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Killexams : GAQM Foundation test - BingNews Search results Killexams : GAQM Foundation test - BingNews Killexams : Optical foundations illuminated by quantum light

Optics, the study of light, is one of the oldest fields in physics and has never ceased to surprise researchers. Although the classical description of light as a wave phenomenon is rarely questioned, the physical origins of some optical effects are. A team of researchers at Tampere University have brought the discussion on one fundamental wave effect, the debate around the anomalous behavior of focused light waves, to the quantum domain.

The researchers have been able to show that quantum waves behave significantly differently from their classical counterparts and can be used to increase the precision of distance measurements. Their findings also add to the discussion on physical of the anomalous focusing behavior. The results are now published in Nature Photonics.

"Interestingly, we started with an idea based on our earlier results and set out to structure for enhanced measurement precision. However, we then realized that the underlying physics of this application also contributes to the long debate about the origins of the Gouy phase anomaly of focused light fields," explains Robert Fickler, group leader of the Experimental Quantum Optics group at Tampere University.

Quantum waves behave differently but point to the same origin

Over the last decades, methods for structuring light fields down on the single photon level have vastly matured and led to a myriad of novel findings. In addition, a better of optics' foundations has been achieved. However, the physical origin of why light behaves in such an unexpected way when going through a focus, the so-called Gouy phase anomaly, is still often debated. This is despite its widespread use and importance in optical systems. The novelty of the current study is now to put the effect into the quantum domain.

"When developing the theory to describe our experimental results, we realized (after a long debate) that the Gouy phase for quantum light is not only different than the standard one, but its origin can be linked to another quantum effect. This is just like what was speculated in an earlier work," adds Doctoral researcher Markus Hiekkamäki, leading author of the study.

In the quantum domain, the anomalous behavior is sped up when compared to classical light. As the Gouy phase behavior can be used to determine the distance a beam of light has propagated, the speed up of the quantum Gouy could allow for an improvement in the precision of measuring distances.

With this new understanding at hand, the researchers are planning to develop novel techniques to enhance their measurement abilities such that it will be possible to measure more complex beams of structured photons. The team expects that this will help them push forward the application of the observed effect, and potentially bring to light more differences between quantum and classical light fields.

More information: Markus Hiekkamäki et al, Observation of the quantum Gouy phase, Nature Photonics (2022). DOI: 10.1038/s41566-022-01077-w

Provided by Tampere University

Citation: Optical foundations illuminated by quantum light (2022, October 7) retrieved 17 October 2022 from

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Thu, 06 Oct 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : How Much Does Foundation Cost?

Home foundations can come in different styles depending upon your locale, so if you’re in need of a new foundation, consider the needs of your home. A new foundation can be expensive depending on the scope of the project. On average, a concrete foundation costs around $8,500. On the low-end, a foundation can cost around $6,000 and on the high end, a foundation will run close to $15,000. Total costs will vary depending upon permits, labor and the type of foundation.

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Concrete Foundation Cost Estimator

Average Concrete Foundation Cost

With six different types of home foundations possible, cost estimates vary by design. Estimates are based on a 2,000-square foot house.

  • Monolithic Concrete Slab: $13,000
  • Stem Wall Concrete Slab: $14,000 (requires more labor, excavation and material)
  • Pier and Beam/Crawl Space: $21,000 Pier and beam foundations are uncommon and piers cost about $1,000 each, beams run between $1,000 to $5,000 as well. Plus, if you’re repairing a pier and beam foundation, you’ll need to lift the home, which can run around $1,500. A typical home needs between eight to 10 piers. Crawl spaces also require sealing and waterproofing.
  • Cinder Block Foundation: $16,000
  • Basement: $40,000 and up, depending on if it’s a finished basement

Types of Foundations and Pros/Cons

Monolithic Concrete Slab

Monolithic concrete slab foundations are better known as slab-on-grade because they rest directly on the ground and typically get poured all at once. They’re usually cheaper to install and will last a long time. A con of a slab-on-grade foundation is that sewer and drainage pipes get installed before the foundation is poured, so should you have any plumbing problems, you’ll need to cut into the slab to fix it.

Stem Wall Concrete Slab

Stem wall slabs have a footer poured first and then blocks are laid to form a wall up to the finished slab elevation. It’s considered more stable but takes longer to construct.

Pier and Beam Foundation/Crawl Space Foundation

Pier and beam foundations are typically found with older homes and elevate the home, which makes it less prone to flooding. But since it’s elevated, pests and critters can gain entry to the crawl space. They can cause damage to the beams over time.

A pier and beam foundation provides less support for floors than a concrete slab and they can suffer from water damage. They are also not as energy efficient as other foundations because warm and cold air can seep into the home.

Cinder Block Foundation

Cinder block foundations aren’t as popular as poured concrete block walls. Cinder block foundations do have advantages, like being able to hold more weight on top of the foundation. It does require more money in labor costs. On the negative side, they can be more susceptible to bowing and buckling.

Basement Foundation

A basement foundation secures a house a floor below the ground. It can be unfinished or finished to add living space. Basement foundations tend to suffer from moisture problems and sometimes mold. A sump pump can help address moisture issues.

Foundation Cost Per Square Foot

Cement Foundation Cost

  • Cinder Block: $9 to $12
  • Crawl Space: $13
  • Pier and Beam: $9 (Piers and beams will add to the cost)

Slab Foundation Cost

  • Monolithic Concrete Slab: $5
  • Stem Wall Concrete Slab: $6

Basement Foundation Cost

Adding a basement foundation comes with a significant cost and it can escalate should you choose to finish the basement. But a finished basement can increase living space and increase your home’s value so you’ll have to weigh the cost vs. reward.

Per Square Foot

An unfinished basement typically costs between $10 to $25 per square foot while that cost increases to $30 to $100 per square foot for a finished basement. A walkout basement will cost closer to $100 per square foot.

Foundation Installation Cost

Concrete costs between $4.25 and $6.25 per square foot and the average size of a house is about 2,000 square feet. That can mean between $8,500 and $12,500 for concrete alone. Labor typically costs around $2.60 per square foot, which is about $5,200 for a 2,000-square foot house.

A pier and beam foundation can cost more because of the cost of the beams (around $1,000 to $5,000) and piers (you’ll need around eight to 10). Additional costs include:

  • Excavation: $500 to $9,000
  • Soil quality testing: $500 to $2,000
  • Tree removal: $500 to $2,000
  • Building permits: $500 to $2,000
  • Form and finishing: $1,000 to $5,000
  • Reinforcement: $150 to $750
  • Sealing: $600 to $6,000
  • Inspections: $80 to $300

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Additional Cost Considerations

Many factors go into the estimate for your foundation, but it’s essential to be aware of any additional costs you may encounter before you proceed.

Foundation Inspections

Foundation inspections occur before you pour concrete and after the work is done to help to verify that the new foundation meets all code requirements and will support the weight of your home. They cost about $145 an hour, with most homeowners spending $150 to $1,300 in total. 

Foundation Insulation

To allow for proper airflow, prevent moisture or keep critters out, many homeowners will opt to add foundation insulation like skirting and vents around the crawl space or pier and beam foundation. Some will even add spray foam, foam board, or batts between or across the bottom of the joists to add more insulation under the floor. On average, foundation installation costs about $2,000.

Radiant Heat

Radiant heat is when all pipes need to be laid under the foundation, and the concrete is poured over them. Therefore, radiant heat needs to be completed when the foundation is installed. On average, radiant heat adds $3 per square foot, with most homeowners paying $4,800 to $10,000.

Foundation Replacement Cost

If you start to notice cracks along your foundation or suspect some sagging, you’ll likely want an engineer to come out for a structural report. The report typically costs around $500 and will pinpoint your foundation issues.

Foundation replacements can add up quickly, so expect to pay around $20,000 to $100,000 depending upon the scope of the project. If your home needs to be raised for foundation replacement, you will likely pay between $24,500 to $115,000 to raise and replace the foundation. Raising the house will run between $3,000 and $9,000 alone, then excavation can cost between $1,500 to $6,000.

DIY vs. Hire A Pro

Constructing a foundation is not a DIY project, though expert DIYers can likely lay down a concrete slab with some help from friends. Since the foundation is the structure that supports your house, the measurements need to be precise and cement placed in the proper position if you live in a climate where you have to pay attention to the frost line.

Wed, 12 Oct 2022 06:10:00 -0500 Nick Gerhardt en-US text/html
Killexams : Nobel Prize in Physics Awarded for Laying Quantum Computing's Foundations

Three scientists who helped lay the foundation for quantum computing received the 2022 Nobel Prize in physics on Tuesday.

Alain Aspect, John Clauser and Anton Zeilinger detailed the peculiar phenomenon called entanglement that links the behavior of two tiny particles and that is now used to perform quantum computations.

Entanglement links two states of two small particles such as photons, the tiniest possible pulses of light. 

Albert Einstein, skeptical of the phenomenon but later proven wrong, famously called entanglement "spooky action at a distance" because it seems so peculiar that the properties of one particle could be connected to that of another even if the two were isolated so that no information about one could reach the other.

From the 1970s to the 1990s, Clauser, Aspect and Zeilinger led a series of increasingly sophisticated experiments that looked into entanglement. Einstein and colleagues had suggested that something beyond quantum mechanics called "hidden variables" would explain entanglement. The Nobel laureates' experiments detailed a quantum physics idea that disproved hidden variables and eventually developed a process called teleportation that is crucial to quantum manipulations.

Such research helped pave the way for today's quantum computing industry, in which increasingly large numbers of entangled entities called qubits can be used to process data. Although the technology remains nascent, tech giants and startups are making steady progress, investing billions of dollars to develop quantum computers that in coming years could perform calculations beyond the reach of conventional computers.

An illustration shows 2022 Nobel Prize laureates Alain Aspect, John F. Clauser and Anton Zeilinger

The 2022 Nobel Prize laureates are, from left Alain Aspect, John F. Clauser and Anton Zeilinger.

Niklas Elmehed/Nobel Prize Outreach

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, which awards the Nobel Prize annually, likens the experiment to test hidden variables to a machine that throws two balls, one white and one black, to separate people, Alice and Bob. If Alice catches a white ball, she knows Bob caught a black one. But before the balls are seen, each ball is in effect in an unknown, gray state.

The hidden variables idea posits that before the balls were thrown, each in effect knew whether it would become black or white. Quantum mechanics posits that these two balls, in an entangled state, turned black or white randomly. 

The Nobel laureates investigated an idea called Bell inequality that helps figure out which explanation is true. Quantum mechanics violates Bell inequality.

Zeilinger worked at the University of Vienna in Austria; Clauser at J.F. Clauser & Associates in Walnut Creek, California; and Aspect at the Université Paris-Saclay and the École Polytechnique in France.

Sun, 09 Oct 2022 01:35:00 -0500 See full bio en text/html
Killexams : Endowments and Foundations Increasingly Want Their Top Advisors to Act Like OCIOs

Institutional investors increasingly want their most trusted advisors to function like outsourced chief investment officers. 

In the next five to seven years, a third of endowments and foundations want their most trusted advisors — usually investment managers — to handle their portfolios like OCIOs, according to NEPC’s 2022 governance survey published Thursday. The survey included responses from organizations including public and corporate pensions, foundations, defined contribution plans, healthcare organizations, and endowments.

This increasing reliance on managers and consultants was recorded across fund types, with 19 percent of healthcare funds and 17 percent of defined contribution funds also anticipating that their most trusted advisors will act like OCIOs in the near future, up from 10 percent and 13 percent, respectively.

Among endowments and foundations, 26 percent said they currently view their most trusted advisors as investment managers, which NEPC defined as a “consultant or manager who handles everything like an OCIO.” Thirty-two percent said they see their most trusted advisors taking on this role in the next five to seven years.

“That’s a trend that’s been going on for a while now,” Steve Charlton, NEPC partner and head of client solutions, told Institutional Investor. “At least in the last six or seven years, endowments and foundations have been turning more and more to OCIO-type organizations to manage their assets.”

As institutions attempt to navigate increasingly-complex markets and develop more advanced portfolios with exposure to alternative investments like hedge funds, private equity, and private debt, they may need additional expertise from OCIO providers who have more experience in these areas, Charlton said.

Among the asset owners surveyed by NEPC, 43 percent described their most trusted advisor was a partner, someone with whom they work closely to develop their investment programs. About a quarter said they have advisors (“I make the decisions, but almost always do what they recommend”), while 15 percent said they use a consultant as a key source for information and perspective. Twelve percent identified their most trusted advisor as an investment manager who acts like an OCIO, with 17 percent expecting their top advisors to take on this role in the next five to seven years.

“This survey is reinforcing our belief that more and more investment committees or brand sponsors or whoever it might be are interested in turning over additional responsibilities to their trusted advisor,” Charlton said.

NEPC also asked respondents about the degree to which they consider diversity, equity, and inclusion issues — something which 80 percent agreed was an important consideration in their investment programs. 

However, respondents from pension plans (both corporate and public), defined contribution plans, and insurance organizations were slightly less likely to indicate DEI as an important aspect of their program. Specifically, 38 percent of respondents from these organization types said that DEI was not important, significantly higher than the average of 20 percent. 

Meanwhile, endowments and foundations were slightly more inclined to say that DEI initiatives were “extremely important”  to their organizations. Nineteen percent of respondents from endowments and foundations answered “extremely important” versus 18 percent overall. 

This discrepancy may be a result of endowments’ and foundations’ more recent adoption of DEI issues compared to pension plans, according to Sam Austin, NEPC partner and governance board member. Austin said pensions were at the forefront of DEI initiatives in the eighties and nineties. Other institution types have started to catch on in more recent years, particularly after the murder of George Floyd in 2020 and subsequent civil rights protests. 

“Endowments, foundations, and healthcare organizations have increasingly caught fire over this issue over the last two and a half years, going back to that catalyzing event of George Floyd,” Austin said. 

Austin said endowments and foundations now place a greater emphasis on aligning their organizations’ missions with their investment portfolios than they did ten or 15 years ago. 

“The intensity of the issue is more front and center and it’s a fresh Topic for the endowment and foundation world, whereas it’s been an issue that’s been on the table for pensions for much longer,” Austin said.

Fri, 14 Oct 2022 01:42:00 -0500 en-gb text/html
Killexams : Foundations and Companies Pledge Millions for Hurricane Ian Recovery Efforts

Here are notable new grant awards compiled by the Chronicle:

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

$127.5 million to Pfizer to develop maternal vaccines for Group B streptococcus and respiratory syncytial virus, two of the leading causes of death for newborns and young infants in lower-income countries for which no vaccines yet exist.

One grant of $100 million will support the manufacturing of Pfizer’s Group B strep vaccine for Phase 3 clinical trials. A second grant of $27.5 million will enable Pfizer to make a low-cost multidose vial that can be used to deliver the potential RSV vaccine to pregnant people in poorer countries.]

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Wed, 05 Oct 2022 02:56:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Foundations honors those whose work improves community cannot provide a good user experience to your browser. To use this site and continue to benefit from our journalism and site features, please upgrade to the latest version of Chrome, Edge, Firefox or Safari.

Sat, 08 Oct 2022 04:01:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Extreme Team Day 1: Setting the foundations for the project at the Carl Maxey Center

SPOKANE, Wash. — Mark Peterson and the 4 News Now Extreme Team are back in action, and this project is taking on a special significance for Mark.

He is leading the charge in renovating the Carl Maxey Center in East Spokane.

The founder of the Carl Maxey Center, Sandy Williams, was killed last month in a plane crash near Whidbey Island.

She and Mark were already in the process of planning the renovation.

On Monday, crews began prepping by painting walls, installing new electrical wiring and plumbing, and laying concrete.

The focal point of the renovation will be a library named in honor of Williams.

Follow along Mark’s progress before the big reveal!

PHOTOS: Day 1 of the Extreme Team’s project at the Carl Maxey Center

Mon, 10 Oct 2022 15:01:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Foundations identify solutions to insecurity, criminalities in Nigeria

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Mon, 03 Oct 2022 01:26:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Giving money isn’t the only way for foundations to do good

Debra Walker Johnson is president and executive director of the Forest Preserve Foundation and former board co-chair at Chicago Women in Philanthropy.

We are witnessing a new wave of minority foundation leaders finally having a seat at the philanthropic table. The changing face of philanthropy presents the opportunity to re-examine how funding decisions are made and explore new approaches to grant-making, especially to communities of color. For far too long, nonprofits have struggled with being expected to do more with less. This is especially true of minority-led organizations. In the wake of the pandemic, racial reckoning, environmental concerns and other challenges that have all highlighted inequities in funding, this is a crucial moment for foundation leaders to explore new approaches to grant-making.

Many of these new foundation leaders come to their positions armed with extensive experience in the nonprofit sector and firsthand knowledge of the obstacles nonprofits face in securing funding to support their mission. They have experienced the countless hoops nonprofits often have to jump through just to be invited to submit a proposal. With this experience, plus the call for foundations to reconsider how grant-making decisions are determined, we have an opportunity to imagine something different.

Approaches such as participatory grant-making, trust-based philanthropy or community-centric funding are being looked at to address inequities in grant-making decisions. All involve looking at new ways to shift the balance of power for grant-making by challenging the decision-making structure that has guided many foundations' philanthropic work for years. Nonprofits and community members have historically been excluded from these critical conversations.

The premise of a trust-based approach is that it encourages funders and donors to incorporate feedback and insights from those who will be most affected by funding decisions. It involves trusting those who are on the ground doing the work, and trusting that they know what they are doing and that they know how it needs to be done. A trust-based approach requires funders to move past traditional decision-making models where they make vital decisions on causes to support despite a lack of personal experience with the cause. It also requires funders to consider what it means to share power with nonprofits and communities. It recognizes that communities that are directly impacted have the expertise and knowledge to create the solutions and are the best deciders for what they need for their communities and their work.

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Here are a few points to consider:

Grant-makers should see nonprofits as a partner in helping to address issues impacting society. They must partner with nonprofits to discuss realistic metrics and timelines for achieving goals. Funder applications, letters of inquiry and reports can take an excessive amount of time to complete and put additional burdens on smaller nonprofits that are often understaffed and under-resourced. Grant-makers can explore ways to reduce the administrative burden placed on nonprofits to secure funding by streamlining the grant-making process.

Be bold in grant-making to support the mission of the organization. MacKenzie Scott's no-strings-attached giving of more than $12 billion to nonprofits is often cited in examples of bold grant-making. Not all foundations can deliver this much, but they can stretch beyond their usual giving bucket. Consider giving multiyear, unrestricted funding that supports the organization's mission rather than focusing solely on the program. Multiyear, unrestricted funding allows grantees to assess and determine where grant dollars are most needed and facilitates innovation and sustainability.

In addition to monetary support, provide access to resources that can be helpful in building the organization's capacity. This is especially critical for organizations that have historically gone without access to networks to secure resources.

If philanthropy truly wants to make a difference, we must recognize that grant-makers don't have all the answers. They must deliver up some of their power and listen to the leadership of those closer to the ground. Grantees and communities provide valuable perspectives that can inform and guide strategies to address issues impacting our communities, making our work more successful in the long run.

High-quality journalism isn’t free. Please consider subscribing to Crain's.

Sun, 09 Oct 2022 17:42:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : K-12 students have chance to launch artwork into space 🚀

Boeing and Space Foundation are partnering to launch student artwork into space aboard Boeing’s upcoming Starliner Crew Flight Test.

Students are encouraged to consider the theme “Breaking Boundaries in Space” and incorporate the historical people who broke boundaries and paved the way for those who came after them.

Students aged 3-18 are invited to participate. The contest is free to enter.

The chosen artwork will travel to space digitally aboard Boeing’s CST-100 Starliner.

Acceptable formats for submission include drawings, paintings, mixed media, and digital media pieces.

All entries must be submitted online between Oct. 10 and Dec. 16.

Artist will be issued an official “Certificate of Flight” for each submitted piece of artwork.

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Mon, 10 Oct 2022 22:24:00 -0500 en text/html
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