s partner, Cate Cohen, doesn’t think so.

Confer, who was Black, had been diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma two years before. His prognosis was positive. But during chemotherapy, his symptoms — brain fog, vomiting, back pain — suggested trouble with his liver, and he was later diagnosed with cirrhosis. He died in 2020, unable to secure a transplant. Throughout, Cohen, now 45, felt her partner’s clinicians didn’t listen closely to him and had written him off.

That feeling crystallized once she read Confer’s records. The doctor described Confer’s fuzziness and then quoted his Ph.D. analogy. To Cohen, the language was dismissive, as if the doctor didn’t take Confer at his word. It reflected, she thought, a belief that he was likely to be noncompliant with his care — that he was a bad candidate for a liver transplant and would waste the donated organ.

For its part, MedStar Georgetown, where Confer received care, declined to comment on specific cases. But spokesperson Lisa Clough said the medical center considers a variety of factors for transplantation, including “compliance with medical therapy, health of both individuals, blood type, comorbidities, ability to care for themselves and be stable, and post-transplant social support system.” Not all potential recipients and donors meet those criteria, Clough said.

Doctors often send signals of their appraisals of patients’ personas. Researchers are increasingly finding that doctors can transmit prejudice under the guise of objective descriptions. Clinicians who later read those purportedly objective descriptions can be misled and deliver substandard care.

Stereotypes and bias

Discrimination in health care is “the secret, or silent, poison that taints interactions between providers and patients before, during, after the medical encounter,” said Dayna Bowen Matthew, dean of George Washington University’s law school and an expert in civil rights law and disparities in health care.

Bias can be seen in the way doctors speak during rounds. Some patients, Matthew said, are described simply by their conditions. Others are characterized by terms that communicate more about their social status or character than their health and what’s needed to address their symptoms. For example, a patient could be described as an “80-year-old nice Black gentleman.” Doctors mention that patients look well-dressed or that someone is a laborer or homeless.

The stereotypes that can find their way into patients’ records sometimes help determine the level of care patients receive. Are they spoken to as equals? Will they get the best, or merely the cheapest, treatment? Bias is “pervasive” and “causally related to inferior health outcomes,” Matthew said.

Narrow or prejudiced thinking is simple to write down and easy to copy and paste over and over. Descriptions such as “difficult” and “disruptive” can become hard to escape. Once so labeled, patients can experience “downstream effects,” said Dr. Hardeep Singh, an expert in misdiagnosis who works at the Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Houston. He estimates misdiagnosis affects 12 million patients a year.

Conveying bias can be as simple as a pair of quotation marks. One team of researchers found that Black patients, in particular, were quoted in their records more frequently than other patients when physicians were characterizing their symptoms or health issues. The quotation mark patterns detected by researchers could be a sign of disrespect, used to communicate irony or sarcasm to future clinical readers. Among the types of phrases the researchers spotlighted were colloquial language or statements made in Black or ethnic slang.

“Black patients may be subject to systematic bias in physicians’ perceptions of their credibility,” the authors of the paper wrote.

‘Wildly inaccurate’

That’s just one study in an incoming tide focused on the variations in the language that clinicians use to describe patients of different races and genders. In many ways, the research is just catching up to what patients and doctors knew already, that discrimination can be conveyed and furthered by partial accounts.

Confer’s MedStar records, Cohen thought, were pockmarked with partial accounts — notes that included only a fraction of the full picture of his life and circumstances.

Cohen pointed to a write-up of a psychosocial evaluation, used to assess a patient’s readiness for a transplant. The evaluation stated that Confer drank a 12-pack of beer and perhaps as much as a pint of whiskey daily. But Confer had quit drinking after starting chemotherapy and had been only a social drinker before, Cohen said. It was “wildly inaccurate,” Cohen said.

“No matter what he did, that initial inaccurate description of the volume he consumed seemed to follow through his records,” she said.

Physicians frequently see a harsh tone in referrals from other programs, said Dr. John Fung, a transplant doctor at the University of Chicago who advised Cohen but didn’t review Confer’s records. “They kind of blame the patient for things that happen, not really giving credit for circumstances,” he said. But, he continued, those circumstances are important — looking beyond them, without bias, and at the patient himself or herself can result in successful transplants.

The history of one’s medical history

That doctors pass private judgments on their patients has been a source of nervous humor for years. In an episode of the sitcom “Seinfeld,” Elaine Benes discovers that a doctor had condescendingly written that she was “difficult” in her file. When she asked about it, the doctor promised to erase it. But it was written in pen.

The jokes reflect long-standing conflicts between patients and doctors. In the 1970s, campaigners pushed doctors to open up records to patients and to use less stereotyping language about the people they treated.

Nevertheless, doctors’ notes historically have had a “stilted vocabulary,” said Dr. Leonor Fernandez, an internist and researcher at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston. Patients are often described as “denying” facts about their health, she said, as if they’re not reliable narrators of their conditions.

One doubting doctor’s judgment can alter the course of care for years. When she visited her doctor for kidney stones early in her life, “he was very dismissive about it,” recalled Melina Oien, who now lives in Tacoma, Washington. Afterward, when she sought care in the military health care system, providers — whom Oien presumed had read her history — assumed that her complaints were psychosomatic and that she was seeking drugs.

“Every time I had an appointment in that system — there’s that tone, that feel. It creates that sense of dread,” she said. “You know the doctor has read the records and has formed an opinion of who you are, what you’re looking for.”

When Oien left military care in the 1990s, her paper records didn’t follow her. Nor did those assumptions.

New technology — same biases?

While Oien could leave her problems behind, the health system’s shift to electronic medical records and the data-sharing it encourages can intensify misconceptions. It’s easier than ever to maintain stale records, rife with false impressions or misreads, and to share or duplicate them with the click of a button.

“This thing perpetuates,” Singh said. When his team reviewed records of misdiagnosed cases, he found them full of identical notes. “It gets copy-pasted without freshness of thinking,” he said.

Research has found that misdiagnosis disproportionately happens to patients whom doctors have labeled as “difficult” in their electronic health record. Singh cited a pair of studies that presented hypothetical scenarios to doctors.

In the first study, participants reviewed two sets of notes, one in which the patient was described simply by her symptoms and a second in which descriptions of disruptive or difficult behaviors had been added. Diagnostic accuracy dropped with the difficult patients.

The second study assessed treatment decisions and found that medical students and residents were less likely to prescribe pain medications to patients whose records included stigmatizing language.

Digital records can also display prejudice in handy formats. A 2016 paper in JAMA discussed a small example: an unnamed digital record system that affixed an airplane logo to some patients to indicate that they were, in medical parlance, “frequent flyers.” That’s a pejorative term for patients who need plenty of care or are looking for medications.

But even as tech might amplify these problems, it can also expose them. Digitized medical records are easily shared — and not merely with fellow doctors, but also with patients.

Patients can now read the notes — the doctors’ descriptions of their conditions and treatments — because of 2016 legislation. The bill nationalized policies that had started earlier in the decade, in Boston, because of an organization called OpenNotes.

For most patients, most of the time, opening record notes has been beneficial. “By and large, patients wanted to have access to the notes,” said Fernandez, who has helped study and roll out the program. “They felt more in control of their health care. They felt they understood things better.” Studies suggest that open notes lead to increased compliance, as patients say they’re more likely to take medicines.

Conflicts ahead?

But there’s also a darker side to opening records: if patients find something they don’t like. Fernandez’s research, focusing on some early hospital adopters, has found that slightly more than 1 in 10 patients report being offended by what they find in their notes.

And the wave of computer-driven research focusing on patterns of language has similarly found low but significant numbers of discriminatory descriptions in notes. A study published in the journal Health Affairs found negative descriptors in nearly 1 in 10 records. Another team found stigmatizing language in 2.5 percent of records.

Patients can also compare what happened in a visit with what was recorded. They can see what was really on doctors’ minds.

Oien, who has become a patient advocate since moving on from the military health care system, recalled an incident in which a client fainted while getting a drug infusion — treatments for thin skin, low iron, esophageal tears and gastrointestinal conditions — and needed to be taken to the emergency room. Afterward, the patient visited a cardiologist. The cardiologist, who hadn’t seen her previously, was “very verbally professional,” Oien said. But what he wrote in the note — a story based on her ER visit — was very different. “Ninety percent of the record was about her quote-unquote drug use,” Oien said, noting that it’s rare to see the connection between a false belief about a patient and the person’s future care.

Spotting those contradictions will become easier now. “People are going to say, ‘The doc said what?’” Singh predicted.

But many patients may be reluctant to talk to their doctors about errors or bias. Fernandez, the OpenNotes pioneer, didn’t. After one visit, she saw a physical test listed on her record when none had occurred.

“It’s really hard to raise things like that,” she said. “You’re afraid they won’t like you and won’t take good care of you anymore.”

Kaiser Health News is a national newsroom that produces in-depth journalism about health issues.

Thu, 13 Oct 2022 06:38:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.reviewjournal.com/livewell/how-medical-records-can-foster-discrimination-2657004/
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