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Killexams : Google Advertising information hunger - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/Adwords-Search Search results Killexams : Google Advertising information hunger - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/Adwords-Search https://killexams.com/exam_list/Google Killexams : Ending hunger could be the first step toward ending the opioid epidemic © Provided by The Hill

The Biden administration recently introduced a plan to end hunger and Boost nutrition in the United States by 2030 via a range of initiatives, including working with the private sector to enhance access to healthy food, making the child tax credit permanent, expanding the food stamps program and investing in nutrition research. This comes at a time when 13.5 million U.S. households are considered food insecure, meaning they have difficulty providing enough food for their family. 

Reducing family food insecurity and child hunger is clearly not only a worthy goal in its own right but could also have profound effects on one of the largest preventable threats to public health that the United States faces — the opioid crisis. 

Research and practical experience over the past few years have demonstrated that children who grow up in households where they face adverse experiences or financial insecurity are at greater risk of developing a range of physical and mental health problems, including substance use and addiction as they get older.   

Children born into poverty or financially unstable households are more likely to have caregivers who are stressed, have fewer social supports, and struggle with mental health disorders and addiction. Caregiver challenges often translate into inadequate prenatal and postnatal nourishment that, in turn, can adversely affect neurodevelopment, even in infancy, leading to long-term impairments. These children also have greater odds of experiencing inappropriate or adverse parenting practices that can further disadvantage developing children and increase their risk for problems with substance use.   

Poverty can physically alter a child’s brain, resulting in significant socioeconomic disparities in brain development that produce deficits in learning, memory, attention, language, emotions and self-regulation of behavior. With all the pressure we’re putting on schools now — to teach basic academic subjects and social-emotional skills and to intervene with children struggling with mental health concerns — investments in families can ease the burden on schools while improving children’s ability to meet developmental milestones and succeed in life.   

Although low-income status and poverty do not invariably lead to poor parenting or parental substance use, the enormous strain that food and income insecurity puts on families, coupled with reduced access to quality and affordable health care, can increase the likelihood of mental health disorders and addiction and intergenerational transmission of these problems. That reality means interventions to reduce adverse childhood experiences and family stressors are critical targets for tackling many of the downstream problems that currently plague our nation, including skyrocketing rates of drug overdose and the spiraling youth mental health crisis

These problems are in dire need of attention and resources. But, too often, we respond by placing short-term band-aids on the most direct and salient causes rather than tackling the root sources of the problems that plague families and prevent many young people from leading successful and fulfilling lives.  

The prevailing approach to substance use prevention has been to focus on middle and high school lessons in health courses or school assembly presentations. It has become increasingly clear, however, that if we are to turn the tide on what may seem to be an intractable problem — partially due to the limited effectiveness of these strategies — we need a broader approach that includes a focus on the early years of child development. Not only would this help to disrupt the intergenerational cycle of addiction but, along the way, it would reduce youth mental illness, Boost students’ academic performance and social-emotional functioning and ease the significant burden on families and schools.  

While implementing policies to reduce child hunger and secure families’ income, food and housing stability might seem far removed from our current opioid crisis, child development research demonstrates that even small, powerful interventions in early childhood — such as a monthly financial supplement to low-income mothers of newborns — can profoundly shift the life course of a developing child. The latest child tax credit is credited with lifting 5.3 million people out of poverty, including 2.9 million children, in 2021 alone. Still, a latest report found that while the share of federal spending on children climbed to a historic 12 percent of the U.S. budget in FY 2022, producing remarkable declines in child poverty and hunger, the share of spending on early childhood declined by 10 percent. 

Policies that help to reduce hunger, poverty and childhood adversity set the stage for healthy, well-functioning families. Secure and stable families are the key to protecting youth from substance use and other high-risk behaviors, promoting healthy development, and allowing children to cultivate a sense of meaning, purpose and hope for the future. 

Our nation is finally on a good trajectory to supporting family stability and children’s well-being. Let’s not become complacent or short-sighted and lose this critical opportunity to make smart investments in our children and the future. 

Linda Richter, Ph.D. is vice president of prevention research and analysis at Partnership to End Addiction in New York. Diana Fishbein, Ph.D. is a senior scientist in the Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, president of the National Prevention Science Coalition to Boost Lives, and part-time research faculty at The Pennsylvania State University. 

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Killexams : Losing 25,000 to Hunger Every Day

During the past two decades, population growth, improvement in incomes and diversification of diets have steadily increased the demand for food. Prior to 2000, food prices were in decline, largely through record harvests. At the same time, however, public and private investment in agriculture, especially in the production of staple food, decreased, which led to stagnant or declining crop yields in most developing countries.1 Rapid urbanization has led to the conversion of farmland to non-agricultural uses, and low food prices have encouraged farmers to shift to alternative food and non-food crops. Long-term unstable land use has also caused land degradation, soil erosion, nutrient depletion, water scarcity and disruption of biological cycles. Food prices began to rise in 2004 and production increased but more slowly than demand.2 The past few years saw a steep rise. In 2005, extreme weather events in major food-producing countries caused world cereal production to fall by 2.1 per cent in 2006.3 In 2007, rapid increases in oil prices not only increased fertilizer and food production costs but also provided a climate favourable to expansion of coarse grains and oil crops for biofuels. Many countries began to impose export restrictions on commodities to control prices; others purchased grains at any price to maintain domestic food supplies or considered taxes on imported food. This has led to panic and instability in international grain markets, attracted speculative investments and contributed to a surge in food prices.

While some food prices appear to be stabilizing, most are expected to remain high. Good harvests anticipated in key grain-producing countries and indications that some major producers will relax export restrictions have calmed grain markets. International prices have come down from their latest peaks. However, over the medium-to-long term, supply and demand dynamics, high fuel prices, global threats, such as climate change,4 water stress and scarcity, and degradation of natural resources are expected to keep food prices well above their 2004 levels.

A triple challenge
The current global food crisis is a huge challenge. It will require sustained political commitment at the highest levels for many years if we are to deal with it successfully and prevent further mass pauperization and the rolling back of development gains painfully won. It cannot be seen in isolation. Indeed, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has identified the global food crisis, the Millennium Development Goals and climate change as the fundamental triple challenge for the world over the next few years.

At stake is whether the international community is capable of working together to genuinely promote sustainable development, given a rapidly growing population and increasing scarcities of key land, water and energy resources. In response to this food crisis, the United Nations established a High-Level Task Force on the Global Food Security Crisis, under the leadership of Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon. It brought together the Heads of the United Nations specialized agencies, funds and programmes, the Bretton Woods institutions and relevant parts of the United Nations Secretariat.5 The aim of the task force was to create a plan of action in response to the crisis and coordinate its implementation. The result is the Comprehensive Framework for Action, which proposes ways and means to respond to threats and opportunities resulting from high food prices; create policy changes to avoid future food crises; and contribute to national, regional and international food and nutrition security.

While the Comprehensive Framework for Action is the agreed product of the high-level task force, other parts of the UN system, international experts, the Red Cross/Red Crescent Movement, private-sector companies and non-governmental organizations have been widely consulted. The Comprehensive Framework for Action does not claim to offer a magic solution to all the problems of the global food crisis, let alone to the triple challenge. However, I believe it does set out a programme of coordinated actions and outcomes that can make a real difference over time, in an area fundamental to all human life, that is, food and nutrition security.

What the problem is
Food prices began rising in 2004, with a particularly steep increase in 2006. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations forecasts that the world will spend $1,035 billion on food imports in 2008, about $215 billion more than in 2007.6 This will severely strain the budgets of Low-Income Food-Deficit Countries whose food bills will soar by more than 40 per cent in 2008. This may also cause inflation, disrupt the balance of payments and increase debt for many low-income countries.

The dramatic rise in global food prices over the past twelve months, coupled with diminishing food stocks and escalating fuel costs, has gravely jeopardized global food and nutrition security, and has re-emphasized the critical actions needed to realize the right to adequate food. Hunger and under-nutrition are the greatest threats to public health, killing more people than HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis combined. Each day, 25,000 people, including more than 10,000 children, die from hunger and related causes. Some 854 million people worldwide are estimated to be undernourished, and high food prices may drive another 100 million into poverty and hunger. The risks are particularly acute among those who must spend at least 60 per cent of their income on food: the urban poor and displaced populations, the rural landless, pastoralists and the majority of smallholder farmers.

Urbanization is a crucial dynamic for food supply. The urban poor, approximately 1.2 billion people, are highly vulnerable to rising food and energy prices. Even under normal price conditions, they often cannot produce or purchase enough food or energy for household use. Urbanization is further changing both consumption and production patterns through the conversion of agricultural lands and competing demands for water and energy. Lastly, urban food habits change and become more vulnerable to outside shocks when a dependence on imported staples occurs at the expense of locally produced food.

Smallholder farmers and their families represent some 2 billion people, about one third of the global population. An estimated 85 per cent of farms (or 450 million) worldwide measure less than 2 hectares, and the average farm size is shrinking. The majority of smallholder farmers and landless farm workers live on less than $2 per day and buy more food than they produce. Many of them are women who face disadvantages in access to land tenure, agricultural inputs, extension services, markets and financing. The capacity of smallholder farms to grow more food is limited when farmers cannot afford quality seed, fertilizer, veterinary drugs or services. Expanding agriculture onto less suitable lands degrades the ecosystems, with severe consequences for surrounding communities.

The Comprehensive Framework for Action aims to be a catalyst by providing governments, international and regional organizations, as well as civil society groups, with a menu of policies and actions to address the crisis. It recognizes that any response must consider the specific needs, capacities and circumstances of particular countries or regions. While many actions may require external assistance, the policies and actions described in the framework are intended, above all, to Boost country capacity and resilience to absorb future shocks. The key to achieving the outcomes set in the framework will be close partnerships between national governments, the high-level task force, civil society and private-sector organizations and donors.

Undernutrition and chronic disease:
A dual threat
The immediate consequences of escalating food prices highlight the vulnerability of households, governments and the international system to food and nutrition insecurity.7 The risks may be more pronounced in urban areas where people are dependent on markets for food. However, 75 per cent of the world's poor reside in rural areas and most must buy as well as produce food. It is already evident that many smallholder farmers, who constitute the large majority of agricultural producers, cannot benefit from high food prices. They cannot boost production because they lack access to financing, agricultural inputs, such as seed, fertilizer, power and markets. As a result they, too, are struggling to feed their families.

Inadequate means to assist vulnerable populations may have irreversible impacts on human development, particularly for women and children. Over 80 per cent of the world's population presently lacks access to social protection systems of any form. The most vulnerable must resort to limited, often harmful, coping mechanisms, such as eating fewer and less nutritious meals, taking children out of school, selling livestock and other assets, or borrowing money to feed their families. Low nutritional intake may increase malnutrition levels for generations to come, worsening the health status of populations and reducing resilience to disease and shocks. Thus, the food crisis is a dual threat to health: under-nutrition, mainly in young children, and chronic diseases (heart disease, diabetes and some cancers) strongly linked to poor diet.

Groups that face social exclusion are likely to be more vulnerable to the surge in food prices. These groups include indigenous communities, ethnic minorities, persons with disabilities, displaced populations, stateless people and migrants. In particular, many refugees and internally displaced persons depend on food assistance for survival and do not have access to land for farming or employment opportunities. In effect, the global food crisis endangers millions of the world's most vulnerable and threatens to reverse critical gains made towards reducing poverty and hunger to meet the Millennium Development Goals.8

Governments react
In the face of high food prices, several governments are considering trade and taxation measures that will complement or substitute domestic social safety nets. However, policies such as direct price controls, export restrictions, generalized subsidies or wage increases can further distort markets, be ineffective over time or be fiscally unsustainable. Price controls may initially stabilize food price expectations, but in the longer term act as disincentives to food producers and retailers. Price controls may be difficult to enforce and may lead to food shortages and increased black market activity. Similarly, export restrictions can increase price instability and tighten food supplies in international markets, and dissuade farmers from investments to boost productivity.

High food prices are affecting inflation rates in many countries and the balance of payments of net food-importing countries. About 44 per cent of total inflation in 2007 could be attributed to food price hikes at the year's end. This is a significant threat to overall growth rates for many countries that have made hard-won gains in controlling inflation. Inflation further reduces standards of living, particularly for poor populations, and undermines growth and development. A domino effect
Ever-rising food prices bring the threat of unrest and political instability. This threat is particularly acute in countries in conflict or post-conflict situations, where political and social institutions are fragile and less able to calm social panic. Of particular concern are countries in delicate political transitions, or with organized groups ready to harness popular frustrations into a challenge against government authority. Others to watch include those already suffering from grave humanitarian situations or confronted with economic sanctions or embargoes. It should be noted, however, that the vast majority of the world's hungry continues to suffer in silence. In placating the dangerous, there is the risk that the peaceable hungry are overlooked.

The current food crisis also threatens the larger international food market. The worldwide reduction of national grain stocks in latest years stemmed from a confidence that prices would remain relatively stable and that global trade would permit countries to acquire grain quickly and easily through international markets. The latest combination of latest export restrictions and severed access to existing food stocks, compounded by subsidy and biofuel policies of major exporters, is undermining that confidence. This could threaten progress towards a fair and equitable international trade system, if countries refocus on national food self-sufficiency based solely on domestic production and stocks -- policies, which in the past had undermined agricultural growth and have had limited success in meeting national food security.

What the crisis can teach us
Escalating food prices can benefit smallholder farmers if appropriate assistance is available. Interventions should ensure access to inputs, i.e. seed and fertilizer, rehabilitation of infrastructure and methods to decrease post-harvest losses. This will boost crop yields, Boost rural household welfare and local food supply. Such measures must be complemented with significantly higher investments in agricultural research and infrastructure, as well as environmentally sustainable practices to sustain the productivity of smallholder farmers.9

Policies and programmes that address constraints faced by smallholder farmers will encourage public and private agricultural and rural development investments in many low-income food-deficit countries. Consistently applied, these measures, along with improved access to financing facilities and markets, will greatly increase agriculture's contribution to economic growth and poverty reduction.

The current situation offers a critical opportunity for more focused attention to assessment of needs, early warning, contingency planning, risk management, and participatory and accountability practices. These can pre-empt and lessen risks associated with volatilities in the food market. International food assistance programmes address the needs of vulnerable populations and prevent harmful coping mechanisms; however, they cannot reach all of the malnourished and hungry. Comprehensive social protection systems that progressively achieve universal coverage of vulnerable groups are critical to building social resilience and enhancing social capacity to absorb shocks. Protection programmes for the elderly, the disabled, children, refugees and displaced persons should provide linkages to other basic social services. In addition, expansion or revision of nutrition, water and sanitation, including health programmes, are crucial in realizing the right to adequate food and in promoting sustainable nutrition practices.10

There is now a clear opportunity for international leadership in adopting a renewed strategy on agricultural trade and reassessing the most effective ways to tackle food market instabilities. High prices could lead to responsible agricultural trade policies that benefit low-income countries in developing a viable domestic commercial farming sector. Strong commitments to reform agricultural subsidy programmes and market access would help remove a major barrier to progress in the World Trade Organization Doha Round trade talks*, while still implementing the existing agreed provisions to protect consumers in low-income, food-importing countries.11 In addition, provisions to complement efforts to increase investment in smallholder agriculture in developing countries would support national efforts at improving food production.

Meanwhile, consensus is required to ensure greater complementarity between food production priorities, biofuel development and environmental management. This includes reassessment of current subsidy policies for biofuels. Moreover, measures should be considered to rebuild confidence in international and regional trading systems, including assessments of whether to (re)build well-managed global and regional grain stocks, or make greater use of financial market instruments that could reduce and protect countries from volatility in food markets.

The Comprehensive Framework for Action:
Improving on what we have
The framework presents two sets of outcomes to respond to the global food crisis.12 Both require urgent attention. The first set focuses on meeting the immediate needs of vulnerable populations, and the second aims to contribute to global food and nutrition security. These actions are neither exhaustive nor exclusive. They are intended to guide assessments and strategies developed at the country level and support international coordination efforts.

To be most effective, these actions must be taken simultaneously at the local, national, regional and international levels. They should be adapted to national and local conditions, taking into account the global climate change and poverty reduction initiatives. Actions include coordinated efforts by key stakeholders, particularly national governments, civil society and the private sector.

Action 1. Meeting immediate needs of vulnerable populations.
The Comprehensive Framework for Action proposes four basic outcomes critical to addressing the threats of high food prices on vulnerable populations and developing countries. These outcomes will contribute towards the needs of those already impoverished and minimize the number of new families falling into food insecurity when their incomes can no longer buy sufficient food. They aim to meet current and future demands for food availability. The outcomes would also ensure that:

a) Emergency food assistance, nutrition interventions and safety nets are improved and made more accessible;

b) Food production by smallholder farmers is boosted;

c) Trade and tax policies are adjusted; and

d) Macroeconomic implications are managed.

Thus, the outcomes embrace the "spectrum" of actions needed to Boost access and availability of food.

The Comprehensive Framework for Action emphasizes building upon available resources and capacities, scaling up activities that are already underway and improving current interventions, rather than launching new ones. The emphasis is on actions that can produce immediate results; however, the duration of activities will vary depending on factors such as lifting export bans, the speed and scale of responses, and adjustments in food prices.

Action 2. Building longer-term resilience and contributing to global food and nutrition security.
The Comprehensive Framework for Action proposes four basic outcomes to address opportunities arising from the spike in food prices, to build resilience, contribute to food and nutrition security, and address the underlying factors driving the food price crisis. The outcomes propose that:

a) Social protection systems are expanded;

b) The food production growth of smallholder farmers is sustained;

c) International food markets are improved; and

d) An international biofuel consensus is developed.

These outcomes recognize that immediate needs must be complemented and supplemented by longer-term actions that will contribute to a greater degree of self-sufficiency of vulnerable populations, farmers and countries. Achieving these outcomes will allow people and countries to better absorb new food and fuel price shocks, while working to minimize the occurrence of such shocks. These outcomes also directly contribute to achieving the Millennium Development Goal to reduce hunger,13 and focus on actions to support smallholder farmers, in particular, vulnerable women and the rural and urban poor. Many actions, nevertheless, support infrastructure and other public goods, such that larger commercial farmers will benefit as well. This is intended to encourage greater and more sustained private-sector investment into smallholder farms.

The outcomes also reflect the need for sustainable agriculture in order to avoid further environmental damage. Governments, civil society and the private sector must agree with the outcomes and move ahead. They also require concerted, long-term commitments from all stakeholders, as well as actions to be flexible and adjust as conditions evolve.

Early warning
Underpinning the two sets of outcomes is the need to ensure that stronger assessment, monitoring and surveillance systems are in place. More reliable and consistent information will Boost preparedness for new shocks and ensure that actions taken by governments and the international community are indeed minimizing risks and mitigating the effects of high food prices on the most vulnerable.

Much of the ongoing work at the country and global levels can be expanded. Monitoring and information systems are being strengthened and harmonized to capture developments in food access, availability and utilization, and to identify the magnitude of needs among different livelihood groups. More resources are required to strengthen monitoring of communities, households, markets, as well as cross-border trade, to enable effective management of the crisis.

Significant attention is given to countries at high risk, which are likely to see the biggest changes in their food security. These are countries which (a) exhibit high levels of food and nutrition insecurity and poverty and low capacity of emergency response, (b) have high food and fuel imports compared to total imports, exports and international foreign reserves, (c) have relatively large urban populations, (d) have already experienced high inflationary pressures and a politically unstable environment, (e) have populations spending a significant proportion of household income on food and are vulnerable to food insecurity, and (f) are increasingly exposed to extreme climate change.

How to achieve the Comprehensive Framework for Action?
National governments bear ultimate responsibility and therefore are at the centre of responding to the food crisis. They are joined by private entities, farmer/producer organizations, civil society organizations, regional political and financial bodies, donor agencies, as well as United Nations and Bretton Woods institutions. These stakeholders have already begun to address the most urgent manifestations of the crisis. They have reallocated resources in existing programmes and mobilized new funds to ensure delivery of food assistance, nutritional care and support, including prevention and management of under-nutrition and support of social safety nets for the most vulnerable. They are supplying seeds, fertilizers and other basic inputs to small farmers.

Government leadership will be essential to driving country-level response. To permit well-informed, targeted and efficient responses, international agencies are working with national counterparts to implement national assessments of food security. The Food and Agricultural Organization, the International Fund for Agricultural Development, the World Food Programme and the World Bank have completed common assessments in 22 countries, while agency-specific assessments have been undertaken in more than 60 countries. Using existing Global Nutrition Databases, the World Health Organization has also assessed country-nutrition vulnerabilities. These assessments reveal significant increases in current operating costs and the additional financial and technical support required to respond to the crisis in both rural and urban areas. Based on such assessments, efforts are underway to focus interventions by the high-level task force in countries.

During the next six months, the crisis is expected to deepen. The high-level task force will pay concerted attention to several global priorities: responding to needs for food assistance and broader social protection; distributing inputs and other agricultural support; influencing policies; advocacy; and responding to requests for support.
For a global partnership for food
To support government leadership, the high-level task force considers a broad and inclusive partnership to be central to the Comprehensive Framework for Action and a key factor in achieving food and nutrition security in countries. Therefore, the task force members strongly commit themselves to a more unified approach, a more concerted action and strengthened coordination in countries. In addition, the partnership will consist of the private sector, farmer/producer organizations, donors, non-governmental organizations, and the Red Cross/Red Crescent Movement. The high-level task force will also engage regional organizations, regional development banks and other multilateral banks as they expand their roles in supporting coordinated analyses and responses to the food crisis.

The Comprehensive Framework for Action should serve as a blueprint for coordination. Specifics of coordination will vary from country to country but will typically be characterized by systematic joint action. Close cooperation on assessment and planning, and regular consultation and sharing of analysis will help strengthen the overall partnership for food in ways that governments and their partners can avoid duplication of efforts and gaps in response.

The high-level task force will facilitate the formation of a global partnership for food, and ensure monitoring and assessments of progress made in achieving the outcomes of the Comprehensive Framework for Action. It will work with United Nations Member States to undertake regular advocacy to stakeholders and stocktaking of progress. Other functions include providing sound analysis of the evolving food situation, continued coordination at the highest level and expanded partnerships with key stakeholders.

What does it cost?
The current financial challenges are the consequences of a number of factors and trends. They include imbalances in supply and demand, limited coverage and capacity of existing safety nets for the poor, under-investment in agriculture, transport and market systems over latest decades, and non-conducive policies that magnify the problem.14 For example, the share of agriculture in government public spending is only 4.5 per cent for African countries,15 or about $13 billion.16 Globally, agriculture's share in official development assistance (ODA) has also dropped from 18 per cent in 1979 to 3.4 per cent in 2006, or approximately $4 billion.17

Increased financial support needs to come from a variety of sources, including national budgets, ODA, the private sector, farmers and communities themselves, and broader civil society. More innovative instruments, e.g. private foundations and sovereign wealth funds, could also be explored. The Comprehensive Framework for Action focuses on public expenditure and investments. Two items to note:

How much from each: It is not yet possible to set a robust estimate of the global incremental financial requirements for food and nutrition security, social protection, agricultural development and functioning food markets, or the amount that must be covered through public financing, including both national public expenditure and ODA. latest preliminary studies and estimates have ranged from $25 billion to $40 billion a year.18

How much for each: Approximately one third of the overall amount is needed for immediate requirements in food assistance, agricultural inputs, and balance of payment support. Two thirds should be invested in building longer-term resilience and contributing to food and nutrition security.19 Broadly speaking, at least 50 per cent of the total amount will be needed for agriculture and local transport and market systems.20 The majority of the remainder is needed for food assistance, nutrition interventions and social protection.21 These figures are consistent with the estimated investment costs in social protection and agriculture needed for Africa to address the Millennium Development Goal to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger.22

Spend more on agriculture
These estimates suggest a formidable challenge, viz. the financial needs far exceed the current level of response. Hence, it is essential to scale up immediately and substantially public spending and investments. In this respect, the high-level task force encourages:

  • Developing countries to provide additional budgetary resources to strengthen social protection systems, and more particularly to increase the share of agriculture in public spending.
  • Donor countries to double ODA for food aid, other types of nutrition support and safety net programmes, and invest an increased percentage of ODA in food and agricultural development, from the current 3 per cent to 10 per cent within five years -- and beyond, if needed -- to reverse the historic under-investment in agriculture.
  • Developing and donor countries to Boost food and nutrition security risk-management through better use of local physical food stocks, support for development of infrastructure, market and food preservation systems, and to explore innovative use of local production surpluses and emerging financial instruments.
  • Increased allocations to represent true additions, not diversions, from other social sectors critical to achieving the Millennium Development Goals and other national development priorities, such as education and health.

The high-level task force also appeals for more flexibility and predictability in the funding of food assistance and safety nets, an exemption to export restrictions for humanitarian food purchases, unhindered movement of humanitarian food across and within borders, and better access to food stocks through the establishment of physical or virtual humanitarian food reserves.

Making sure we do it
The High-Level Task Force on the Global Food Security Crisis was established on 29 April 2008 with a mandate from Heads of United Nations agencies, funds and programmes. Though not envisaged as a permanent fixture, it aims to foster links between stakeholders by building upon ongoing initiatives and capacities, drawing on the expertise of relevant national, regional and international organizations, the scientific community and the private sector, and focusing on coordinated, coherent and active responses. The high-level task force should act as a centre of gravity for encouraging stakeholders to work as partners.

It is considering the next steps: how best to proceed with country-level coordination of activities, financing and progress; tracking information, including financing, within and across countries; and resource mobilization.

Recognizing the critical roles played by the private sector and civil society, the high-level task force is exploring mechanisms to engage them more systematically in achieving the outcomes of the Comprehensive Framework for Action. The outcomes and actions identified in the framework can only be achieved through partnerships at all levels.

The high-level task force will continue to provide leadership and coordination in this respect, to help governments and affected communities address the challenges of the global food crisis. Above all, the policies, actions and outcomes are all eminently feasible, given reasonable amounts of political will, resources and readiness to work together.

The techniques are all, more or less, known and tested. The money involved, while large in one sense, is little indeed compared with the enormity of what is at stake, or with the huge daily flows in financial or oil markets. Every country in the world is affected, though to different degrees. In other words, we know what to do to overcome this crisis. We just have to make sure we do it.

(This article is based on the work of the High-Level Task Force on the Global Food Security Crisis and in particular its Comprehensive Framework for Action.)

Notes 1 External assistance to agriculture dropped from 18 per cent of official development assistance in 1978 to 3 per cent by 2007. 2 2007/2008 world grain stocks are forecast to fall to their lowest levels in 30 years, to 18.7 per cent of utilization. 3 FAO, Crop Prospects and Food Situation, April 2008. 4 The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimates that climate change alone could lead to an increase of 40 million to 170 million in the number of undernourished people. 5 The High-Level Task Force participation has included: Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO), International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD); International Monetary Fund (IMF); UN Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States (OHRLLS); United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD); United Nations Development Programme (UNDP); United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP); Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR); United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF); World Food Programme (WFP); World Health Organization (WHO); World Bank; World Trade Organization (WTO); UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs; UN Department of Political Affairs; UN Department of Public Information; UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations; the Special Adviser on Millennium Development Goals; and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 6 FAO, Food Outlook, May 2008. 7 Food security comprises access, availability and utilization issues. Nutrition security is achieved when secured access to appropriately nutritious food is coupled with sanitary environment, adequate health services and care to ensure a healthy and active life for all household members. 8 See http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals 9 Increased agricultural production is heavily dependent on the availability of rich soils, water resources and catchment areas, such as forests. Therefore, an environmentally sustainable approach must be taken to avoid depletion of water sources, salination of soils and water tables, and permanent loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. 10 The right to food is not a right to be fed, but primarily a right to feed oneself with dignity. Only if an individual is unable, for reasons beyond his or her control, to provide for himself or herself, does the State have obligations to provide food or the means to purchase it. The right to adequate food is recognized under Article 25 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Article 11 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. 11 See the WTO website: http://www.wto.org/ 12 See http://www.un.org/issues/food/taskforce/ 13 Millennium Development Goal #1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. This includes reducing by half the proportion of people who suffer from hunger. See http://www.un.org/millennium goals. 14 The World Bank's World Development Report 2008, Agriculture for Development, explains that the drop in agricultural investment during the past 25 years is largely reflected by failure to address macroeconomic and sectoral policy biases against agriculture; dependence on the State in activities, such as input supply and marketing, which overwhelmed public capacities while crowding out the private sector; and limited opportunities for farmers and other rural stakeholders to influence public investment priorities or to hold the State accountable for implementation. In addition, donor agencies did not invest sufficient time in working towards coordinated, sector-wide approaches to strengthening public service delivery. International institutions also tended towards narrow specialized approaches, which largely ignored linkages between research, marketing, the environment and public finance. Finally, there was little effective evaluation of programme impacts to inform programme design or identify constraints. 15 FAO, Financing of Agriculture: Issues, Constraints and Perspectives, 2007. 16 Stephen Akroyd and Lawrence Smith (2007), Review of Public Spending to Agriculture. A Joint Study by the Department for International Development and the World Bank, page 2. The World Development Report 2008 indicates that "the share of public spending in agriculture-based countries (mostly in Africa) is significantly less (4 per cent in 2004) than in transforming countries during their agricultural growth spurt (10 per cent in 1980)", page 40. 17 In 2006, agriculture's share represented 3.4 per cent of ODA commitments or approximately $3.99 billion, and only 2.6 per cent or approximately $2.3 billion in terms of ODA disbursements (data extracted from OECD Stat database). 18 Based on early estimates from the high-level task force members and international research organizations, these figures will be updated as information from country-level assessments is compiled. 19 World Development Report 2008, Agriculture for Development; International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) Policy Brief, "Rising food prices, what should be done?", April 2008; IFPRI Policy Brief "Investing in agriculture to overcome food crisis and reduce poverty and hunger", June 2008; IMF, Food and Fuel Prices -- latest Developments, Macroeconomic Impact, and Policy Responses, June 2008; and IMF, The Balance of Payments Impact of the Food and Fuel Price Shocks on Low-Income African Countries: A Country-by-Country Assessment, June 2008. 20 According to IFPRI (S. Fan and M. Rosegrant, 2008), public investment required for agriculture in developing countries to meet MDG 1, including research, rural roads and irrigation, and partial input subsidy for poorest farmers, is estimated at $16.3 billion. 21 The WFP annual requirements, which are expected to grow to $6 billion per year, traditionally account for 50 per cent of global food assistance, with NGO and bilateral assistance accounting for the rest (ref. 2007 Interfais report). 22 Agriculture and Food Security Thematic Working Group, MDG-Africa Working Group Business Plan, 15 May 2008.

Fri, 14 Oct 2022 22:53:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.un.org/en/chronicle/article/losing-25000-hunger-every-day
Killexams : A Person Dies of Hunger Every Four Seconds | Opinion

The global hunger crisis is so severe that one person is starving to death every four seconds, according to humanitarian relief organizations. Hunger is the biggest crisis facing the globe today and we must all act now to save lives.

The Horn of Africa continues to suffer from a prolonged drought, caused by climate change. Families have lost everything as they cannot grow food without rain. Their livestock has died from extreme heat. Millions are desperately searching for food each day.

The U.N. World Food Program (WFP) estimated 26 million people in Somalia, Ethiopia and Kenya are suffering from severe hunger due to drought. Famine is likely to be declared in parts of Somalia.

"Families here have one plea for the rest of the world. Please don't look away. Please help," said Malene Jensen of UNICEF.

The world can do more to help concerned mothers in nutrition centers who are watching their children die from hunger. Relief operations in Somalia and other countries have lacked funding all year.

Save the Children's country director in Somalia, Mohamud Hassan, warned, "Children are already dying. The services set up to combat malnutrition and hunger in Somalia are simply not enough to meet the huge and increasing levels of need."

The hunger crisis goes far beyond Somalia and East Africa. The WFP said there are 345 million people worldwide experiencing acute hunger. That horrifying number has doubled since 2019. In war-torn Yemen, South Sudan, Afghanistan, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo there are alarming rates of hunger. The war in Ukraine displaced millions of hungry people and led to increased global food prices.

Drought forced Mido and her family to make the challenging journey to Dolow, Somalia. The family arrived with just the clothes on their backs. Photo Courtesy of Samantha Reinders/WFP

"We urgently need to get help to those in grave danger of starvation in Somalia and the world's other hunger hotspots," said David Beasley, executive director of WFP.

War, climate change and the pandemic have all created the biggest hunger crisis since the end of World War II. At that time America led a global effort to stop famine. The U.S. had to dramatically increase its hunger relief efforts after World War II to save lives. We must do so again.

"While we appreciate and acknowledge the generosity of the U.S. government in response to growing humanitarian needs, more action is clearly necessary," said Bill O'Keefe of Catholic Relief Services.

For small children, deadly malnutrition can set in quickly. They need foods like Plumpy'Nut, an enriched peanut paste, to survive. If there is not enough funding or political will to bring food to the hungry, children will continue to lose their lives. With increased funding we could support all infant nutrition and school meals programs that save children's lives.

Displaced people arrive at the Iftin camp in Baardheere, Jubaland, in the Gedo region of Somalia. Photo Courtesy of Petroc Wilton/WFP

Donors need to step up with emergency aid and also longer-term funding to prevent famine. Everyone can do more, whether through holding fundraisers for hunger relief or writing letters to Congress urging more funding for global food aid.

Feeding the hungry must become a priority for everyone. Resources exist to prevent famine. The world just needs the political will and the heart to save lives.

William Lambers is an author who partnered with the U.N. World Food Program (WFP) on the book Ending World Hunger. His writings have been published by The Washington Post, History News Network, Cleveland's The Plain Dealer and many other news outlets. Lambers recently volunteered to write the Hunger Heroes section of WFP's online learning game Freerice.

The views expressed in this article are the writer's own.

Thu, 29 Sep 2022 19:30:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.newsweek.com/person-dies-hunger-every-four-seconds-opinion-1747325
Killexams : Hunger was once a bipartisan issue — will it ever be again?

Nearly 50 years ago, President Richard Nixon organized the first White House Conference on Food, Nutrition, and Health where he called on Congress to take action to address America’s hunger crisis. It kickstarted a national conversation to address the growing problem of food insecurity across the nation. Many of the programs Nixon supported are still being implemented in some form today.   

The Biden administration is preparing to host a similar forum later this month — the first presidential-led initiative of its kind in nearly half a century — to solve this continuing problem. Yet today, we lack the same bipartisan commitment Nixon showed to make this moment count for millions of underserved Americans who face every day without enough food to eat.  

Unless our elected leaders express a sudden and unexpected desire to work together, Biden’s commendable objective of ending U.S. hunger by 2030 faces enormous challenges in both the U.S. House and U.S. Senate.   

Nixon was determined to stop hunger in America. In 1969, he urged Congress to pass food assistance initiatives, expand food stamps, Boost food access to pregnant women and children and streamline the way food programs were administrated. He believed in it so deeply that he backed a plan to allocate $2.5 billion (in 1969 dollars) to fight it, and proposed creating a new government agency to oversee it.   

“That hunger and malnutrition should persist in a land such as ours is embarrassing and intolerable,” he said to lawmakers at the time. “[T]he moment is at hand to put an end to hunger in America itself. For all time. I ask this of a Congress that has splendidly demonstrated its own disposition to act.”  

Congressional leaders heeded Nixon’s call by working collaboratively with his administration to establish new benefit standards for food stamp eligibility. Food stamp initiatives grew five times during Nixon’s tenure in office and helped millions of people. Bipartisan support to combat hunger continued under George W. Bush, who helped restore food stamp access for America’s immigrant population. Since then additional improvements have been made to what we now call the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) to help the underprivileged.   

Despite these efforts, the number of people in America who go hungry or lack access to healthy food every day is disheartening. The pandemic caused an astonishing 54 million people to be food insecure, and the racial disparity of COVID-19’s impact was stark, affecting households of color twice as hard as white households. Pandemic relief efforts made an enormous difference in 2021 by reducing hunger to the lowest level on record in nearly two decades for families with children. But the expiration of the child tax credit, the discontinuation of the COVID-19 economic stimulus and the skyrocketing costs of groceries due to inflation will likely cause a rebound in food insecurity across the country over the coming years.   

Biden’s reversal of a Trump-era decision to defund SNAP brought back $1 billion per month of emergency relief to needy families. It was an important step but it won’t be enough to solve the hunger problem. SNAP is just one piece of the puzzle, helping more than 42 million people annually which, combined with the School Lunch Program, lifted three million more out of poverty in 2020.  

While overall child poverty statistics have declined in America, the threshold by which we measure the poverty line remains incomprehensibly low ($26,500 for a family of four in 2021). Anti-poverty advocates at the Shared Humanity Project say this grossly underestimates the number of people across the country who are “struggling to make ends meet.” Solving hunger demands more resources if the country is truly committed to ending the problem once and for all.   

This year marked the 20th anniversary of the George McGovern-Robert Dole Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program. Both men from opposing political parties dared to work together and put the needs of America’s most marginalized community before their own political desires. The idea that lawmakers might put their differences aside so that millions have enough to eat food sounds preposterous in light of how politically divided we are today. But we must, for the health of millions of people, refuse to accept this challenge as something that cannot be overcome.   

Ending hunger in America is within our reach. Statistics from 2021 prove it can be done. The only thing standing in our way is an expression of political will from both sides to get it done.   

 Lyndon Haviland, DrPH, MPH, is a distinguished scholar at the CUNY School of Public Health and Health Policy.

Wed, 21 Sep 2022 03:18:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://thehill.com/opinion/white-house/3653488-hunger-was-once-a-bipartisan-issue-will-it-ever-be-again/
Killexams : White House announces over $8 billion in hunger and nutrition commitments

Ahead of President Biden’s conference Wednesday where his administration will call to end hunger and decrease diet-related diseases by 2030, the White House announced that the private and public sector are committing more than $8 billion to reach that goal.

“These range from bold philanthropic contributions and in-kind donations to community-based organizations, to catalytic investments in new businesses and new ways of screening for and integrating nutrition into health care delivery,” the White House said in a fact sheet released Wednesday.

The first White House Conference on Hunger, Nutrition, and Health was held more than 50 years ago, according to the administration.

The White House noted that at least $2.5 billion will be used to back start-up companies finding solutions to hunger and food insecurity, while over $4 billion will go toward philanthropy that strengthens access to healthy food, encourages healthy choices and expands physical activity.

A senior administration official told reporters on a call that over 100 organizations “have committed to bold and, in some cases, paradigm shifting commitments that will meaningfully Boost nutrition, promote physical activity and reduce hunger and diet related disease over the next seven years.”

Actions to achieve the president’s goal are spread across five pillars: improving food access and affordability, integrating nutrition and health, empowering consumers to make and have access to healthy choices, supporting physical activity for all and enhancing nutrition and food security research, according to the White House.

The administration announced that wholesale restaurant food distributor Sysco will give $500 million to advance healthy eating for its serving communities and Warner Bros. Discovery will give 600 million meals to children experiencing food insecurity.

Google will also introduce new features in its products to help people obtain public food benefits and health care services, it said.

Last year, 10.2% of American households experienced food insecurity at some point, the Department of Agriculture said.

PHOTO: President Joe Biden delivers remarks during a Cabinet Meeting at the White House, Sept. 06, 2022.

President Joe Biden delivers remarks during a Cabinet Meeting at the White House, Sept. 06, 2022.

Kevin Dietsch/Getty Images

The White House also announced that the National Restaurant Association will increase its Kids Live Well program to 45,000 more restaurants. Major fast-food chains, including Subway, Burger King and Chipotle, have already committed to the initiative, which helps restaurants create healthier meal choices for children.

Restaurants in this program commit to certain standards like only offering water, milk or juice for kids' meals, rather than soda, the fact sheet said.

For at least 1 million Americans at risk for a diet-related disease, MyFitnessPal will grant them free and premium-level membership on its app by 2030, White House said. The Special Olympics will also introduce an initiative that will, in part, increase SNAP-Ed benefits for people with intellectual disabilities.

Starting next year, the White House said the Rockefeller Foundation and the American Heart Association aim to mobilize $250 million in partnership with Kroger to build the first national “Food is Medicine Research Initiative” to integrate healthy food into the healthcare approach.

“The Biden-Harris Administration envisions an America where no one wonders whether they will have enough money to put food on the table, where the healthy food choice is the easier choice, and where everyone has the same opportunity to be physically active,” the administration said in an executive summary of the White House’s National Strategy on Hunger, Nutrition, and Health.

Some of the initiatives in the strategy, like expanding free school lunches, would require congressional cooperation, but that seems unlikely to happen in the near future.

In the summary, the White House noted “the rising prevalence of diet-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and certain cancers,” and how the consequences of them and food insecurity “disproportionately impact historically underserved communities.”

Obesity was more common in Black adults than other adult groups, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found last year, which increases their risk of serious diseases and health conditions.

Almost 50% of Black adults were obese, compared to 45.6% of Hispanics, 41.4% of Whites and 16.1% of Asians.

“Food insecurity and diet-related diseases are largely preventable, if we prioritize the health of the nation,” the White House said.

Held in the nation’s capital, the conference is expected to draw more than 500 attendees -- from farmers to business leaders and academics to activists.

Wed, 28 Sep 2022 01:05:00 -0500 en text/html https://abcnews.go.com/Politics/white-house-announces-billion-hunger-nutrition-commitments/story?id=90610489
Killexams : Friday is Hunger Action Day


Friday is Hunger Action Day

Friday is Hunger Action Day – a day to raise awareness to end hunger.News 8 spoke with Eric Saunders, the executive director of New Hope Ministries, about the organization's efforts and how you can help."We have food pantries in York, Adams and Cumberland counties. And anybody who's facing hunger can come in, request help. They can sit down and talk with a case worker about other needs. But when they leave, they're going to leave with a week's supply of groceries, of really good quality, nutritious food," he said.New Hope Ministries offers a grocery area that allows people to choose food items."I have to think about, what if it was my family who was facing hunger? I know what my kids eat. I want people to be able to choose the foods that they're going to use that are going to work for their lifestyle," Saunders said.Saunders said there are multiple ways people can help."The No. 1 way you can do it is give. No. 2, you can volunteer. No. 3, you can give food or you can give money. But most important, care about the needs of your neighbors and tell people where they can get help," he said.

Friday is Hunger Action Day – a day to raise awareness to end hunger.

News 8 spoke with Eric Saunders, the executive director of New Hope Ministries, about the organization's efforts and how you can help.

"We have food pantries in York, Adams and Cumberland counties. And anybody who's facing hunger can come in, request help. They can sit down and talk with a case worker about other needs. But when they leave, they're going to leave with a week's supply of groceries, of really good quality, nutritious food," he said.

New Hope Ministries offers a grocery area that allows people to choose food items.

"I have to think about, what if it was my family who was facing hunger? I know what my kids eat. I want people to be able to choose the foods that they're going to use that are going to work for their lifestyle," Saunders said.

Saunders said there are multiple ways people can help.

"The No. 1 way you can do it is give. No. 2, you can volunteer. No. 3, you can give food or you can give money. But most important, care about the needs of your neighbors and tell people where they can get help," he said.

Fri, 23 Sep 2022 06:08:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.wgal.com/article/hunger-action-day-sept-23-2022/41355731
Killexams : Food industry wary of mandates ahead of hunger conference

The food industry is hoping that changes in its market in the past five decades will persuade the Biden administration and Congress to tread lightly as they consider new mandates on the sector.

The Biden administration’s conference on hunger on Sept. 28 is expected to draw attention to how the industry markets its product, potentially opening up a new debate about the clarity of the nutrition information that consumers are given and the possibility of new federal requirements about contents and labeling.

The one-day conference already looks like a more modest project than its predecessor, a three-day conference that President Richard Nixon called in 1969 that resulted in about 1,800 recommendations and completion of about 90 percent of them within two years. The administration’s agenda for Sept. 28 so far includes few details. 

“It’s in everyone’s best interest to come to the table with their best policy recommendations, and that is certainly what we’ve done,” said Sarah Gallo, product policy vice president for Consumer Brands Association representing food, beverage, household and personal care products.

“I would hope that the White House is also seeing us as partners because we’re a big part of the solution,” Gallo said. “First and foremost, the food industry has changed dramatically since the last conference. There are more players in the market. It is more international in nature. Consumer demand is different than the last time the White House held a conference.”

But the nature of the problem has also changed. In 1969, the conference focused on hunger and malnutrition and was preceded by prominent lawmakers and media reports drawing attention to severe malnutrition in poor communities. The 2022 conference is expected to be more nuanced, examining the health consequences of diets and the climate effect of food production and distribution.  

The food industry is at the center of a system in which diets are closely linked to widespread obesity, diabetes, heart disease and other problems despite efforts to Boost them with healthier ingredients, smaller snack and beverage servings, and packaging based on calorie counts.

Sen. Cory Booker, D-N.J., who co-sponsored the bipartisan legislation to authorize and fund the conference, is wary of the food industry’s efforts. In a Sept. 2 letter to Domestic Policy Council Director Susan Rice, Booker raised concerns about packaging labels and disclosure of added sugar, high levels of saturated fat, salt or sodium in what he called ultra-processed foods.

Salt and sweetener disclosure

Booker said the current voluntary front-of-package labeling approach isn’t enough and called for the Food and Drug Administration to set mandatory targets to reduce excessive salt and added sweeteners such as sugar to reduce diet-related diseases.  

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says 47 percent of U.S. adults 18 and older have hypertension, and 20 percent of people ages 2 to 19 and 42 percent of adults have obesity that can put them at risk of heart disease, Type 2 diabetes and some cancers. Heart disease was the leading cause of death in 2020, and diabetes was eighth, according to the CDC. 

The White House has included food industry groups along with academics, food policy experts and anti-hunger, nutrition and health organizations in its request for views and ideas to address hunger, reduce diet-related diseases such as diabetes and Boost access to nutritious foods for people at all income levels.  

Various trade associations that submitted recommendations and comments to the administration for the conference say companies have made progress in areas that sparked battles with Congress in the past over nutrition labeling and marketing limits on snacks for young children.

The Consumer Brands Association’s recommendations say front-of-package information should remain voluntary. More detailed information, which is mandatory, is typically on the back of all domestic and imported packaged foods. 

“We really think voluntary front-of-pack is a great way for consumers to make those important choices for themselves, and we’ve made significant investments as an industry on things such as SmartLabels or Facts up Front [labeling],” Gallo said. 

A SmartLabel is an embedded barcode, QR code, radio identification frequency tags or other markers that can be read by smartphones, computers and telephones.

Booker doesn’t think the information that goes on the front of the package should be left to the discretion of the food industry.

“Front-of-package labeling — such as warning labels or stoplights that signal to consumers if the food product is too high in salt, added sugar, or saturated fat — can promote more equitable access to nutrition information, encourage companies to reformulate their products to be healthier, and encourage healthier diets,” he wrote to Rice.

Peter G. Lurie, president of the Center for Science in the Public Interest, said he isn’t surprised that the industry would favor fewer mandates.

“There’s plenty that the industry could agree to do voluntarily, but in those situations where they don’t or haven’t made an adequate contribution, it is appropriate for the government to step in and force their hand,” Lurie said.

The food industry offers more healthy food options than in the past, but Lurie said there are also products marketed as healthier choices that are not. He said many vegetable chips are mostly starch dusted with dried vegetable powder. And he noted industry resistance to tougher government limits on sodium or other ingredients linked to diet-related health issues.

Like Booker, he said the industry’s voluntary front-of-package labeling does not provide consumers enough information to know whether a product is nutritionally harmful. Lurie is a former associate FDA commissioner for public health strategy and analysis.

“What we’re interested in is not only moving information up front. We’re also interested in having that information interpreted,” Lurie said, adding that symbols or other distinctive markings should serve as warning signs.

Call for FDA mandate

The FDA issued guidance on front-of-package labeling in 2009 but hasn’t issued rules as it continues to research the issue. The agency has said highlighting some nutritional information on the front could make it less likely that consumers will read the more complete nutrition facts typically located elsewhere on a package. 

Lurie’s organization, along with the Association of SNAP Nutrition Education Administrators and the Association of State Public Health Nutritionists, filed a citizen petition to the FDA in August urging the agency to mandate front-of-package labeling that includes the level of added sugars, salt and saturated fats per serving.

In a closely divided Congress that looks likely to stay that way after the midterms, lawmakers are also likely to have a big influence on the implementation of any hunger conference recommendations. Those that require legislation may not find majorities; those that involve executive action could invite hearings and sharp questions for the agency officials.

Senate Agriculture ranking member John Boozman, who co-chairs the Senate Hunger Caucus, said he wishes the administration had done more outreach to lawmakers or to their staffs. 

“I don’t know what they are trying to accomplish, so we’ll just have to wait and see once it’s out there,” said Boozman, R-Ark., who also said he doesn’t object to the conference. He said some of the expected recommendations may be more than lawmakers can support.

“I think that is always the case. Stakeholders always want their share plus some,” Boozman said.  

The National Confectioners Association, makers of candy and other snacks, said in its recommendations to the White House that the industry’s voluntary approach to front-of-package labeling is providing consumers more information about the treats they eat. 

John H. Downs Jr., president and CEO of the confectioners’ group, said in the comments sent to the Biden administration that his industry is part of a coalition focused on appropriate food portions.

“Emphasis on portion control allows consumers the ability to enjoy the foods they love as part of a balanced lifestyle, and the work that we’ve done together with our partners in the coalition will continue to have an impact on consumers’ understanding of appropriate portion sizes for our products,” Downs said. The industry packages portions by calorie count.

The confectioners association also said major brands follow voluntary standards against direct advertising to children under age 12 or in elementary schools.

The Food Marketing Institute, which represents food retailers and wholesalers, proposes that the federal government build a closer working relationship with the private sector to provide consumers more nutrition education. 

“When it comes to fostering consumer understanding, the food retail industry provides a unique opportunity for registered dietician nutritionists and pharmacists to address gaps in healthcare equity, Boost public health, and meet consumer demands for health and well-being services,” the Food Marketing Institute said in its comments.  The grocers group said the government should view store-registered dietitian nutritionists as assets because they “meet consumers where they are on a regular basis to positively impact food purchasing decisions, both online and in-store.”

The dietitians provide a range of services depending on the store or grocery chain. They may do in-store cooking demonstrations, work one on one with consumers whose health insurance covers nutritional services, or oversee in-store marketing or promotions for healthy foods.    

Tue, 20 Sep 2022 19:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://rollcall.com/2022/09/21/food-industry-wary-of-mandates-ahead-of-hunger-conference/
Killexams : Guest Opinion: It takes us all to address hunger in our communities

Earlier this month at the Central Lakes College campus, community leaders from across Crow Wing County attended the “It Takes Us All” event hosted by Second Harvest North Central Food Bank. This engaging and informative event offered the opportunity for participants to learn more about how hunger impacts our neighbors across the county and how area programs and people work together to help people in need.

In partnership with local organizations and programs across Crow Wing County, Second Harvest North Central Food Bank feeds, nourishes and connects people and communities. We are experts at sourcing and redistributing food and grocery products, which enables us to provide over five million meals each year with help from a network of partners and volunteers across the seven counties and two tribal nations of north central Minnesota. Together, we promote health, reduce hunger, and build community.

Who goes hungry and why?

No one should have to go hungry. Yet nearly 6,000 people across the county — including nearly 2,000 children — experience hunger on a regular basis. Experiencing hunger can mean not getting enough nutritious food to meet one’s basic needs. The need for hunger relief has grown during the pandemic and with inflation. As costs increase, our neighbors in Crow Wing County facing hunger are making tough choices between putting food on the table and meeting other critical needs. When we help people meet their nutritional needs, they can focus on meeting the rest.

There are many obstacles that undermine peoples’ access to an adequate supply of healthy food. Our food supply is an ecosystem of many parts, including the government, which subsidizes and regulates food, farmers, and the food industry, and sellers and consumers. These parts need to work together for the whole system to function properly. But things like low wages, high costs of living, and lack of nearby grocery stores can disrupt this food ecosystem. These disruptions mean that sometimes the food that people need can’t make its way through the system and get to them as it should.

The face of hunger is children, seniors, and working families — they’re our neighbors, colleagues, relatives and friends. One in six children in our area face hunger. Children’s healthy development is critically important to our community’s future. We must ensure all children have access to healthy foods to support their developing brains and bodies. More than 20% of the people we serve are seniors. Many working families are just one paycheck away from facing hunger.

Although you can find people facing hunger in every community across the country, rural communities are hit especially hard. Feeding American reports that counties with the highest rates of food insecurity are disproportionately rural. Rural counties make up 63% of all U.S counties, but 87% of counties with food insecurity rates in the top 10%.

What are we doing about it?

Second Harvest North Central Food Bank builds and leads in partnership as a trusted institution in our region. We have been serving north central Minnesota for nearly 40 years. We bring people together. From volunteers to our over 100 partner organizations and programs, we’re a hunger relief hub across our region. We know our community. No one knows north central Minnesota like we do, both in terms of the need and in terms of how to meet it. We know how to reach the most rural, isolated communities who often feel forgotten. We even offer a mobile pop-up pantry program to meet our neighbors where they live, and work with our partners to ensure we can meet the needs of individuals across our service area.

We don’t just fill plates, we care about what’s on them. Addressing hunger means helping people get enough food, but also enough quality food. We distribute protein, dairy products and over one million pounds of produce per year. We care about the health of our neighbors. That’s why we provide healthy, fresh and nutritious food. We invest in the health of our community by offering healthy foods to children whose developing bodies and brains will benefit from good nutrition for years to come.

We can’t do it alone. Partnership is key to everything we do. Our 100+ agency partners are critical to our helping end hunger. These partners are food shelves, soup kitchens, emergency shelters and other agencies who access large quantities of food from us to help provide food for those experiencing hunger in their local communities. Over 300 volunteers donate over 9,000 hours annually, and play a key role in helping ensure we can effectively deliver our mission. Our financial donors — both individuals and businesses — provide critical support today and help us invest in the future.

Addressing hunger in our communities takes all of us. Financial support for our programs ensures we can distribute food today and is an investment in a healthy future for all of Crow Wing County. Volunteers and effective, efficient management keeps our administrative and staff costs down. Policymakers and all of us as advocates can help our neighbors have enough to eat, but supporting programs that provide food for working families.

Erich Heppner is Central Lakes College director of Student Life and Second Harvest Board member. Sue Estee is executive director of Second Harvest Food Bank.

Wed, 12 Oct 2022 02:01:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.brainerddispatch.com/opinion/columns/guest-opinion-it-takes-us-all-to-address-hunger-in-our-communities
Killexams : Biden on ending hunger in US: ‘I know we can do this’ No result found, try new keyword!President Joe Biden said Wednesday his administration's goal of ending hunger in the U.S. by the end of the decade was ambitious but doable, if only the nation would work together toward achieving it. Thu, 29 Sep 2022 02:48:00 -0500 text/html https://www.kansas.com/news/nation-world/article266482106.html Killexams : How to watch The Hunger Games movies in order (plus where the new one fits in)

(Pocket-lint) - It’s almost been a decade since The Hunger Games released - the films, anyway. 

The Hunger Games is a franchise that consists of four Blockbuster movies, but it’s based on three equally popular novels by Suzanne Collins. It’s set in a dystopian future in Panem - a North American nation made up of 12 districts, with one Capitol ruling over all of them. As punishment for rebelling 74 years earlier, each district must select a boy and a girl between 12 and 18 to compete in the Hunger Games, an annual competition where the last remaining survivor wins. The Hunger Games are treated like a World Cup in the Capitol. But further away, in Panem, people are resentful about the Games.


This is where we meet the protagonist of the story: Katniss Everdeen (Jennifer Lawrence), a female tribute from District 12. 

The Hunger Games movies generated $2.9 billion at the box office and catapulted Lawrence’s career. (The same year the first Hunger Games released, she won an Oscar.) But the story of the Games doesn’t end with her in the first films. A new Hunger Games movie is coming. Set to premiere in 2023, it’s based on an eponymous prequel novel from Suzanne Collins called The Ballad of Songbirds and Snakes. It’ll focus on a young President Snow as he navigates being a mentor to a female tribute from District 12. Francis Lawrence is returning as the director, after helming three of the original movies.

With the new movie coming out next year, it’s the perfect time to revisit Panem.

How to watch The Hunger Games movies in order (chronological and release date order)

The Hunger Games movies released in cinemas in chronological order. It’s the best way to watch them. If you don’t know which came first or want to learn a little bit more about the story and how it progresses across the four Hunger Games films, then keep reading. But please keep in mind there may be spoilers. Skip to the bottom of this guide for a bulleted spoiler-free version.

The Hunger Games (2012)

  • Directed by: Gary Ross
  • Screenplay by: Gary Ross, Suzanne Collins, Bill Ray
  • Produced by: Lionsgate
  • Distributed by: Lionsgate
  • Box office: $694 million
  • Run time: 142 minutes
  • Based on: The Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins (Amazon)
  • Where to stream: Amazon Prime Video

The first film introduces a dystopian continent called Panem, where 12 different districts are ruled over by the Capitol. Every year as a part of a tradition to mark the anniversary of the districts rebelling, each district must send one boy and one girl between the ages of 12 and 18 to compete in a fight to the death known as the Hunger Games. Although the Games are treated like the World Cop in the Capitol, as you get farther away, the people of Panem are more resentful. Katniss Everdeen (Jennifer Lawrence) is a 16-year-old in District 12 – the poorest and furthest from the Capitol.

The district does a lottery to decide which children will be chosen, and when Katniss’ younger sister, Primrose (Willow Shields) is chosen, Katniss volunteers in her sister’s place. Soon, she joins Peeta (Josh Hutcherson), the boy chosen from her district, and they are escorted to the Capitol. The Hunger Games was directed by Gary Ross, who wrote the screenplay with Billy Ray and Suzanne Collins.

The Hunger Games Catching Fire (2013)

  • Directed by: Francis Lawrence
  • Screenplay by: Simon Beaufoy, Michael deBruyn
  • Produced by: Lionsgate
  • Distributed by: Lionsgate
  • Box office: $865 million
  • Run time: 146 minutes
  • Based on: Catching Fire by Suzanne Collins (Amazon)
  • Where to stream: Amazon Prime Video

Catching Fire picks up with Katniss and Peeta back in District 12 after having outwitted the Capitol. (As part of their winning plan, they feigned falling in love.)

They are visited by President Snow (Donald Sutherland), who reveals to Katniss that her actions have thrown the districts into a state of Rebellion. Snow decides to send Katniss and Peeta on a tour of all the districts in Panem, with the expectation that they will continue their charade and not undermine his power. When Snow is left unconvinced that they are truly in love, it’s revealed that for the first time, for the 75th Hunger Games, the Games’ participants will be selected from previous champions. Katniss – being the only living female winner from District 12 - is ensured a spot in the contest. 

Francis Lawrence is the director of Catching Fire and directed the final two original Hunger Games films as well. He’ll also direct the upcoming prequel movie due out in 2023.

The Hunger Games Mockingjay - Part One (2014)

  • Directed by: Francis Lawrence
  • Screenplay by: Danny Strong, Peter Craig
  • Produced by: Lionsgate
  • Distributed by: Lionsgate
  • Box office: $755 million
  • Run time: 123 minutes
  • Based on: Mockingjay by Suzanne Collins  (Amazon)
  • Where to stream: Amazon Prime Video

Following her escape from the 75th Hunger Games, Katniss is escorted to District 13. It’s a secret underground headquarters for the Rebellion. There, she meets the Rebellion’s president, Alma Coin (Julianne Moore). She asks Katniss to help win the hearts and minds of the other districts, by filming propaganda videos and fighting against the oppression of the Capitol. Peeta, meanwhile, is held captive by the Capitol, being used to try to stop Katniss and suppress the growing revolution that she has started. Eventually, all the districts in Panem will have to choose between the Rebellion and the Capitol. 

The Hunger Games Mockingjay - Part Two (2015)

  • Directed by: Francis Lawrence
  • Screenplay by: Peter Craig, Danny Strong
  • Produced by: Color Force
  • Distributed by: Lionsgate
  • Box office: $658 million
  • Run time: 137 minutes
  • Based on: Mockingjay by Suzanne Collins (Amazon)
  • Where to stream: Amazon Prime Video 

In the fourth and currently final Hunger Games movie, the Rebellion attempts to cure Peeta of the Capitol’s brainwashing, which made him try to kill Katniss. Meanwhile, Katniss has helped turn most of the districts to the Rebellion’s side with Alma Coin’s propaganda videos. Katniss is also part of the Star Squad, a group of the most elite soldiers fighting for the Rebellion. They embark on a dangerous mission to the Capitol, with the goal to kill President Snow. The group reluctantly agrees to bring Peeta so he can be included in propaganda videos, although they’re not sure he can be totally trusted yet. 

Where does the new Hunger Games movie fit in this order?

The Ballad of Songbirds and Snakes is an upcoming prequel set 65 years before the events of the original series. When it's available to see in theatres or online, you'd watch it first in a Hunger Games rewatch.

The Hunger Games: The Ballad of Songbirds and Snakes (2023)

  • Directed by: Francis Lawrence
  • Screenplay by: Michael Arndt
  • Produced by: Color Force
  • Distributed by: Lionsgate
  • Based on: The Ballad of Songbirds and Snakes by Suzanne Collins (Amazon)
  • Where to watch: Releases on 17 November 2023

Like all of the other Hunger Games films, the new movie is based on a novel by Suzanne Collins. It will follow a much younger Coriolanus Snow, who will be played by Tom Blyth. (The character of President Snow is played by Donald Sutherland in the other films set decades later.). Snow’s once-wealthy family is now destitute, but thanks to his success at the Academy, he’s been assigned to mentor a tribute for the 10th Hunger Games. Of course, he’s paired with a tribute from District 12 named Lucy Gray Baird (Rachel Zegler). You can check out the reveal trailer for The Ballad of Songbirds and Snakes here.

Francis Lawrence will return to direct this film after directing Catching Fire and both Mockingjay films. 

Spoiler-free version: The Hunger Games movies in order

Chronological and release date order

OK, so here is the at-a-glance version of the guide above. It's free of spoilers.

  • The Hunger Games (2012)
  • The Hunger Games: Catching Fire (2013)
  • The Hunger Games: Mockingjay - Part One (2014)
  • The Hunger Games: Mockingjay - Part Two (2015)

Not yet available:

  • The Hunger Games: The Ballad of Songbirds and Snakes (2023)

Did you like this?

Then maybe you'll like our movie order viewing guides:

We also have these rumour round-ups on upcoming movies:

Writing by Maggie Tillman. Editing by Britta O'Boyle.

Sat, 17 Sep 2022 12:00:00 -0500 Maggie Tillman en-gb text/html https://www.pocket-lint.com/tv/news/162673-hunger-games-movies-order-chronological
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