300-620 dumps with cheat sheets are for you if you have no time to read books

killexams.com offers legitimate and forward-thinking 300-620 test prep with Actual Implementing Cisco Application Centric Infrastructure (DCACI) Exam Questions and Answers for new subjects of Cisco 300-620 Exam. Practice our 300-620 cheat sheets and Answers to Improve your insight and finish your test with High Marks. We ensure your accomplishment in the Test Center, veiling every one of the subjects of 300-620 test and assembling your Knowledge of the 300-620 test. Pass 4 sure with our right inquiries.

300-620 Implementing Cisco Application Centric Infrastructure (DCACI) mock test | http://babelouedstory.com/
Sun, 05 Jun 2022 23:46:00 -0500text/htmlhttps://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/obelisk/qanda/ Best IT Certifications for 2024

Earning specialized certifications is a surefire way to advance your career in the IT field, regardless of industry or current career level. The right certification validates your skills and knowledge, which makes you more desirable to future employers who want to attract and retain the best employees. Below, we’ll explore the top IT certifications and share how to examine your goals to choose the right path forward. 

We’ve narrowed IT certifications into specific categories to help IT professionals assess what’s available and pursue the best certifications to show their willingness to learn and develop the in-demand career skills employers want.

Best database certifications 

Database platforms have changed greatly over the years, but database technology remains important for various applications and computing tasks. Available certifications for IT professionals include those for database administrators (DBAs), database developers, data analysts and architects, business intelligence, and data warehousing specialists, and other data professionals.

Obtaining database certifications demonstrates an understanding of database concepts, design, implementation, administration and security. This can boost your credibility in the job market and show potential employers that you have the skills needed to work with databases. The best database certifications include the following:

Best SAS certifications 

SAS is one of the world’s leading firms for business analytics, data warehousing and data mining. Today, the SAS Global Certification Program offers 23 credentials across categories including foundation tools, advanced analytics, business intelligence, data management and administration.

SAS programmers remain in high demand, with a quick search of job boards showing thousands of open positions. Obtaining SAS certification shows employers that you are proficient in the company’s popular suite of tools. Some of SAS’s certification programs include the following: 

Many professionals earn certifications to help navigate their career paths. According to the IT Salary Report, 92 percent of information technology professionals have at least one certification.

Best Cisco certifications 

Cisco Systems is a market leader not only in networking and communications products, but also storage networking and solutions for data centers. Cisco offers a variety of certifications for IT professionals, ranging from entry level credentials to expert-level exams. 

These certifications prepare professionals for Cisco-related careers. A search of job boards reveals thousands of open positions for Cisco experts, underscoring the continued relevance of these skills. Some of Cisco’s certifications include the following:

Best Dell certifications 

Dell Technologies remains one of the world’s leading computing companies. In addition to its well-known hardware lineup, Dell also offers solutions for networks, storage, servers, gateways and embedded computing, as well as a broad range of IT and business services.

Becoming certified in Dell products can help make IT professionals competitive in engineering roles for server, virtualization, networking, systems, integration and data security. Additional roles include consultants, account executives, system administrators, IT managers and deployment managers.

Best mobility certifications 

In the mobile era, it has become increasingly important for network engineers to support local, remote and mobile users, as well as provide proper infrastructure. The focus on application and app development now leans more toward mobile environments, requiring security professionals to thoroughly address mobility from all perspectives.

Due to the fast-changing nature of mobile technology, not many mobility certifications have become widely adopted. However, a few of the top mobility certifications can help IT professionals stand out in this rapidly evolving field. 

If part of your job includes selling and implementing an IT solution, you may want to pursue the best sales certifications. You’ll show your organization that you’re willing to go above and beyond to reach sales targets.

Best computer hardware certifications 

As remote and computer-based work has become more common, it’s more important than ever that businesses and individuals be able to maintain their hardware. While discussions about potential computer-related jobs often revolve around software work and coding, jumping into the IT field by becoming a computer technician is an excellent starting point.

Today, thousands of hardware technician jobs are available across the country. Entering this industry becomes more accessible for those who acquire computer hardware certifications. These certifications can showcase your expertise and proficiency in the upkeep of computers, mobile devices, printers and other hardware components.

Best Google Cloud certifications 

IT pros with solid cloud computing skills continue to be in high demand as more companies adopt cloud technologies. Today, Google Cloud is one of the market leaders in the cloud computing space. 

Regardless of where you are in your IT career, engaging with certification programs can demonstrate your willingness to keep on top of rapidly evolving cloud technologies. To that end, Google has introduced a host of certifications for its cloud platform, including the following: 

Best evergreen IT certifications

In the fast-changing world of technology, it can help to focus on certifications that have stood the test of time. “Evergreen” refers to certifications that remain popular year after year. 

The top evergreen certifications are based on latest pay surveys in IT, reports from IT professionals about certifications they want or pursue the most, and those that appear most frequently in online job postings. Obtaining these credentials is one step toward ensuring that your skills remain relevant for a long time: 

Best IT governance certifications 

IT governance provides structure for aligning a company’s IT with its business strategies. Organizations faced with compliance rigors always need experienced IT pros who can see the big picture and understand technology risks. This means certified IT governance professionals are likely to remain in high demand.

Earning one of the following certifications proves a commitment to understanding the role of IT governance and its position in a company’s current and future success. Getting certified can validate your expert knowledge and lead to advanced career opportunities.

Best system administrator certifications 

An IT system administrator is responsible for managing and maintaining the information technology infrastructure within an organization. The position demands sought-after career skills, ranging from configuring and maintaining servers and clients to managing access controls, network services, and addressing application resource requirements.

If you’re in charge of managing modern servers, there’s a long list of tools and technologies that system administrators must master. Obtaining some of the most prominent system administrator certifications can demonstrate your mastery to potential employers. 

Best ITIL certifications 

ITIL, or Information Technology Infrastructure Library, was developed to establish standardized best practices for IT services within government agencies. Over the ensuing four decades, businesses of all types embraced, modified, and extended ITIL, shaping it into a comprehensive framework for managing IT service delivery. 

The ITIL framework remains the benchmark for best practices in IT service and delivery management, offering certification programs that cater to IT professionals at all levels. These training and certification courses ensure that IT professionals stay well-prepared for the ongoing evolution in IT service delivery management. There are four certifications in the ITIL certification program:

Best enterprise architect certifications 

An IT enterprise architect is responsible for designing and managing the overall structure and framework of an organization’s information technology system. Enterprise architect certifications are among the highest that an IT professional can achieve; fewer than 1 percent ultimately reach this level. 

Enterprise architects are among the highest-paid employees and consultants in the tech industry. These certifications can put IT professionals on a path to many lucrative positions. The average worker earns over six figures annually. Some top enterprise architect certifications are listed below:

To become an enterprise IT architect, you’ll need knowledge of systems deployment, design and architecture, as well as a strong business foundation.

Best CompTIA certifications

CompTIA is a nonprofit trade association made up of more than 2,000 member organizations and 3,000 business partners. The organization’s vendor-neutral certification program is one of the best recognized in the IT industry. Since CompTIA developed its A+ credential in 1993, it has issued more than two million certifications.

CompTIA certifications are grouped by skill set and focus on the real-world skills IT professionals need. Armed with these credentials, you can demonstrate that you know how to manage and support IT infrastructure. 

Best Oracle certifications 

A longtime leader in database software, Oracle also offers cloud solutions, servers, engineered systems, storage, and more. The company has more than 430,000 customers in 175 countries. 

Today, Oracle’s training program offers six certification levels that span 16 product categories with more than 200 individual credentials. Considering the depth and breadth of this program — and the number of Oracle customers — it’s no surprise that Oracle certifications are highly sought after. 

Vendor-specific certifications address a particular vendor’s hardware and software. For example, you can pursue Oracle certifications and Dell certifications to become an expert in those companies’ environments.

Best business continuity and disaster recovery certifications

Business continuity and disaster recovery keep systems running and data available in the event of interruptions or faults. These programs bring systems back to normal operation after a disaster has occurred.

Business continuity and disaster recovery certifications are seeing a healthy uptrend as new cloud-based tools grow in popularity. While business continuity planning and disaster recovery planning have always been essential, they’re becoming more critical than ever — and IT certifications are following suit.

Tue, 02 Jan 2024 09:59:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.businessnewsdaily.com/10953-best-it-certifications.html
Cisco: The Power of Purpose

Published 12-28-23

Submitted by Cisco Systems, Inc.

child and adult with technology between them

We released our annual Purpose Report, which reflects and celebrates the past year’s work towards Powering an Inclusive Future for All—the progress we’ve made against our goals, and the people and lives we’ve touched. The report explores the theme, The Power of Purpose, because we recognize that when we intersect our business, technology, and a network of partners together with our purpose, we create a powerful force for lasting change. And we have some incredible examples from this year, including the announcement that we achieved our goal of positively impacting 1 billion lives, and did so over a year early!

For many years, the purpose of our Purpose Report has been to look back. But we must also look ahead.

Any company looking to successfully execute their business strategy must consider the changing terrain, identify upcoming challenges and trends, and anticipate how to best meet evolving requirements. The same is true for purpose. This year’s Purpose Report begins to explore the landscape, and where we see opportunities for Purpose to grow.

Our biggest challenges are interconnected and interdependent

The past several years brought us all unprecedented challenges, and a world more prone to polarization than before. But instead of binary questions and issues, a more multipolar world has emerged, requiring us to operate with more nuance and greater context than ever. In this context one thing is clear—we are more interconnected and interdependent than ever.

Our lives and futures are linked by our shared dependence on our planet and its environments. We have a global responsibility to solve the climate crisis together. We see the growth of an increasingly digital and global economy, keeping us connected through ecosystems of financial interdependence. And as we learned in the latest pandemic, our collective health is also inextricably linked.

Global crises also continue to grow increasingly interconnected­­––and the consequences disproportionately fall on vulnerable communities. Developing nations who often contribute the least to climate change bear the brunt of its impact. And due to a lack of infrastructure and technological advancement, they are often the least equipped to respond to natural disasters. While the digital economy continues to grow, 2.6 billion people remain unconnected, denying them access to the opportunities and resources available. The consequences of each crisis exacerbate others­­—access to education is disrupted, progress for women and girls is set back, and extreme poverty rates rise.

Pursuing our Purpose can and must be the glue that brings us together to meet this moment and address these complex, interconnected issues. The question we must continue to ask as we look ahead is, how?

This year’s report reflects on howhow we achieved our goal of positively impacting 1 billion lives, how the private sector can work in new ways to address critical issues facing our societies, and how we can apply lessons from the past to build resilience in our communities for the future.

Where do we go from here?

There is no doubt that the path forward for business in a multipolar world isn’t entirely clear. There is significant work ahead to address risks in supply chains and manufacturing, and complex questions on how to best navigate a shifting geopolitical terrain. But should these challenges and uncertainties also apply to Purpose?

I don’t think so. In fact, in this moment when many are shying away from a global mindset and approach, our Purpose work proceeds by pursuing what is most meaningful, regardless if that is at the local or global level. Purpose can flex. It operates in a lane that is valued around the world, giving all of us who do this work the space to create and iterate, to sway and pivot, and find our rhythm. And when we do, pursuing our Purpose holds the door open for economic initiatives.

As we close the year in which we reached a goal of positively impacting one billion people, I’m looking ahead and considering the next goal we’ll set for ourselves. We are stronger with our partners by our side—an ecosystem focused on driving impact. We’ll continue to do this if we integrate the lessons of the past and take a new approach in the days and years ahead. I hope you’ll join us on this journey and read about our impact this year, and my reflections on what’s next, in our FY23 Purpose Report. Together, we can do good for our communities, good for our businesses, and good for all.

Read the full Cisco FY23 Purpose Report

View original content here.

Thu, 28 Dec 2023 01:11:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.csrwire.com/press_releases/791941-cisco-power-purpose
Cisco, Nutanix Unveil First Combined Hyperconverged Offer, Expanding Opportunities For Partners

The two companies have launched Cisco Compute Hyperconverged with Nutanix as Cisco leans on its recently forged partnership with Nutanix to power hybrid multi-cloud computing after announcing the end-of-life of HyperFlex.

ARTICLE TITLE HERE

Cisco Systems and Nutanix are making good on their promise to offer an integrated hyperconverged infrastructure (HCI) product line following the end-of-life of Cisco’s own HyperFlex offer.

The two companies on Monday introduced Cisco Compute Hyperconverged with Nutanix, an offering aimed at giving customers a simplified, flexible and scalable HCI answer to address hybrid and multi-cloud realities, according to Cisco.

Cisco Compute Hyperconverged with Nutanix is now generally available, the two companies said.

[Related: How Cisco Is Helping Partners Zero-In On ‘Hot’ SMB Business]

Cisco, for its part, is leaning on its newly forged partnership with Nutanix to power hybrid multi-cloud computing.

The new Cisco Compute Hyperconverged with Nutanix solution expands opportunities for partners, Nick Holden, Cisco’s vice president of global and strategic partners and co-sell, told CRN in an email.

“[The offering provides partners] with a differentiated solution for hybrid IT, featuring a combination of winning technologies already in demand. It provides partners more opportunities for HCI design, migration, and installation services,” he said. “Customers will benefit from a fully integrated and validated solution offering flexible deployment options with support for both Cisco’s rack and modular server lines.”

Cisco and Nutanix in August revealed that they would be coming together to offer a combined HCI portfolio that would use Cisco’s SaaS-managed compute and networking infrastructure — Cisco Unified Computing System (UCS) with Cisco Intersight — and the Nutanix Cloud Platform, which includes Nutanix Cloud Infrastructure, Nutanix Cloud Manager, Nutanix Unified Storage and Nutanix Desktop Services. The two companies said that the offerings will be sold by Cisco and its partner community.

“What’s different about this solution is that it combines the strength of Cisco’s networking and SaaS-managed compute portfolio with hybrid multi-cloud software from Nutanix, based on its market-leading HCI foundation. The result is the industry’s most complete hyperconverged solution, fully integrated and validated with flexible deployment options and support across Cisco UCS servers,” Jeremy Foster, Cisco’s senior vice president and general manager of Cisco Compute, said in a blog post on the new offering.

Businesses using the new offering will gain reduced complexity via a cloud operating model and more resilience by keeping hyperconverged systems running and protected with an augmented joint solution support model. These customers can also accelerate their own IT transformations by addressing modern apps and use cases via a hyperconverged offering and flexible deployment options, as well as the most updated hardware and software from Cisco and Nutanix, Foster said.

“This new platform will deliver more businesses access to a consistent cloud operating model characterized by its simplicity, choice, and unparalleled flexibility. It features support for file, block and object storage, a built-in hypervisor to run both virtual machines and containerized workloads, integrated network and security, as well as snapshots, replication and disaster recovery. In addition, this solution benefits from Nutanix portable licensing, enabling seamless application and workload deployment across hardware and locations, whether it be on-premises or in the public cloud … We continue to expand our technology integration partner ecosystem to help businesses accelerate their hybrid multi-cloud journey with a rigorously tested, validated, and certified infrastructure,” Tarkan Maner, Nutanix’s chief commercial officer, said in his own blog post on the latest offering.

Cisco in May issued an end-of-life announcement and then, later in September, end-of-sale dates for its Hyperflex hyperconverged portfolio. HyperFlex, which combined Cisco UCS compute and networking technology with its own HCI software and storage nodes as an integrated package, had been competing with leading technologies from Nutanix and VMware. However, partners at the time told CRN that they weren’t seeing strong adoption of Cisco Hyperflex among customers. Rather, many clients have requested a combination of Cisco and Nutanix for their hyperconverged needs, Lane Irvine, network business solutions director for Cisco and Nutanix partner Long View Systems, said last month.

The last day to order Cisco’s various HyperFlex Hardware Components will be March 12, 2024. The company said that customers with active service contracts will continue to receive support from the Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC) via the terms of their service contracts.

Foster in his Monday blog post said that ensuring business continuity for customers is Cisco’s top priority. That includes migration support via Cisco partners and supporting multiple paths for migration, including the new offering with Nutanix.

Mon, 02 Oct 2023 07:15:00 -0500 text/html https://www.crn.com/news/networking/cisco-nutanix-unveil-first-combined-hyperconverged-offer-expanding-opportunities-for-partners
Was Putin’s question-and-answer session a Kremlin disinformation project? No result found, try new keyword!In 2017, the Kremlin tried a similar tactic and also posted critical messages on the live feed throughout a question-and-answer session. Then as now, the language was also stilted and focused on ... Thu, 14 Dec 2023 07:20:00 -0600 en-us text/html https://www.msn.com/ Memphis' new barbecue contest: Questions (and answers) about what organizers have planned

Memphis is about to have two barbecue cooking contests — at the same time.

Forward Momentum, the producer of Mempho Music Festival and Mempho Presents, will host a yet-to-be-named barbecue cooking contest in Tom Lee Park on the same weekend of 46th Memphis in May World Championship Barbecue Cooking Contest, which will be held at Liberty Park. The Memphis in May World Championship Barbecue Cooking Contest will be May 15-18, and the new barbecue contest will be May 16-18

The Nov. 22 announcement of the new barbecue contest has left both contestants and attendees full of questions.

We reached out to the organizers of the new contest for answers.

Why did Forward Momentum want to create a new barbecue contest in Memphis?

A new barbecue competition will be held in May at Tom Lee Park in Downtown Memphis.

“We are very excited about the new park and wanting to do events there,” said Forward Momentum spokesperson Milton Lovell, adding the goal is to create a world class cooking contest that also offers guests a memorable experience.

“There was a strong desire from the business community to have a barbecue event on the river. Memphis in May started as an event to bring people Downtown. We are committed to creating a safe and comfortable event that brings tourists and residents Downtown.”

In October, Memphis in May announced it would move the barbecue contest to Liberty Park in 2024. In an email to barbecue teams on Sept. 26, Memphis in May President and CEO Jim Holt said the move was due to the "difficulties" Memphis in May experienced with the current park manager, Memphis River Parks Partnership.Memphis in May’s 2023 events at Tom Lee resulted in $1,425,366 damages to the park, which park officials said was largely caused by the barbecue contest. In September, Memphis River Parks filed a lawsuit against Memphis in May, seeking to collect an outstanding balance of $675,000 for the damages to Tom Lee.

Who is organizing this new barbecue contest?

Forward Momentum is in the process of putting together a steering committee to spearhead the event.

“We want a diverse group of stakeholders involved,” Lovell said. “It will include teams, Downtown businesses and Memphis leaders.”

Mempho Presents co-producer Mike Smith said they are "allowing the barbecue teams to drive this event and have input."

"It will be a three-way partnership between Forward Momentum, the festival organizers and the barbecue teams," he said.

As of Tuesday, Nov. 28, award-winning pitmaster and restaurateur Carey Bringle is the only announced committee member. Bringle is the owner of Nashville-based barbecue restaurant Peg Legged Porker and has competed in the Memphis in May contest for more than 30 years. While he lives in Nashville, Bringle said he has strong roots in the Memphis area as his family is originally from Covington.

Why did Forward Momentum announce a contest with limited information?

Lovell said plans for the new contest have been in the works for awhile and organizers originally hoped to roll out the announcement with more details. When they saw Memphis in May open team applications on Nov. 21, they wanted to let people know that this new contest would be happening as well.

More specific details about the contest are expected to be finalized and shared with the public in the coming weeks.

What do barbecue teams think?

Multiple teams contacted by The CA declined to comment and posed multiple questions about the new competition. Teams expressed frustration over both events happening on the same weekend and the dilemma of having to make a choice without all the information on the new contest.

“Was anyone thinking about us? The teams?” said Van Raby, a founding member of the team Barbecue Republic. The Memphis-based team has competed in the Memphis in May contest for 30 years and placed second in Whole Hog in 2023. “There is a lot of emotion, blood, sweat and tears teams put into this contest.”

What does Memphis in May have to say about the competing contest?

“While we were surprised and disappointed by the announcement, our mission has not changed,” Memphis in May President and CEO Jim Holt said in a letter to barbecue teams on Nov. 27.

Randy Blevins, Memphis in May Vice President of Marketing and Programming, said they had received a record number of team applications in the opening week, including many of the “heavy hitters” and several international teams. "It's been a robust response and we are historically on par with what we have always done, even in pre-pandemic times."

The contest also plans to return to its normal size contest now that there are not the space constraints they faced this year in the newly renovated Tom Lee Park.

“In 2024, the Memphis in May World Championship Barbecue Cooking Contest will be returning to a full-scale world championship contest in the scope and scale that has made it the barbecue cooking contest it is today,” Blevins said.

MEMPHIS BARBECUE: From spaghetti to shrimp to ... cornish hen? 5 Memphis barbecue dishes you need to try

What are the competition categories in the new barbecue contest?

Expect the main categories of Whole Hog, Shoulder and Ribs at the new festival.

What about the ancillary Anything But and Sauce contests or the Patio Porkers division?

Smith said they will be adding categories in collaboration with the advisory committee.

Where will the barbecue contest be held in Tom Lee Park?

A new barbecue cooking contest is coming to Tom Lee Park in Downtown Memphis in May.

Smith said the layout is still in the works, but the design of the contest grounds will include riverfront-facing booths and scaffolding structures.

“We will be keeping the park in mind, as well as the guest,” he said.

Both Lovell and Smith said they believe having a fresh perspective will allow them to create an event that is a better fit for the renovated park.

“We know that there will need to be changes for this contest to be successful,” Smith said. “A brand-new set of eyes looking at the issues will enable us to manage this event better.”

How can there be two contests in the same weekend? Isn’t there a governing body that prevents this?

The answer is no.

Memphis in May is its own sanctioning body, setting its own unique judging rules and scoring.

The new festival will also set its own rules and be its own sanctioning body.

Neither is associated with the Kansas City Barbecue Society.

Who are the judges?

A new barbecue contest is coming to Tom Lee Park in Downtown Memphis in May.

While the judging body has yet to be announced, Bringle said they are talking with experienced judging groups.

Bringle said many longtime competitors have become frustrated with the judging process at Memphis in May as first-time, unexperienced judges are now judging finals. He said the goal for the new festival is to have qualified judges in finals rounds.

What are the fees for participating teams?

Fees for participating teams have yet to be announced.

“We are going to work with the steering committee to ensure fair fees. We are going to lean on our barbecue partners to make sure we are charging fair prices,” said Smith, adding he anticipates their fee structure will make this contest more inclusive to all types of teams.

BLUFF CITY BBQ TOUR: 5 Memphis barbecue sandwiches in just 4 hours. Here's what we ate.

What about volunteers?

The Memphis in May contest has a large network of volunteers, helping out in various aspects from communications to judging.

Smith said the new festival will have small roles for volunteers, but they will hire staff for most positions for the events.

Will the prize money be the same?

Smith said they will be increasing the prize money offered in the major categories.

“We are committed to a substantial award,” Lovell added. “We want to be rewarding teams for their efforts.”

The Memphis in May contest will offer $150,000 in prize money in the 2024 contest.

What about events like Piggy Idol and sauce wrestling?

“We are going to put on an event around the competition that is the caliber of what we do,” Smith said.

He said they will focus on creating unique signature experiences for the new contest and will be steering away from Memphis in May’s signature events.

“We will have lots of different activities to bring people Downtown,” said Smith, explaining the new interactive activities will utilize the park space differently than Memphis in May had. “Tom Lee Park has a ton of infrastructure that will make it fun. We are excited.”

Jennifer Chandler is the Food & Dining reporter at The Commercial Appeal. She can be reached at jennifer.chandler@commercialappeal.com and you can follow her on Twitter and Instagram at @cookwjennifer.

If you want to keep up with the tastiest news in the Bluff City — like the story above, sign up for our Eat Drink Memphis weekly newsletter for a hearty serving of stories on everything from restaurants to recipes. You can sign up here.

This article originally appeared on Memphis Commercial Appeal: Memphis' new BBQ contest: What we know about Forward Momentum event

Wed, 29 Nov 2023 16:04:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://www.aol.com/memphis-barbecue-contest-questions-answers-110532854.html
Questions and answers with candidates for president of the Kivalliq Inuit Association

Five candidates are vying for president of the Kivalliq Inuit Association in the Dec. 11 election.

Kivalliq News sent a questionnaire to all five. Ross Tatty and David Kuksuk acknowledged receipt of the questions but did not respond by deadline. The other three candidates’ answers are found below.

Their answers have been edited for clarity and grammar but otherwise left unchanged. Some candidates wrote answers that encompassed multiple questions; we have edited the question list based on the response from each candidate for ease of reading.

Kivalliq News will publish the remaining candidates’ answers if they arrive prior to voting day.

Samuel Alagalak

Q: Can you list your name, age, home community and any relevant work or political experience?

A: Sam (Samuel) Alagalak

Age: 51

Rankin Inlet and Arviat

Experience:

-Current KIA secretary treasurer on leave of absence without pay.

-Experience in finance and bookkeeping, financial planning and reporting

-Certified in negotiation – Osgoode Hall Law School

-Certified in contract law and procurement law and practice – Osgoode Hall Law School

-Human resource management – Government of Nunavut

-Past Kangiqliniq HTO chairman

Q: What are your main priorities to address if you are elected president of the KIA?

A: Communication and working together with other organizations including NTI, GN, federal government for the betterment of Inuit lives. Wildlife and environmental protection based on Inuit values. Mining and exploration transparency. Transparency and accountability. Legacy Fund implementation.

Each community has unique priorities and can be addressed. Some include, based on community feedback:

Dene boundary overlap – Arviat

Heritage rivers – Baker Lake

Homelessness and mining – Rankin Inlet and Whale Cove

Marine protection, and Ukkusiksalik IIBA – Naujaat, Coral Harbour and Chesterfield Inlet

Medical and airline travel – All communities

Qamanigjuaq caribou protection – All communities

Elder care – All communities

Education – All communities

Q: What are the biggest challenges the KIA faces?

A: Communication and transparency, staffing, accountability.

Q: What can the KIA do better?

A: Communication – keep beneficiaries informed. Work with other organizations for the betterment of Inuit lives. Advocate for Inuit rights and Inuit land and businesses.

Implement programs in an open, fair and timely manner.

Q: What is your position on mining in the Kivalliq?

A: We need to work with the mining sector, NIRB, NPC, GN and federal government to ensure jobs for Inuit at management levels. Prioritize Inuit concerns over profit. Caribou management. Protect lakes and rivers.

Q: Do you have any solutions for the housing crisis?

A: NTI introduced the Nunavut Inuit Housing Action Plan (NIHAP) and KIA received $14 million last month and will receive another $75 million over three years for Inuit homeownership programs in the Kivalliq communities.

Build homes that are tailored to Inuit needs. Hire NIHAP implementation manager as soon as possible. Consult with community leaders on community needs. Deliver feasible programs to commence summer 2024.

Q: What is your stance on Rankin Inlet’s beer and wine store and its impacts?

A: Leaders and Inuit have expressed concern over the beer and wine store that led to limited purchases. Advocate for more support programs such as Alcoholics Anonymous and support centres.

Q: What is your stance on the issue of a medical boarding home in Rankin Inlet, and is it something you would advocate for as president of the KIA?

A: I have been advocating for this for seven years and will continue to do so as president. I will work with the government and offer support to work with authorities to ensure this vital service becomes available as soon as possible. In the meantime, I believe we can work with Calm Air and Strengthen on the waiting room such as provide free wi-fi. Rankin Inlet is the transportation hub of the region and more services are needed.

Q: Is there anything else you would like to add?

A: My priority as president will be to serve Inuit in the Kivalliq region and to hear their concerns and provide leadership that is needed. I will ensure communication to KIA president is open, all enquiries will be responded to in a timely manner. We need to support Inuit of all ages, we need to take control back as it was intended when Nunavut was created. The Legacy Fund will be implemented if elected in a timely manner to ensure current generation of Inuit benefit fully and ensure the fund continues to grow for our future. I am not new to KIA as I was the assistant COO as well. This means I would not need training and all my work can begin immediately instead of needing training and introduction.

Kono Tattuinee

Q: Can you list your name, age, home community and any relevant work or political experience?

A: My name is Kono Tattuinee, married to Bernadette and I’m 60 years old, currently living in Rankin Inlet.

These are some of my work experiences: started off working for airlines as cargo hand and later in charge of cargo, at the same time being an agent and training others to the trade.

I’ve also worked for the Housing Corporation for the region as well as Nunavut headquarters. My political experience or experiences are as follows: Hamlet council in Arviat for many terms, have chaired for local Co-op boards both in Arviat and Rankin Inlet, later on have also been the board chair at the Arctic Co-operatives, representing 32 member-owned Co-ops in the Arctic. I was also one of the first to sit on the Nunavut Water Board in its initial start-up. During this time in the ‘90s I was the vice-president of Kivalliq Inuit Association and sat on the Nunavut Tunngavik Board. Served as president of Kivalliq Inuit Association 2019 and have decided to run for my second term of office.

Q: What can the KIA do better?

A: There are some things as an Inuit organization that we can Strengthen upon and one of the things we can work more closely with the GN, specifically the Health department for those medical travellers that often get stranded in Rankin. They sometimes have to find a ride to town, and most of them do not find their own hotel or accommodations. Part of the solution could be that to lobby the GN for a medical boarding home in Rankin as it’s the hub of the region. One of the other things the Health department can do better might be to make available hotel for those that have to wait more than four hours and at least make food available for them if the layover is more than two hours.

One issue currently is there needs to be a better job of coordinating financial resources for those pursuing post-secondary education so it’s needs based versus a first come, first-served basis. This means working with all levels of governments, industry and Inuit organizations to see what programs are delivered, including what is funded, and develop programming that complements each for students and their families. One of things that is tied in with Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit that’s kind of become very quiet is the trapping industry — as our forefathers had done to provide for family, to put food on the table. We need to look into building a relationship that’ll partner with the GN Environment (wildlife) to see if we can top up the amount the GN currently provides for fur-bearing animals i.e. foxes, wolf, polar bears, to name a few. The KIA can work or partner with the GN to bring this very important life skill to continue something that can help not only young people but the community as a whole. We need to revive this old trade that would again not only teach survival skills but also teach the next generation that they can be proud of.

Q: What is your position on mining in the Kivalliq?

A: First of all, it provides jobs for our people, brings in much needed income, also helps our local economies and the local (regional) businesses that provide spin-off jobs — as long the mines follow the regulations of the land use and respect the environment.

Q: Do you have any solutions for the housing crisis?

A: The KIA has a pot of monies budgeted thanks to the Nunavut Inuit Housing Action Plan sponsored by the federal government to tackle affordable housing and homelessness in Nunavut. While I was president of Kivalliq Inuit, the funds have already been allocated to go towards affordable housing and or towards homeownership. The board had only deliberated and we went over some numbers but nothing was finalized. The funds allocated for Kivalliq is approximately $90 million and $14 million has already been secured for our region in this fiscal year. We have a lot of work to do and need to hear what this region wants.

Q: What is your stance on Rankin Inlet’s beer and wine store and its impacts?

A: I believe the monies or the profits that go into GN should go towards education programs on the effects of alcohol use. Some of that monies should also provide help for those that need help with mental issues as well.

Q: What is your stance on a medical boarding home in Rankin Inlet, and is it something you would advocate for as president of the KIA?

A: This is also much needed in Rankin with Rankin being the hub — to get people that travel on medical travel who have to try and find a place if the hotels are full; and not only those getting medical appointment here in Rankin, but those travelling from Winnipeg and/or Iqaluit get stranded here and they’re the ones that would be able to access the boarding home if GN Health department were able to either build or renovate an existing building in Rankin.

Patterk Netser

Q: Can you list your name, age, home community and any relevant work or political experience?

A: My name is Patterk Netser, 64 years old. Born and raised in Coral Harbour. I am married to Mona Netser. We have six children, all adults now, 20 grandchildren, two great-grandchildren.

I am a former MLA and cabinet member of the Government of Nunavut with various departments: Environment, ED&T, Arctic College and Housing Corporation.

I also worked for former Nunavut MP and federal minister Leona Aglukkaq as her constituent assistant and, later, regional director.

Q: What are your main priorities to address if you are elected president of the KIA?

A: My priorities are as follows and they all have equal attention:

-There’s growing concerns over the Dene land claims currently under negotiations with the federal government that claim to have assertive rights over some of the Kivalliq region as well the Kitikmeot region on mineral rights and land use. If elected, I will vehemently oppose this claim.

-Build a regional rehabilitation centre that will provide a place of treatment for people that have alcohol and drug addictions as well as mental health issues.

-Build a transient centre (boarding home) in Rankin Inlet for the medical patients that are often stranded at the airport due to flight cancellations and for those who go for medical appointments in Rankin Inlet.

-Work with all HTOs on their aspirations for wildlife management and preservation.

-Lobby the federal government on GST rebates on purchases of trucks, snowmobiles, ATVs, freight charges, and other large-ticket items.

-Bring transparency and report on all aspects of KIA operations annually.

-Under the Nunavut Inuit Housing Action Plan, the KIA secured funds of $78 million. I will use that to build homes for young families, similar to the former HAP home ownership programs and renovate existing private homes.

-Provide funding for access roads.

Q: What are the biggest challenges the KIA faces?

A: I think we are swamped with many challenges. Medical care is very high. I would work with the Department of Health for how patients can receive better health care. Many have gone to the health centre for help but have been sent home with a bottle of Tylenol. I would create an office where KIA can be an advocate. Many Kivalliq residents need a voice.

Q: What can the KIA do better?

A: I can’t at this time say where the KIA can do better, but I would consult with stakeholders, business groups, HTOs, education, Arctic College and hamlets on how we can be a better body.

Q: What is your position on mining in the Kivalliq?

A: While I support mining activities as it creates jobs, at the end of life for a mine, mining companies leave with billions of dollars made but do not leave a lasting legacy that will benefit our future generations. We have to make changes so the beneficiary or communities will get lasting benefit from the mining companies working on Inuit-owned lands and throughout the Kivalliq.

Q: What is your stance on Rankin Inlet’s beer and wine store and its impacts?

A: For Rankin Inlet’s beer and wine store, I cannot speak for the community, but (from) reports from RCMP and concerned citizens about the ravages of alcohol, the community would do well with either more control or shutting the store down.

Q: Is there anything else you would like to add?

A: I believe the KIA partnering with both the GN and federal government can do much in addressing our critical infrastructure needs. I am willing to work with the Kivalliqmiut residents to build our region. As your president, I will lead this region to another level. On Dec.11, vote Netser.

David Kuksuk

Q: Please list your name, age, home community and any relevant work or political experience.

A: David Kuksuk, 53 from Arviat. I have been with KIA for nine years: two three-year terms as community director and the past three years as vice-president.

Q: What are your main priorities to address if you are elected president of the KIA?

A: If elected, my main priorities would be to push the Government of Nunavut to get a boarding home in Rankin Inlet, not only for patients going there for appointments but also for the patients who get stranded going to or from Winnipeg/Iqaluit.

We have one airline, which needs to consider adding planes to its fleet to keep up with demand, or look elsewhere and encourage other airlines to fly in our region. Although housing falls under the VP portfolio, I would help with the knowledge that I have gained during my term as VP. From my term as VP these are my main priorities, but of course I would go to each community and find out what they consider priorities.

Q: What are the biggest challenges the KIA faces?

A: Challenges regarding the boarding home and the housing crisis is that these (issues) are under the GN. In my experience, KIA met with GN ministers once a year except for my entire term as VP we didn’t meet at all. I would be persistent about meeting with GN, hamlet councils, HTOs at least twice a year and working closer with them.

Q: What can the KIA do better?

A: KIA can be more supportive of all Kivalliq communities, communicate with all the Kivalliq, revisit the best ways to run programs and disperse funds.

Q: What is your position on mining in the Kivalliq?

A: For the time that I have served as director and VP for KIA, I haven’t seen much of an increase in the number of Inuit employed at the mines. Today it is at 18 per cent. It needs to be much higher than that and Inuit should be trained to do whatever may interest them while employed there. In the past, I have met with the HTO regarding windmills that the mine wanted to put up and it was decided not to allow the mine to do so. This was in the interest of the HTO and locals closest to the mine. Mines do provide employment to many but in my eyes, not enough for what they gain.

Q: Do you have any solutions for the housing crisis?

A: During my term as VP, housing and infrastructure was my portfolio. I was pleased that KIA was approved for $14 million towards housing and infrastructure and another $75 million to be given by 2027 from the federal government to NTI, who then put it to KIA. KIA would have to keep pushing the federal government.

Q: What is your stance on Rankin Inlet’s beer and wine store and its impacts?

A: I feel that a rehabilitation facility and a safe shelter should have been in place and ready for anyone who may need it at the time of the beer and wine store opening.

Q: What is your stance on the issue of a medical boarding home in Rankin Inlet, and is it something you would advocate for as president of the KIA?

A: Because I myself have been stranded in Rankin Inlet or sat at the terminal for hours, I would definitely advocate for a boarding home and also for transportation to and from the boarding home. Not everyone has a place to stay when there are no hotels available, and being stranded is unacceptable.

Q: Is there anything else you would like to add?

A: I would like to add that a plan was put in place to grow the legacy fund to $100 million and once reached then the president would visit each town and hear what their priorities are. This has been the plan and now it has reached its goal; therefore, the newly-elected president will do as planned years ago.

Stewart Burnett, Local Journalism Initiative Reporter, Kivalliq News

Wed, 06 Dec 2023 04:15:00 -0600 en-CA text/html https://ca.news.yahoo.com/questions-answers-candidates-president-kivalliq-231542892.html
Why Putin’s awkward Q&A may not be all it seemed

However, the critical SMS messages, which went unanswered, appeared to show the Kremlin’s fingerprints.

There were eight to 12 messages, too many to claim that they had slipped past the censors. The language was also careful and steered clear of criticising the war in Ukraine.

One message in particular appeared to undermine what may have been a skillful Kremlin disinformation campaign. This was the only message that, at first glance, laid into the Russian leader.

“This question won’t be shown!” the message began.

“I’d like to know, when will our president pay attention to his own country? We’ve got no education, no healthcare. The abyss lies ahead...” it continued in clever language which actually begs Putin for help and predicts catastrophe if he doesn’t step in.

It felt like Putin, with his messiah complex and determination to deflect complaints away from his invasion of Ukraine, was talking to himself.

Thu, 14 Dec 2023 06:29:00 -0600 James Kilner en text/html https://www.telegraph.co.uk/world-news/2023/12/14/was-putins-question-and-answer-session-a-kremlin-disinforma/
Maddow Blog | Trump poses key question about Biden, which has a good answer No result found, try new keyword!The cost of many prescription drugs got better under Biden. Infrastructure investments got better under Biden. The budget deficit got better under Biden. The U.S. murder rate got better under Biden. Thu, 14 Dec 2023 01:58:00 -0600 en-us text/html https://www.msn.com/

300-620 mock test - Implementing Cisco Application Centric Infrastructure (DCACI) Updated: 2024

Looking for 300-620 real qeustions that works in real exam?
Exam Code: 300-620 Implementing Cisco Application Centric Infrastructure (DCACI) mock test January 2024 by Killexams.com team

300-620 Implementing Cisco Application Centric Infrastructure (DCACI)

300-620 DCACI

Certifications: CCNP Data Center, Cisco Certified Specialist - Data Center ACI Implementation

Duration: 90 minutes



This exam tests your knowledge of Cisco switches in ACI mode including:

- ACI Fabric Infrastructure

- ACI Packet Forwarding

- External Network Connectivity

- Integrations

- ACI Management

- ACI Anywhere



Exam Description

The Implementing Cisco Application Centric Infrastructure v1.0 (DCACI 300-620) exam is a 90-minute exam that is associated with the CCNP Data Center Certification and Cisco Certified Specialist – Data Center ACI Implementation certifications. This exam tests a candidate's knowledge of Cisco switches in ACI mode including configuration, implementation, and management. The course, Implementing Cisco Application Centric Infrastructure (DCACI), helps candidates to prepare for this exam.



20% 1.0 ACI Fabric Infrastructure

1.1 Describe ACI topology and hardware

1.2 Describe ACI Object Model

1.3 Utilize faults, event record, and audit log

1.4 Describe ACI fabric discovery

1.5 Implement ACI policies

1.5.a access

1.5.b fabric

1.6 Implement ACI logical constructs

1.6.a tenant

1.6.b application profile

1.6.c VRF

1.6.d bridge domain (unicast routing, Layer 2 unknown hardware proxy, ARP flooding)

1.6.e endpoint groups (EPG)

1.6.f contracts (filter, provider, consumer, reverse port filter, VRF enforced)

15% 2.0 ACI Packet Forwarding

2.1 Describe endpoint learning

2.2 Implement bridge domain configuration knob (unicast routing, Layer 2 unknown hardware proxy, ARP flooding)

20% 3.0 External Network Connectivity

3.1 Implement Layer 2 out (STP/MCP basics
)
3.2 Implement Layer 3 out (excludes transit routing and VRF route leaking)

15% 4.0 Integrations

4.1 Implement VMware vCenter DVS integration

4.2 Describe resolution immediacy in VMM

4.3 Implement service graph (managed and unmanaged)

20% 5.0 ACI Management

5.1 Implement out-of-band and in-band

5.2 Utilize syslog and snmp services

5.3 Implement configuration backup (snapshot/config import export)

5.4 Implement AAA and RBAC

5.5 Configure an upgrade

10% 6.0 ACI Anywhere

6.1 Describe multipod

6.2 Describe multisite
Implementing Cisco Application Centric Infrastructure (DCACI)
Cisco Infrastructure Questions and Answers

Other Cisco exams

010-151 Cisco Certified Technician (CCT) for Data Center
500-275 Securing Cisco Networks with Sourcefire FireAMP Endpoints
CICSP Cisco IronPort Certified Security Professional
600-455 Deploying Cisco Unified Contact Center Enterprise (DUCCE)
500-210 SP Optical Technology Field Engineer Representative
500-052 Deploying Cisco Unified Contact Center Express (UCCXD)
500-651 Security Architecture for Systems Engineer (SASE)
500-701 Cisco Video Infrastructure Design (VID)
500-301 Cisco Cloud Collaboration Solutions
500-551 Cisco Networking: On-Premise and Cloud Solutions
700-020 Cisco Video Sales Essentials
500-710 Cisco Video Infrastructure Implementation
700-105 Cisco Midsize Collaboration Solutions for Account Managers
500-325 Cisco Collaboration Servers and Appliances
500-490 Designing Cisco Enterprise Networks
500-470 Cisco Enterprise Networks SDA, SDWAN and ISE exam for System Engineers
500-901 Cisco Data Center Unified Computing Infrastructure Design
500-230 Cisco Service Provider Routing Field Engineer
700-150 Introduction to Cisco Sales
700-651 Cisco Collaboration Architecture Sales Essentials
700-751 Cisco SMB Product and Positioning Technical Overview (SMBSE)
300-410 Implementing Cisco Enterprise Advanced Routing and Services (ENARSI)
300-415 Implementing Cisco SD-WAN Solutions (ENSDWI)
300-420 Designing Cisco Enterprise Networks (ENSLD)
300-425 Designing Cisco Enterprise Wireless Networks (ENWLSD)
300-430 Implementing Cisco Enterprise Wireless Networks (ENWLSI) 2023
300-435 Automating Cisco Enterprise Solutions (ENAUTO)
300-510 Implementing Cisco Service Provider Advanced Routing Solutions (SPRI)
300-610 Designing Cisco Data Center Infrastructure (DCID)
300-615 Troubleshooting Cisco Data Center Infrastructure (DCIT)
300-620 Implementing Cisco Application Centric Infrastructure (DCACI)
300-635 Automating Cisco Data Center Solutions (DCAUTO)
300-810 Implementing Cisco Collaboration Applications (CLICA)
300-815 Implementing Cisco Advanced Call Control and Mobility Services (CLACCM) - CCNP
300-910 Implementing DevOps Solutions and Practices using Cisco Platforms (DEVOPS)
300-920 Developing Applications for Cisco Webex and Webex Devices (DEVWBX)
350-401 Implementing Cisco Enterprise Network Core Technologies (ENCOR)
350-501 Implementing and Operating Cisco Service Provider Network Core Technologies (SPCOR)
350-601 Implementing Cisco Data Center Core Technologies (DCCOR)
350-701 Implementing and Operating Cisco Security Core Technologies (SCOR)
350-801 Implementing Cisco Collaboration Core Technologies (CLCOR)
350-901 Developing Applications using Cisco Core Platforms and APIs (DEVCOR)
500-215 SP Mobility Technology Systems Engineer Representative
200-301 Cisco Certified Network Associate - CCNA 2023
100-490 Cisco Certified Technician Routing & Switching (RSTECH)
200-201 Understanding Cisco Cybersecurity Operations Fundamentals (CBROPS)
200-901 DevNet Associate (DEVASC)
300-535 Automating Cisco Service Provider Solutions (SPAUTO)
300-710 Securing Networks with Cisco Firepower
300-715 Implementing and Configuring Cisco Identity Services Engine
300-720 Securing Email with Cisco Email Security Appliance
300-725 Securing the Web with Cisco Web Security Appliance (SWSA)
300-730 Implementing Secure Solutions with Virtual Private Networks
300-735 Automating Cisco Security Solutions (SAUTO)
300-820 Implementing Cisco Collaboration Cloud and Edge Solutions
300-835 Automating Cisco Collaboration Solutions (CLAUTO)
500-440 Designing Cisco Unified Contact Center Enterprise (UCCED)
600-660 Implementing Cisco Application Centric Infrastructure - Advanced
300-515 Implementing Cisco Service Provider VPN Services (SPVI)
300-915 Developing Solutions Using Cisco IoT and Edge Platforms (DEVIOT)
300-215 Conducting Forensic Analysis and Incident Response Using Cisco CyberOps Technologies (CBRFIR)
350-201 Performing CyberOps Using Core Security Technologies (CBRCOR)
500-240 Cisco Mobile Backhaul for Field Engineers (CMBFE)
700-765 Cisco Security Architecture for System Engineers
820-605 Cisco Customer Success Manager (CSM)
700-805 Cisco Renewals Manager (CRM)
500-452 Cisco Enterprise Networks Core and WAN (ENCWE)
700-760 Cisco Security Architecture for Account Managers
700-680 Cisco Collaboration SaaS Authorization (CSaaS)
700-846 Cisco IoT Advantage for Account Managers (IOTAAM)?
500-451 Cisco Enterprise Networks Unified Access exam (ENUAE)
500-920 Cisco Data Center Unified Computing Infrastructure Troubleshooting (DCITUC)
500-220 Cisco Meraki Solutions Specialist (ECMS)
500-560 Cisco Networking: On-Premise and Cloud Solutions
500-445 Cisco Contact Center Enterprise Chat and Email (CCECE)
500-442 Administering Cisco Contact Center Enterprise (CCEA)
500-265 Cisco Advanced Security Architecture System Engineer (ASASE)
700-755 Small Business Technical Overview (SBTO)
500-444 Cisco Contact Center Enterprise Implementation and Troubleshooting (CCEIT)
500-443 Advanced Administration and Reporting of Contact Center Enterprise (CCEAAR)

If are you confused how to pass your 300-620 300-620 Exam? With the help of the Verified killexams.com 300-620 300-620 VCE exam Simulator you will learn how to increase your skills. The majority of the students start figuring out when they find out that they have to appear in IT certification. Our 300-620 brain dumps are comprehensive and to the point. The 300-620 300-620 PDF files make your vision vast and help you a lot in preparation of the certification exam.
300-620 Dumps
300-620 Braindumps
300-620 Real Questions
300-620 Practice Test
300-620 dumps free
Cisco
300-620
Implementing Cisco Application Centric Infrastructure
(DCACI)
http://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/300-620
Question: 112
An engineer is creating a configuration import policy that must terminate if the imported configuration is incompatible with the existing system.
Which import mode achieves this result?
A. merge
B. atomic
C. best effort
D. replace
Answer: B
Explanation:
Reference: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/switches/datacenter/aci/apic/sw/4-x/aci-fundamentals/Cisco-ACI-Fundamentals-401/Cisco-ACI-Fundamentals-
401_chapter_01011.html
Question: 113
Which feature allows firewall ACLs to be configured automatically when new endpoints are attached to an EPG?
A. ARP gleaning
B. dynamic endpoint attach
C. hardware proxy
D. network-stitching
Answer: B
Question: 114
Which feature dynamically assigns or modifies the EPG association of virtual machines based on their attributes?
A. vzAny contracts
B. standard contracts
C. application EPGs
D. uSeg EPGs
Answer: D
Question: 115
Where is the COOP database located?
A. leaf
B. spine
C. APIC
D. endpoint
Answer: B
Explanation:
Reference: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/solutions/collateral/data-center-virtualization/application-centricinfrastructure/white-paper-c11-739989.html
Question: 116
Which type of policy configures the suppression of faults that are generated from a port being down?
A. fault lifecycle assignment
B. event lifecycle assignment
C. fault severity assignment
D. event severity assignment
Answer: C
Explanation:
Reference: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/switches/datacenter/aci/apic/sw/all/faults/guide/b_APIC_Faults_Errors/b_IFC_Faults_Errors_chapter_01.html
Question: 117
Which type of profile needs to be created to deploy an access port policy group?
A. attachable entity
B. Pod
C. module
D. leaf interface
Answer: A
Explanation:
Reference: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/switches/datacenter/aci/apic/sw/1-
x/Operating_ACI/guide/b_Cisco_Operating_ACI/b_Cisco_Operating_ACI_chapter_0110.html
Question: 118
A situation causes a fault to be raised on the APIC. The ACI administrator does not want that fault to be raised because it is not directly relevant to the
environment.
Which action should the administrator take to prevent the fault from appearing?
A. Under System -> Faults, right-click on the fault and select Acknowledge Fault so that acknowledged faults will immediately disappear.
B. Create a stats threshold policy with both rising and falling thresholds defined so that the critical severity threshold matches the squelched threshold.
C. Under System -> Faults, right-click on the fault and select Ignore Fault to create a fault severity assignment policy that hides the fault.
D. Create a new global health score policy that ignores specific faults as identified by their unique fault code.
Answer: C
Question: 119
DRAG DROP
An engineer is configuring a VRF for a tenant named Cisco.
Drag and drop the child objects on the left onto the correct containers on the right for this configuration.
Answer:
Question: 120
DRAG DROP
Drag and drop the Cisco ACI filter entry options from the left onto the correct categories on the right indicating what are required or optional parameters.
Answer:
Explanation:
Reference: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/switches/datacenter/aci/apic/sw/1-
x/Operating_ACI/guide/b_Cisco_Operating_ACI/b_Cisco_Operating_ACI_chapter_01000.html
Question: 121
What is a key objective of the Egmont Group?
A. To find ways to promote the development of Financial Intelligence Units and the sharing of expertise.
B. To safeguard the financial system from illicit use and combat money laundering and promote national security.
C. To issue binding standards that establish consistently operated Financial Intelligence Units in member jurisdictions.
D. To provide best practices for financial institutions on how to report suspicious activity to best share the information with law enforcement.
Answer: B
Explanation:
Reference: https://egmontgroup.org/en
Question: 122
Which components must be configured for the BGP Route Reflector policy to take effect?
A. spine fabric interface overrides and profiles
B. access policies and profiles
C. pod policy groups and profiles
D. leaf fabric interface overrides and profiles
Answer: A
Explanation:
Reference: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/switches/datacenter/aci/apic/sw/4-x/L3-configuration/Cisco-APIC-Layer-3-Networking-Configuration-Guide-
401/Cisco-APIC-Layer-3-Networking-ConfigurationGuide-401_chapter_01.html
Question: 123
A RADIUS user resolves its role via the Cisco AV Pair.
What object does the Cisco AV Pair resolve to?
A. tenant
B. security domain
C. primary Cisco APIC
D. managed object class
Answer: D
Explanation:
Reference: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/switches/datacenter/aci/apic/sw/2-
x/Security_config/b_Cisco_APIC_Security_Configuration_Guide/b_Cisco_APIC_Security_Guide_chapter_01011.html
Question: 124
An ACI administrator notices a change in the behavior of the fabric.
Which action must be taken to determine if a human intervention introduced the change?
A. Inspect event records in the APIC UI to see all actions performed by users.
B. Inspect /var/log/audit_messages on the APIC to see a record of all user actions.
C. Inspect audit logs in the APIC UI to see all user events.
D. Inspect the output of show command history in the APIC CL
Answer: A
Question: 125
How is an EPG extended outside of the ACI fabric?
A. Create an external bridged network that is assigned to a leaf port.
B. Create an external routed network that is assigned to an EP
D. Enable unicast routing within an EP
F. Statically assign a VLAN ID to a leaf port in an EP
Answer: D
Explanation:
Reference: https://www.dclessons.com/l2-external-network-with-aci
Question: 126
Which two telecom data settings can be enabled and collected by an administrator? (Choose two.)
A. Websites visited while using cellular data
B. The cellular data use in terms of total bytes sent and received
C. The total voice minutes used for all cellular calls
D. The telephone numbers dialed and received
E. The SMS message content sent and received
Answer: BC
Question: 127
An engineer is implementing Cisco ACI at a large platform-as-a-service provider using APIC controllers, 9396PX leaf switches, and 9336PQ spine switches. The
leaf switch ports are configured as IEEE 802.1p ports.
Where does the traffic exit from the EPG in IEEE 802.1p mode in this configuration?
A. from leaf ports tagged as VLAN 0
B. from leaf ports untagged
C. from leaf ports tagged as VLAN 4094
D. from leaf ports tagged as VLAN 1
Answer: A
For More exams visit https://killexams.com/vendors-exam-list
Kill your exam at First Attempt....Guaranteed!

Cisco Infrastructure mock test - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/300-620 Search results Cisco Infrastructure mock test - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/300-620 https://killexams.com/exam_list/Cisco Cisco IOS XE Attacks: 7 Biggest Unanswered Questions

It’s among the most widespread cyberattack campaigns of the year, but much remains unknown about the vulnerability, the scope of the impacts and how many attackers are actually involved.

ARTICLE TITLE HERE

As security teams and IT admins close out a week of grappling with widespread attacks targeting Cisco Systems IOS XE customers, many key details about the situation remain elusive.

And until more information surfaces, experts say it’ll be tough to fully get a handle on the threat, which compromised tens of thousands of devices through exploitation of a critical vulnerability in the popular IOS XE networking software platform.

“In some ways, Cisco has been really amazing about sharing information,” said Caitlin Condon, head of vulnerability research at cybersecurity vendor Rapid7, in an interview.

[Related: Hackers Hit The IT Industry: 12 Companies Targeted In 2023]

For instance: Cisco provided a clear way to check for the presence of the attacker’s malicious implant, also known as a backdoor. And that is “one of the reasons why we understand prevalence as well as we do industry-wide right now,” Condon told CRN.

At the same time, there’s still a lot that’s unknown about the vulnerability, the scope of impacted devices, the motives behind the attacks and much more. “There’s quite a bit that is still either not known or not clear,” Condon said.

Cisco may hold the answers to some of the questions, while for other details it may take some time.

What we do know is that the Cisco IOS XE attacks are on track to be one of the most impactful attacks against IT hardware of the year, perhaps rivaling only the Barracuda Email Security Gateway attacks from mid-2023, Condon said.

With about two more months to go in 2023, “so far, I would say it’s those two,” she said of the Cisco and Barracuda attacks. And notably, both attacks targeted network hardware devices located on the edge of an organization’s IT setup.

CRN has reached out to Cisco for comment.

While examining what is and isn’t known about the IOS XE hacks, it’s worth underscoring an obvious point: Cisco is a huge company with a lot of technology under its roof.

“I think they’re probably running into what any large company runs into, where you don’t want to panic people,” Condon said. “But also, you do want to be transparent about, ‘Hey, there’s a problem here.’”

What follows are the seven biggest unanswered questions about the Cisco IOS XE attacks.

How soon could there be a patch?

First disclosed Oct. 16 by Cisco as a zero-day vulnerability, the privilege escalation flaw can enable a malicious actor to acquire complete control over a compromised device, the company has said. The vulnerability (tracked as CVE-2023-20198) has been awarded the maximum severity rating, 10.0 out of 10.0.

However, a patch to fix the vulnerability has yet to be made available. In a statement provided to CRN on Oct. 16, the tech giant said it is addressing the critical security issue “as a matter of top priority” and has been “working non-stop to provide a software fix.” An ETA on the patch has not been offered, though.

In one promising sign, researchers at cybersecurity firm Censys said Thursday that it appears the number of infected devices has peaked — at roughly 42,000— and the number of compromised devices is now declining as administrators take recommended measures.

“More than 5,400 Cisco XE devices have either removed their web interface from the internet, been taken offline, or had their configurations reset,” the researchers wrote. “However, Censys has identified 36,541 devices that remain online and compromised.”

How certain are we that the mitigations do the trick?

Cisco has said that an access restriction measure it has shared is effective at stopping exploits of the vulnerability in IOS XE.

The company has “high confidence” that “access lists applied to the HTTP Server feature to restrict access from untrusted hosts and networks are an effective mitigation,” Cisco said in an update to its advisory Oct. 17.

“I think a lot of people in these types of situations typically do want to be able to test for themselves: ‘Are the mitigation steps truly, completely effective?’” Condon said.

Security researchers would like to be able to check for additional attack vectors or potentially a modified attack chain that could still be effective, she said.

In other words, “are there other ways in?” Condon said. “I’m sure Cisco is doing their best. It seems like they’re trying to be transparent about this as quickly as they can. But if there were more information, we would be able to assess that.” And that would help with providing more information to defenders who are looking for guidance, she said.

Cyber defense teams are ultimately seeking “100 percent confirmation that we know what this is, we know how you mitigate it — and yes, we can confirm that [the mitigation] works,” Condon said. “That’s what they want to hear.”

What’s the full list of impacted devices?

Cisco has not provided the list of devices affected, meaning that any switch, router or WLC (Wireless LAN Controller) that’s running IOS XE and has the web user interface (UI) exposed to the internet is vulnerable, according to Mayuresh Dani, manager of threat research at cybersecurity firm Qualys.

That is a lengthy list, however. And so far, it’s not a list that actually has been released by Cisco.

Along with widely used enterprise switches in the Cisco Catalyst 9000 line, IOS XE also is used to run numerous other types of devices, many of which often run in edge environments that tend to get less attention than data center equipment. Those include branch routers, industrial routers and aggregation routers, as well as Catalyst 9100 access points and “IoT-ready” Catalyst 9800 wireless controllers.

But since there’s no comprehensive list of everything that runs IOS XE, many organizations are unclear on how, or even whether, they are impacted.

All in all, “it would be really helpful to have a list,” Condon said. “We can look at the datasheet and see these 20 things [that run IOS XE], but is that it? We don’t know.”

What is the full attack chain?

From what Cisco has disclosed so far, there’s not much that is known about the vulnerability itself, according to Condon.

For instance, “what exactly is the root cause? What does the attack chain look like?” she said. “The way they’ve described it is a little bit vague, which isn’t throwing shade at them. It just seems like maybe there’s still quite a bit about the exact attack chain that is not known. And that’s concerning.”

As one example, Cisco was upfront about the fact that there’s an additional mechanism involved in the attacks that they don’t fully understand yet. Cisco’s Talos threat intelligence team wrote in a post that a threat actor has been observed exploiting a previously patched vulnerability from 2021 (tracked at CVE-2021-1435) as part of installing a backdoor.

“We have also seen devices fully patched against CVE-2021-1435 getting the implant successfully installed through an as of yet undetermined mechanism,” the Talos blog said.

In other words, there’s some ambiguity in the attack chain that still needs to be cleared up.

For Condon, that raises questions such as, do you need both vulnerabilities? Or is one sufficient? “It sounds to me like they’re trying to be upfront about the fact that this is still an active investigation, and there’s stuff they don’t know.”

Can devices easily be re-compromised?

As part of the IOS XE attacks, the implants installed by threat actors do not have what’s known as “persistence” on a device, meaning that it’s eliminated when a device is rebooted.

However, the accounts created by attackers are not removed, raising the question of whether they may continue to have administrator access even after a reboot.

And because the full attack chain is still unknown, a big question is whether a device can easily be re-compromised, Condon said. “Can it be re-implanted?”

Is it just a single threat actor behind the attacks?

In the intrusion investigated by Rapid7 researchers, the team has identified some variation in the techniques used, Condon noted. Additionally, the researchers also determined that in a few cases, a customer environment was exploited multiple times in the same day. The findings were disclosed in a post from Condon on the Rapid7 blog earlier this week.

“We can’t say for sure that this might be more than one threat actor, but that’s something that’s on our mind,” she told CRN. “It’s possible.”

Who is behind the attacks and what’s their motive?

There’s been no attribution for the attacks so far and little evidence about what the threat actor, or threat actors, are trying to accomplish.

“I’m sure that eventually, whether it takes weeks or longer, we’re going to have a better understanding of, here’s what the full attack chain was and here’s the threat actor or actors this was attributed to. And here’s what we think they were after,” Condon said. “I’m sure we’re going to see country names in some of these articles.”

In all likelihood, “we’re going to learn that this is a skilled attacker who had orchestrated this action, whether it’s one attacker or multiple who were using similar techniques,” she said.

However, Condon noted, “at this point we don’t even know what what the full attack chain looks like. And there’s no patch. The message, I think, to administrators of these devices is, get them off the internet, reboot and then look for indicators of compromise.”

Fri, 20 Oct 2023 02:48:00 -0500 text/html https://www.crn.com/news/security/cisco-ios-xe-attacks-7-biggest-unanswered-questions
Questions & Answers
Secrets of Lost Empires

Questions & Answers

Live Event Q & As | Additional Q & As | List of Questions

Live Event


Question: In the NOVA about Stonehenge, the A-frame you made had the ropes that the volunteers pull higher than the ropes connected to the rock, and in the NOVA about the obelisk, you had the ropes at the same level. Wouldn't it be easier if you had the A-frame like in the NOVA about Stonehenge? ~Justin

Answer: Yes, it would. That's one of the lessons we learned out of both these operations. If the A-frame had been higher, and in fact even if the pullers in the obelisk operation had been higher, we might have gotten more lift out of the pole. As it was in the obelisk operation, the pole wasn't getting much lift at all, it was actually probably pulling the obelisk down into the turning groove.


Question: Will it be possible to hear a discussion of the obelisk containing the code of Hammurabi? Is the obelisk containing the code of Hammurabi still in existence? ~J.T.

Answer: The code of Hammurabi is on a much smaller obelisk. This is not my area of specialty, but it's not what they raised in any quantity. It contains cuneiform text.


Question: Would the Egyptians have used elephant power to raise the obelisk? They were excellent builders and had a great understanding of mechanics. It seems to me that elephants would be cheaper and less troublesome than slaves, as well as pound per pound much more powerful than men. ~Marshall

Answer: No, the evidence is that elephants did not exist in Egypt after the late Dynastic period or into the Dynastic period, say after 2900 B.C. So they were never common, although they may have been brought in by pharaohs like Thomoses III. He also created a zoo in the Karnak temple. Elephants were never common in Egypt like they are in India today, so they were never part of the construction. It is the case that cows were used and we do have evidence of that, but in moving something as big as the obelisk it was most probably people power.


Question: What was the general attitude of the 200 men who were working on site, the common man's attitude to this project, if you will? ~James

Answer: Well, the attitude of the 200 men working on our site was one of great enthusiasm. They were really into this operation. There was a real team spirit. I don't know if you can notice it in the film, but when the obelisk was successfully tipped and then slid down into a turning groove, the men from Luxor, who are mostly around the obelisk itself, began chanting "Luxor, Luxor, Luxor!" And all the men from Aswan, who were mostly the pullers, began chanting "Aswan, Aswan, Aswan!" So there was a real esprit de corps, a real camaraderie among the team. It was almost like a great sports event where they had won a championship.


Question: What was the time period you had to raise the obelisk? ~Grayson

Answer: Well, I think all told, the whole production was about three weeks. So a good week of that was taken up with preparations of various kinds. To raise the obelisk itself, we maybe had two weeks. And so it was a very short time period indeed. That's why we think with more time, we probably would have successfully gotten it up, but unfortunately, modern production schedules don't match ancient pharaohs' schedules.


Question: Why not use a pulley on level ground to gain a mechanical advantage for the pullers? ~Travis

Answer: Well, we often get questions of why we don't use pulleys in pyramid building or obelisk raising, and one very critical piece of information here was given by Roger Hopkins on the production. He said a pulley is only as good as a wheel is as good as its axle. In other words, they didn't have iron or steel at this period, and for a pulley really to work, you need a very strong axle. A pulley is essentially a wheel. For wooden pulleys or various other kinds of pulleys it just didn't work. They probably had something like the pulley as early as the Middle Kingdom, several hundred years before the New Kingdom, but it was not as powerful as it needed to be if they made it out of steel or iron.


Question: Why not anchor the base in the groove stone with a team pulling in the opposite direction to the lift? ~Kevin

Answer: Well, if I understand the question correctly, this is essentially what Martin Isler had envisioned, that you basically bring the obelisk up to the turning groove and you park it in the turning groove, and then you have men pulling it to an upright position after it's been leveled high enough so the pull has some effect. That's one of the two principal ideas for how you raise an obelisk. And there are definite problems with that. It worked for Martin Isler's obelisk, which was two to three tons, but for a 450-ton obelisk, you don't have that much more room to do levering on the point end of the obelisk. And as you saw on the film, we have a great deal of difficulty just getting a 40-ton obelisk levered high enough so that the pull has some effect. It would have been exponentially more problematic for a 450-ton obelisk.


Question: Do you think having more people pulling to try to erect the obelisk would have made a difference? ~Andrea

Answer: Well, I don't think more people pulling would have made a difference, unless we had gotten them to a higher platform, where the pull had more lift, or unless we had used our A-frame on a higher platform so that the ropes would have had more lift. Otherwise, I think what was happening in our situation is that the pullers were simply pulling the obelisk down towards the obelisk rather than getting their lift out of the pull.


Question: Have you considered a rising road bed level on the lever side of the obelisk, also decreasing the height of the A-frame and extending ropes, as the pharaohs had many more than 200 willing participants? ~Pete

Answer: Well, it certainly is true that they had more willing or unwilling participants than 200. They could have had as many participants as they wanted. The thing is, the whole arena of operation is restricted by the space that is there in front of the great temple pylons or gateways, like in front of the Luxor temple. But any number of configurations can be tried, it just has to fit within the space available, and that includes the number of pullers. For example, in the Luxor temple, where Ramses raised two of the biggest obelisks of all times, and only one remains today, it is not that far from the temple to the river. And we know that the men were pulling on the river side because the turning groove is on the land side. So you've got to take all these different factors into consideration, and they set limitations for how many men, the length of the roadway, and therefore, the height of the roadway and so on.


Question: How many finished obelisks are there in existence now? Were they cut from the same type of stone? Is there any indication about who the sculptors were? ~Jeunesse

Answer: Well, I simply don't know off the top of my head what the total number of finished obelisks may be in Egypt today, although that might be known in the book, "Obelisks, the Skyscrapers of Ancient Egypt." I'm sure we could look it up. The obelisks are mostly of red granite. But there are a number of obelisks from other types of stone. There are a few limestone ones, sandstone ones, and some quartzite obelisks. The makers of the obelisks, that is the overseers in charge and the craftsmen, never signed their work, and this was usually the case in ancient Egypt, that the fine craftsmen, whatever the masterpiece may be, including a masterpiece statue of a pharaoh, they never signed their work. It was not so much the creation of any one of a particular artist, it was more of divine object that was created on behalf of this divine king. It is the case that there are only about four or five obelisks still standing in Egypt in their original sites.


Question: You need to raise the obelisk on a ramp to a height where the center of gravity is at its final height, then secure a frame at the center of gravity, which can be used to pivot the obelisk, which is now balanced at its center of gravity to a vertical position. ~Richard

Answer: Well, that's a good suggestion. I think what the questioner is suggesting is that the frame be actually on the obelisk side of the erection pit rather than the A-frame that we put on the pulling side of the erection pit. Now, if you had some kind of a frame or a windblast kind of tying off of the obelisk, like Martin Isler had, then you could just simply pivot it, you know. That could work. I would be interested in the details of how the frame would be composed. Would it be wood? How would the turning be effected? Again, we don't have pulleys, we don't have cogs, we don't have gears. So it's an interesting suggestion, we need more details.


Question: How different was the scale of the pyramid building from the scale of the obelisk quarrying and raising? ~Mark

Answer: The scale of pyramid building is totally different than that of obelisk raising, especially if you're talking about the early period of pyramid building, the first three or four generations. That's when they built the gigantic pyramids. That was a humongous task. It was building a geological structure with human power, you know, something on the scale of a small mountain. The obelisk is more of a single object and a single event. The obelisk is no less daring, because you have this huge piece of stone, a solid piece of stone, and of course, if you've already put the decoration on and in the erection attempt the whole thing breaks, it's a lot of labor wasted. And so it's a very daring kind of operation. Whereas the pyramid of course is many small operations, many blocks over the better part of probably a generation. The obelisk is a single daring feat of engineering.


Question: Don't you think that they would have come up alongside of the river in order to allow the pullers have the room to move it and then do the hole under the stones supporting it by three stones or so? You could then build a boat or many boats under the stone and let it float out into the river and reverse operation into the end. ~Zoe

Answer: Intuitively we all feel that some kind of ballast and boat operation must have been involved in both loading the obelisk and unloading it. That is, where you use water, water seeking its own level. For example, Roger's idea, which didn't get very well illustrated in the film because of his problems with his little model sinking and so on, his idea was if you, for example, had a slipway and you brought the boat loaded with the obelisk into the slipway and the obelisk was loaded on these cross-beams, you could bring the boat in, put ballast on the boat so that you sink the boat down, the cross-beams catch on the edges of the slipway and, therefore, you've off-loaded the boat. You simply pull the boat out from underneath the obelisk. Roger wanted the obelisk to be loaded in a similar operation, but reversed, where you take balance lost off the boat, the boat floats up on the water until it lifts up on the obelisk on his cross-pole. When you actually try these things, there are numerous difficulties, and the boat boondoggle is something we want to re-examine when we go back to try to do an obelisk.


Question: Is there any symbolism involved with the shape of the obelisk? ~Mary

Answer: Well, there is a symbolism involved in the shape of the obelisk. It probably symbolizes the rays or shaft of the sunlight coming down. It's interesting, at the top of the hatchet's obelisk, she shows herself, Themoses III, giving gifts up. There's the inscription that the upper part of her obelisks were gilded with electrum, a combination of silver and gold. So basically, what you had is the top of the obelisk, where she shows herself in the company of the gods, gilded with blazing medal, so it was actually like the sun reflected off this electrum. So the symbolism of course is a shaft of light that reaches up to where any pharaoh is co-mingling with the divine beings. There's probably also... it's a little bit more convoluted and indirect, but there's also more a phallic observation relating to the sun God Othom.


Question: Instead of using pullers to have to work over their heads, why don't you use a technique called a Spanish Windlass? The rope is anchored at some strong fixed object. By then twisting a looped rope, a tremendous pulling force can be applied over the A-frame by a few people. ~Bernard

Answer: Well, Bernard, we did actually use a Spanish Windlass in Martin Isler's technique, not so much to pull the stone horizontally into an upright position, but if you look closely at Martin Isler's position in the film, he had Spanish Windlasses going off to either side of the obelisk, where the rope was twisted after it, was tied around the butt end of the obelisk, where it was parked in the turning groove. Isler used this to control the movement of the obelisk from left to right, that is, so that it would not move to either side as it was being lifted. So that, as it was being lifted, it was held firmly in place right on its pedestal, right with one edge right in the turning groove. To use a Spanish Windlass actually to move the obelisk horizontally or to raise it upright is an interesting suggestion. But it implies a very long, a very long length of rope, a lot of twisting, and some kind of a platform where all this can be carried out.


Question: How did you calculate the number of men needed to man the ropes? ~Grant

Answer: You know, I can't answer that specifically, because basically we left it up to Ali el-Gasab. Others have asked why we didn't use equations—how many men were needed to raise the obelisk and so on? Ali, who is no longer with us in this world because he passed away this last year, but Ali was literate, and he had worked with heavy monuments all his life, at least 40 years. He knew how to figure how many men he needed, and he had a specific way of calculating how many pullers were required and how many were required on the obelisk-side of the erection pit. Just exactly what his calculations were, I can't tell you, but we know that Ali was calculating.


Question: Why were there no women involved? ~Kathy

Answer: Well, actually, there were women involved. Cheryl Haldane, who was in the film, is an archaeologist from Texas A&M, and I'm not sure if the question is aside from Cheryl Haldane, why there were no women involved in our production, or why there were no women involved in ancient Egypt? Those are two different questions of course.


Question: Why not use a variation on hydraulics? If the ropes were fastened down, isn't it possible to wet them, tighten them, let them dry and shorten, place solid rock under the slightly lifted obelisk and repeat? After all, it's the desert. ~John

Answer: Well, you know, tricks like that, wetted ropes, dry ropes and so on, I wouldn't put it past the ancient Egyptians to have used any kind of technique such as John suggests. It was amazing to us to see how Ali el-Gasab's men tried anything and everything to get that obelisk to move, get it to tip and then get it upright. They tried rollers, they greased the rollers. It was very by crook or by hook. As I said earlier, Ali did much calculating, how many men he needed. As you saw in the film, he made a scale model of it, once the operation was under way, they just attacked with a ferocity and with a spirit that really has astounded us all. And anything and everything went at that point. Now, if wetting the ropes, allowing them to dry and wetting them again worked, they would have used it, any trick they could have used to get the job done.


Question: The process so far seems correct, however, I might suggest the use of timber braces anchored to the ground and lift the obelisk from the backside as we do in the "barn raising" method. ~Len

Answer: That's a very interesting suggestion. Not being Ali el-Gasab and not being the engineer on the project, it sounds good to me. I'd like to know more details.


Question: Did you try the counterweight idea that was suggested by the owner of the quarry? ~Jeff

Answer: No, we didn't try the counterweight idea that was suggested by Hamada, the owner of the quarry. It looked good. It looked good in his model. The problem with counterweight methods in obelisk raising or pyramid raising is you have to deal with the weight that's commensurate with the obelisk or with the heavy stone blocks in pyramid building, and it's almost as though you're doubling your operation, because somehow you have to get the counterweight way up there, too, in Hamada's method, in a height in its own sandbox, where then, when you release the sand, the counterweight sinks and you release the obelisk. So in counterweight, the methods for lifting pyramid stones or obelisks, you have to deal with the problems of getting the counterweight itself to a significant height so that it can then sink and raise it to the height that you want, raise and sink the weight that you want to raise. In both pyramid building and obelisks, you're kind of faced with the same problems, raising the original weights itself.


Question: Why didn't workers stand on the levers when they became too high to reach in order to utilize their weight to increase the downward force on the lever? ~Peter

Answer: Peter, that's a very interesting observation, and I've seen men do that. I've seen them climb up on to these heavy levers, stand on them. But we were using levers the size of railroad ties, although maybe twice as long. They were the same thickness as a railroad tie, and it wasn't just the fact that the levers were getting too high for the men to grab hold of, it was also that maybe six inches from their butt end, the levers are snapping like toothpicks. And this is a very sobering observation, because our obelisk is 40 tons. And yet, given the shape of obelisks, a 400-ton obelisk is not going to deliver you that much more room to lever, and you're not going to be able to use levers that are that much bigger, because men can't get ahold of them. So if our railroad tie-sized levers are snapping like toothpicks on a 40-ton obelisk on its point end, what's going to happen on a 450-ton obelisk, even if the men were standing on them? Of course it's not—it's kind of a precarious place to stand up on a lever. Even if they were standing on them, levering begins to look a little bit inadequate to the job of the very big obelisks that we know were successfully erected by the ancient Egyptians.


Question: What other obstacles did you and your colleagues face, not including the problems of transporting and testing? ~Aaron

Answer: That's a very good question. The film focuses on transporting and raising, and mostly on raising. One of the big problems we faced, which must have been a problem faced by every ancient overseer, was finding a big enough patch of granite where we could quarry an obelisk, even with modern means, without there being fissures and cracks in it. It was a hard job just to find a big enough patch of uniform granite that we could take out a 40-ton obelisk. Think how much they must have searched and done trial trenches and probes to find a good patch of granite where they could get a 400, 300-ton obelisk. That's just one problem. We spent many, many days, actually weeks, looking through the quarries to find a good patch of granite.


Question: Wouldn't a series of A-frames beginning at the top of the obelisk and being succeeded by a taller A-frame, as the first for the job and so forth, cement the levers that could be filling in the space behind the obelisk with rock and dirt to the point at which the center of gravity is over the base and the obelisk was standing by itself? Would this work? ~Lee

Answer: Well, Lee must be an engineer, because Lee has just anticipated what some of the engineers we've already consulted have suggested for Obelisk II, that with a series of A-frames you're getting a series of poles, almost like when you lever a heavy weight and you get purchase with your lever, you get some rise out of the load, you secure that rise by putting in rocks underneath it, then you get more purchase, more leverage and so on. This has already been suggested, a series of A-frames, and it's one of the things they're going to try in Obelisk II.


Question: Would it be possible to create a supporting cage-like structure at the bottom of the obelisk made from wood? This would have to be strong enough to withstand an impact into the bottom of the pit. Once in, with the extra angle while the men were pulling, it could be set on fire, a wood version of the sand pit. The only problems I see are the speed of the barn and how much heat the obelisk could withstand. Good luck. ~Sarita

Answer: That's an amazingly creative suggestion. I'm not sure what would happen in that case. One thing I would just note is that heat will spoil the surface of granite, and we showed that in the film, where Roger started dressing the surface of granite by creating a fire over it, and you see those big flakes pop off. So that's one thing you might have to worry about. You might have to worry about the heat creating cracks through the granite as well. Cracks are feared by every granite worker. Even our 40-ton obelisk, as we were pulling it out of the quarry, a very hairline crack appeared and every worker noticed it. Quarry owner Hamada went into a panic, and so I don't think he'd want to do anything, including heat, and the differential between heat and cold that would cause the granite to crack.


Question: It might be easier to slide the obelisk down a concrete ramp to the anchor stone rather than drop it, using sand and creating guess work. That way, a short, lightweight wooden test obelisk could be used to work out the proper alignment between the obelisk and anchor stone. It might also be easier to create a raised hill behind the obelisk so that the A-frame would rest above the obelisk. The pullers would be on the down slope of this hill. What do you think? ~Geoff

Answer: Well, the last part of Geoff's suggestion sounds like the kind of thing we were trying in a very cursory way at the end of the project with the A-frame. And it's a good suggestion. I do think that the pullers have to be on a ramp that's high enough and the A-frame has to be high enough that they're getting lift out of the pole, something that we've talked about in other questions.


Question: Could not triangular wedges in alternation—small to large, with the small making room for the large—be used from the rear to lift the obelisk? ~Tim

Answer: This suggestion of Tim's is really a good and very insightful suggestion. When we were doing "This Old Pyramid," we found that wedges were one of the most useful tools of all. We actually recreated ancient Egyptian wedges, where the ancient Egyptians put handles on the wedges. And there's nothing better when you've gotten a little bit of lift out of a three-ton block than sticking a wedge in, and you can stick a wedge in underneath to secure your lift, the lift you've gotten out of it when you have a handle on it. And also, when we were moving the obelisk that weighed 40 tons, the obelisk was so heavy it was literally crushing the rather thin rollers that we were using. One of the ways that the workmen would get some lift out of the obelisk is to get the pressure up off the rollers to pound in wedges with sledgehammers. Wedges are just marvelous little things, and it's a very good suggestion. I think it's something they probably used in an ad hoc way, not to raise the obelisk to its final height or to a height where they could pull it upright, but wedges are very powerful little tools and very handy for a lot of lesser operations.


Question: Weren't slaves used in Egyptian times to move the obelisks? ~Matt

Answer: Well, were slaves used? It is the case there was slavery in ancient Egypt. Mostly slaves were domestic slaves, though, in households. The image we have from biblical stories and so on, of masses of slaves doing great labor projects, is probably not very accurate. Or the image we have, for example, from the film "The Ten Commandments," where the masses of the Hebrew slaves are raising the obelisks and doing other tasks is probably not accurate. There were specialists who were involved in these operations, but it is the case that prisoners of war could be assigned to working the granite in Aswan. And we do know that being sent to the granite was a punishment for various kinds of crimes. When it actually comes to raising the obelisk and pulling it, they probably would not have assigned that operation to slaves. Slaves would more have been involved in the quarries for shaping the granite, that very hard, pounding work. The real raising of the obelisk, when it was successfully quarried, after it had been successfully transported to the religious capital, and after it had been decorated with its hieroglyphs, was certainly not entrusted to people who were enslaved, it was probably entrusted to specialists and workers who had the same kind of spirit that our men showed from Aswan and Luxor.


Question: When are you going back to Egypt to try this again? ~Becky

Answer: Well, the plans now call for us being back in Egypt with another team down in Aswan in February and March for our second attempt of raising the obelisk, using ancient Egyptian tools, techniques and operations.


Question: Were the pyramids built at around the same time as the obelisk?

Answer: No. In fact, the gigantic pyramids that are most popular in most people's imaginations were a good 1,200, 1,300 years before the giant obelisk was raised. That shows you how long Egyptian civilization lasted. The pyramids belonged to the Old Kingdom, and the obelisks belong to the New Kingdom. In between Tutankeman and the pyramid of Kufu is more than 1,200 years.


Question: Did your experience trying to raise the obelisk, but failing, deliver you any ideas about how to do it better? ~Karl

Answer: Yes, it gave us many ideas about how to do it better. For one thing, if we had had a higher ramp which is to say a deeper turning pit, we would have gotten more lift from the tipping operation. That is to say that when we brought it over the edge of the ramp and tipped it down into the pit, and then slid it down that one side of the pit down to the turning groove, if our ramp had been higher on that side we would have gotten more lift out of the tipping operation. If the ramp had been higher on the other side, we would have gotten more lift out of the pulling. And if we'd used an A frame and the ramp had been higher on the other side it would have achieved more lift as well.


Question: Have any obelisks ever fallen over? ~Mary

Answer: Of a series of obelisks that once stood in the great Karnak temple, eight or nine must have fallen over or have been removed. Engelbach, the British engineer who wrote the major study of the unfinished obelisk at Aswan chided the ancient Egyptians for not having better foundations underneath the pedestal on which the obelisk sat and he blamed this for some of the obelisks having fallen over. In addition to obelisks of course being forcibly removed, like the one in front of the Luxor temple that was the mate to the one that still exists, a whole number of obelisks must of fallen over (about eight or nine). It's thought that one of the principle reasons they fell was earthquakes and not so much the bad foundations that Engelbach pointed to. We know that there's been at least one earthquake if not more that caused considerable damage in the Karnak temple, not just to the obelisks but to the giant pillars and architrazes.


Question: How was the bottom side of the obelisk (attached to the quarry) freed from the granite? ~Angela

Answer: The first question we know the answer to with a fair degree of probability because we have spines of—if not obelisks—long granite blocks that have been snapped off. The evidence from the quarries is that just as they channeled around the obelisk simply by pounding the granite to create these separation trenches or channels, so also they channeled in underneath. That must have been a really difficult operation. It was difficult enough for workers to sit in the trench pounding all day as narrow as it is (as you saw in the film), but to actually start pounding the face of the granite in underneath the obelisk to free it up must have been really difficult, but that seems to be what they did. When the two sides came close enough so that there's simply a spine of natural rock still attached, then they got great levers and probably levered from one side to snap the obelisk off that spine. The evidence is that there are spines that exist in the quarries where they've snapped off blocks after channeling in and under them from both sides.

Additional Q & As


We regret that Mark Lehner will not be able to respond to any additional questions; he has been called to Egypt to partake in a ceremony celebrating the completion of the conservation of the Great Sphinx on the Giza plateau.

Question: A smaller version of the obelisk had been raised by draining sand from underneath it. If there were stops in the movement of the obelisk, such as poles placed in layers through the sand, wouldn't that solve some of the problems in positioning the obelisk at the right point to meet the turning groove? ~Stacy

Answer: Stacy, you know that might. In all fairness, we didn't do a completely fair test of the sandbox method. The sandbox idea was first suggested by Engelbach, which as you know, weighs about 1168 tons. Engelbach's idea was not that it would be a box, but that it would be more like a funnel. And the bottom of the funnel would be the same size as the base of the obelisk itself so that the obelisk would have nowhere to go but down to that base. It wouldn't be able to get askew and stuck like it did in Roger's sandbox. The sides of the funnel would have been sloping and smooth, and I don't know that you would have needed stops. One of the main problems with Engelbach's sandbox or sand funnel is that the obelisk would get stuck even more than it did in Roger's sandbox. Of course then, you also have the problem, as Hamada pointed out, of men underneath the very heavy obelisk, 450 tons or whatever, taking the sand out. Our sandbox, anyway, in the film, was not a completely true test of what Engelbach was suggesting.


Question: Somebody recently proposed that the ancient Egyptians might have harnessed wind power to raise obelisks, using giant airfoils or kites. What do you think of that notion? ~Rosemary

Answer: I don't think it's very likely that the Egyptians harnessed wind power to raise obelisks. There's no suggestion in the historical or archaeological record that they created such contraptions or that they had the technology that would have been required for aerial lifting devices like that—something powerful enough to raise something as heavy as 300 or 400 tons.


Question: The same small canal that was built to float the stone to the site could be used to fill a large pool that is built higher as the water level rises. Animal skin bladders attached to the obelisk would gently float the stone upright. This method would "baptize" the stone in the holy water of the Nile as well as provide an aqueduct and reservoir for the workers and city. It's just a theory but it seems plausible. ~Dustin

Answer: It was probably beyond the Egyptian's hydraulic technology to have a series of locks that would raise the obelisk on water or just raise the water itself as high as they needed to get it to set it upright. Water lifting was always very limited in ancient Egypt from the known evidence. In the Old Kingdom pyramid age, water lifting was by means of shoulder poles with pots slung over the pole. By the 18th dynasty, by the New Kingdom, that is by the time of obelisks they could lift water with something called a chaduf which is a huge lever with a water receptacle on one end and a counter weight on the other. By that means, they lifted water from canals into fields so that they could be perennially flooded. But a system of locks like those that pass ships through great canals like the Panama canal or through the barrages in Egypt today were probably beyond the means of the ancient Egyptians. The water displacement would also have to be significant to float that obelisk and that's a factor in how they transported it on the boat but to do it with animal hides you'd have to have considerable displacement and it's very unlikely that they had those means so that they did it in that way.


Question: How did 400 tons of granite get on to the sled? ~Adam

Answer: This question reflects one of those operations that we tend to overlook when we launch into programs like building pyramids and raising obelisks, trying to replicate the ancient Egyptians' technology. It is indeed very difficult as we found out in "This Old Pyramid" to load a sled with a block of stone weighing many tons. The first time we tried this we rolled a stone over to the sled and then onto the sled but because it didn't land on the sled on dead center, it actually pushed the sled down into the sand and the sled was sticking up into the air and the stone of course was chewing the wood and splintering it. So how you load something like 400 tons or 456 tons, the weight of the heaviest obelisks that we know (other than the unfinished ones) onto the wooden sled is a very good question and it would be excellent to try to replicate that in our next shot at doing an Egyptian obelisk. One idea is you could tie the sled to one side of the obelisk, so that the obelisk is firmly lashed to the sled and then you could simply turn the whole assembly, sled and obelisk over very carefully and slowly by levering. But it must be a delicate operation to do that with so much weight and not to completely crush and splinter the sled.


Question: I'm just curious why an engineer was not included on the erection team. In 30 minutes I calculated all the forces and geometries necessary to raise the obelisk using sophomore level engineering skills. I estimate that with two wood structures (similar to the one used in the team's last ditch attempt) and a platform capable of supporting 1/4 the obelisks weight the obelisk could be lifted with between 150 and 300 men (assuming each could generate a pull equal to his weight). The Egyptians are famous for their fantastic engineering feats. Isn't it foolish to try to duplicate them without extensive knowledge and understanding of the field? ~Dan

Answer: Our purpose was not to test how we could raise an obelisk, or even how sophomore-level engineering math would help us raise an obelisk, but how the ancient Egyptians might have done it. Now it may be in fact that they had engineering and that because we didn't have engineers on the team we were ignorant of engineering skills and calculations that the ancient Egyptians might have done. In our next attempt we still want to stick to the task - not of completely replicating an ancient Egyptians obelisk project (cause we can't do that without replicating the entirety of Egyptian society) but we'd like to once again try out particular tools, techniques, and operations like loading a sled, like the tipping operation, like raising it up on its pedestal. But we will have, in addition to hands-on know how, an engineer on the project. So we will always be checking that the engineering skills we bring to bear when we're testing a particular tool, technique, or operation are not exceeding the bounds of what was available to the ancient Egyptians.


Question: Are there any ancient records at all, however obscure or fragmentary, on how obelisks were raised? ~Antonio

Answer: We have no manuals for obelisk erection in ancient Egypt. And there are no explicit scenes showing all the workmen that would have been required to raise an obelisk. What we do have are symbolic scenes of the king raising obelisks, because in a sense all these assembled people and all these workers were an expression of the king's personal body and might. So rather than showing all the workers doing it they show the king doing it and then of course it's just a symbolic representation; the king has a rope around the obelisk and he is ritually pulling it up. It looks very easy of course because the king in fact in such scenes is nearly as tall or taller than the obelisk that's shown. We have the Ansatasi Papyrus where one scribe chides another one about his level of skill in figuring out various kinds of operations, one of which is raising a colossal statue of the king (not an obelisk), but it makes some kind of an obscure reference to compartments containing sand which is why those who favor the sandbox method point to this. But aside from that Papyrus and the symbolic representations, what we're left with is the evidence on the ground in the way of the obelisk bases, the turning grooves, the evidence of the unfinished obelisk in the quarry and the evidence of the obelisk that is still standing in Egypt from ancient times.


Question: Is there any danger that when you manage to tip the obelisk into its upright position that it will topple over the other side from its momentum? ~Howard

Answer: Yes. One of the things we did not learn from our experiment is whether, even if we had successfully raised that obelisk, it would have stood. When we quarried the obelisk from the quarry using modern means, it was a bit banana shaped and one of the things that must be required for an obelisk to stand upright successfully with no attachment, simply standing on its own is that it be plum - that is that the vertical axis of the obelisk be straight and that the center of gravity in that direction be fairly centered within the body of the obelisk so that the weight isn't distributed to one side or the other. The other point is that the vertical axis of the obelisk has to be fairly perpendicular (I would imagine) to the base. Now the base of an obelisk is fairly small. If you have bumps and dimples in the base of the obelisk, it's going to make it unsteady. So all those conditions have to be met and the interesting question is, how did the ancient Egyptians quarrying the obelisk by means of channels that they were pounding out and then pounding it under and snapping it off at the spine, during all of that how did they achieve an obelisk that met all of these specifications.


Question: Did all the effort that went into building these massive monuments, like the pyramids and the obelisks, use up so many resources that it was detrimental to society? ~Jack

Answer: No, probably not. Certainly not with obelisks. By the time that obelisks were set up Egyptian society was populous enough and complex enough that raising the obelisk and quarrying it and transporting it and then raising it was really probably drawing on a large number of workers and resources but not so many that it was actually a drain on society. Of course the pyramids are different, especially the gigantic pyramids of the early part of the pyramid age, like the pyramid of Khufu at Giza. It's so huge that it must have drawn on resources nationwide. But an interesting possibility is rather than it draining resources, it actually had a nation-building effect for Egypt because it was a socializing process where people were brought from villages and communities throughout the land to the center where they saw this Cecil B. De Mille epic of hundreds, probably thousands of people working on this common project. And the evidence we have is that most of these laborers were seasonal and they worked for a certain stint, a certain period of time, maybe a month, and then they were spun off and replaced. Certainly there were skilled workers who were there permanently. But to come into such a labor project, to see instead of a few hundred people in your village thousands of people, to be part of a nationwide project, and then to be spun off again and return to your home - it must have been a very powerful socializing experience. And rather than it being detrimental to Egypt as a nation it actually may have helped build Egypt as a nation.


Question: It seems like working on a project like raising the obelisk or building a pyramid would be, while hard, very rewarding. Can you think of any projects today that would generate a similar feeling? ~Mary

Answer: You know, it's hard to think of projects today that would have a similar feeling, because society is totally different today than it was then. One of the most revealing operations in NOVA's ancient technology series, I think, is the Incan bridge-building operation, where the different families go out on the hillside and they pick grass and they weave their grass into segments of twine, and the different families combine their segments or lines of twine into rope, and on the day of building the bridges, the different families combine their rope into big cables that the different villages donate to the bridge, so that the bridge is really an intertwining or an interweaving of all the different families, households, and villages of that particular culture. There's some evidence that in ancient time, monuments were built the same way, and that pyramids in ancient Egypt were built by the turning out of labor from teams from different communities. So when they actually raise something like an obelisk, not only did you have the enthusiasm and the excitement that we had from teams from Luxor and a whole other team from Aswan chanting and celebrating, but you had teams from all over the country.


Question: What is the significance of the writing on the sides of the obelisk? ~Jen

Answer: Well, the writing varies. For the most part, it is the names and titles of the kings who raised the obelisk. Kings have five different names and various titles, and so that's by and large what would decorate the sides of the obelisk, as well as images of these kings giving offerings to the gods. As I said in an earlier question, the obelisk kind of raised the king's image up into the heavens, and being gilded with a combination of gold and silver, called Electrum, and that blazing in the sun, the king's image is literally combined with the images of the gods up there in the sky as well as the King's names, all aglow and glittering in Electrum. Hatshepsut, on her obelisk, added something else. She added the whole story of how she sent a team out to quarry the obelisk, transported, raised it at the temple of Amman; that's in addition to her story about how she went about raising these monuments.


Question: When you go back, how many methods will you try? And will you have the same amount of time and other constraints as you did last time? ~Gene

Answer: Well, we don't know for sure yet. We're still in the process of talking about that. It would be nice to try to do a little thinking so that our attempts to replicate an ancient Egyptian operation are not constrained by a modern film and production budget and time schedule, so that we at least deliver ourselves enough time to try one or two or three things as thoroughly as possible. One of the things we'd like to try in the future is not just different ways of raising the obelisk, we'd actually like to try to construct some kind of a boat that would test how they might have transported the obelisk down the river of Aswan.


Question: Did working on this experiment make you feel at all like you were able to get inside the minds of the ancient Egyptians? ~David

Answer: Well, that's a good question. I'm not sure we can get inside the minds of the ancient Egyptians, but let me tell you that whatever the thoughts may be of popularizing ancient technology by trying these replications of tools, techniques and operations, whatever shortcuts we might have to take for a modern, popular film production, nothing beats actually getting your hand on limestone blocks that way, two or three tons in building pyramids. We're actually getting face to face with the granite in raising an obelisk. That's one of the real values of these productions. In the film on obelisks, you saw a bunch of men down in that trench that actually defined and separated the unfinished obelisk. Until you actually get down in that trench with a dolerite pounder that weighs five kilograms, and you just for a few minutes swing it up and down with your arms, you can't appreciate what human labor really went into creating the monuments we see all over Egypt. We didn't get so much in the minds, but we saw the physical bedrock reality that they had to deal with—what motivated them, what gave them their spirit of accomplishment, what gave them the spirit that we saw in the men from Aswan and Luxor who worked for just three weeks on this project.


Question: What do you think accounts for people's fascination for all things Egyptian, especially the pyramids? ~Francesca

Answer: That's one of the most profound and difficult questions that anyone could be asking. I've worked with the monuments of ancient Egypt for 25 years now. I've spent years and years with the pyramids, I've lived in Egypt for 13 years straight before coming back to the United States, and still I don't know the complete answer to that question. There's something about ancient Egypt that has a pull on everyone in the modern world, not just Americans, the Europeans, Japanese, people worldwide. Various answers that I've tried out and worked to some extent, but aren't completely satisfying, include that the Egyptians were terrific designers. Something about the way they depicted the human being, pyramids, the temples, the obelisks, they were just great designers in an architectural sense.

I think also part of the attraction of ancient Egypt is that it's so very old. It's one of the earliest civilizations on our planet. And it's so very big. Everything they did in their monuments is big. The pyramids, the obelisks, the temples, the statues, and they were able to do these very big things because they had easy access to hard and soft stones, limestone, granite, other kinds of stone. And so they could build these colossal monuments in stone that survived the ages. Whereas other civilizations, like the Sumerians, built in mud brick, so we don't see their accomplishments as much.

Even in ancient times when the Greeks and Romans came to Egypt, they were astounded by these skyscrapers. It's as though you walked into Manhattan or something for ancient times. These days, as civilization races towards some kind of a future, we're not sure what, with such dramatic changes over such short periods—automobiles, skyscrapers, computers—I think we're filled with a lot of anxiety as to where we're going. I think when we look back to times over the horizon, when we feel a little bit lost in our own civilization, there's something very appealing about this lost ancient Egyptian civilization. Maybe we're looking for some kind of an answer for what we're going through now. It's hard to know. There's no quick easy answer to that question.


Question: Do you know if there are any obelisks in private collections? ~Jon

Answer: Well, if there are obelisks in private collections, I don't think they're as big as the biggest obelisk that Ramses II made. I don't think there are any obelisks hiding in private collections anywhere. Obelisks started out as very small monuments. Some of the oldest obelisks we know about are about knee-high. They're made out of limestone and they were put in front of the tombs of prominent households in the Old Kingdom, noblemen and so on. There could be small obelisks like that that could be in private collections.


Question: When did the society that was responsible for building the obelisk come to an end and what caused its downfall? ~Maura

Answer: The society that was responsible for building the obelisk was that of ancient Egypt. One easy way to think of this is that ancient Egyptian civilization lasted from 3000 B.C. to 30 B.C. That's about when Cleopatra IV died. However, the heyday of obelisks was in the 18th Dynasty, Egypt's age of greatest empire, and that came to an end about 1000 B.C. So the empire gradually dissolved. Other great powers were on the rise, the Assyrians and later the Persians and of course the Romans, and just exactly why it fell into demise is a complicated question. It's one of the kinds of questions that archaeologists write Ph.D. dissertations about.


Question: Do you think the Egyptians knew that the granite was extremely durable and chose it for that reason or was it just the material they had available to them? ~Marc

Answer: No, Marc, they certainly knew that granite was durable. As a matter of fact, granite probably had a very definite symbolic magical significance for them. Just why the different kinds of hard stone and soft stone that they built in were chosen for various monuments we aren't sure. There's enough to suggest, though, that there were magical reasons that we're missing, that granite had a definite magical purpose, as did alabaster, limestone, and the black granite and other hard stones like dolorite. So there was probably a symbolic reason for the stone that was chosen.


Question: Why was the obelisk seated into the turning groove at a 32-degree slope? Was it because the breaking system was not adequate? Solve this problem so that you can begin the raising from a 45-degree or greater start point. Now, how about some camels, oxen, horses, or elephants for some real power? Good Luck, and Aloha from Maui!!! ~Gregory

Answer: Yeah, OK, you�re right. We should have had the obelisk at more than 32 degrees. Next time we hope to have it more like 45 or even steeper. And we recognize that that's one of the problems. We'll try to correct it next time. Camels and elephants are out, because the ancient Egyptians didn't have camels and elephants. But they did have oxen, although probably in a delicate operation like moving the obelisk they would have not have entrusted it to oxen, they would have used manpower.


Question: It seems to me if you can not pull the thing up why do you not just push it up? I would tend to think that if you applied force to the other side of the obelisk it could possibly go up easier than if you pulled on it from the side you are. By the way I loved the sand trap ideas. ~Craig

Answer: I'm not sure what Craig means by pushing it up. It depends on how the obelisk comes in on the other side, the opposite side from the pullers. If it comes in lying down or nearly lying down like Martin Eisler had it, then you can't push it. It's a question of lifting. And even if it comes in at a 32-degree slope or so, the way we did the big obelisk in the film, it's still a question of lifting, not pushing. And the lifting, of course, has to be done with levers. So I'm not quite sure what Craig means by pushing.


Question: The ancient Egyptians were the most prolific stone movers in history. Is there any written history on how they may have moved massive stones over large distances? I remember seeing a show on TV where the stones were set in place by dragging them over a hole filled with sand, the sand was then removed through an access tunnel, and the stone was slowly set in place. The effort required (by any method) to move the Stonehenge stones over a 20-mile distance would have negated any method of raising them that would have been considered a gamble. Although your system worked, I believe the stones were set into place with some type of dampening agent to ensure that the stones were not damaged. What do you think? ~Lowell

Answer: Is there any written history on how they may have moved massive stones over long distances? The only depiction we have of moving a very massive weight any distance is from the Middle Kingdom, the 12th Dynasty: a tomb of a man named Jahuti Hotep. And there is a scene in his tomb, or there was a scene, it's very badly damaged now, of, I believe it's 172 men pulling a very heavy, large, colossal statue. The statue is estimated to have weighed 54 tons. So you have long lines of men going off in different ropes. That's the only scene depiction we have. We have text mentioning people who went to quarries to get stones for pyramids, stones for obelisks, stones for monuments, and in a number of cases we have specifications of the boats that were built. I think there's a man named Aneni who went to fetch an obelisk for Thutmoses I, and he records, I believe, the construction of a barge to transport it, that's about 3/4 the length and width, that is the width is about 3/4 the length. And so we have inscriptions like that, but nothing real detailed.


Question: What is the estimated time (months, years) that it took the ancient Egyptians to erect an obelisk (e.g., the largest one), from the first chip in the quarry to the final touches of the upright piece? ~Jon

Answer: Hatsupsut records that it took her seven months to build her obelisk in Karnak. I believe that would be the pair of which one is still standing. And if I recall correctly that is the total time she says it took to quarry, remove, transport and raise the obelisk, seven months.


Question: Rather than using a ramp composed of two straight sections, why not use a parabolic curve in the second part of the ramp? The parabolic part might help move the obelisk around since the contact surface is reduced (though you'd need a much stronger sled) and as the drop rate could be controlled, it gives a better chance for the obelisk not to break upon landing on the base. Furthermore, that might help position the obelisk closer to vertical—then it would be easier to pull to its completely vertical position. What do you think? ~Steven

Answer: A parabolic curve, indeed, would reduce the amount of contact between the obelisk and the ramp down to the pedestal. But it probably would have been a bit difficult to construct that parabolic curve out of mud brick, for example, or stone rubble, or mud brick compartments filled with stone rubble and debris, or filled with sand. And it's unlikely that they would have built in stone simply to create a parabolic curve, since most of the materials they used for secondary constructions, like ramps and embankments and so on, were mud brick and debris.


Question: How did the Egyptians make the giant mounts of dirt? ~John

Answer: Well, they probably transported most of the material simply with men carrying baskets, the way workers carry dirt on excavations today. It may seem astounding that they could have carried enough debris, sand or dirt, for making these huge embankments and ramps and so on. But in fact, that's what they did. And they did it on a regular basis, not only for raising large monuments, but for creating the dikes and canals on which Egypt's irrigation, agriculture depended. So they were very used to moving dirt, which they did for their basic infrastructure all the time.


Question: My husband and I sail a 42-foot sloop. On our mainsail, we have a multiple-block system that allows me (at 130 lbs.) to adjust our mainsail with one hand. The Egyptians were accomplished boaters. Is there any evidence to suggest that the Egyptians may have had similar technology? If so, could you use it with your A-frame structure to lift the obelisk? ~Heather

Answer: I believe it's very true that there should be important clues in their nautical technology. I, myself, am not a boat person. So I'm not totally conversant with a multiple block system, which is what Heather is suggesting. But the A-frame, for example, that's been suggested as a gaining, as allowing the Egyptians to gain a mechanical advantage in lifting the obelisk, the A-frame and the way it operates may have been very similar to the way we see masts operating on early boats, which are very narrow kinds of A-frames, in fact. It's not a single piece. It seems to be two pieces, with cross pieces like a very narrow A-frame. And I think the end plate is a very good one, that the way they raised these heavy masts and other aspects of nautical technology probably holds clues as to how they did heavy weights like obelisks. In our next production, we hope to be having not only an engineer, but also an ancient boat specialist on the scene. Not just to try various ways of transporting the obelisk on a boat, but maybe also to deliver us insight into lifting operations, as Heather suggests, on land, for raising these heavy weights.


Question: Weren't a lot of obelisks put up two at a time? If so, then couldn't a lowering platform for one obelisk be used as a raised level workman platform for the second obelisk? Efficient use of mud-brick with no need for A-frames. ~Dennis

Answer: Weren't a lot of obelisks put up two at a time? Well, whatever ramps and embankments they used for raising one obelisk probably were used for two when the obelisks were put up in pairs. And quite often they were. In our operation we had a great pit between two ramp sections. And the pit—of course at the bottom of the pit, you had the base of the obelisk. And the pit was for the tipping and then raising operation. They would have had to move the pit, obviously, or else had two pits, but that was no problem. They could have filled them in. So yes, indeed, they could have built one great ramp embankment system, sloping up from both sides, or to either side of the temple pylon, with this great entrance. And when they wanted to, they probably would have had to have raised the obelisk then in sequence, doing the farthest one first, putting it down into its pit, if that's the method they used. And then there it stood, you see. And then the other one from the direction that the obelisks were being brought in, would have been brought in and set up. Obviously, you couldn't have one obelisk standing and being in the way of the other one. That would imply that if they did use one ramp embankment system, it also suggests something about the order in which the two obelisks were put up.


Question: I have a book called "Babylon Mystery Religion—Ancient and Modern" by Ralph Woodrow that includes a chapter on obelisks. On chapter five, page 34, the obelisk at St. Peter's Square at the Vatican is depicted in an old drawing being raised inside an elaborate giant scaffold-like structure surrounding the obelisk lifting with ropes from the top. I can't tell, but pulleys, which certainly increase the mechanical advantage, may be at the top of the structure. Would this technology have been available to the Ancient Egyptians? ~Chris

Answer: There is some evidence that the Egyptians had a pulley-like device as early as the Middle Kingdom. Whether these pulleys would have been useful in moving heavy weights like obelisks is doubtful, because as Roger Hopkins points out, a pulley is a wheel, and the wheel is only as good as its axle. And until you have iron and steel you just can't get a strong enough axle to have a pulley taking and distributing weight on the scale of 400 and 300 tons, which is what the largest obelisks weigh.


Question: Could the structures shown near the obelisk have been used to erect them? A drum connected to the nearby structure could be used to wind up a rope, thereby lifting the obelisk into position. This would require the technology of turning the drug (or roller) as the method of propulsion (like a come-along) instead of pulling the object with ropes and using the rollers only as a way to reduce friction. Did they have this technology? ~Ed

Answer: While it's been suggested that the structures near the obelisk might have been used to erect them, some people have suggested in fact that the temple pylons, the great front wall of the temple that stood right behind the obelisk, or in front of which the obelisks were raised, that that pylon could have been used as a lifting platform for ropes and men. The problem is that the turning grooves aren't on that side of the pedestals of the obelisks. The turning grooves are usually perpendicular to the front of the temple, so that the obelisks were brought in alongside the temple, front temple wall. It's probable then that none of the giant statues or the front wall of the temple was very useful in raising the obelisk—that temporary banks, embankments and ramps would have been used.


Question: Do you believe the ancient Egyptians saw the obelisks as holy? Also, as I watched your show someone said that the ancient cities were built to last through eternity. What was the logic behind that question? Did the Egyptians actually believe their empire would last forever? ~James

Answer: Well, did the Egyptians believe their empire would last forever? Yes, they did. They expressed that wish again and again. They believed their empire, their temples, the great Karnak temple and these obelisks would stand forever. They had two words for "forever." One was djet, which means permanently forever. And the other is Neheh, which means continuously forever, for all the cycles of time. In other words, forever and ever. Now I mean somebody who might have been a skeptical person in ancient Egypt might have wondered if in fact that was the case. And we do have some skeptical literature from the ancient Egyptians themselves. Once their civilization had lasted from 2,000 years or more, they began looking back and seeing some of the earlier structures that their ancestors had built already in ruins. So they weren't dummies. They could see that things fell apart. It's an interesting question though, because we could ask it about ourselves. Has any of us thought whether the World Trade Towers in New York City are supposed to last forever? What is the planned obsolescence of a skyscraper? What is the planned obsolescence of say, Manhattan or downtown Los Angeles? Do we think these things will last forever?


Question: Make an A-frame, put the crossbar 3/4 of the way down. Then attach ropes to the obelisk (at the top) and to the A frame (at the top). Now attach more ropes to the crossbar, have your volunteer crew pull these. This will increase your leverage and multiply your pulling power 3 times. This should be more than enough to right the obelisk. (name withheld by request)

Answer: Well, we certainly believe that there are many more possibilities with either one or multiple A-frames, and that we can in fact, increase our leverage and gain a greater mechanical advantage. And that's one of the things that we're going to be trying when we go back to continue to try to raise the obelisk.


Question: Could the wooden support that the obelisk rests on, as it is dragged to its resting point, have wheels at its base (somewhat like a dolly), so when it is in the tilting slot or groove, it would be easier to put upright (like our arm and elbow), then when it's in position, burn the support dolly at the same time making settling adjustments. (name withheld by request)

Answer: Well, here we have a suggestion about wheels again, that maybe it could have been on some kind of platform and then it was wheeled into place. Once again we come back to the notion, as we were talking about with pulleys. A pulley is a wheel, and it's like all wheels, the wheel is only as good as its axle. And in order to carry really heavy loads, wheel systems like great semi-trucks and so on, have very powerful axles, to say nothing of their engines, and so on. But the axles and the frame of a flatbed truck, a mach truck or a semi with very heavy weight—they're very powerful. Of course it's made out of hard iron and steel. Without iron and steel it's hard, I believe, to make a wheel system that will carry a heavy load. That's not to say the Egyptians didn't have the wheel. They certainly did. It's just that it was not adaptable to carrying very heavy loads, because they did not have that, they were not that fluent in the use of iron, and certainly they did not have steel. Iron really comes in in a big way about the 26th Dynasty. That's the earliest that it's there in a big way. We have examples of iron before that. So iron is not really there, prevalent much before say 525 B.C.


Question: I think if they used a column or wheel of significant weight to roll down a ramp a precise distance and speed with said wheel or column winding up pulling ropes as it travels. I think diameter of wheel plus weight of wheel plus angle of said ramp, plus using A-frame would lift obelisk. ~Marc

Answer: Marc is talking about a wheel again, but I think it's a slightly different suggestion. It's not so much a suggestion of using a wheel with an axle. But another idea is to make heavy stones themselves wheels of sorts by putting wood pieces against the sides of the stone block for example, the wood pieces being rounded so that when you put four of them around four sides of a block, you actually created a wheel out of the block, and then you can roll it along. I mean that's more feasible with stone blocks for pyramids, but probably not feasible at all for a long tapering obelisk. I'm not sure if that's what Marc is suggesting, but it reminds me of that suggestion at any rate.


Question: I would like to throw in my two cents about how to float the obelisk. Did you forget that the Nile is only recently the victim of human flood control? Ancient solution: build a drydock on the flood plain. Tie a barge off atop the drydock. Load the obelisk during the dry season. Wait for the floods—float away. Tie up at a similar facility down river. Wait for waters to recede. Unload the obelisk. Stone/rock piers aside the drydock would help in on/off loading. ~Saxon

Answer: Well, we're back to that suggestion we were suggesting earlier about building a drydock on the flood plain. And I think it's a very good suggestion. And it's something that it would be nice for us to try. In order to try this, since the Nile basin of which I spoke, the flood basin that held the water for six to eight weeks out of every year when the Nile flooded its banks, these basins no longer flood. The dikes and levees of course are no longer in repair because just the high dams, the Egyptian Nile Valley no longer floods. So in order to test this idea, which I think is a good one, we'll have to create our own drydock in our own little basin and somehow try to have it flooded. It could be a whole operation involving pumps and so on. We'll see what we can do when we get back to Aswan.


Question: On the show, the obelisk is left unraised. Was the obelisk ever raised? The show is several years old; have there been any new discoveries that show how the ancients raised a 400-ton obelisk? (name withheld by request)

Answer: Will the obelisk ever be raised? I don't know that there have been any new discoveries about how they raised obelisks. The interesting thing is that most of the theories were already on hand before we did our show. It's very rare, if ever, that people have done the kind of experimental archaeology where you actually go out and pull these heavy weights and raise them and so on. I'd like to emphasize again that in the shows, this whole pyramid and obelisks that we did with the ancient technology series with NOVA we were not doing 100 percent replications of ancient pyramid building or obelisk raising. We were trying specific tools, techniques and operations to gain greater insight and I think we did. I don't think we can actually make much progress on new theories without that kind of experimentation. Nobody has ever tried to raise an ancient Egyptian obelisk using the ancient tools, techniques and operations before. And I know that they haven't done it since, or at least as far as I know no one has. That may be one of the reasons why there have been no new insights in the few years since we did the obelisk film. Our hope is that we'll come up with some new insights and possibly even some new theories when we go back to Aswan and deliver it another try.

Secrets of Lost Empires Home | Stonehenge | Inca | Obelisk | Colosseum | Teacher's Guide


Editor's Picks | Previous Sites | Join Us/E-mail | TV/Web Schedule
About NOVA | Teachers | Site Map | Shop | Jobs | Search | To print
PBS Online | NOVA Online | WGBH

© | Updated November 2000





300-620 test | 300-620 Questions and Answers | 300-620 action | 300-620 thinking | 300-620 learning | 300-620 PDF Download | 300-620 exam contents | 300-620 candidate | 300-620 certification | 300-620 outline |


Killexams exam Simulator
Killexams Questions and Answers
Killexams Exams List
Search Exams
300-620 exam dump and training guide direct download
Training Exams List