Cisco Systems Inc. specializes in networking and communications products and services. The company is probably best known for its business routing and switching products, which direct data, voice, and video traffic across networks around the world. However, Cisco also offers storage networking, applications for unified communications, telepresence and collaboration (WebEx), and an array of services from simple product support to complete solutions for data centers and cloud management.
To ensure that IT professionals have the skills and knowledge necessary to support Cisco products and solve customers’ technology problems on many fronts, the Cisco Career Certification program is all-embracing. That is, it begins at the entry level, then advances to associate, professional, and expert levels, and (in some certification areas) caps things off at the architect level.
Each level offers one or more credentials. Obtaining a credential usually involves passing one or more certification exams. Most Cisco exams are delivered by Pearson VUE. For higher-level credentials, candidates must also prove they meet necessary prerequisites. The higher the level of certification, the more credentials and prerequisites one needs to meet those requirements.
Certifications within Cisco’s portfolio include the following credentials:
There are many certifications and paths one can take in Cisco’s career program. That said, its two main paths cover network operation and network design. A typical Cisco networking certification ladder begins with the entry-level CCENT credential, moves up to the CCNA, onto the CCNP and culminates with the CCIE. The design-oriented might instead consider starting with the CCENT, moving up to the CCDA, then the professional-level CCDP, followed by the CCDE, and finish the program with the CCAr.
The Cisco Career Certification program also includes a number of specializations. These certifications acknowledge a professional’s skills in a specific Cisco technology, such as data center application services, voicemail and messaging or rich media. Cisco specializations are organized into two primary categories: one targeting technical certified and another targeting digital transformation specialists. Between these two categories, there are currently 15 specializations among which IT pros can choose.
The Technical Specialist category includes specializations across six subcategories:
Digital Transformation certified includes credentials geared to Business Architecture and Customer Success.
Achieving a specialist credential generally requires passing one or two exams. Some credentials also impose prerequisites.
Entry-, associate- and professional-level credentials are valid for three years, CCIE and specialist certifications are valid for two years and the CCAr is valid for five years. To keep certifications current, Cisco professionals need to recertify by passing a recertification test or advancing to a higher level in Cisco’s certification hierarchy.
Cisco has two entry-level credentials: the Cisco Certified Entry Networking Technician (CCENT) and the Cisco Certified Technician (CCT). No prerequisites are needed to obtain either the CCENT or CCT credential, and candidates must pass a single test to earn each credential.
CCENT certified professionals install, maintain and troubleshoot small networks or a branch of an enterprise network, and implement basic network security. The CCENT credential is a prerequisite for some associate-level CCNA solution track credentials and the CCDA.
CCTs work onsite at customer locations, diagnosing issues and repairing or replacing network-related equipment. A CCT can choose one of several specialty tracks, which currently includes Data Center and Routing and Switching.
Certification Exams Number of Questions Time to Complete CCENT 100-105 ICND1 45-55 90 minutes CCT Data Center 010-151 DCTECH 65-75 90 minutes CCT Routing & Switching 640-692 RSTECH 60-70 90 minutes
Cisco’s associate-level certifications include the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) and the Cisco Certified Design Associate (CCDA). One must pass one or two certification exams to achieve a CCNA or CCDA credential, depending on the track you choose.
The CCNA recognizes basic skills in installing, supporting, and troubleshooting wired and/or wireless networks. One can choose from several tracks, including Cloud, Collaboration, Cyber Ops, Data Center, Industrial, Routing and Switching, Security, Service Provider and Wireless. The CCNA is a prerequisite for the professional-level CCNP certification. Prerequisites for the CCNA vary depending on the solution track chosen as do the number of required exams. All solution tracks require either one or two exams.
Cisco created the CCDA to identify individuals who can design basic wired and wireless networks, and incorporate security and voice solutions. The CCDA is a prerequisite for the CCDP certification. To obtain the CCDA, candidates must possess either a valid CCENT, CCNA Routing and Switching (or any CCIE certification), and pass a single additional exam.
|Certification||Exams||Number of Questions||Time to Complete|
|CCDA||200-310 DESGN||55-65||75 minutes|
|CCNA Cloud||210-451 CLDFND||55-65||90 minutes|
|210-455 CLDADM||55-65||90 minutes|
|CCNA Collaboration||210-060 CICD||55-65||75 minutes|
|210-065 CIVND||55-65||75 minutes|
|CCNA Cyber Ops||210-250 SECFND||55-60||90 minutes|
|210-255 SECOPS||60-70||90 minutes|
|CCNA Data Center||200-150 DCICN||55-65||90 minutes|
|200-155 DCICT||65-75||120 minutes|
|CCNA Industrial||200-601 IMINS2||65-75||90 minutes|
|CCNA Routing and Switching**||200-125 CCNA||60-70||90 minutes|
|100-105 ICND1||45-55||90 minutes|
|200-105 ICND2||55-65||90 minutes|
|CCNA Security||210-260 IINS||60-70||90 minutes|
|CCNA Service Provider||640-875 SPNGN1||65-75||90 minutes|
|640-878 SPNGN2||65-75||90 minutes|
|CCNA Wireless||200-355 WIFUND||60-70||90 minutes|
**Candidates for the CCNA Routing and Switching may take test 200-125 OR test 100-105 plus 200-105.
Cisco’s professional-level credentials include two main programs: the Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP) and the Cisco Certified Design Professional (CCDP). To obtain the CCDP, one must pass three certification exams and possess both the CCDA and CCNA Routing and Switching credentials or any Cisco CCIE or CCDE certification.
All CCNP solution tracks, except Routing and Switching, require candidates to pass four exams. Only three exams are required for the CCNP: Routing and Switching credential. Prerequisites for all CCNP solution tracks include either the lower-level CCNA credential or any CCIE credential. The CCNP: Service Provider credential also accepts the Cisco Certified Internet Professional (CCIP) credential as a prerequisite (which retired in 2012).
The CCNP credential recognizes professionals who plan, deploy, and troubleshoot local networks and wide area networks. The CCNP tracks are the same as those for the CCNA, except for Industrial and Cyber Ops, which are not offered in the CCNP track. The CCNP is recommended to climb up to the next step on the cert ladder – the Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert.
The CCDP identifies proficiency in designing and deploying scalable networks and multilayer-switched networks. From the CCDP, you can move on to the Cisco Certified Design Expert.
|Certification||Exams||Number of Questions||Time to Complete|
|CCDP||300-101 ROUTE||45-65||120 minutes|
|300-115 SWITCH||30-40||120 minutes|
|300-320 ARCH||60-70||75 minutes|
|CCNP Cloud||300-460 CLDINF||55-65||90 minutes|
|300-465 CLDDES||55-65||90 minutes|
|300-470 CLDAUT||55-65||90 minutes|
|300-475 CLDACI||55-65||90 minutes|
|CCNP Collaboration||300-070 CIPTV1||65-75||75 minutes|
|300-075 CIPTV2||50-60||75 minutes|
|300-080 CTCOLLAB||55-65||75 minutes|
|300-085 CAPPS||55-65||75 minutes|
|CCNP Data Center**||300-175 DCUCI||55-65||90 minutes|
|300-165 DCII||55-65||90 minutes|
|300-170 DCVAI||55-65||90 minutes|
|300-160 DCID||55-65||90 minutes|
|300-180 DCIT||70-80||90 minutes|
|CCNP Routing and Switching||300-101 ROUTE||45-65||120 minutes|
|300-115 SWITCH||30-40||120 minutes|
|300-135 TSHOOT||15-25||120 minutes|
|CCNP Security||300-208 SISAS||55-65||90 minutes|
|300-206 SENSS||65-75||90 minutes|
|300-209 SIMOS||65-75||90 minutes|
|300-210 SITCS||65-75||90 minutes|
|CCNP Service Provider||642-883 SPROUTE||65-75||90 minutes|
|642-885 SPADVROUTE||65-75||90 minutes|
|642-887 SPCORE||65-75||90 minutes|
|642-889 SPEDGE||65-75||90 minutes|
|CCNP Wireless||300-360 WIDESIGN||55-65||90 minutes|
|300-365 WIDEPLOY||55-65||90 minutes|
|300-370 WITSHOOT||55-65||90 minutes|
|300-375 WISECURE||55-65||90 minutes|
**CCNP Data Center may take either the 300-160 or 300-180 exam.
Cisco’s expert-level credentials embrace two primary certifications: the coveted Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert (CCIE) and the Cisco Certified Design Expert (CCDE). Neither certification imposes prerequisites, but one must pass a written test and a rigorous practical test to earn either of these credentials.
Beginning in July 2016, Cisco updated its expert-level exams to include an evolving technologies domain. This new domain targets cloud, network programmability and the IoT, and it accounts for 10 percent of the total test score. Cisco may change the syllabus included in this domain to reflect emerging technologies as they reach strong enough commercial interest, potential and presence to make them examworthy. The company describes this mechanism as a way to help future-proof its certifications so that employers may assume that those who hold current credentials are also up to speed on important new networking technologies.
For many network-track professionals, achieving the CCIE is the highlight of their careers. A CCIE has expert technical skills and knowledge of Cisco network products and solutions in one of the CCIE technical tracks, which currently include Collaboration, Data Center, Routing and Switching, Security, Service Provider, and Wireless.
The CCDE identifies experts who design infrastructure solutions for large enterprise environments, which include technological, operational, business and budget aspects of a project.
For persons seeking positions such as network architect or data center architect, a smart move is to acquire the Cisco Certified Architect (CCAr) certification. The CCAr is like the Ph.D. of the Cisco Career Certification program – it’s the highest level of certification that Cisco offers. This credential validates the skills of a senior network infrastructure architect, someone who can plan and design IT infrastructures based on business strategies. Many people consider the CCAr the most difficult tech certification to achieve.
To earn the CCDE certification, you must design a network solution to implement an assigned strategy; then, you must appear before a Cisco-appointed panel to explain and defend that solution.
Whether you’re following a network operations or network design career path, Cisco certifications are uniquely positioned to assist IT professionals as they prepare to fulfill various Cisco-related career roles. Regardless of your chosen career path, job opportunities are plentiful for skilled Cisco professionals. A simple search for Cisco CCNA professionals on two popular job boards – SimplyHired and Indeed – yielded between 7,500 and 9,500 job postings each.
Job opportunities vary by factors, such as experience and whether you’re focused on network operations or network design. While certainly not exhaustive, the following list identifies some common job opportunities by certification:
Cisco maintains a comprehensive list of training and self-study resources. These resources include various forms of online learning, practice exams, learning labs, links to which appear on each certification’s web page. The Cisco Learning Network offers candidates a free basic membership that includes access to test topics, live seminars, IT training videos, study groups, forums, study materials and much more. The subscription-based Cisco Platinum Learning Library provides professionals with on-demand learning and access to more than 400 courses, hands-on vLabs, the support library, and more. Additional training materials are also available from Cisco Press.
The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content.
Oct 05, 2022 (Evertise Digital via COMTEX) -- In the field of information technology, everything is evolving. New releases and upgrades are constantly introduced to the market. And if you want to make yourself relevant even with the relentless changes in the industry, then consider getting certified. A credible path to help you out is the, which leads you toward a bright and thriving career. So, are you ready to take on the challenge and accomplish the ExamSnap.com on your first attempt? Below are the key reasons why you should add this to your list of priorities as soon as possible.
Over the years, has molded thousands of individuals, transforming them into in-demand enterprise networking professionals. One of the most pertinent technical paths offered to those working in the field of CCNP Enterprise Certification networking is the Cisco 300-410 exam. This is particularly designed for anyone who has an extensive background in implementing core enterprise networking technologies and solutions. Ideally, it's best to have 3 to 5 years of working experience to become a highly suitable candidate for the exam.
The test VCE itself looks into the advanced aspects of enterprise networking, specifically on the implementation and troubleshooting of routing services and technologies. The primary points of the test cover the network infrastructure, including the core services, security, and automation. Additionally, it gives emphasis to Layer 3, focusing on how you resolve issues related to route maps, loop prevention mechanisms, and BGP, among others. Lastly, it ensures you are capable of managing VPN services efficiently.
Through the Cisco 300-410 exam, you are given the opportunity to obtain two credentials. The first one is the Cisco Certified Specialist – Enterprise Advanced Infrastructure Implementation CCNA Certification. The second one is the, which is awarded if you successfully accomplish the test, along with Cisco 350-401. The test is one of the many concentration tests that ushers you to the ever-popular accreditation.
An outdated skillset is often one of the reasons why professionals have a hard time moving up the corporate ladder. In this fast-paced digital world, it pays off to have a skillset that is relevant to the demands in the industry. Accordingly, you can't do this by boxing yourself in the same set of tasks every day. You have to be proactive Devnet Professional Certification and keep up with the new technologies in your chosen domain. By getting certified, you not only earn a validated skillset but also make yourself more conversant with the changes in the IT field.
The core benefits of the stretch beyond the acquisition of Devnet Associate Certification. It transforms you into a highly skilled and marketable that is equipped with the latest knowledge in managing more radical routing technologies and services, along with troubleshooting concerns associated with. So, if you're still undecided, try to assess the test objectives and evaluate if the test fits your needs for career advancement.
The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content.
Shifting to hybrid work can bring up a whole lot of questions. How do we support our employees? What gear do we need? Will our data be safe? Are sweatpants business casual?
Fortunately, Cisco has solutions that can help any office get work done from anywhere while maximizing safety, accessibility and collaboration.
Concerned about hybrid work impacting network access? No sweat. With Meraki, not only will your users have flexible and secure access to your network whenever and from wherever they want, you’ll have immediate insight into everyone’s connection. You’ll be able to instantly monitor for security issues across your entire workforce. Full visibility and full peace of mind.
Are your employees excited to have more flexibility around when and where they work? Then Webex by Cisco—yep, the tool you already use for your meetings—can be your key to unlocking a more adaptable workflow. Did you know Webex can automatically take notes on your meetings? Not just that, Webex can translate what you’re saying into almost any language with captions. So, meetings really can happen anywhere!
You can address the individual health and wellness needs of your workforce with DNA Spaces and Meraki sensors. With location data like temperature readings and occupancy updates, Cisco’s smart office design makes creating a space that caters to employees’ preferred way of working a breeze. And from a sustainability standpoint, you’ll better understand how your buildings are being used, especially now that not everyone is in the office.
Transition your office into a hybrid workspace that’s healthy, secure and collaborative with Cisco, the answer to all of your burning hybrid work questions. Oh and no, sweatpants are not business casual. Nowhere near business casual, actually. Sorry.
Related content from Cisco
See how Cisco can help you go hybrid:
BOSTON – Two years after signing a joint architecture development plan, Microsoft Corp. and Cisco Systems have unveiled a road map for interoperability around network access control.
The two companies briefed industry press Wednesday, at The Security Standard conference here, on how Cisco Network Admission Control (NAC) and Microsoft Network Access Protection (NAP) will interoperate and how customers and partners can benefit.
“This (collaboration) was motivated by our customers,” said Ted Kummert, corporate vice-president of the security, access and solutions division at Microsoft’s server and tools business.
Customers who have both environments said they wanted to be able to interoperate, added Kummert.
NAC and NAP are designed to protect a company’s network by verifying the security health status of devices before granting them access. The architecture allows customers the choice of deploying only one system or both concurrently.
“We’re giving our customers the option to figure out which components to enable,” said Bob Gleichauf, CTO of the security technology group at Cisco. But, he added, “the three fundamental pieces that we did glue together are a client component, a middle infrastructure, and a policy backend.”
Components of the interoperable architecture include Cisco’s development of Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP)-FAST and a corresponding supplicant, which provide interoperability with the native EAP and 802.1x supplicant that will be included with Windows Vista and Windows “Longhorn” server.
The vendors are also enabling the use of a single agent, as computers running Vista and Longhorn will include Microsoft NAP as part of the core operating system that will be used for both NAP and NAC.
Both Cisco and Microsoft plan to begin beta testing with select customers later this year. Executives said general availability of the interoperable technology will come with Microsoft’s release of its Longhorn server in the second half of 2007.
According to Zeus Kerravala, vice-president of security and networking research at Boston-based Yankee Group, collaboration of this scale is good for the industry.
“Microsoft is thought as a proprietary company, so playing nice (with other vendors) is important,” he said.
Most organizations, added Kerravala, already have a large deployment of Microsoft and Cisco, so making the two interoperate can be seen as a natural value proposition.
Independent software vendors will have access to NAP client APIs to encourage third-party development of health agent and health enforcement components of the offering, explained Mark Ashida, general manager of Windows networking at Microsoft.
Microsoft also plans to license elements of its NAP client technology to third parties in order to support non-Windows platforms.
NAC, said Cisco’s Gleischauf, already supports non-Windows technology.
Gleischauf added that both vendors will work with their joint channel partners to understand how they want to bring this to market.
“This simplifies their lives dramatically, they’re not getting squeezed to pick between us,” he said.
The information-technology firm Riverbed is betting it can outdo giants like Cisco, worth about $172 billion, in the observability-tools space. But it'll take a big product pivot to do so.
In a switch from its networking hardware roots, Riverbed is launching more software products that use artificial intelligence and machine learning to monitor a firm's IT infrastructure, known as observability tools. And it's proving fruitful, Daniel Smoot, the CEO of Riverbed, told Insider. After years of hardship, Riverbed's suite of observability tools generates more sales than its hardware, making it pivotal to the firm's recovery strategy. Its big ambitions include a full market takeover in a hotly contested space, according to Smoot.
"We are going to dominate the unified observability marketplace," Smoot said.
The firm had a market cap of $3.5 billion when it went private in 2015.
Before Riverbed entered the observability-tools business, the company generated most of its revenue selling WAN hardware, devices that companies use to transfer data between data centers and remote locations. But as clients moved to the cloud and the COVID-19 pandemic shuttered the firm's factories, hardware sales dropped and increased the company's debt to $1.9 billion.
As a result, Riverbed entered a restructuring-support agreement in 2021 with its lenders and private-equity sponsors to reduce its debt by more than $1 billion. Through the agreement, Riverbed received approximately $65 million to develop observability products such as network-performance-management software.
Riverbed's focus on observability software is especially important now that the chip shortage is slowing down the production of its WAN optimization devices, another blow to its hardware sales, Smoot said. The shortage has also animated public-networking vendors — like the $1.72 billion Extreme Networks, the $8.57 billion Juniper Networks, the $35.24 billion Arista Networks, and even Cisco — to strengthen relationships with suppliers as they scramble to build their servers, routers, and other data-center equipment in a timely manner.
Riverbed's latest product, Alluvio IQ, combines all network data into one place for business use, similar to full-stack observability tools that competitors like Cisco and Datadog, worth $29 billion, provide. Riverbed has seen new Alluvio product sales rise by 20% over the past year, a significant win given its severe drop in hardware sales, according to the firm.
"The total available market for this is incredible," Smoot said. "And its not shrinking."
But it's a crowded space. Legacy tech companies like Cisco, IBM, and VMware have acquired startups that specialize in observability software. And firms like the $4 billion New Relic and the $13 billion Splunk that haven't been bought have been specializing their tools for decades.
Smoot, who has previously worked at Cisco and VMware, said he believes that Riverbed can beat the competition because it already has decades of complex networking data with thousands of its customers. Smoot added that Alluvio IQ can help businesses access that historically siloed data, something new vendors might not have.
"For a new startup to come and say, 'I'm going to go capture all that data,' that's an impossible task," Smoot said.
But Riverbed now faces its biggest challenge yet: the market downturn. Many of its clients in finance, healthcare, and pharmaceuticals are not recession-proof, so the company could lose business, Smoot said. That's why it's not discontinuing its hardware business despite hinging future growth on the observability market.
"What makes me the most nervous is the unknown," Smoot said. "I think every CEO right now is panic about what the recession could bring. It keeps us all up at night."
"Chaired a meeting on the Comprehensive Mobility Plan for the state. The plan is aimed at bringing better connectivity and environment friendly transport infrastructure in the state," Sawant tweeted.
During the meeting, Chief Minister directed all the stakeholder departments such as Transport, River Navigation, Caption of Ports, Kadamba Transport Corporation and other agencies to come up with an action plan to implement a comprehensive mobility plan for the State, which would bring in better connectivity and environment friendly transport infrastructure in the State.
At the meeting Consultant Agency Urban Mass Transit Company made a detailed presentation on a comprehensive mobility plan for the State and Master plan for parking in Panaji city.
According to officials, the mobility plan aims to set up a proper network of routes across Goa which would facilitate smooth and hassle free transport in the State.
The mobility plan will comprise proper strategies for Jetty connectivity, Airport connectivity, Multi model Transport Integration, Mobility hubs, network of bus stops, Freight corridors and freight timing for trucks movements and improvement of foot paths.
The meeting discussed various aspects of parking management for Panaji under Imagine Panaji Smart City. The Chief Minister was informed about various provisions made in the master plan for improvement of Junction, Parking spaces and zones which would help to execute scientific management of parking and city planning.
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EYEWITNESS NEWS (WBRE/WYOU)- Governor Tom Wolf announced his plan to provide free school breakfasts for students across the commonwealth this year.
“It is completely unacceptable for a child to start the day hungry,” said Gov. Wolf. “I’m taking hunger off the table for Pennsylvania kids by creating the Universal Free Breakfast Program. Regardless of whether or not they qualify for free or reduced meals normally, every student enrolled in public or private schools will have the opportunity to feed their belly before they feed their mind this school year.”
The plan will go into effect on October 1, 2022, and continue until the end of the 2022-2023 school year.
Wolf said the plan would affect more than 1.7 million children enrolled in public schools, charter schools, child care institutions, as well as career and technology schools.
According to Wolf’s release, the plan would cost about $21.5 million. The program is being funded with leftover funds from the School Food Services General Fund from last year.Copyright 2022 Nexstar Media Inc. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed.
For the latest news, weather, sports, and streaming video, head to PAhomepage.com.
Shane Moore’s focus on his fragmented farm near Athleague, Co Roscommon is turning to next year’s grass, and he is ready to implement an autumn closing plan.
addocks will be closed in rotation from mid to late October, starting with those marked for grazing first next spring.
Closing paddocks on time and keeping them closed until spring will ensure there is sufficient grass available next spring once lambing starts.
The first paddocks will be closed from mid to late October, with the target to have 20pc of the farm closed by the end of the month, 40pc by mid-November, 60pc by late November and 80pc by mid-December.
There will be a temptation to re-graze closed fields in December and January to delay housing ewes but this will have to be ignored as grass is worth much more in the spring to the freshly lambed ewe than in mid-pregnancy.
In recent years Shane — who runs his lowland sheep enterprise alongside a weanling-to-store cattle system — has put a lot of work into developing the grazing infrastructure to allow for sustainable expansion of the ewe flock while maximising performance from grazed grass.
The quantity and quality of grass grown has improved, with temporary fencing used throughout the year to match paddock size to requirement.
To date this year the farm has grown on average 10.9tDM/ha with 97kg N applied/ha between chemical fertiliser and slurry using a dribble bar.
Grass grown is ahead of this time last year, thanks to improvements in soil fertility and grazing management.
Shane’s owned land is split into two main blocks 5km apart, with an additional block of 4ha rented. The land is made up of mainly good, free-draining soil and includes an area of marginal land usually only grazed by the cattle.
Shane is a participant in the Teagasc Signpost Programme and last year was a Grass 10 Grassland Farmer of the Year finalist.
Finishing lambs are running in two groups, with the heavier lambs (>38kg) receiving 500g/head/day of concentrates, and the remainder on grass only.
Over half of the lambs have been drafted and the remainder are moving regularly, growing on average 190g/day during July and August.
Ewe lambs retained for breeding are also running separately and will be weighed and body condition scored (BCS) prior to mating. Any that are over 45kg will be put to Charollais rams two weeks after the rams are joined to the mature ewes.
The mature ewes will joined to rams for five weeks on October 7 after being weighed and BCS’d. Thin ewes were separated two months ago and have been getting preferential feeding.
Any of these that have failed to recover BCS will be culled as this indicates an underlying issue.
At the end of the five weeks rams will be pulled from all ewes to keep the lambing period compact and tie in with Shane’s off-farm work and other work on the farm.
In August the anthelmintic resistance status of the 2-LV: Levamisole (Yellow Group) and 3-ML: Macrocyclic Lactone (Clear Group) drenches on the farm was assessed by carrying out a faecal egg reduction test.
The criteria is that there should be a >95pc reduction in faecal egg counts from the pre- to post-dosing. The Levamisole got a 97pc reduction but the Macrocyclic Lactone failed marginally, on 94.5pc.
These results will form the basis of Shane’s dosing plans; it is a vital measure all farms need to carry out to prevent anthelmintic resistance developing.
Frank Campion is a Teagasc research officer based at Mellows Campus, Co Galway
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