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Exam Code: 200-301 Cisco Certified Network Associate - CCNA 2023 practice questions January 2024 by Killexams.com team

200-301 Cisco Certified Network Associate - CCNA 2023

200-301 CCNA

Certification: CCNA

Duration: 120 minutes

This exam tests your knowledge and skills related to:

- Network fundamentals

- Network access

- IP connectivity

- IP services

- Security fundamentals

- Automation and programmability

The Cisco Certified Network Associate v1.0 (CCNA 200-301) exam is a 120-minute exam associated with the CCNA certification. This exam tests a candidate's knowledge and skills related to network fundamentals, network access, IP connectivity, IP services, security fundamentals, and automation and programmability. The course, Implementing and Administering Cisco Solutions (CCNA), helps candidates prepare for this exam.

20% 1.0 Network Fundamentals

1.1 Explain the role and function of network components

1.1.a Routers

1.1.b L2 and L3 switches

1.1.c Next-generation firewalls and IPS

1.1.d Access points

1.1.e Controllers (Cisco DNA Center and WLC)

1.1.f Endpoints

1.1.g Servers

1.2 Describe characteristics of network topology architectures

1.2.a 2 tier

1.2.b 3 tier

1.2.c Spine-leaf

1.2.d WAN

1.2.e Small office/home office (SOHO)

1.2.f On-premises and cloud

1.3 Compare physical interface and cabling types

1.3.a Single-mode fiber, multimode fiber, copper

1.3.b Connections (Ethernet shared media and point-to-point)

1.3.c Concepts of PoE

1.4 Identify interface and cable issues (collisions, errors, mismatch duplex, and/or speed)

1.5 Compare TCP to UDP

1.6 Configure and verify IPv4 addressing and subnetting

1.7 Describe the need for private IPv4 addressing

1.8 Configure and verify IPv6 addressing and prefix

1.9 Compare IPv6 address types

1.9.a Global unicast

1.9.b Unique local

1.9.c Link local

1.9.d Anycast

1.9.e Multicast

1.9.f Modified EUI 64

1.10 Verify IP parameters for Client OS (Windows, Mac OS, Linux)

1.11 Describe wireless principles 1.11.a Nonoverlapping Wi-Fi channels 1.11.b SSID 1.11.c RF 1.11.d Encryption

1.12 Explain virtualization fundamentals (virtual machines)

1.13 Describe switching concepts

1.13.a MAC learning and aging

1.13.b Frame switching

1.13.c Frame flooding

1.13.d MAC address table

20% 2.0 Network Access

2.1 Configure and verify VLANs (normal range) spanning multiple switches

2.1.a Access ports (data and voice)

2.1.b Default VLAN

2.1.c Connectivity

2.2 Configure and verify interswitch connectivity

2.2.a Trunk ports

2.2.b 802.1Q

2.2.c Native VLAN

2.3 Configure and verify Layer 2 discovery protocols (Cisco Discovery Protocol and LLDP)

2.4 Configure and verify (Layer 2/Layer 3) EtherChannel (LACP)

2.5 Describe the need for and basic operations of Rapid PVST+ Spanning Tree Protocol and identify basic operations

2.5.a Root port, root bridge (primary/secondary), and other port names

2.5.b Port states (forwarding/blocking)

2.5.c PortFast benefits

2.6 Compare Cisco Wireless Architectures and AP modes

2.7 Describe physical infrastructure connections of WLAN components (AP, WLC, access/trunk ports, and LAG)

2.8 Describe AP and WLC management access connections (Telnet, SSH, HTTP, HTTPS, console, and TACACS+/RADIUS)

2.9 Configure the components of a wireless LAN access for client connectivity using GUI only such as WLAN creation, security settings, QoS profiles, and advanced WLAN settings

25% 3.0 IP Connectivity

3.1 Interpret the components of routing table

3.1.a Routing protocol code

3.1.b Prefix

3.1.c Network mask

3.1.d Next hop

3.1.e Administrative distance

3.1.f Metric

3.1.g Gateway of last resort

3.2 Determine how a router makes a forwarding decision by default

3.2.a Longest match

3.2.b Administrative distance

3.2.c Routing protocol metric

3.3 Configure and verify IPv4 and IPv6 static routing

3.3.a Default route

3.3.b Network route

3.3.c Host route

3.3.d Floating static

3.4 Configure and verify single area OSPFv2

3.4.a Neighbor adjacencies

3.4.b Point-to-point

3.4.c Broadcast (DR/BDR selection)

3.4.d Router ID

3.5 Describe the purpose of first hop redundancy protocol

10% 4.0 IP Services

4.1 Configure and verify inside source NAT using static and pools

4.2 Configure and verify NTP operating in a client and server mode

4.3 Explain the role of DHCP and DNS within the network

4.4 Explain the function of SNMP in network operations

4.5 Describe the use of syslog features including facilities and levels

4.6 Configure and verify DHCP client and relay

4.7 Explain the forwarding per-hop behavior (PHB) for QoS such as classification, marking, queuing, congestion, policing, shaping

4.8 Configure network devices for remote access using SSH

4.9 Describe the capabilities and function of TFTP/FTP in the network

15% 5.0 Security Fundamentals

5.1 Define key security concepts (threats, vulnerabilities, exploits, and mitigation techniques)

5.2 Describe security program elements (user awareness, training, and physical access control)

5.3 Configure device access control using local passwords

5.4 Describe security password policies elements, such as management, complexity, and password alternatives (multifactor authentication, certificates, and biometrics)

5.5 Describe remote access and site-to-site VPNs

5.6 Configure and verify access control lists

5.7 Configure Layer 2 security features (DHCP snooping, dynamic ARP inspection, and port security)

5.8 Differentiate authentication, authorization, and accounting concepts

5.9 Describe wireless security protocols (WPA, WPA2, and WPA3)

5.10 Configure WLAN using WPA2 PSK using the GUI

10% 6.0 Automation and Programmability

6.1 Explain how automation impacts network management

6.2 Compare traditional networks with controller-based networking

6.3 Describe controller-based and software defined architectures (overlay, underlay, and fabric)

6.3.a Separation of control plane and data plane

6.3.b North-bound and south-bound APIs

6.4 Compare traditional campus device management with Cisco DNA Center enabled device management

6.5 Describe characteristics of REST-based APIs (CRUD, HTTP verbs, and data encoding)

6.6 Recognize the capabilities of configuration management mechanisms Puppet, Chef, and Ansible

6.7 Interpret JSON encoded data
Cisco Certified Network Associate - CCNA 2023
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Cisco Certified Network Associate - CCNA 2022
Question: 812
Refer to the exhibit.
Which command provides this output?
A. show ip route
B. show cdp neighbor
C. show ip interface
D. show interface
Answer: B
Question: 813
Refer to the exhibit.
Based on the LACP neighbor status, in which mode is the SW1 port channel configured?
A. mode on
B. active
C. passive
D. auto
Answer: B
Question: 814
A frame that enters a switch fails the Frame Check Sequence.
Which two interface counters are incremented? (Choose two.)
A. input errors
B. frame
C. giants
E. runts
Answer: AD
Question: 815
Refer to the exhibit.
Which prefix does Router1 use to Host A?
Answer: D
Question: 816
Refer to the exhibit.
After the switch configuration, the ping test fails between PC A and PC B.
Based on the output for switch 1, which error must be corrected?
A. The PCs are in the incorrect VLA
C. All VLANs are not enabled on the trunk.
D. Access mode is configured on the switch ports.
E. There is a native VLAN mismatch.
Answer: D
Question: 817
In which way does a spine-and-leaf architecture allow for scalability in a network when additional access ports are required?
A. A spine switch and a leaf switch can be added with redundant connections between them.
B. A spine switch can be added with at least 40 GB uplinks.
C. A leaf switch can be added with connections to every spine switch.
D. A leaf switch can be added with a single connection to a core spine switch.
Answer: C
Question: 818
Refer to the exhibit.
Which statement explains the configuration error message that is received?
A. It belongs to a private IP address range.
B. The router does not support /28 mask.
C. It is a network IP address.
D. It is a broadcast IP address.
Answer: D
Question: 819
Which statement identifies the functionality of virtual machines?
A. The hypervisor communicates on Layer 3 without the need for additional resources.
B. Each hypervisor can support a single virtual machine and a single software switch.
C. The hypervisor can virtual physical components including CPU, memory, and storage.
D. Virtualized servers run most efficiently when they are physically connected to a switch that is separate from the hypervisor.
Answer: C
Question: 820
Refer to the exhibit.
How does SW2 interact with other switches in this VTP domain?
A. It transmits and processes VTP updates from any VTP clients on the network on its trunk ports.
B. It processes VTP updates from any VTP clients on the network on its access ports.
C. It receives updates from all VTP servers and forwards all locally configured VLANs out all trunk ports.
D. It forwards only the VTP advertisements that it receives on its trunk ports.
Answer: D
Reference: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/lan-switching/vtp/10558-21.html
Question: 821
Which network allows devices to communicate without the need to access the Internet?
Answer: B
Question: 822
Which two values or settings must be entered when configuring a new WLAN in the Cisco Wireless LAN Controller GUI? (Choose two.)
A. QoS settings
B. IP address of one or more access points
D. profile name
E. management interface settings
Answer: CD
Question: 823
Which statement about Link Aggregation when implementing on a Cisco Wireless LAN Controller is true?
A. The EtherChannel must be configured in “mode activeâ€.
B. When enabled, the WLC bandwidth drops to 500 Mbps.
C. To pass client traffic, two or more ports must be configured.
D. One functional physical port is needed to pass client traffic.
Answer: D
Reference: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/wireless/controller/8-2/config-guide/b_cg82/ b_cg82_chapter_010101011.html
Question: 824
Two switches are connected and using Cisco Dynamic Trunking Protocol. SW1 is set to Dynamic Auto and SW2 is set to Dynamic Desirable.
What is the result of this configuration?
A. The link becomes an access port.
B. The link is in an error disabled state.
C. The link is in a down state.
D. The link becomes a trunk port.
Answer: D
Question: 825
Which IPv6 address type communication between subnets and cannot route on the Internet?
A. link-local
B. unique local
C. multicast
D. global unicast
Answer: B
Question: 826
Which mode must be used to configure EtherChannel between two switches without using a negotiation protocol?
A. active
B. on
C. auto
D. desirable
Answer: B
Question: 827
What is the default behavior of a Layer 2 switch when a frame with an unknown destination MAC address is received?
A. The Layer 2 switch forwards the packet and adds the destination MAC address to its MAC address table.
B. The Layer 2 switch sends a copy of a packet to CPU for destination MAC address learning.
C. The Layer 2 switch floods packets to all ports except the receiving port in the given VLA
E. The Layer 2 switch drops the received frame.
Answer: C
Question: 828
Which result occurs when PortFast is enabled on an interface that is connected to another switch?
A. Root port choice and spanning tree recalculation are accelerated when a switch link goes down.
B. After spanning tree converges, PortFast shuts down any port that receives BPDUs.
C. VTP is allowed to propagate VLAN configuration information from switch to switch automatically.
D. Spanning tree may fail to detect a switching loop in the network that causes broadcast storms.
Answer: D
Question: 829
Refer to the exhibit.
Which action do the switches take on the trunk link?
A. The trunk does not form, and the ports go into an err-disabled status.
B. The trunk forms, but the mismatched native VLANs are merged into a single broadcast domain.
C. The trunk forms, but VLAN 99 and VLAN 999 are in a shutdown state.
D. The trunk does not form, but VLAN 99 and VLAN 999 are allowed to traverse the link.
Answer: B
Question: 830
What is the primary effect of the spanning-tree portfast command?
A. It immediately enables the port in the listening state.
B. It immediately puts the port into the forwarding state when the switch is reloaded.
C. It enabled BPDU messages.
D. It minimizes spanning-tree convergence time.
Answer: D
Reference: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/switches/lan/catalyst3560/software/release/12-2_55_se/ configuration/guide/3560_scg/swstpopt.html
Question: 831
Which QoS Profile is selected in the GUI when configuring a voice over WLAN deployment?
A. Platinum
B. Bronze
C. Gold
D. Silver
Answer: A
Reference: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/wireless-mobility/wireless-lan-wlan/81831-qoswlc-lap.html
Question: 832
An engineer must configure a /30 subnet between two routes.
Which usable IP address and subnet mask combination meets this criteria?
A. interface e0/0description to HQ-A370:98968ip address
B. interface e0/0description to HQ-A370:98968ip address
C. interface e0/0description to HQ-A370:98968ip address
D. interface e0/0description to HQ-A370:98968ip address
Answer: D
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Best IT Certifications for 2024

Earning specialized certifications is a surefire way to advance your career in the IT field, regardless of industry or current career level. The right certification validates your skills and knowledge, which makes you more desirable to future employers who want to attract and retain the best employees. Below, we’ll explore the top IT certifications and share how to examine your goals to choose the right path forward. 

We’ve narrowed IT certifications into specific categories to help IT professionals assess what’s available and pursue the best certifications to show their willingness to learn and develop the in-demand career skills employers want.

Best database certifications 

Database platforms have changed greatly over the years, but database technology remains important for various applications and computing tasks. Available certifications for IT professionals include those for database administrators (DBAs), database developers, data analysts and architects, business intelligence, and data warehousing specialists, and other data professionals.

Obtaining database certifications demonstrates an understanding of database concepts, design, implementation, administration and security. This can boost your credibility in the job market and show potential employers that you have the skills needed to work with databases. The best database certifications include the following:

Best SAS certifications 

SAS is one of the world’s leading firms for business analytics, data warehousing and data mining. Today, the SAS Global Certification Program offers 23 credentials across categories including foundation tools, advanced analytics, business intelligence, data management and administration.

SAS programmers remain in high demand, with a quick search of job boards showing thousands of open positions. Obtaining SAS certification shows employers that you are proficient in the company’s popular suite of tools. Some of SAS’s certification programs include the following: 

Many professionals earn certifications to help navigate their career paths. According to the IT Salary Report, 92 percent of information technology professionals have at least one certification.

Best Cisco certifications 

Cisco Systems is a market leader not only in networking and communications products, but also storage networking and solutions for data centers. Cisco offers a variety of certifications for IT professionals, ranging from entry level credentials to expert-level exams. 

These certifications prepare professionals for Cisco-related careers. A search of job boards reveals thousands of open positions for Cisco experts, underscoring the continued relevance of these skills. Some of Cisco’s certifications include the following:

Best Dell certifications 

Dell Technologies remains one of the world’s leading computing companies. In addition to its well-known hardware lineup, Dell also offers solutions for networks, storage, servers, gateways and embedded computing, as well as a broad range of IT and business services.

Becoming certified in Dell products can help make IT professionals competitive in engineering roles for server, virtualization, networking, systems, integration and data security. Additional roles include consultants, account executives, system administrators, IT managers and deployment managers.

Best mobility certifications 

In the mobile era, it has become increasingly important for network engineers to support local, remote and mobile users, as well as provide proper infrastructure. The focus on application and app development now leans more toward mobile environments, requiring security professionals to thoroughly address mobility from all perspectives.

Due to the fast-changing nature of mobile technology, not many mobility certifications have become widely adopted. However, a few of the top mobility certifications can help IT professionals stand out in this rapidly evolving field. 

If part of your job includes selling and implementing an IT solution, you may want to pursue the best sales certifications. You’ll show your organization that you’re willing to go above and beyond to reach sales targets.

Best computer hardware certifications 

As remote and computer-based work has become more common, it’s more important than ever that businesses and individuals be able to maintain their hardware. While discussions about potential computer-related jobs often revolve around software work and coding, jumping into the IT field by becoming a computer technician is an excellent starting point.

Today, thousands of hardware technician jobs are available across the country. Entering this industry becomes more accessible for those who acquire computer hardware certifications. These certifications can showcase your expertise and proficiency in the upkeep of computers, mobile devices, printers and other hardware components.

Best Google Cloud certifications 

IT pros with solid cloud computing skills continue to be in high demand as more companies adopt cloud technologies. Today, Google Cloud is one of the market leaders in the cloud computing space. 

Regardless of where you are in your IT career, engaging with certification programs can demonstrate your willingness to keep on top of rapidly evolving cloud technologies. To that end, Google has introduced a host of certifications for its cloud platform, including the following: 

Best evergreen IT certifications

In the fast-changing world of technology, it can help to focus on certifications that have stood the test of time. “Evergreen” refers to certifications that remain popular year after year. 

The top evergreen certifications are based on accurate pay surveys in IT, reports from IT professionals about certifications they want or pursue the most, and those that appear most frequently in online job postings. Obtaining these credentials is one step toward ensuring that your skills remain relevant for a long time: 

Best IT governance certifications 

IT governance provides structure for aligning a company’s IT with its business strategies. Organizations faced with compliance rigors always need experienced IT pros who can see the big picture and understand technology risks. This means certified IT governance professionals are likely to remain in high demand.

Earning one of the following certifications proves a commitment to understanding the role of IT governance and its position in a company’s current and future success. Getting certified can validate your expert knowledge and lead to advanced career opportunities.

Best system administrator certifications 

An IT system administrator is responsible for managing and maintaining the information technology infrastructure within an organization. The position demands sought-after career skills, ranging from configuring and maintaining servers and clients to managing access controls, network services, and addressing application resource requirements.

If you’re in charge of managing modern servers, there’s a long list of tools and technologies that system administrators must master. Obtaining some of the most prominent system administrator certifications can demonstrate your mastery to potential employers. 

Best ITIL certifications 

ITIL, or Information Technology Infrastructure Library, was developed to establish standardized best practices for IT services within government agencies. Over the ensuing four decades, businesses of all types embraced, modified, and extended ITIL, shaping it into a comprehensive framework for managing IT service delivery. 

The ITIL framework remains the benchmark for best practices in IT service and delivery management, offering certification programs that cater to IT professionals at all levels. These training and certification courses ensure that IT professionals stay well-prepared for the ongoing evolution in IT service delivery management. There are four certifications in the ITIL certification program:

Best enterprise architect certifications 

An IT enterprise architect is responsible for designing and managing the overall structure and framework of an organization’s information technology system. Enterprise architect certifications are among the highest that an IT professional can achieve; fewer than 1 percent ultimately reach this level. 

Enterprise architects are among the highest-paid employees and consultants in the tech industry. These certifications can put IT professionals on a path to many lucrative positions. The average worker earns over six figures annually. Some top enterprise architect certifications are listed below:

To become an enterprise IT architect, you’ll need knowledge of systems deployment, design and architecture, as well as a strong business foundation.

Best CompTIA certifications

CompTIA is a nonprofit trade association made up of more than 2,000 member organizations and 3,000 business partners. The organization’s vendor-neutral certification program is one of the best recognized in the IT industry. Since CompTIA developed its A+ credential in 1993, it has issued more than two million certifications.

CompTIA certifications are grouped by skill set and focus on the real-world skills IT professionals need. Armed with these credentials, you can demonstrate that you know how to manage and support IT infrastructure. 

Best Oracle certifications 

A longtime leader in database software, Oracle also offers cloud solutions, servers, engineered systems, storage, and more. The company has more than 430,000 customers in 175 countries. 

Today, Oracle’s training program offers six certification levels that span 16 product categories with more than 200 individual credentials. Considering the depth and breadth of this program — and the number of Oracle customers — it’s no surprise that Oracle certifications are highly sought after. 

Vendor-specific certifications address a particular vendor’s hardware and software. For example, you can pursue Oracle certifications and Dell certifications to become an expert in those companies’ environments.

Best business continuity and disaster recovery certifications

Business continuity and disaster recovery keep systems running and data available in the event of interruptions or faults. These programs bring systems back to normal operation after a disaster has occurred.

Business continuity and disaster recovery certifications are seeing a healthy uptrend as new cloud-based tools grow in popularity. While business continuity planning and disaster recovery planning have always been essential, they’re becoming more critical than ever — and IT certifications are following suit.

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Exam Procedures

Your exam invitation, or Notice to Schedule (NTS), email from Meazure Learning will have links for you to check your computer system. If you take your exam online, it is important to verify that your computer meets the minimum requirements and that you have reliable access to the Internet. An internet connection disruption will suspend the exam session. 

IMPORTANT: If taking the exam online, you must use a computer on which you have full admin access.


  • You must be alone in the room throughout the test
  • You are required to have a webcam installed on your exam workstation
  • PC computers are recommended; however MACs are also acceptable
  • Chromebooks, tablets, iPads, dual/multiple monitors, and projectors are not permitted to be used as a testing device
  • Your computer must meet the system and equipment requirements listed here

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​If you have computer system questions after following the instructions provided by Meazure Learning's schedule confirmation email, please contact Meazure Learning at +1 919-572-6880 or candidatesupport@meazurelearning.com.

Note: Meazure Learning, Scantron, and ProctorU are all one-and-the-same organization.

  • Your valid, government issued photo ID (e.g., driver's license, passport, state-issued ID card) 
  • The printed exam confirmation notice you received from Meazure Learning
  • No other items can be brought into the exam environment 
    • A calculator and any other necessary resource materials will be provided on the computer for those taking the exam electronically
    • No reference material will be allowed in any test room
    • Please note that storage space will be limited

For all CCST level exams, Units Conversion Tables will be provided to candidates in either paper format (paper/pencil exams) or accessible within the electronic test interface for reference during the exam. Click here to review the Units Conversion Tables.

It is important to be certain when selecting the method and time you want to take the exam. You may incur fees if you change the time and method of testing. Exams must be scheduled in advance as follows: 

  • Candidates in the United States and Canada: you must submit your scheduling request at least two calendar days prior to your desired exam date
  • Candidates in other countries: you must submit your scheduling request at least five calendar days prior to your desired exam date

If you are within your exam window or eligibility period, you may reschedule your exam appointment before the online and Exam Center reschedule cut-off times via the online exam scheduling system. If you are outside your exam window and want to request an extension, please contact certifications@isa.org.

Changing from online exam to another online exam

There is no rescheduling fee. However, it must be changed no less than 24 hours prior to the scheduled appointment date and time.

Changing from online exam to Exam Center exam

There is no rescheduling fee. However, it must be changed at least 24 hours in advance of the scheduled appointment. Additionally, you must reschedule the new appointment no less than two calendar days in advance of the new appointment at a Meazure Learning test center.

Changing from Exam Center exam to another Exam Center exam

You will incur a rescheduling fee of 50 USD. Rescheduling fees are payable to Meazure Learning via a secure e-commerce site (credit card). The reschedule cut-off time is no later than two calendar days prior to the exam appointment. Additionally, if you are scheduling a new online exam appointment, it must be done no less than 24 hours prior to the new appointment date and time.

Reschedule Fees:

CAP Associate and CST Associate:
  • ISA members: 76 USD
  • Non-members: 95 USD
All other Certificate Programs:
  • ISA members: 120 USD
  • Non-members: 150 USD
CAP Certification Program:
  • ISA members: 108 USD 
  • Non-members: 135 USD
CCST Certificate Programs:
  • ISA members: 116 USD
  • Non-members: 145 USD

You can cancel an exam through Meazure Learning's online exam scheduling system.

  • Online exam appointments must be cancelled no less than 24 hours prior to the scheduled appointment date and time. There is no cancellation fee
  • Exam center appointments must be cancelled no less than two calendar days prior to the scheduled testing appointment. There is a cancellation fee of 50 USD payable to Meazure Learning via a secure e-commerce site (credit card)

You may retest as many times as needed, if you do not pass or if you miss your scheduled exam, within your exam window or eligibility period. However, there is a fee each time that is payable to ISA. If you need to retest or have missed your exam, you must submit a request to certifications@isa.org.

If a candidate fails their exam, they may retest as many times as needed within their 12-month certification exam window or six-month certificate eligibility period. There is a fee each time retesting is needed. If a candidate does not pass the exam within the program exam deadline, the applicant must reapply for that certification or register again for the certificate course to sit for the exam.

If you fail to appear for a scheduled exam or arrive more than 15 minutes after the scheduled start time, you will be considered a no-show and forfeit your exam. However, you may retake a missed exam by paying a rescheduling fee to ISA if you are within your exam window or eligibility period. To request a rescheduled exam, email certifications@isa.org with your request. See exam procedures section #4, Rescheduling an Exam, for reschedule fee costs.

You may qualify for an exception if you meet certain conditions and submit documentation to Meazure Learning no later than five calendar days after the scheduled exam appointment. If the exception is approved, there will be a no-show exemption fee of 50 USD payable via secure e-commerce (credit card) and collected by Meazure Learning. Please contact Meazure Learning by phone at +1 919-572-6880 or email candidatesupport@meazurelearning.com for more details.

All ISA certification exams are closed-book and have multiple choice questions.  We apply a modified Angoff Method to determine the pass point for each exam (learn more about the modified Angoff Method below). Our certification exams last between 3 and 4 hours and our certificate exams last two hours.

ISA does not provide a passing score; you are only notified whether you passed or failed. If you fail an exam, you will receive a score report that lists the domains and indicates the percentage of questions answered correctly within each domain. Note that the percentages are not used to calculate a candidate’s passing score.

You will see your exam results on the screen at the completion of the exam. You will also receive your exam results immediately via email from (candidatesupport@meazurelearning.com). If you do not receive an email containing your results within 24 hours, please contact Meazure Learning by phone at +1 919-572-6880 or email candidatesupport@meazurelearning.com for assistance. 

If you pass your exam, you will receive an email containing a digital badge from isa_badges@isa.org within one business day of completing the exam. To access, manage, and/or share your secure digital badge, use your email address and password to enter your BadgeCert portfolio. If it is the first time accessing your portfolio or if you have forgotten your password, click “Request new password?” on their login page to create your password. More information about using your digital badge can be found here.

Be advised that we update our databases and systems with the previous month’s exam data in the first part of the following month.  ISA will update your credential status on the “My Credentials” tab from your ISA account and in ISA's Credential Directory within the first ten (10) business days of the following month you took your exam.

Modified Angoff Method

The modified Angoff Method uses expert judgements to determine the difficulty level of the exam. The easier the exam, the higher the pass point. Likewise, the more difficult the exam, the lower the pass point. The following is a basic outline of the modified Angoff Method (some details have been omitted):

  • A group of subject matter experts (SMEs) independently rate each exam question within a given form of the exam. The ratings are defined as the probability, or likelihood, that an acceptably (minimally) competent person with the requisite education and experience will answer the question correctly. An acceptably (minimally) competent person is defined as someone who adequately performs all job functions safely and requires no further training to do so.
  • The SMEs review each exam question as a group. A statistical consensus is reached for the difficulty rating of each exam question.
  • After the data is refined, the final step is to calculate the mean, or average, of all the exam question ratings. This becomes the overall pass point estimation.
Fri, 16 Jun 2023 11:37:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.isa.org/certification/exam-procedures
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An old vulnerability under active exploitation; updates on ongoing incidents.

Dateline: Hybrid wars in Ukraine, Russia, Israel, and Gaza.

Ukraine at D+665: Reprisals for the Kyivstar hack. (CyberWire) Ukrainian hacktivist auxiliaries undertake reprisals for the Kyivstar hack, and Russian disinformation tacks toward a narrative of the Russian World as it takes advantage of technological advances.

Hamas insists on end to Israel’s offensive in Gaza before hostage talks can begin (the Guardian) UN security council resolution calling for ceasefire and more aid deliveries delayed again at the request of the US

Russia-Ukraine war: List of key events, day 666 (Al Jzeera) As the war enters its 666th day, these are the main developments.

Russia shells 6 communities in Sumy Oblast (The Kyiv Independent) Russian forces attacked six communities along the Sumy Oblast border on Dec. 20, firing 14 times over the course of the day, the Sumy Oblast military administration reported.

Captured Russian weapons, an ammo crisis and a new NATO ally: 5 stories from Europe in 2023 (Breaking Defense) Alliance expansion might force Russia to reassess a strategic calculus around a war beyond Ukraine’s borders, but tough questions around just how long Kyiv can defend itself are beginning to be asked.

While Washington Dickers, Tiny Bulgaria Races To Supply Ukraine With Bullets, Tank Shells, and Armor (The New York Sun) Russia’s neighbors — from Norway and Finland to Romania and Bulgaria — see helping Ukraine as an existential necessity for the defense of eastern and…

Expert Opinion: To Win in Ukraine, We Must Prove Putin Wrong (The Cipher Brief) Cipher Brief expert and former Chief of CIA's Central Eurasia Division Rob Dannenberg shares his insights on how to win in Ukraine

Putin’s dead end | The Strategist (The Strategist) In his annual press conference, Russian President Vladimir Putin made it clear that he will be ready for a peace settlement with Ukraine only after he has achieved his goals, which haven’t changed since he ...

Orban Isn’t the EU’s Trump (World Politics Review) The EU’s struggle to manage rogue member states is a chronic but manageable condition. The US’ Trump problem is much more acute.

European Allies’ Views of Russia’s Nuclear Policy after the Escalation of Its War in Ukraine (Real Clear Defense) Russia’s nuclear threats have not gone unnoticed among citizens of European nations, including in those countries that reportedly host U.S. battlefield (also sometimes called tactical or short-range) nuclear weapons (Belgium, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Turkey[1]).

Ukraine’s Front-Line Troops Are Getting Older: ‘Physically, I Can’t Handle This’ (Wall Street Journal) Corruption and fear are hindering effort to rebuild army

Ukrainian hackers breach Rosvodokanal, seize data of Russia's largest private water utility (RBC-Ukraine) Ukrainian hackers, reportedly with support from the Security Service (SSU), sought revenge for the accurate cyberattack on Kyivstar and destroyed the IT infrastructure of the Russian major private water-supply company Rosvodokanal, according to RBC-Ukraine's own sources.

Ukrainian hackers report successful attack on Russian Bitrix service (Ukrainska Pravda) Hackers from the IT Army of Ukraine have announced that they have carried out a successful attack on the servers of Bitrix24, a service used by major Russian companies such as Rosneft.

Uninterrupted communications for critical infrastructure: Ukraine gets 5,000 more Starlinks from Poland (Ministry of Digital Transformation of Ukraine) The Polish government has handed over another 5,000 Starlinks to Ukraine. The terminals are being transferred to critical infrastructure facilities and frontline areas to ensure uninterrupted communications.

How pro-Russian 'yacht' propaganda influenced US debate over Ukraine aid (BBC) A false rumour spread by a dubious AI-powered website caught the attention of leading politicians.

The legal case for seizing Russia’s assets (Financial Times) G7 allies are debating whether to spend Moscow’s frozen funds to support Ukraine

Germany moves to seize €720mn of Russian group’s assets (Financial Times) Bid to take cash from financial institution comes as west explores ways to seize assets of Russia’s central bank

U.S. Makes a New Attempt to Stifle Russian Oil Trade (Wall Street Journal) Treasury Department imposes blocking sanctions on three trading firms that have emerged as important players in the Russian petroleum market

Russia Jails Men for Funding Far-Right Ukraine Group (The Moscow Times) Russia on Thursday handed long jail sentences to a Ukrainian man and another individual for financing an ultranationalist group in Ukraine by selling illegal drugs.

Attacks, Threats, and Vulnerabilities

Web injections are back on the rise: 40+ banks affected by new malware campaign (Security Intelligence) DanaBot is a sophisticated banking trojan targeting financial institutions and their customers. Now, a new global campaign has put more users at risk.

This JavaScript code hit 50K online banking sessions in 2023 (Register) Why keeping your PC secure and free of malware remains paramount

Crypto scammers abuse Twitter ‘feature’ to impersonate high-profile accounts (BleepingComputer) Cryptocurrency scammers are abusing a legitimate Twitter "feature" to promote scams, fake giveaways, and fraudulent Telegram channels used to steal your crypto and NFTs.

Threat Actors Exploit CVE-2017-11882 To Deliver Agent Tesla (Zscaler) Understand how threat actors exploit CVE-2017-11882 to deliver Agent Tesla for data exfiltration

Attackers Exploit 6-Year-Old Microsoft Office Bug to Spread Spyware (Dark Reading) Malicious attachments that exploit an RCE flaw from 2017 are propagating Agent Tesla, via socially engineered emails and an evasive infection method.

Intellexa and Cytrox: From fixer-upper to Intel Agency-grade spyware (Cisco Talos Blog) Talos revealed that rebooting an iOS or Android device may not remove the Predator spyware produced by Intellexa. Intellexa knows if their customers intend to perform surveillance operations on foreign soil.

Cybercriminals target UAE residents, visitors in new info-stealing campaign (Record) A group of hackers in accurate months has attempted to steal personal and financial information from residents and visitors of the United Arab Emirates in a new text-based phishing campaign, according to new research.

Cybercrims target hotel staff for management credentials (Register) Research highlights how major attacks like those exploiting Booking.com are executed

The Naughty List: scammers exploit Christmas Eve rush with fake deliveries (Group-IB) Group-IB, a leading creator of cybersecurity technologies to investigate, prevent, and fight digital crime, has detected a sharp increase in the number of fake delivery websites just weeks before Christmas.

Seasonal-themed scams hit user inboxes in the run-up to Christmas, Bitdefender Antispam Lab warns (Hot for Security) During the winter holidays, online scams and unsolicited emails increase considerably and malicious spammers, as usual, begin celebrating early.

Microsoft Alert: COLDRIVER Credential Theft Rising Again (TuxCare) Stay informed on the surge in COLDRIVER credential theft. Microsoft's alert reveals the latest tactics. Safeguard your data now!

Hacker Sells Access to Customer Data from Brazil ISPs (SafetyDetectives) A hacker is selling information allegedly stolen from Brazil-based internet service providers (ISPs) The SafetyDetectives cybersecurity team found a forum post

Nearly 3 million affected by ransomware attack on medical software firm (Record) Austin-based ESO Solutions said a ransomware attack allowed hackers to access patient health information.

Indian tech giant HCL investigating ransomware attack (Record) In a regulatory filing, HCL Technologies said it “has become aware of a ransomware incident in an isolated cloud environment for one of its projects.”

Wolverine part of massive Insomniac Games leak after ransomware deadline passes (The Verge) 1.67 terabytes of data comprising over 1.3 million files.

Data Leak Exposes 1.5 Billion Real Estate Records, Including Elon Musk, Kylie Jenner (Hackread - Latest Cybersecurity News, Press Releases & Technology Today) A Campbell, New York-based real estate training platform called Real Estate Wealth Network exposed a massive treasure trove of real estate records due to cloud server misconfiguration.

COC alerts employees to third-party data breach  (Santa Clarita Valley Signal) Unauthorized data breach via the college’s insurance provider affects more than 2,400 current, former employees  College of the Canyons is communicating with more than 2,400 affected personnel after an unauthorized data breach through its insurance provider, according to Eric Harnish, a spokesman for the college.  Keenan & Associates, a Torrance-based consulting and brokerage firm which […]

Security Patches, Mitigations, and Software Updates

Apple Releases Security Updates for Multiple Products (Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency | CISA) Apple has released security updates to address vulnerabilities in Safari, iOS, iPadOS, and macOS Sonoma. A cyber threat actor could exploit one of these vulnerabilities to obtain sensitive information.

Mozilla Releases Security Updates for Firefox and Thunderbird | CISA (Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency CISA)

Annual Payment Fraud Intelligence Report: 2023 (Recorded Future) Throughout 2023, many indications suggested that the payment fraud underground has begun to recover from Russian law enforcement’s crackdown against domestic cybercriminals and the subsequent full-scale Russian invasion of Ukraine in 2022.

Regulators Got Tough on Cyber in 2023 as Crime Soared (Wall Street Journal) Regulators Got Tough on Cyber in 2023 as Crime Soared

7 Security Trends to Watch Heading into 2024 (Information Week) Challenges and opportunities old and new will shape another year in the cybersecurity space.

Tracking Ransomware: November 2023 (CYFIRMA) This CYFIRMA Monthly Ransomware Report thoroughly analyses ransomware activity in November 2023, covering significant attacks, the top five ransomware families, geographical distribution, targeted industries, evolution of attacks, vulnerabilities exploited by ransomware groups, and trends


Proofpoint closes acquisition of Tessian (iTWire) Cybersecurity and compliance company Proofpoint has completed the acquisition of AI-based Cloud Email Security provider Tessian. Proofpoint says combining its industry-leading threat and data loss protection technology and intelligence with Tessan's AI-powered behavioral and dynamic detection wi...

Anthropic to Raise $750 Million in Menlo Ventures-Led Deal (The Information) Anthropic is in talks to raise $750 million in a venture round led by Menlo Ventures that values the two-year-old artificial intelligence startup at $15 billion not including the investment, more than three times its valuation this spring, according to two people with direct knowledge of the ...

BlackBerry posts surprise quarterly profit on resilient cybersecurity demand (Moneycontrol) BlackBerry (BB.TO) reports unexpected quarterly profit, driven by robust demand for cybersecurity services amid escalating online threats; stable spending despite overall IT downturn.

Cybersecurity Leader Ranell Gonzales Joins Cybrella as Vice President of Global Sales and Alliances (PR Newswire) Cybrella, a prominent player in the cybersecurity advisory space, is thrilled to welcome Ranell Gonzales as the new Vice President of Global...

Products, Services, and Solutions

Independent Technical Evaluation from Technology Advancement Center Finds Darktrace Federal Cyber AI Mission Defense Provides Comprehensive Visibility and Detection for IT and OT Environments (PR Newswire) Darktrace Federal announced that the Technology Advancement Center (TAC) completed an independent technical evaluation of the Darktrace Federal...

Saviynt Recognized as a 2023 Gartner® Peer Insights™ Customers’ Choice for IGA (Saviynt) Converged identity security company is recognized as a Customers’ Choice for 3 years in a row

Saviynt helps Danfoss cut the time to onboard new employees by 83 percent (Saviynt) Saviynt Enterprise Identity Cloud enables engineering and manufacturing company to manage and secure 45,000 digital identities across 100 countries

The Limitations of Google Play Integrity API (ex SafetyNet) (Approov) Explore the history, uses, and limitations of the Google Play Integrity API (formerly SafetyNet); compare and contrast it with Approov's mobile security.

Stellar Cyber integrates with SentinelOne for enhanced cybersecurity across environments (Help Net Security) Stellar Cyber and SentinelOne integration boosts cybersecurity across on-premises, cloud, hybrid, and IT/OT environments.

Microsoft teams up with Silobreaker to enhance cybersecurity with MDTI intelligence (MSPoweruser) Microsoft and Silobreaker announced an integration between Microsoft Defender Threat Intelligence (MDTI) and Silobreaker's 360 Search platform. 

Technologies, Techniques, and Standards

The Disturbing Impact of the Cyberattack at the British Library (The New Yorker) The library has been incapacitated since October, and the effects have spread beyond researchers and book lovers.

The cult of tech could push us into a new Dark Age (The Telegraph) It is senseless to destroy historical documents and assume digital versions will survive the centuries

CISA seeking comments on its ‘secure by design’ guidance (FedScoop) The agency’s request for information on its software security white paper “acknowledges that security by design is not easy,” and that additional comments from manufacturers and other interested parties are needed.

What's the Best Way to Communicate After a Data Breach? (Dark Reading) So you've had a data breach, and now you need to take the next step. Here's a guide for communicators dealing with security incidents from Ashley Sawatsky of Rootly.

Research and Development

The FTC Voice Cloning Challenge (US Federal Trade Commission) Voice cloning technology is becoming increasing sophisticated due to improving text-to-speech AI.

GPT and other AI models can't analyze an SEC filing, researchers find (CNBC) The findings from Patronus AI highlight some of the challenges of using AI models within big companies in regulated industries like finance.

Legislation, Policy, and Regulation

Biden administration takes first step toward writing key AI standards (Reuters) The Biden administration said on Tuesday it was taking the first step toward writing key standards and guidance for the safe deployment of generative artificial intelligence and how to test and safeguard systems.

How Congress can rein in data brokers (CyberScoop) Know your customer rules are a first step to address the risks of sensitive data — including on U.S. military servicemembers — sold online.

U.S. Regulators Propose New Online Privacy Safeguards for Children (New York Times) The F.T.C. called for sweeping changes that could curb how social media, game and learning apps use and monetize youngsters’ data.

FTC Proposes Curbing Targeted Advertising to Children Online (Wall Street Journal) Agency seeks to bolster 1998 law by requiring targeted ads for children to be turned off by default

FTC proposes tougher children’s data privacy rules for first time in a decade (Record) The agency is proposing new restrictions on the use and disclosure of children’s personal data and wants to make it much harder for companies to exclude children from their services if they can’t monetize their data.

The Obscure Google Deal That Defines America’s Broken Privacy Protections (WIRED) Google’s doomed social network Buzz led US regulators to force Google and Meta to monitor their own data use. Insiders say the results were mixed, as pressure mounts for a federal privacy law.

Litigation, Investigation, and Law Enforcement

Julian Assange's 'Final' Appeal Against US Extradition to be Held in February (Voice of America) Assange is wanted by the U.S. on 18 counts relating to WikiLeaks' release of confidential U.S. military records

ALPHV's Downfall? The 2023 Crackdown on BlackCat Ransomware (Flashpoint) Exploring the impact of ALPHV's ransomware blog takedown by law enforcement and its impact on the greater cyber threat landscape

ALPHV Ransomware Site Outage: What We Know So Far (ReliaQuest) The ALPHV ransomware data-leak site has been offline for 30 hours, raising speculation of disruption by law enforcement activity. Here's what we know so far.

How hard has the BlackCat ransomware group been hit by the FBI? (Tech Wire Asia) The BlackCat ransomware group has been around since November 2021 targeting organizations globally. Has the FBI just hit it hard?

German police take down Kingdom Market, a darknet emporium of illicit goods (Record) German police said they posted a takedown notice on the website and are now analyzing Kingdom Market's server infrastructure to identify the people behind the website's operation.

AI cannot be patent 'inventor', UK Supreme Court rules in landmark case (Reuters) A U.S. computer scientist on Wednesday lost his bid to register patents over inventions created by his artificial intelligence system in a landmark case in Britain about whether AI can own patent rights.

Judge Gives Prosecutors Access to G.O.P. Lawmaker’s Messages in Jan. 6 Case (New York Times) The roughly 1,700 messages are from the cellphone of Representative Scott Perry, who was involved in discussions with Trump administration officials about overturning the election.

Rite Aid Banned From Using AI Facial Recognition in FTC Settlement (Wall Street Journal) The company said it ‘fundamentally’ disagrees with the allegations

The couch surfing predator: how a group of women were drugged and assaulted – then fought back (the Guardian) Dino Maglio, a former Italian police officer, opened up his home to young women travellers, many of whom suffered at his hands. As scattered as they were, legal action seemed impossible. But as their numbers grew, so too did their determination ...

Brazil’s First Lady Clashes With Elon Musk Over Hacked X Account (Bloomberg) Janja has threatened to sue over slow response to breach. Musk says his platform bears no responsibility for hacking.

Thu, 21 Dec 2023 03:21:00 -0600 text/html https://thecyberwire.com/newsletters/daily-briefing/12/242
How To Get PMP Certification: Is PMP Certification Worth It?

Editorial Note: We earn a commission from partner links on Forbes Advisor. Commissions do not affect our editors' opinions or evaluations.

Project Management Professional (PMP)® certification can make you stand out against the competition in the field of project management. If you’ve wondered how to get PMP certification, know that you must first complete work experience, training courses and an exam.

But is PMP certification worth it? In this article, we’ll explore what it takes to get certified, how much you might have to pay and how PMP certification can help you level up your project management career.

What Is PMP Certification?

Professional certifications verify your career skills and allow you to learn more about important concepts and industry best practices that can help in your day-to-day operations.

PMP certification is the most widely recognized in the world of project management. It’s available through the Project Management Institute (PMI), which publishes the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK). The PMBOK is the Holy Grail of knowledge when it comes to project management concepts.

PMP certification demonstrates a strong understanding of the concepts set forth in the PMBOK and other reference materials. This designation can help you distinguish yourself from your peers and gain respected credentials in your field. Along the way, you’ll learn about concepts like Agile, waterfall project scheduling, leadership and business management.

How to Sign Up for PMP Certification

The first step to earning PMP certification is to begin work in the field of project management. PMP certification requires months of work experience. Precise requirements vary depending on your level of education. If you have a bachelor’s degree, you’ll need 36 months of relevant project experience to qualify for the PMP credential. Without a degree, you must complete 60 months of experience.

If you have this work experience or are working toward it, the next step is to complete at least 35 hours of formal PMP training, also called “contact hours,” or hold a current CAPM certification. You can complete contact hours through a PMP certification course, which you may take online or in person. These courses take a few weeks to a few months to complete, and they teach the concepts you should understand before taking the PMP certification exam.

Below, we’ll discuss how to get a PMP certification in more detail, including prerequisites and PMP exam costs.

PMP Certification Requirements

You must accomplish a certain amount of professional experience and formal training before you qualify for PMP certification.

If you have completed high school or an associate degree but not a bachelor’s, PMP certification requirements are as follows.

  • 60 months leading projects
  • 35 contact hours

If you have a bachelor’s degree, you must complete the following before pursuing PMP certification.

  • 36 months leading projects
  • 35 contact hours

PMP Cost

Most PMP certification training programs (through which you can earn your contact hours) range in cost from around $300 to around $3,000. Courses offered through well-known colleges and universities tend to cost more, but many also offer for-credit programs that result in undergraduate or graduate certificates. Consider a program that holds GAC accreditation when searching for courses. Free PMP certification training is available through some resources, but usually only for short trial periods.

To sit for the exam, the cost is $405 for PMI members or $575 for nonmembers.

PMP Time Commitment

How long does it take to get PMP certification? The most time-consuming part of the PMP certification process is completing the required work experience. Start documenting your work experience as soon as you consider applying for PMP certification. Once you get that experience under your belt, the rest of the certification process involves studying and scheduling your test. The time spent on this step can vary depending on your schedule and study habits, location and testing center availability.

Most PMP certification training courses take only a few weeks to a few months to complete. After that, it’s up to you how much time you spend studying for the certification exam. Retakes cost $275 for PMI members and $375 for nonmembers, so it’s best to go into the exam as prepared as possible.

PMP Renewal Costs

Once you’ve passed the PMP exam, you must complete a certain level of continuing education to keep your certification active. The renewal fee, due every three years, is $60 for PMI members or $150 for nonmembers.

Is PMP Certification Worth It?

To determine whether PMP certification is worth it to you, weigh the costs of certification against the potential benefits. Since we’ve listed the costs of PMP certification above, you likely have a good idea of the investment you’d need to make to get certified. Now, it’s time to consider your potential return on that investment.

Benefits of PMP certification

  • Salary increase. PMPs in the U.S. earn about 32% more than their non-certified peers in project management.
  • Greater respect in the industry. The Project Management Institute is the leading organization for project management knowledge and the publisher of the PMBOK. Earning PMP certification through PMI carries lots of weight in the project management industry.
  • Greater career opportunities. Holding PMP certification should make you more marketable when it comes to looking for better or different positions in project management.

Consider Your Career

Are you looking to make a career change? Move into a higher role in your current team? In either case, PMP certification could be just what you need to level up your career. As part of the certification process, you’ll learn industry best practices that you can start incorporating into your day-to-day work life immediately.

Look at Earning Potential vs. Certification Cost

According to PMI, PMP-certified professionals in the U.S. earn a median annual salary of $123,000, compared to a median of $93,000 for their non-certified colleagues. This translates to a 32% salary increase for certified PMPs.

Multiply your current salary by 1.32 to estimate your potential PMP certification salary. You can then weigh that salary increase against the cost of PMP certification training and the PMP exam. This cost vs. benefit analysis can help you understand whether PMP certification would be worth it for you.

Mon, 11 Dec 2023 23:13:00 -0600 Christin Perry en-US text/html https://www.forbes.com/advisor/education/get-pmp-certification/
Unattributed cyberespionage campaigns, and notes on the C2C underground market.

Dateline: Hybrid wars in Ukraine, Russia, Israel, and Gaza.

Ukraine at D+666: Kyivstar attack may represent a new cyber phase of the hybrid war. (CyberWire) Unattributed cyberespionage campaigns afflict both sides. The Kyivstar cyberattack is now regarded as the most effective Russian cyber operation since its attack against Viasat ground stations in the opening hours of the invasion.

The case of al-Shifa: Investigating the assault on Gaza’s largest hospital (Washington Post) Weeks before Israel sent troops into al-Shifa Hospital, its spokesman began building a public case.

Hamas leader says hostage deal is ‘all or nothing’ (The Telegraph) Yahya Sinwar has reportedly insisted on a lasting ceasefire and the release of all Palestinian prisoners, including high-profile figures

Israel Mostly Excluded From Talks as America Signals Support for UN Resolution Seeking Increase in Gaza Humanitarian Aid (The New York Sun) The scheme being considered has been tried before — under the now-infamous name of oil-for-food.

Israel’s Muddled Strategy in Gaza (Foreign Affairs) Time to make hard choices.

Opposition to Israel’s war for survival fails to understand Hamas’s goals (Atlantic Council) Calls for an immediate and permanent ceasefire, beyond humanitarian pauses, are implicitly advocating for a Hamas victory.

In Dealing With the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, America Has No Easy Way Out (Foreign Affairs) Biden must take risks, talk straight, and act boldly.

Distortion by design (Atlantic Council) Almost as soon as the Israel-Hamas war began, it collided with the engineering and policy decisions of social media companies. On Telegram, terrorist content spread mostly uncontested; on X, false claims proliferated. Accusations of anti-Palestinian bias at Meta and pro-Palestinian bias at TikTok added to the confusion. Can the platforms thread this needle?

Opinion How the battle for democracy will be fought — and won (Washington Post) In September last year, three days after widespread protests broke out across Iran over the death of a young woman detained for not fully covering her hair with a hijab, the authorities blocked the internet.

Kyiv Targeted By Mass Russian Drone Attack (RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty) The Ukrainian capital, Kyiv, was targeted by more than two dozen drones launched by Russia early on December 22, injuring two people.

Analysts say Ukraine's forces are pivoting to defense after Russia held off their counteroffensive (AP News) A British military analysis says Ukraine’s armed forces are taking up a more defensive posture, after their summer counteroffensive failed to achieve a major breakthrough against Russia’s army and as winter weather sets in after almost 22 months of war.

Ukrainian spies vow to stab Russia ‘with a needle in the heart’ (POLITICO) Chief of SBU intelligence service warns Putin to expect ‘surprises’ in 2024.

Ukraine in Europe: One Hard-Earned Step Closer (Wilson Center) On December 14, 2023, the European Council adopted an historic decision to open membership negotiations with Ukraine and Moldova, and to grant candidate status to Georgia.

Orban acknowledges EU can provide aid to Ukraine without Hungary’s (EMEA Tribune) Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orban has acknowledged that European Union member states have the autonomy to provide assistance to Ukraine independently, bypassing the need for consensus within the

Orban Says He Accepted Zelenskiy's Invitation To Discuss Ukraine's EU Membership Hopes (RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty) Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orban says he has accepted an invitation from Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskiy to hold a bilateral meeting, which would be the first between the two leaders since Russia launched its full-scale invasion of Ukraine.

Putin scents historic victory amid growing signs of Western weakness (Atlantic Council) Recent indications of growing Russian confidence in victory over Ukraine owe much more to Western weakness than to the Kremlin’s own military might, writes Peter Dickinson.

Europe Must Ramp Up Its Support for Ukraine (Foreign Affairs) Abandoning Kyiv would embolden Russia—and lead only to more war.

Ukraine Should Take a Page out of Finland’s Fight With Stalin (Real Clear Defense) Helsinki had to sacrifice territory for autonomy, but its pride and prosperity soared.

A majority of Congressmen want more military aid for Ukraine (The Economist) They are being prevented from voting for it in the name of phoney populism

Threat Actor 'UAC-0099' Continues to Target Ukraine (Deep Instinct) Deep Instinct’s Threat Research team explores accurate activities by threat actor "UAC-0099," including accurate attacks on Ukrainian targets. It also examines common tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs), including the use of fabricated court summons to bait targets in Ukraine into executing malicious files.

Ukrainian remote workers targeted in new espionage campaign (Record) A group tracked as UAC-0099 exploited a high-severity vulnerability in WinRAR software to target Ukrainians outside the country, researchers at Deep Instinct said.

Cyber-espionage group Cloud Atlas targets Russian companies with war-related phishing attacks (Record) The hacker group known as Cloud Atlas targeted a Russian agro-industrial enterprise and a state-owned research company in a new espionage campaign, researchers have found.

Fog of cyber war: spies from Cloud Atlas attack Russian companies under the guise of supporting SVO participants (FACCT) FACCT experts analyzed new attacks by the Cloud Atlas spy group

Kyivstar Restores Full Services After Massive Hacker Attack (KyivPost) Ukraine’s largest mobile telephone operator is running again after a huge cyber-attack. Kyivstar will also cancel the plan fee for its users and allocate millions of dollars for the AFU.

Ukrainian telecoms hack highlights cyber dangers of Russia's invasion (Atlantic Council) An unprecedented December 12 cyber attack on Ukraine's largest telecoms operator Kyivstar left tens of millions of Ukrainians without mobile services and underlined the cyber warfare potential of Russia's ongoing invasion, writes Mercedes Sapuppo.

U.S. and Europe Eye Russian Assets to Aid Ukraine as Funding Dries Up (New York Times) Despite legal reservations, policymakers are weighing the consequences of using $300 billion in Russian assets to help Kyiv’s war effort.

The pitfalls of seizing Russian assets to fund Ukraine (Financial Times) Moscow must be made to pay, but without risking harm to global financial stability

Russia Adds Two Of Navalny's Self-Exiled Associates To Its Wanted List (RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty) The Russian Interior Ministry on December 21 added two self-exiled associates of imprisoned opposition politician Aleksei Navalny to its wanted list on unspecified charges.

Russia Launches Probe Against Self-Exiled Opposition Politician Leonid Gozman (RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty) Sources in Russian law enforcement on December 22 said a probe had been launched against self-exiled opposition politician Leonid Gozman on charge of spreading "fake" information about Russia's armed forces involved in Moscow’s ongoing invasion of Ukraine.

Kazakhstan To Extradite U.S.-Wanted Russian Cybersecurity Expert To Moscow (RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty) Russia's Prosecutor-General's Office said on December 21 that the Kazakh authorities would extradite Russian cybersecurity expert Nikita Kislitsin to Moscow, although he is also wanted in the United States for allegedly buying illegally obtained personal data.

Attacks, Threats, and Vulnerabilities

Microsoft Warns of New 'FalseFont' Backdoor Targeting the Defense Sector (The Hacker News) Iranian threat actor targets Defense Industrial Base sector with a new backdoor called FalseFont.

‘Today FBI Got Him, Tomorrow They Will Get Me’: LockBit, BlackCat Unite to Form Cyber Cartel (The Cyber Express) In the aftermath of a successful takedown of Alphv ransomware infrastructure, an unexpected alliance has emerged. LockBit and BlackCat/APLHV, two

Bandook - A Persistent Threat That Keeps Evolving (Fortinet Blog) FortiGuard Labs has uncovered a fresh threat - the latest generation of Bandook is being distributed via a Spanish PDF file. Learn more.…

BattleRoyal, DarkGate Cluster Spreads via Email and Fake Browser Updates (Proofpoint) Overview  Throughout the summer and fall of 2023, DarkGate entered the ring competing for the top spot in the remote access trojan (RAT) and loader category. It was observed in use by multiple cybe...

8220 Gang Targets Telecom and Healthcare in Global Cryptojacking Attack (Hackread) The 8220 gang, believed to be of Chinese origins, was first identified in 2017 by Cisco Talos when they targeted Drupal, Hadoop YARN, and Apache Struts2 applications for propagating cryptojacking malware.

BidenCash darkweb market gives 1.9 million credit cards for free (BleepingComputer) The BidenCash stolen credit card marketplace is giving away 1.9 million credit cards for free via its store to promote itself among cybercriminals.

Android malware Chameleon disables Fingerprint Unlock to steal PINs (BleepingComputer) The Chameleon Android banking trojan has re-emerged with a new version that uses a tricky technique to take over devices — disable fingerprint and face unlock to steal device PINs.

Instagram users targeted in elaborate backup code phishing scheme (9to5Mac) A new strain of Instagram phishing emails has been detected, in which attackers attempt to trick victims into forking over...

An iPhone Thief Explains How He Steals Your Passcode and Bank Account (Wall Street Journal) Thieves are stealing iPhones, passcodes and thousands of dollars from their victims’ bank accounts. WSJ’s Joanna Stern sat down with a convicted thief in a high-security prison to find how—and how you can protect yourself. Photo illustration: The Wall Street Journal

Patient data stolen in ransomware attack affecting millions of healthcare victims (TechRadar) Supply chain attack resulted in the theft of sensitive patient data

Kansas City-area hospital transfers patients, reschedules appointments after cyberattack (Register) "We expect this process to take time," Missouri's Liberty Hospital said earlier this week as it began responding to a disruption to its systems.

Data stolen in cyber attack on St Vincent's Health network (ABC) St Vincent's Health says there is evidence that "some data" has been removed from its system, but it is still working to determine what information had been stolen.

Title insurance giant First American offline after cyberattack (BleepingComputer) First American Financial Corporation, the second-largest title insurance company in the United States, took some of its systems offline today to contain the impact of a cyberattack.

First American is the latest cybersecurity attack victim (HousingWire) First American suffers cybersecurity attack less than a month after the firm agreed to pay New York $1 million in cybersecurity settlement.

Breach exposed data of more than 1,400 detainees and 400 staff members, Wyatt detention facility says (Boston Globe) The Wyatt detention facility in Central Falls said it discovered a data breach on Nov. 2, and that personal data has been posted on the dark web, including financial and medical information.

What Hacked Files Tell Us About The Studio Behind Spider-Man 2 (Kotaku) Internal documents show how a big PlayStation studio plans its future

CISA Adds Two Known Exploited Vulnerabilities to Catalog | CISA (Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency CISA) CISA has added two new vulnerabilities to its Known Exploited Vulnerabilities Catalog, based on evidence of active exploitation. CVE-2023-49897 FXC AE1021, AE1021PE OS Command Injection Vulnerability CVE-2023-47565 QNAP VioStor NVR OS Command Injection Vulnerability

Security Patches, Mitigations, and Software Updates

OpenAI rolls out imperfect fix for ChatGPT data leak flaw (BleepingComputer) OpenAI has mitigated a data exfiltration bug in ChatGPT that could potentially leak conversation details to an external URL.

Google Rushes to Patch Eighth Chrome Zero-Day This Year (SecurityWeek) Google warns of in-the-wild exploitation of CVE-2023-7024, a new Chrome vulnerability, the eighth documented this year.

ESET Patches High-Severity Vulnerability in Secure Traffic Scanning Feature (SecurityWeek) ESET has patched CVE-2023-5594, a high-severity vulnerability that can cause a browser to trust websites that should not be trusted.

ESET fixed a high-severity bug in the Secure Traffic Scanning Feature of several products (Security Affairs) ESET fixes flaw in Secure Traffic Scanning Feature that could have been exploited to cause web browsers to trust untrustworthy sites

Microsoft deprecates Defender Application Guard for some Edge users (BleepingComputer) Microsoft is deprecating Defender Application Guard (including the Windows Isolated App Launcher APIs) for Edge for Business users.

CISA Releases Microsoft 365 Secure Configuration Baselines and SCuBAGear Tool (Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency | CISA) CISA has published the finalized Microsoft 365 Secure Configuration Baselines, designed to bolster the security and resilience of organizations’ Microsoft 365 (M365) cloud services. This guidance release is accompanied by the updated SCuBAGear tool that assesses organizations’ M365 cloud services per CISA’s recommended baselines.

CISA Releases Two Industrial Control Systems Advisories (Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency | CISA) CISA released two Industrial Control Systems (ICS) advisories on December 21, 2023. These advisories provide timely information about current security issues, vulnerabilities, and exploits surrounding ICS.

NCC Group Monthly Threat Pulse - November 2023 (NCC Group) Ransomware attacks in November rise 67% from 2022

Cyber Threat Intelligence Report - November 2023 (NCC Group) Welcome to NCC Group’s monthly Cyber Threat Intelligence Report, bringing you exclusive insight into the latest Threat Intelligence, updates on accurate and emerging advances in the threat landscape and a deep understanding of the latest Tactics, Techniques and Procedures (TTPs) of threat actors.

Twitter’s Demise Is About So Much More Than Elon Musk (The Atlantic) TikTok is eating microblogging as we’ve always known it.

America’s Spam-Call Scourge (The Atlantic) How robocalls disturbed a nation


Cisco to Acquire Isovalent, Add eBPF Tech to Cloud Portfolio (SecurityWeek) Isovalent raised about 70 million in funding from prominent investors including Microsoft’s venture fund, Google, and Andreessen Horowitz.

Cisco to acquire cloud-native networking and security startup Isovalent (TechCrunch) Cisco is acquiring cloud native networking and security startup Isovalent, giving it a key set of cloud native technologies.

Is Microsoft The Answer To Cybersecurity Risks Or The Problem? (Investor's Business Daily) Its cybersecurity business is booming. So what about those hacks that gave it a black eye?

DeNexus expands re/insurance and Insurance-Linked Securities expertise with new senior hire (PR Newswire) DeNexus Inc, a provider of second-generation cyber risk quantification and management services to industrial enterprises and critical...

GCA Announces Three New Appointments for its Board of Directors (Global Cyber Alliance) The Global Cyber Alliance (GCA), an international nonprofit that builds communities to deploy tools, services, and programs that provide cybersecurity at global scale, announced the appointment of three new Board Members: Michael Lashlee, Executive Vice President, Deputy Chief Security Officer at Mastercard, who has been a long term strategic advisor to GCA with Mastercard being a valued Premium Partner and sponsor of our Cybersecurity Toolkit for Small Business; Kiersten Todt, former Chief of Staff of the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA), and Greg Kapfer, formerly Board Member of the Public Interest Registry (PIR).

Products, Services, and Solutions

Socure Eliminates More Than 200K Synthetic Identities in 2023 (PR Newswire) Socure, the leading provider of artificial intelligence for digital identity verification, sanction screening, and fraud prevention, today...

NetSPI Celebrates Momentous Year for its Partner Program, Achieves 30% Growth in 2023 (PR Newswire) NetSPI, the global leader in proactive security, today celebrates the achievements of its Partner Program in 2023, which experienced...

QuSecure™ Launches QuProtect™ Post-Quantum Cryptography Cybersecurity Software in AWS Marketplace (Yahoo Finance) QuSecure™, Inc., a leader in post-quantum cryptography (PQC), today announced the availability of its cutting-edge cybersecurity software QuProtect™ in AWS Marketplace, a digital catalog with thousands of software listings from independent software vendors that makes it easy to find, test, buy, and deploy software that runs on Amazon Web Services (AWS). This strategic move marks a significant milestone not only for QuSecure but also for the PQC market...

Technologies, Techniques, and Standards

DOD Issues Civilian Harm Mitigation, Response Instruction (U.S. Department of Defense) Defense Department officials have completed work on a DOD instruction that incorporates the direction of the department's civilian harm mitigation and response action plan.

DOD INSTRUCTION 3000.17: CIVILIAN HARM MITIGATION AND RESPONSE (U.S. Department of Defense) Consistent with Section 936 of Public Law 115-232, also known and referred to in this issuance as the “John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2019”, as amended and codified as a note in Section 134 of Title 10, United States Code (U.S.C.), this issuance: • Establishes policy, assigns responsibilities, and provides procedures for civilian harm mitigation and response (CHMR). • Helps implement U.S. Government (USG) policy prescribed in Executive Order 13732. • Helps implement the August 25, 2022 DoD Civilian Harm Mitigation and Response Action Plan (CHMR-AP). • Will be implemented through the phased approach established by the CHMR-AP.

As British Library faces fallout of cyber attack—what can arts bodies do to combat ransomware threats? (The Art Newspaper) A hack that has limited the British Library’s access to its digital systems is the latest in a series of online raids on cultural institutions

Design and Innovation

How to Build Trust in Artificial Intelligence (The Information) Last month, OpenAI fired and then rehired CEO Sam Altman. When the dust settled, Open AI emerged looking even more like a for-profit corporation than a nonprofit, with a board that is indistinguishable from those of other tech startups—right down to the lack of diversity. This is a clear ...

Legislation, Policy, and Regulation

The Premature Quest for International AI Cooperation (Foreign Affairs) AI regulation must start with national governments.

Can AI be creative? Global copyright laws need an answer. (Atlantic Council) Advances in generative artificial intelligence have revealed serious shortcomings in global copyright laws.

New rules in UK could reimburse fraud victims up to ÂŁ415,000 ($525,000) (Record) Expected in October 2024, the new rules represent a radical change to who is liable for losses incurred in fraud such as romance and investment scams.

Cyber Security Association of India Emphasizes Importance of Cyber Security in Power Sector (India Technology News) Cyber Security Association of India (www.ncsai.in) under the chairmanship of Lt Gen (Dr.) Rajesh Pant, Former National Cyber Security Coordinator organised Power Sector

Congress wants spy agencies to hire more experts in financial intelligence, emerging technology (Federal News Network) Congress wants spy agencies to hire more experts in financial intelligence, emerging technology

Litigation, Investigation, and Law Enforcement

Turkey’s ‘disinformation law’ weaponized to target journalists: int’l NGOs (Turkish Minute) A new report released jointly by several international NGOs details the worsening press freedom environment in Turkey, accusing the government of instrumentalizing the recently passed “disinformation law” to harass and silence journalists, the Stockholm Center for Freedom reported, citing the Evrensel newspaper.

Teen Who Leaked ‘Grand Theft Auto VI’ as Part of Lapsus$ Gang Put in Secure Hospital by UK Judge (Bloomberg) Arion Kurtaj placed in hospital to protect public from harm. Two teens sentenced for hacking, blackmailing tech firms.

Teenage Lapsus$ hacker sentenced to indefinite hospital confinement (Computing) An 18-year-old hacker associated with the cybercrime group Lapsus$ has been sentenced to an indefinite stay in a secure hospital after being involved in high-profile data breaches and extortion attempts.

U.S. appeals court finalizes mandate for forfeiture of Silk Road bitcoin (The Block) A U.S. appeals court finalized a mandate on Wednesday that formalizes the forfeiture of 69,370 bitcoin connected to the Silk Road.

Darknet site “Kingdom Market” has fallen (Cybernews) Law enforcement has taken down the illegal marketplace known as “Kingdom Market,” which specialized in drug trade and malware.

Fri, 22 Dec 2023 01:06:00 -0600 text/html https://thecyberwire.com/newsletters/daily-briefing/12/243

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