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Exam Code: 300-635 Practice exam 2023 by Killexams.com team
300-635 Automating Cisco Data Center Solutions (DCAUTO)

300-635 DCAUTO

Certifications: CCNP Data Center, Cisco Certified DevNet Professional, Cisco Certified DevNet Specialist - Data Center
Automation and Programmability

Duration: 90 minutes

This exam tests your knowledge of implementing data center automated solutions, including:

Programming concepts


Automation tools

Exam Description

The Automating and Programming Cisco Data Center Solutions v1.0 (DCAUTO 300-635) exam is a 90-minute exam associated with the CCNP Data Center, Cisco Certified DevNet Professional, and Cisco Certified Specialist - Data Center SAN Implementation certifications. This exam tests a candidate's knowledge of implementing Data Center automated solutions, including programming concepts, orchestration and automation tools.

10% 1.0 Network Programmability Foundation

1.1 Utilize common version control operations with git: add, clone, push, commit, diff, branching, merging conflict

1.2 Describe characteristics of API styles (REST and RPC)

1.3 Describe the challenges encountered and patterns used when consuming APIs synchronously and asynchronously

1.4 Interpret Python scripts containing data types, functions, classes, conditions, and looping

1.5 Describe the benefits of Python virtual environments

1.6 Explain the benefits of using network configuration tools such as Ansible and Puppet for automating data center platforms

30% 2.0 Controller Based Data Center Networking

2.1 Describe the following:

2.1.a ACI target policy

2.1.b ACI application hosting capabilities

2.1.c Implementation of an ACI application from the Cisco ACI Apps Center

2.2 Leverage the API inspector to explore the REST API calls made by the ACI GUI

2.3 Construct a Python script to create an application policy using the ACI REST API

2.4 Construct a Python script to create an application policy using the ACI Cobra SDK

2.5 Construct an Ansible playbook to create an application policy

2.6 Describe the benefits of integrating Kubernetes infrastructure using the ACI CNI plugin

30% 3.0 Data Center Device-centric Networking

3.1 Describe Day 0 provisioning with NX-OS

3.1.a Cisco POAP

3.1.b NX-OS iPXE

3.2 Implement On-Box Programmability and Automation with NX-OS

3.2.a Bash

3.2.b Linux containers (LXC and Docker using provided container

3.2.c NX-OS guest shell

3.2.d Embedded Event Manager (EEM)

3.2.e On-box Python Scripting

3.3 Compare model-driven telemetry such as YANG Push and gRPC to traditional network monitoring strategies such as SMNP, Netflow, and SYSLOG

3.4 Construct Python script that consumes model-driven telemetry data with NX-OS

3.5 Implement Off-Box Programmability and Automation with NX-OS

3.5.a Nexus NX-API (NX-API REST and NX-API CLI)

3.5.b Nexus NETCONF using native and OpenConfig

3.5.c Network configuration tools with NX-OS (Ansible)

30% 4.0 Data Center Compute

4.1 Configure Cisco UCS with developer tools

4.1.a UCS PowerTool

4.1.b UCS Python SDK

4.1.c Ansible

4.2 Describe the capabilities of the DCNM API

4.3 Identify the steps in the Intersight API authentication method

4.4 Construct an Intersight API call given documentation to accomplish tasks such as manage server policies, service profiles, and firmware updates

4.5 Describe the process to implement workflows for physical and virtual infrastructure using UCS Director

4.5.a Pre-defined tasks

4.5.b Custom tasks

4.5.c Script libraries

4.6 Utilize UCS Director REST API browser

Automating Cisco Data Center Solutions (DCAUTO)
Cisco Automating Questions and Answers
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Question: How do you know how much the monoliths at Stonehenge weigh? ~Jane

Answer: We know how much the monoliths weigh as we can calculate to their overall volume, including the bit that's underground, and we know what the density of sarsen, or bluestone, is. Also, some of them have actually been lifted by train while being reset not that long ago, which is also a good guide.

Question: It's one thing to drag a ten ton stone over three step middle planks. Was anyone making nice new planks 4,000 years ago? Probably a lot harder to drag a stone on rough cut timbers from ~Brad

Answer: People at this time were capable of quite fine timber work and we have evidence of this from preserved prehistoric trackways in peat bogs. So, yes, they would have been able to make smooth planks.

Question: Why was Stonehenge built? I've heard that on either the longest or shortest day of the year, the sun rises or sets just at the entrance. Why did they build it like this? ~Scott

Answer: The structure of Stonehenge is actually laid out on the line of the midsummer sun rise and the midsummer sunset, the longest and the shortest days of the year, and it seems likely that Stonehenge was built to mark these two events, which would have been enabled people to chart the changing seasons.

Question: Without the use of the wheel, the builders must have used sledges, log rollers, and many people, right?

Answer: Yes, and our experiments show that it seems more likely that some form of sledge would have been used to transport stones as log rollers are very prone to getting bogged down, particularly in softish ground.

Question: How far has the procession of the equinox moved the position of the summer solstice on the horizon since the time Stonehenge was built? ~Raymond

Answer: It has moved slightly, but not significantly enough to alter the fact that we can tell that it is this alignment that Stonehenge incorporates within its structure.

Question: On the Stonehenge raising, they used a weighted tip to tilt the main riser stone into the hole. Why not just have the stone dragged up an Earth ramp with wood rails to a pivot point of wood (timber) and just burn the timber? The loss of the support will drop the stone or is the angle too great for the raising? I can't see the stone (re: concrete) angle stone under the pivot point being used. ~Don

Answer: Burning a timber structure would, I suspect, cause a loss of control of the stone and also the heat generated would actually damage the sarsen. It's possible that any one of the stones which we now see built into the structure could have been used as that pivot stone before being erected. There are some that have a suitable cross section.

Question: Using the techniques from the show, how long did it take to build the entire structure? ~Jerry

Answer: To build the whole of Stonehenge will obviously depend on how many people you can use for the task. What we suggested was that, given a great concentration of effort, is the sarsen structures, the biggest bits of Stonehenge, could have been built within a period of three years. We suspect that probably it took longer.

Question: How do you know when it was built? ~Scott

Answer: The evidence for when Stonehenge was built comes from radio carbon dates which have been obtained largely from fragments of the antler picks used to dig the holes for the stones and the ditch.

Question: What kind of language or dialect did this ancient community speak? ~Jeff

Answer: Unfortunately, archaeology cannot provide us any idea of the language that the builders of Stonehenge spoke.

Question: Why didn't they use pullleys to lift the monolith? ~Rich

Answer: Basically because it appears that the wheel had not been invented at that time and a pulley is a sort of wheel. If they did have pulleys, there is absolutely no evidence in the archaeological record.

Question: The ropes that you used, were they purchased or did you make them? ~Kenny

Answer: We purchased the ropes that we used. They were modern hemp ropes which we were obliged to use to comply with health and safety regulations. We would have liked to have made lime bark ropes to carry out the whole experiment, but this was impossible.

Question: I saw from the show that the ancients of the time had gold. Did they have any other metals? ~Robert

Answer: At the time when Stonehenge was started, no metal was used in the British Isles, but then copper, bronze, and gold were used, came into use.

Question: Where did you get stone slabs that big? ~Mike

Answer: We weren't able to get stone slabs that big. The ones we moved were replicas made of concrete. The places where both sarsens and bluestones come from are both now protected sites and it's not possible to extract stone from them.

Question: Where are the stones you have erected in this experiment now? Will they be left on this site? It appears they are a bit heavy to move. I hope to visit Stonehenge in July, hence these questions. ~David

Answer: The new trill is no longer on the site where it was erected. It rapidly became a place of New Age pilgrimage, and the farmer insisted on it being taken down the stones are currently in store.

Question: Is there an estimated population size at the time of construction that would have helped move the monoliths easier without the use of such elaborate devices that you used? ~Pat

Answer: Calculating the population which this time is very difficult because we have no clear indications of where people were living and how many settlements there were around. We felt that just using larger and larger numbers of people was not the answer, and that the builders of Stonehenge probably thought up a scheme which used less people in a safer and more controlled way.

Question: What was the closest known settlement to Stonehenge at the time of its construction, not including the area where the workers may have stayed? ~William

Answer: There are indications of settlement within a mile or so of Stonehenge, but the remains of settlements of this period are very difficult to find, in great contrast to the massive structures that that these people built.

Question: A thought occurs to me as I sit and think of the Indian burial mounds in my area: Wouldn't something like that have been useful in making the ramp for the piece on top? How old is the idea of mortice and tenon? Also, are there any writings on the stones at all? ~Patty

Answer: We know that people at this time were capable of constructing very large Earth mounds and so could quite easily have built a ramp to drag the stone up. Mortice and tenon joints, we have examples of these preserved from wet sites in this country that date back to at least a thousand years before Stonehenge, and there are no writings as such on the stones unless you count more modern graffiti, but there are carvings of daggers and axes that appear to date to the time of Stonehenge's building.

Question: I saw from the program that people were used to pull the ropes. Is it possible that beasts of burden were used for the heavy pulling? ~Sondra

Answer: It is possible that oxen were used to assist with the pulling and we would have liked to have carried out some experiments. Unfortunately, oxen, unless they have worked together before, are remarkably uncooperative beasts, and we were unable to get a team together. But this is possible.

Question: What type of marks, if any, were left on the monoliths as evidence of how they were moved? ~Keegan

Answer: There are no marks on the monoliths that provide evidence of how they were moved.

Question: In a book I read, it said that they probably put burning branches on a place they wanted to cut, then poured cold water on, cracking it. Is this what your experiment showed that they did? ~Scott

Answer: We didn't really go into the shaping of the stones, but fire is one way of breaking and shaping a stone like sarsen. It obviously carries risks, and having quarried a 40-ton block, it would be unfortunate to crack it in the wrong place. My feeling is that most of the shaping is done by pounding the surface of the stone with mauls ranging in size from footballs to small grapefruit.

Question: To move the stones, could the ancients have lashed enough logs to the stone to form a cylinder, loop ropes around the complete assembly, and pull on the upper loops to roll the stones to their site? ~Dave

Answer: This was one of the ideas that mark and I discussed and then rejected when we were thinking about how we could move the stone. It would certainly work, but could be potentially very dangerous when trying to control a 40-ton garden roller going downhill.

Question: Who owns the property on which Stonehenge is located? ~David

Answer: The land on which Stonehenge lies is owned and administered by English heritage. Effectively it's owned by the English people.

Question: Most religious practices in those days involved some sort of ritualistic or actual animal sacrifice. Is there any evidence of such at Stonehenge? ~Botkin

Answer: I don't think we can be certain that most religious practices at this time involved sacrifice and there is no direct evidence of this from Stonehenge.

Question: How did they carve out the holes in the top piece and how did they make the stone pins that fit inside? ~Mark

Answer: Both of these elements of the mortice and tenon joint could only have been made by pounding away the surface of the stone. Obviously, to make the pin, all of the stone around this would need to have been removed, leaving the pin standing proud.

Question: Could it be that the large stones were moved not on tracks, as such, but on streams or slusways for irrigation/flood control systems? ~David

Answer: Water transport would obviously be an ideal method for these large stones, but unfortunately, there are no convenient river which run between the source of the stones and Stonehenge. The route crosses high and undulating chalk downland, so this method could not have been used.

Question: Have you considered using a series of sliding fulcrums where each end of the 40-ton stone is pulled in turn, and in effect walking it balanced in the middle? I have done this with large 18th century logs for a log house with only one helper. ~Willard

Answer: Although the walking method of moving large weights can be used and was used to move some of the Easter island statues, we felt that stones of 40 tons could not be moved in this way over relatively soft ground with any degree of safety.

Question: Might the weather conditions have been different enough 4,500 years ago to use snow and ice to reduce the friction of dragging and also to build ramps? ~Ken

Answer: The weather conditions at the time that Stonehenge was built were not dissimilar from those that we find today. Ice or snow would be a great way of sliding the stones, although it would make pulling for the pullers a lot more difficult, but could not be relied upon.

Question: Were the workers forced labor, or was it perceived as a community goal with benefit for all? Who was doing the farming during the construction? ~Joan

Answer: It seems unlikely that Stonehenge was built by forced labor. We have no evidence of this in society at that time. I feel that the people probably gave their labor willingly in the construction of a monument that had significance for a great many. Obviously, there would need to be sufficient people still left to carry out the farming, although the building work could be a seasonal activity, perhaps carried out at times in the agricultural cycle when not everyone was needed to work in the fields or look after animals.

Question: If, as is estimated on the show, it took up to three weeks just to carve out the bowl for the tenon for the lintel, how long may it have taken to shape the stones themselves? How much work did they put into the shaping of the stones? After all this time, it's fairly rough-looking. ~Joe

Answer: The shaping of the stones was obviously a very laborious process. As far as how long each stone took, we obviously can't tell from their finished form how much stone had to be removed to achieve this shape. Some of them do look quite rough, whereas others are very finely finished, and we suspect that they simply chose the optimum shape as the stone came out the ground, and then shaped it as much as they possibly could.

Question: Any sense of the role women may have played in the creation of Stonehenge? ~Bob

Answer: Personally, I'm sure that the building of Stonehenge was a truly communal task in which everyone participated, whether young or old, man or woman. It's interesting to note that the depiction of the building of Stonehenge which English Heritage had on display until quite recently showed only men involved in its construction.

Question: Since there were previous wooden structures at the site, why do you think that particular spot is so special throughout time? ~Heidi

Answer: The reason why that particular spot was first chosen for the construction of a simple earthen circle and some burials is uncertain, and why that simple circle then became the focus of such an extraordinary building is equally something that archaeology can't explain. Archaeology can't get into the minds of the builders.

Question: I believe when the holes were dug, the dirt was put in a large mound in front of where two of the upright stones were to be placed. The stones were then raised to upright with a mound of Earth acting as a stop support and later as an incline to facilitate moving the lintels in place. ~Gayle

Answer: The holes that the stones were set into certainly wouldn't have provided enough soil to construct a stop or a ramp for erection of the uprights. What is obvious is that if a ramp was used, then large quantities of soil and chalk would have had to have been brought on to site and later removed. This is why I still personally feel that the use of the timber crib was more likely for raising the lintels.

Question: I am trying to figure out how the original Stonehenge could be raised by using your methods, since you required a couple hundred yards of empty space on one side of the stone and enough space to lay the stone flat in the other direction. In the pictures, these stones appear to be very close together. By the way, great job and very interesting. ~Trudi

Answer: The stones in the center of Stonehenge are set quite close together, and the requirements of space certainly seem to suggest the order in which certain elements of the building were erected. The sarsen trilithons in the center clearly had to go up before the outer sarsen circle. But Mark thinks that his methods would work, and that there was enough space to carry out in the way that he suggested.

Question: Living in rocky New England, my mother-in-law and I had to use ingenuity to move a huge underground stone in order to plant a straight row of border hemlocks on our property. I would not say we were muscular types, but my elderly neighbor showed us how to dig a small hole next to the boulder, toss in stones, dig some more, toss in a few more stones, until we actually made the bolder pop out of the ground. Might the stone age builders are used stones as leverage instead of ramps to set the Stonehenge stones upright? ~Dorothy

Answer: The difference here seems to be between moving something out of a hole in the ground and raising something up above the ground, but basically, the principle is the same: You are presumably levering your stone up onto its bed of small stones, and I think you are suggesting dragging our stone up a ramp made of small stones. Chalk was certainly easier for them to get hold of to construct a ramp in this area.

Question: Do you know if they've sunk deeper into the ground since they were first placed and erected? ~Adam

Answer: Chalk is actually quite firm bedrock and it's unlikely that they have sunk further into the ground since they were first directed. What has happened is that the surface of the chalk has lowered the solution perhaps by as much as half a meter and so less of the stone is actually set into the ground than when they were first erected.

Question: What is the purpose of a calendar that only accurately forecasts two days of the year? ~Shea

Answer: It all depends how significant these two days are, and if they are times in the year which mark significant turning points at which people can gather and celebrate, then that calendar has a lot of purpose. My feeling is still that the midwinter solstice, which is pretty close to our Christmas, was the most significant of these turning points.

Question: It was mentioned that the monoliths stand 20 or 30 feet above ground. How deep below ground level are they buried? ~Dory

Answer: The depth below ground varies quite significantly. The one that fell over and broke a couple of hundred years ago was not buried as deeply as many of the others. Anything up to about 10 feet of stone is still buried under the ones that we know, but some have never been investigated.

Question: You mentioned the use of a timber crib, since the U-shaped circle of stones in the center were after the ring. The earth ramp is limited by the area inside the outside ring, right? ~Dawn

Answer: We can't be exactly sure of the order in which the sarsen horseshoe and the outer sarsen circle were built, but common sense suggests that the inner horseshoe was built before that complete outer ring; otherwise, getting those big stones into the middle and erecting them would have been very difficult.

Question: Why did one of the largest monoliths fall over? Was it an earthquake? ~Mark

Answer: No. It was probably due to the fact that it wasn't set as deeply into the ground as many of the other stones and there is evidence that the people have been digging at the base of that stone possibly looking for treasure.

Question: Do these rock structures have any connection with the menhirs? ~Joe

Answer: There are part of the same megalithic tradition—in other words, a tradition of building using large stones of which the menhirs and alignments in Brittany are a part—and they're all constructed at roughly the same time.

Question: Considering the accuracy with which the monoliths were placed, what tools were found, not for building, but for measuring distance from the angles necessary for the use of such elaborate principles of physics to construct the trililthon? ~Brian

Answer: No measuring or surveying tools have been found from this period, but as they would presumably have been made of wood, it's not surprising that we haven't found any.

Question: I was wondering if there was any truth to the statement made by someone about the circumference of Stonehenge. I heard the circle would fit exactly inside one of the Great pyramids in Egypt, with each of the walls touching the circumference of stonehenge. Could there be some possible link between these two great mysteries? ~Alfred

Answer: I'm afraid that I don't know whether Stonehenge would fit inside one of the Great Pyramids but if it would them I'm sure that it is co-incidence. There doesn't seem to be anything else to link tie two great sites.

Question: When I visited Stonehenge in 1987 I was told that the current monument was the 6th or 7th on the site and that it had never been a place of habitation, except during the various constructions and a few religious caretakers. It is still a windy hill top without a large settlement in sight. Is this this current thinking? And, if so, what do we know of the people who built Stonehenge that they would take so much trouble in a place away from where the bulk of them lived, hunted, farmed, etc.? ~Mary

Answer: Stonehenge has a long sequence of construction and modification and I suppose that you could say that there have been several separate monuments on the same spot, starting with a simple earth circle and ending up with the elaborate stone structures that we see in ruins today. People appear never to have lived at Stonehenge itself, in the same way that people don't live in most churches. The evidence that we do have suggests that there were settlements in the vicinity at the time Stonehenge was built and used but not close by. There appears to have been a sacred area surrounding it, defined by cemeteries of burial mounds, within which people were presumably not allowed to live or farm. Just beyond this prehistoric life carried on just the same as everywhere else. The reason that Stonehenge seems so isolated today is that all the medieval villages which are the villages of today lie in the river valleys to east and west. For centuries Stonehenge has been surrounded by pasture and now arable land.

Question: I think that instead of erecting the two bigger stones and then putting the third on top, that perhaps the protrusions in the two larger stones were used to help hold the third stone on. I realize that it would take more than just these protusions but it seems to me that it might be easier to erect all three vertically at once. Perhaps incorporating your ramp to help raise all three stones. This is just a suggestion. Great show and great work. ~Mark

Answer: You are not the first one to suggest erecting the whole trilithon at one go. Personally I wouldn't like to try 90 tonnes (plus all the timber you would need to hold the whole thing together) even with the mortice and tenon joints holding the lintel roughly in place. Thanks for your comments about the show.

Question: Very little was said about the numerological (dimensional) aspects of the site. any ideas why there were the number of stones there were in the circleor why the stones were set at the specific height they were? do they align with any constellations or particular stars or is it purely a solar tool? ~Dave

Answer: We were really concentrating on the construction aspects with a bit about the site and its context thrown in. You would need a whole series of programmes to look at aspects like the geometry, astronomy etc. I personally am not a great fan of the complex astronomy idea but try looking at a book called 'Stonehenge; Science and Society' published last year which has a good article about astronomy. Basically, as far as I'm concerned, Stonehenge is a big seasonal calendar (and a wonderful place).

Question: Besides the greased rails that may have been used to move the stones, is there any evidence that the builders slid stones down hills (perhaps after a rainstorm) to take advantage of the natural terrain to ease the transport? ~Kevin

Answer: No evidence at all I'm afraid. There appears to be no trace of any route or construction but I'm sure that the builders would have used anything to make their job easier.

Question: Is it possible that the purpose of stonehenge was a sort of gateway to the heavens, what these early thought of as the transcendental realm? It seemed to me that the clustering of the grave sites around stonehenge might provide a clue to this. ~Jack

Answer: Possible but the one thing that archaeology won't do is provide us access to the minds of the people that built Stonehenge.

Question: 1. Why use the animal-fat-based greased "cold" - why not keep pots of it heated for continual application as needed?

Answer: I'm not sure that this would provide you much of an advantage, it might make the fat too thin.

Question: Another question addressed ice/snow - but why not dig a shallow ditch to pour water in during sub-freezing yet non- snow times - stone slides on this frozen railway, but lack of snow outside it, gives traction for stone-moving team.

Answer: Possible but given unpredictable weather this could severely restrict the time that was available for stone moving.

Question: For hoisting stones, consider tripod lift structure, not just A-frame. No pulley; just run ropes over vertex. Alternately add notched post as third leg to A-frame - can rest vertex of A-frame in each notch for incremental lifts. ~Ria and Brooks

Answer: Mark and I think that a 40 tonne straight lift would have been impossible. The sort of ropes that we assume were available probably would not have been able to cope with this.

Question: I know that on the summer solstice, the sun rises directly above the heel stone, the one in the opening of the circle. If one were to draw an imaginary straight line from the center of Stonehenge and through the heel stone, is it possible that this line would intersect with the Bosporous ("Cow crossing") or Heliopolis ("Sun city") in Egypt? ~Richard

Answer: No

Question: What do you think of water being used to move the stones into position. I created a mock experiment. I discovered that a circle of wood timbers supported by the mounding of earth around them, for reinforcement and ramp, would provide the perfect arena to maneuver the stones into exact positions. The most man power needed would have been in pulling and pushing the stones up the ramp, as you demonstrated in your show, and then sliding them down into the water. Ropes secured around the stones would allow workers to move into place with much less man power than expected! I think this theory has merit. This method could be accomplished without the wheel pulley's or hundreds of men. Perhaps they even made a ravine filled with water to move the large stones using beasts of burden over (below) ground to their destination? This theory has merit. I'm interested in your thoughts. ~Brian

Answer: I'm not sure exactly what you are suggesting and can't see the advantage of having the stones in water (they would sink - or have I missed the point). There is a problem too as Stonehenge lies on chalk which is probably the most porous sort of bedrock that you can find. There is no evidence of a water channel (canal) to transport the stones in and there would be a problem here too as the route that the stones would have to take is over very undulating terrain.

Question: If they used one A-Frame could they have linked two or three of them, and reduced the effort more? ~Doug

Answer: Possible, but I suppose there comes a time when the construction of more and more A frames is more trouble than rounding up a few more volunteers. It's a good thought though.

Question: Is it possible that Stonehenge was created as a place of healing for those with nasty contagious diseases? That might explain who paid for the work (the wealthy who had taken ill). It might also explain the burial mounds (quarantine areas) and way the burial mounds were ranked with the wealthiest men being closest to Stonehenge. The fact that at least some of the gold artefacts were not stolen from the barrows might indicate that people were afraid to go near these places Also doesn't it seem possible that the fellow that used the ramp to cap the trilithon got it right. If you were going to excavate enough earth to place a 40-ton stone would you not want to utilize the product of your labor to make a ramp? This would also enable these people to raise and cap the trilathon in one day. Maybe during an elaborate ceremony to celebrate the work. ~Brad

Answer: Lots of things are possible with Stonehenge but I haven't heard the idea of the wealthy and infirm funding it before. I'm not sure about your ideas concerning quarantine. Regarding the ramp, the volume of chalk that you would get from the stonehole is comparatively tiny compared to that which would be needed to construct a ramp (maximum of eight cubic meters compared with at least 100 cubic meters). How would this enable the people to raise and cap the trilithon in one day? I am quite sure that however it was done there must have been a celebration when they finally completed the building work.

Question: I noticed several questions about using pulleys. I, too, thought of this idea, and considering how simple it is to make a wheel, I am wondering why you think the wheel hadn't been invented. Also, considering that wood would not last these thousands of years, why would you expect to find any archaeological evidence of pulleys? I think you are underestimating the intelligence of these ancient engineers. Also, do you have any _real_ engineers working with you? I doubt you, as archaeologists, have nearly the mechanical know-how or ingenuity of even the least intelligent ancient engineer. ~Daniel

Answer: As archaeologists we have to take the absence of evidence seriously. There have been enough excavations of waterlogged sites with artefacts of all types surviving (but no wheels) to lead us to believe that the people that built Stonehenge were not using the wheel. Of course we don't underestimate the intelligence of the ancient engineers. You seem to have overlooked the fact that Mark Whitby, who played a central role in the experiment that was part of the NOVA program, is a "real" engineer. I am sorry that you have such a low opinion of archaeologists; maybe we don't have the accumulated skills of an ancient engineer (even one of the least intelligent ones) but we do have a genuine love of the past and a healthy respect for its inhabitants.

Question: You've probably answered the concepts of "counterweights" a million times, or even the compulsion for it. With buckets, ropes, logs, ramps, sand and/or rocks - progressively increased sizes of rocks - could these wonders have been built by just a few folks? Is there a technically disqualifying aspect of this concept or simply a, "why SHOULD they use counterweights"? ~Lee

Answer: Theoretically it would be possible to move large weights by using a small weight to help move a larger one, etcetera, but I think the idea of Stonehenge being the work of a small group of people is unlikely. You certainly couldn't move the big stones in this way.

Question: I was wondering if it would be possible if they could have built a hill over the entire area. Then simply dig a hole or possibly used forms before the dirt was hauled in. In this manner the large stones could be set in place in much the same way as shown on May 5. I would have to see a Geothermal map of this area to be able to tell if there were any large holes dug that would suggest this. ~Randy

Answer: Theoretically possible, but unlikely. The volume of chalk and soil required would be huge and there are no signs of any quarries in the vicinity of Stonehenge which could have provided this material,

Question: Could there be any link between Stonehenge and other large stone works elsewhere on earth, such as the pyramids? As there is no reliable written history, could the "giants from Africa" be Egyptians, or another race, and isn't it funny that they all came from relatively the same time period?.....the workmanship is a little different, but still, the tactics used to move large pieces of stone seem to be the same, at least in modern re-creations............. ~Jay

Answer: Although it is tempting to see similarities between Stonehenge and other large stone structures, the only ones which have a real link are the great alignments and other megalithic structures in Brittany. The idea of the architecture of Stonehenge coming from the Mediterranean area (or even from further afield) effectively died when radiocarbon dates became available and showed that Stonehenge was older than all the civilisations that were supposed to have influenced its design and construction.

Question: You mentioned that Stonehenge was erected 4500 years ago. How many 1000s of years ago did human first habitate in this area (U.K.)? I always thought the Mediterannean (Egyptian) area was one of the first locations for human inhabitants. Am I correct when I say that was about 2000 BC? ~Scott

Answer: There has been human (or initially hominid) occupation of what was to become the British Isles since about 500,000 BP. After this various ice ages meant that there were no people around for long periods. Further south in Europe and beyond they didn't have to contend with ice so there has been habitation for even longer. There isn't the time to go into this in detail but, suffice it to say that people had been around in the areas that I have mentioned for a very long time by 2000BC.

Question: I visited Stonehenge when I was eight. I do not remember the dimensions. But, is it possible that all three pieces of a trilithon could be raised together? Perhaps tied together and lashed to a wooden frame, then raised? I believe this would be labour intensive, but more simplistic in engineering it. Has anyone tried? ~Bill

Answer: No one has tried to raise the three components of a trilithon together. The whole thing would weigh about 90 tons, not counting the timbers that you would need to hold it together for the lift. It certainly couldn't be done for the Great Trilithon as we know that the two uprights are of unequal length which would make this method impossible.

Question: I have heard a brief mention of a way that someone could lift a mega ton stone. By finding the Zero gravity spot on these stones single individuals could lift massive tones with ease. Have you heard of such an explanation? Is there any proof that this could be possible? ~Jim

Answer: I'm not sure what the zero gravity spot is but it seems to be against all the laws of physics.

Question: In the Stonehenge project, what if the hole that was dug for the vertical stones was "c" shaped so that the stone would slide in, then use its own momentum to stand itself erect? Is this possible? Thanks for your input. ~John

Answer: I don't think that the stone would stand itself erect in the base of a "c" shaped hole. You would have to balance it there before packing it firmly in place and I think that it would be potentially much more unstable than if it was in a hole with one vertical and one ramped side.

Question: The show was very interesting. However, the people in the show forgot about the one resource that the people back then had. That was time and lots of it. The construction of Stonehenge may have taken many many years, not the short period of time that the show seemed to be portraying. The stone age people also undoubtably used many many more people than the show did. They may have also used captured enemies to do the work also. The cap piece could have been "walked" up the ramp by pulling on one set of ropes at a time, effectivly doubling the manpower. Did the stone age people know about the block and tackle or even an early form of it? Overall, though, a very educational and wonderful show. Please keep up the great work. ~Clifford

Answer: We are quite aware that people had a lot of time and we did not intend to imply that Stonehenge was built in a short period of time. What we showed was that it could have been built in a shorter time than many people estimate. I disagree that they undoubtedly used many more people than we did. As numbers grow then the ability to co-ordinate effort lessens.. Prof Atkinson suggested that over 1000 people were needed for some of the tasks, but such an army of labourers would have been well nigh impossible to manage. I disagree about "captured enemies" - there is no evidence for slavery in the British Neolithic/Bronze Age. We have no evidence for block and tackle (the wheel was not used until much later). Sorry to disagree with so many of your points. Thanks for your comments about the show.

Question: Would it not make sense to only roughly cut the stones at the location in a cylindrical form and roll them to the final assembly point, where the final square cutting would be performed? Do the dimensions of the uprights + the dimensions of the topping stones add to a cylindrical shape? The tracks seem to be way too much capital and human investment for the task at hand. Does the quarry have evidence to show the stones were cut square at the site? Another method would be to build wooden craddles shaped like wheels for either end (actually best if placed at 1/3 and 2/3's of the length) of the stone, using the stone as the connecting axle. Clearly from the shape of the final building and the burial mounds the concept of the circle, and hence the wheel, was probably well understood. Enjoyed the program but agreed with the analysis that the solutions were over engineered. ~Jon

Answer: The sarsen stones at the place where they originate are found largely as flat slabs (sarsen is a sedimentary rock). It is therefore unlikely that any of cylindrical form would be found which could be rolled as you suggest. Regarding the quarry - the stones are not cut out of solid rock, they exist as detached slabs of rock embedded in redeposited chalk. Why do the tracks seem too much capital and labour investment for the task? You would only need to make a short length of track which could be taken up and relaid in front of the sledge and stone. If it makes the task easier then it would be well worth it (there are earlier sophisticated and well constructed Neolithic wooden trackways in peat bogs in nearby Somerset). Despite the circular henges and barrows there is no evidence of the wheel at this time. Glad you enjoyed the show.

Question: Could you have tipped the large stone to vertical by men pushing the top with timbers and driving wedges or filling with stones behind? Also, were the pits dug that deep? Wouldn't a considerable amount of silt layers have accumulated over the thousands of years? ~Bruce

Answer: I think it would be difficult to generate enough force to tip the stone by pushing with timbers as you suggest. Wedges would help but filling in with stones behind can cause problems if they trickle round the sides and front and hinder moving the stone to upright. The pits were dug that deep, the stones put in and then the remainder of the hole packed tight with stones and chalk. No room for silt to accumulate.

Question: During the NOVA program, raising Stonehenge, the question of the methods used to erect the stones was bandied about, in particular how the lintels were raised. Simply put has any stratagraphic analysis of the soils around Stonehenge been done with an eye to spoils piles removed from putative dirt ramps? Could these piles be detected to this day by virtue of the disturbed strata and presumably undisturbed soils in the area of the monument? ~Don

Answer: The soils over the chalk are very thin in the vicinity of Stonehenge and there is no sign of the spoil from an earthen ramp. There is also the question of where the chalk etc would have come from in the first place. You may gather that I am not a fan of the ramp idea and prefer the timber crib method.

Question: I had thought that the stones in Stonehenge were of a sort that came from Wales? Sorry to make your Herculean effort sound trivial but perhaps boats were used to bring to a spot even further than yours? Also how does one use bronze tools to cut rock? Thank You for you foray in History. ~JTB

Answer: It's the smaller stones, the so called "bluestones" that come from further afield, from the Preseli mountains in Wales to be precise. It is suggested that they came part of the way by water. This can't be the way that the larger Sarsens were transported, as there aren't any convenient rivers that run from the place where they are found to Stonehenge. You can't use bronze tools to cut rock, except very soft ones like chalk. You certainly can't cut sarsen with bronze—even iron makes little impression.

Question: I think the idea of the A-Frame lever was very good. Why not use another mechanical advantage for transporting the stones, namely a pulley? Rope is affixed to a post in the ground, run around a post attached to the stone, then pulled upon by the pullers. 2X advantage! ~Dave

Answer: We didn't use a pulley because there is no evidence for pulleys, or for any other type of wheel, from this period in prehistory.

Question: What was the average life span of the stonehenge builders? ~Scott

Answer: We have no firm evidence about the average life span of people at this time. Many people have the idea that life was "nasty, brutish and short" but human bone certified may have been routinely underestimating the age of people at death and there is no reason why you couldn't survive at least into your 50's if not beyond. It might seem simpler but the forces required to raise this would be huge. We know how much the monoliths weigh as we can calculate their overall volume (including the pit that is underground) and we know the density of sarsen (or bluestone). Also, some of them have actually been lifted by crane while being re-set which is also a good guide.

Thu, 26 May 2022 04:54:00 -0500 text/html https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/stonehenge/qanda/
Killexams : Six privacy and security Dumps to clear up once and for all

Picture this: you're chilling during your free time, your favorite beverage in one hand, scrolling through the latest tech updates with the other, when suddenly a friend texts, panicking about a cyberattack that has just left them devastated. 


This scenario is more common than you think and could easily happen to anyone, especially those who harbor stubborn myths about cyber security

Myth #1 - underestimating your appeal to hackers 

If you're tossing your hair back, saying, "Well, I don't have anything a hacker would want," think again. Hackers aren't picky eaters. They'll feast on any bit of data they can find. Your banking details? Yummy appetizers. Personal information? A delicious main course. 

To hackers, we're all just meals waiting to be devoured. The fix here is simple: Take digital threats seriously, set up a sound security system, and be mindful of what you share online.

Set up a sound security system, and be mindful of what you share online. (CyberGuy.com)


Solution #1 - use identity theft protection 

In the quest for robust protection against these lurking cyber threats, there’s a beacon of hope. Identity theft services. Identity theft protection companies can monitor personal information like your home title, Social Security Number (SSN), phone number and email address and alert you if it is being sold on the dark web or being used to open an account. They can also assist you in freezing your bank and credit card accounts to prevent further unauthorized use by criminals. 

One of the best parts of using some services is that they might include identity theft insurance of up to 1 million dollars to cover losses and legal fees and a white glove fraud-resolution team where a U.S.-based case manager helps you recover any losses

See my tips and best picks on how to protect yourself from identity theft by visiting Cyberguy.com/IdentityTheft 

Myth #2 - relying on password strength alone 

For all those confident souls who think a strong password is all the protection they need, here's a wake-up call: Hackers have become more intelligent. They've got tools and tricks to crack even the most complex passwords. 

Use strong and unique passwords to protect your information. (CyberGuy.com)


Solution #2 - use strong and unique passwords  

Create strong passwords for your accounts and devices, and avoid using the same password for multiple online accounts. Consider using a password manager to securely store and generate complex passwords. It will help you to create unique and difficult-to-crack passwords that a hacker could never guess.  

It also keeps track of all your passwords in one place and fills passwords in for you when you're logging into an account so that you never have to remember them yourself.  The fewer passwords you remember, the less likely you will be to reuse them for your accounts. 

What qualities should I look for in a password manager? 

When it comes to choosing the best password manager for you, here are some of my top tips: 

  • Deploys secure
  • Works seamlessly across all of your devices
  • Creates unique complicated passwords that are different for every account
  • Automatically populates login and password fields for apps and sites you revisit
  • Has a browser extension for all browsers you use to automatically insert passwords for you
  • Allows a failsafe in case the primary password is ever lost or forgotten
  • Checks that your existing passwords remain safe, and alerts you if ever compromised
  • Uses two-factor authentication security

Check out my best expert-reviewed password managers of 2023 by heading to Cyberguy.com/Passwords


Myth #3 - the antivirus illusion 

You got antivirus protection? Awesome! But remember, not all antivirus software is created equal. Some may provide better protection and performance than others, so choose wisely. And if you are running a free antivirus program, consider replacing it for these reasons. 

Make sure you have good antivirus software on all of your devices and compare different services. (CyberGuy.com)

Solution #3 - have good antivirus software on all your devices

For sure, the best way to protect yourself from having your data breached is to have antivirus protection installed on all of your devices. This will make sure you are stopped from clicking on any potential malicious links that may install malware on your devices and allow hackers to gain access to your personal information. 

See my expert review of the best antivirus protection for your Windows, Mac, Android & iOS devices by heading to Cyberguy.com/LockUpYourTech   

Myth #4 - trusting all apps from official stores 

It's time to also address the belief that only downloading apps from official app stores is 100% safe. Here's the thing: official app stores do offer a safer environment, but they're not invincible. Some malicious apps can slip through, disguised as popular apps. A little extra caution won't hurt here. 

Solution #4 - smart app selection: investigate before installation  

Before downloading an app, do a little detective work. Check reviews, ratings, developer details, and app permissions. You will likely find this information at the bottom of the description page of whatever app you are attempting to download from the App Store or Google Play store. 

Myth #5 - overconfidence in WiFi passwords 


Have faith in your WiFi password? It’s time to go a step further and boost your WiFi security. With Cyber threats becoming increasingly sophisticated, enhancing your WiFi security measures can safeguard your personal data and prevent unauthorized access to your network, ensuring you're more protected when you're online. 

Solution #5 - effective measures for a safer WiFi network  

Enabling encryption: By enabling encryption, such as WPA2 (Wi-Fi Protected Access 2) or WPA3, you can ensure that the data transmitted over your Wi-Fi network is encrypted and not easily accessible to unauthorized users. Encryption adds a layer of security by encoding the data in a way that can only be decrypted by devices with the correct encryption key. 

Changing default passwords: Many Wi-Fi routers come with default usernames and passwords set by the manufacturer. It is crucial to change these default credentials, as they are widely known and can make your network vulnerable to unauthorized access. Choose strong, unique passwords that are not easily guessable, and use a password manager, as I detailed above. 

Using a Virtual Private Network: A VPN establishes an encrypted connection between your device and a remote server, routing your internet traffic through the VPN server. This adds an extra layer of security and privacy to your Wi-Fi network, as the data transmitted between your device and the VPN server is encrypted. It can help protect your data from potential eavesdropping and provide anonymity by masking your IP address.  

For best VPN software, see my expert review of the best VPNs for browsing the web privately on your Windows, Mac, Android & iOS devices by visiting CyberGuy.com/VPN 

A VPN establishes an encrypted connection between your device and a remote server, routing your internet traffic through the VPN server, adding an extra layer of security. (CyberGuy.com)


Myth #6 - regularly updating your software and devices is challenging and hard to do 

Despite the myth that it is difficult and time-consuming to update your software and devices, it is very easy and doesn't take a lot of time. You do not want to neglect those software-update notifications that pop up on your devices. Updates often include important security patches that fix vulnerabilities and protect against the latest threats. Keeping your operating system, apps and antivirus software up to date is crucial in maintaining a strong defense against cyberattacks. 

Solution #6 - embrace updates for enhanced protection 

Set your devices to automatically install updates or make it a habit to manually check for updates regularly to ensure you're running the latest, most secure versions. And don’t forget to always back up your devices if you should ever need to restore them. Remember, an outdated system is an open invitation for hackers. It's like leaving your doors unlocked when you go to bed. 

Kurt's key takeaways 

It's always better to be safe than sorry. With these cyber security myths busted wide open, it's important to remember that digital security isn't a set-and-forget deal. It's more like a perpetual chess game, and you always need to stay a move ahead of the hackers out there. 


What's one thing that might change your behavior after knowing the truth behind these myths? Could it be finally tapping that neglected 'Update' button? Or perhaps it's time to secure that home Wi-Fi with a reliable VPN? Every strategy counts in this game. How will you up your cyber security game? Let us know by writing us at Cyberguy.com/Contact

For more of my tech tips and security alerts, subscribe to my free CyberGuy Report Newsletter by heading to Cyberguy.com/Newsletter

Copyright 2023 CyberGuy.com. All rights reserved. 

Sat, 19 Aug 2023 08:06:00 -0500 Fox News en text/html https://www.foxnews.com/tech/6-privacy-security-question-answers-clear-up-once-for-all
Killexams : How to answer 10 tough interview questions

By Rachel Zupek
CareerBuilder.com writer

Editor's note: CNN.com has a business partnership with CareerBuilder.com, which serves as the exclusive provider of job listings and services to CNN.com.

Key to answering "weaknesses" question is not to respond literally. Identify areas where you can improve.

Key to answering "weaknesses" question is not to respond literally. Identify areas where you can improve.

There's no worse feeling than when you're in an interview and the interviewer asks you a question to which you don't know the answer.

The best way to handle this dreaded debacle is to go into the interview prepared. Familiarize yourself with a few common difficult questions and arm yourself with answers prepared ahead of time.

Check out these tough interview questions and some suggested responses in order to avoid an interview disaster:

Tough question No. 1: "Tell me about yourself."

This is usually the opening question in an interview and it's the perfect moment for you to toot your own horn -- not to tell your life history. Your answers should be a quick rundown of your qualifications and experience. Talk about your education, work history, exact career experience and future goals.

Suggested answer: "I graduated from University X and since then, I have been working in public relations with an agency where I have generated millions of PR hits for my clients. While I've enjoyed working on the agency side, I'm looking to expand my horizons and start doing PR for corporate companies such as this one."

Tough question No. 2: "Why did you leave your last job?"

This is your chance to talk about your experience and your career goals, not to badmouth a former boss or provide a laundry list of reasons for your exit. Instead, focus on what you learned in your previous position and how you are ready to use those skills in a new position.

Suggested answer: "The company just wasn't a good fit for my creativity, but I learned that organizations have distinct personalities just like people do. Now I know where I'll be a better fit."

Tough question No. 3: "Where do you see yourself in five years?"

Let the employer know that you're stable and you want to be with this company for the long haul. Keep your aspirations to take over the firm with which you are interviewing, own your own company, retire at 40 or be married with five children to yourself.

Suggested answer: "I want to secure a civil engineering position with a national firm that concentrates on retail development. Ideally, I would like to work for a young company, such as this one, so I can get in on the ground floor and take advantage of all the opportunities a growing firm has to offer."

Tough question No. 4: "What are your weaknesses?"

The key to answering this age-old question is not to respond literally. Your future employer most likely won't care if your weak spot is that you can't cook, nor do they want to hear the generic responses, like you're "too detail oriented" or "work too hard."

Respond to this query by identifying areas in your work where you can Boost and figure out how they can be assets to a future employer. If you didn't have the opportunity to develop certain skills at your previous job, explain how eager you are to gain that skill in a new position.

Suggested answer: "In my last position, I wasn't able to develop my public-speaking skills. I'd really like to be able to work in a place that will help me get better at giving presentations and talking in front of others."

Tough question No. 5: "Why were you laid off?"

This question will become more common as the economy continues to slow down. It's a tough question, however, especially because many workers aren't told exactly why they were laid off. The best way to tackle this question is to answer as honestly as possible.

Suggested answer: "As I'm sure you're aware, the economy is tough right now and my company felt the effects of it. I was part of a large staff reduction and that's really all I know. I am confident, however, that it had nothing to do with my job performance, as exemplified by my accomplishments. For example..."

Tough question No. 6: "Tell me about the worst boss you ever had."

Never, ever talk badly about your past bosses. A potential boss will anticipate that you'll talk about him or her in the same manner somewhere down the line.

Suggested answer: "While none of my past bosses were awful, there are some who taught me more than others did. I've definitely learned what types of management styles I work with the best."

Tough question No. 7: "How would others describe you?"

You should always be asking for feedback from your colleagues and supervisors in order to gauge your performance; this way, you can honestly answer the question based on their comments. Keep track of the feedback to be able to provide to an employer, if asked. Doing so will also help you identify strengths and weaknesses.

Suggested answer: "My former colleagues have said that I'm easy to do business with and that I always hit the ground running with new projects. I have more specific feedback with me, if you'd like to take a look at it."

Tough question No. 8: "What can you offer me that another person can't?"

This is when you talk about your record of getting things done. Go into specifics from your résumé and portfolio; show an employer your value and how you'd be an asset.

Suggested answer: "I'm the best person for the job. I know there are other candidates who could fill this position, but my passion for excellence sets me apart from the pack. I am committed to always producing the best results. For example..."

Tough question No. 9: "If you could choose any company to work for, where would you go?"

Never say that you would choose any company other than the one where you are interviewing. Talk about the job and the company for which you are being interviewed.

Suggested answer: "I wouldn't have applied for this position if I didn't sincerely want to work with your organization." Continue with specific examples of why you respect the company with which you are interviewing and why you'll be a good fit.

Tough question No. 10: "Would you be willing to take a salary cut?"

Salary is a delicate topic. In today's tough economy though, how much a company can afford to pay you might be the deal breaker in whether or not you are offered a position.

Suggested answer: "I'm making $X now. I understand that the salary range for this position is $XX - $XX. Like most people, I would like to Boost on my salary, but I'm more interested in the job itself than the money. I would be open to negotiating a lower starting salary but would hope that we can revisit the subject in a few months after I've proved myself to you."

Copyright CareerBuilder.com 2009. All rights reserved. The information contained in this article may not be published, broadcast or otherwise distributed without the prior written authority

All About Jobs and Labor

Tue, 03 Mar 2009 22:00:00 -0600 en text/html https://edition.cnn.com/2009/LIVING/worklife/03/04/cb.answering.tough.interview.questions/
Killexams : Asking Questions and Finding Answers

Lesson Plan

This lesson can be used as a pre-lesson for the Who, When, What, Where, Why, and How? lesson plan.

Do your first graders like reading fiction? Then this lesson about asking questions and finding answers about their favorite fictional characters will be a hit. In this fiction comprehension lesson plan, students will take on the persona of a book character as they plan and conduct interviews with one another. First, they will take note of the different characters, settings, events, and details in a specific story. Then, they’ll write up detailed questions that set the stage for a thought-provoking discussion.



Students will be able to ask and answer questions about key details in a written text.


Students will be able to ask and answer questions with grade level-words using written supports.


(10 minutes)

  • Display the read-aloud text and ask students to imagine what the story might be about.
  • Explain that today you will be reading aloud this story, and students should be thinking about key details about each of the characters and what makes them special.
  • Read aloud the text, pausing as you read to create a list of characters and key details about those character on chart paper or the whiteboard.

Fri, 31 Aug 2018 00:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.education.com/lesson-plan/el-support-lesson-asking-questions-and-finding-answers/
Killexams : No, Zoom Is Not Stealing Your Data. Here's Why.

In a whirlwind week of developments for Zoom, speculation about privacy issues connected to the company’s terms of service (TOS) has sparked concerns—along with some panic—about how it uses customer data to train AI models. This echoes broader concerns about privacy and data security across the digital communication landscape. Plus it’s another instance in which questions about the handling of AI are arising as quickly as AI technology is advancing.

The breaking news here at the end of the week is that the backlash had led Zoom to change its TOS to avoid the issue of data collection for AI altogether. Let’s unpack what happened.

The level of vitriol in the Zoom example has not been trivial. Some industry leaders publicly called out Zoom for mishandling this situation, which is understandable. Zoom has been on the wrong side of data privacy guardrails before. The company, which grew at an astronomical rate during the pandemic, was found to have misrepresented the use of certain encryption protocols, which led to a settlement with the FTC in 2021. That’s the part specific to Zoom. But the company is also being condemned as one more example in the litany of bad actors in big tech, where lawsuits about and investigations into data practices are countless. It’s no surprise that the public assumes the worst, especially given its added unease about the future of AI.

Fair enough. No one put Zoom in that crossfire. Nonetheless, it’s still true that software makers must strike a delicate balance between user data protection and technological advancement. Without user data protection, any company’s reputation will be shot, and customers will leave in droves; yet without technological advancement, no company will attract new customers or keep meeting the needs of the ones it already has. So we need to examine these concerns—about Zoom and more broadly—to shed light on the nuanced provisions and safeguards that shape a platform's data usage and its AI initiatives.

An analyst’s take on Zoom

By pure coincidence, around 20 other industry analysts and I spent three days with Zoom’s senior leadership in Silicon Valley last week. During this closed-door event, which Zoom hosts every year to get unvarnished feedback from analysts, we got an in-depth look into Zoom's operations, from finance to product and marketing, acquisitions, AI and beyond. Much of what we learned was under NDA, but I came away with not only a positive outlook on Zoom's future, but also a deeper respect for its leadership team and an admiration for its culture and ethos.

It’s worth noting that we had full access to the execs the whole time, without any PR people on their side trying to control the narrative. I can tell you from experience that this kind of unfettered access is rare.

You should also know that analysts are a tough crowd. When we have this kind of private access to top executives and non-public company information, we ask the toughest questions—the awkward questions—and we poke holes in the answers. I compared notes with Patrick Moorhead, CEO and principal analyst of Moor Insights & Strategy, who’s covered Zoom for years and attended many gatherings like this one. He and I couldn’t think of one analyst knowledgeable about Zoom’s leadership and operations whose opinion has soured on the company because of the furor about the TOS.

Still, we were intent on finding out more, so Moorhead and I requested a meeting with key members of Zoom's C-suite to get a better understanding of what was going on with the TOS. We had that meeting mid-week, yet before we could even finish this analysis, our insights were supplemented by a startlingly vulnerable LinkedIn post by Zoom CEO Eric Yuan. In that post, he said Zoom would never train AI models with customers' content without explicit consent. He pledged that Zoom would not train its AI models using customer "audio, video, chat, screen sharing, attachments and other communications like poll results, whiteboard and reactions."

What happened with Zoom's terms of service change?

In March 2023, Zoom updated its TOS “to be more transparent about how we use and who owns the various forms of content across our platform.” Remembering that Zoom is under FTC mandates for security disclosures, this kind of candor makes sense. Where the company went wrong was in making this change quietly and with a lack of clear delineation of how Zoom would use data to train AI.

In our discussions with Zoom this week, the company took full ownership of that lack of communication. I don’t believe that the company was trying to hide anything or get anything past users. In fact, many of the provisions in the TOS don’t currently affect the vast majority of Zoom's customers. In being so proactive, the company inadvertently got too far ahead of itself, which caused unnecessary alarm among many customers who weren’t ever affected by the issue of AI training data.

Once the (understandable) panic began, Zoom released an updated version of its TOS, along with a blog post explaining the changes from the company's chief product officer, Smita Hashim. Hashim clarified that Zoom is authorized to use customer content to develop value-added services, but that customers always retain ownership and control over their content. She also emphasized the wording added to the TOS: “Notwithstanding the above, Zoom will not use audio, video or chat Customer Content to train our artificial intelligence models without your consent.”

The day after Zoom released its blog post explaining the TOS changes, Yuan addressed the communication failure and the company’s plans for training AI more directly and soberly. The CEO took responsibility in his LinkedIn mea culpa, saying the company had an internal process failure. The post on his personal page addressed users’ concerns, similar to Zoom’s official blog post, but Yuan emphasized the promise not to train AI with customer data with a bold statement. He wrote, “It is my fundamental belief that any company that leverages customer content to train its AI without customer consent will be out of business overnight.”

By the end of the week, Zoom cemented Yuan’s commitment not to use customer data to train AI and issued a revised TOS, effective August 11, 2023. Hashim’s blog post was also updated with an editor’s note reiterating Zoom’s AI policy. What’s more, the company made immediate changes to the product.

Will this satisfy everyone who believes that Zoom steals their information and can’t be trusted? Maybe not. Yet with all of this in mind, let’s take a clear-eyed look at the different aspects of how Zoom uses data.

How Zoom uses customer data

First, let's distinguish between the two types of data addressed in Zoom's TOS. Zoom can gather two categories of data: "service-generated data," which includes telemetry, diagnostic and similar data, and "customer content," such as audio recordings or user-generated chat transcripts.

Zoom owns the service-generated data, but the company says it is used only to Boost the service. Meanwhile, video content, audio, chat and any files shared within the virtual four walls—that is, the customer content—of any Zoom meeting is entirely owned by the user. Zoom has limited rights to use that data to provide the service in the first place (as in the example that follows) or for legal, safety or security purposes.

The usage rights outlined in the TOS for meetings are used to safeguard the platform from potential copyright claims. These rights protect Zoom’s platform infrastructure and operation, allowing the company to manage and store files on its servers without infringing on content ownership.

Here's an example: a budding music band uses the platform to play some music for friends. Zoom, just by the nature of how the service works, must upload and buffer that audio onto company servers (among other processes) to deliver that song—which is considered intellectual property—to participants on the platform. If Zoom does not have the rights to do so, that band, its future management, its record label or anyone who ever owns that IP technically could sue Zoom for possessing that IP on its servers.

This may sound like a fringe use case, and it would be unlikely to hold up in court, but it is not unheard of and would expose the company or any future company owner to legal risk.

Is Zoom using your data to train AI models?

After this week’s changes to the TOS, the answer to this question is now a resounding No. When Zoom IQ Meeting Summary and Zoom IQ Chat Compose were recently introduced on a trial basis, they used AI to elevate the Zoom experience with automated meeting summaries and AI-assisted chat composition. But as we are publishing this article on August 11, Zoom says that it no longer uses any customer data to train AI models, either its own or from third parties. However, to best understand the series of events, I’ll lay out how the company previously handled the training of models.

Account owners and administrators were given full control over enabling the AI features. How Zoom IQ handled data during the free trial was addressed transparently in this blog post, which was published well before the broader concerns around data harvesting and AI model training arose. (The post has now been updated to reflect the clarified policy on handling customer data.)

When Zoom IQ was introduced, collecting data to train Zoom's AI models was made opt-in based on users' and guests’ active choice. As with the recording notifications that are familiar to most users, Zoom's process notified participants when their data was being used, and the notification had to be acknowledged for a user to proceed with their desired action. Separate from the collection of data for AI, Zoom told me this week that the product alerts users if the host has even enabled a generative AI feature such as Meeting Summary.

User data was collected to enhance the AI models' capabilities and overall user experience. Given the latest change to the TOS, it is unclear how Zoom plans to train its AI models now that it won’t have customer data to work with.

Until this week, here is what the opt-in looked like within the Zoom product.

And here is what it looks like as of August 11, 2023.

Zoom's federated AI approach integrates various AI models, including its own, alongside ones from companies such as Anthropic and OpenAI, as well as select customer models. This adaptability lets Zoom tailor AI solutions to individual business demands and user preferences—including how models are trained.

Responsible AI regulation will be a long time in the making. Legislators have admitted to being behind the curve on the rapid adoption of AI as industry pioneers such as OpenAI have called for Congress to regulate the technology. In the current period of self-regulation, the company’s AI model prioritizes safety, interpretability and steerability. It operates within established safety constraints and ethical guidelines, enabling training with well-defined parameters for decision making.

The bottom line: Zoom is using your data, but not in scary ways

Amid widespread privacy and data security concerns, I believe Zoom's approach is rooted in user control and transparency—something reinforced by this week’s changes to the TOS. There are nuanced provisions within Zoom's TOS that allow it to take steps that are necessary to operate the platform. This week’s events have highlighted the need for Zoom to communicate actively and publicly what I believe they are already prioritizing internally.

As technology—and AI in particular—evolves, fostering an open dialogue about data usage and privacy will be critical in preserving (or in some cases, rebuilding) trust among Zoom's users. This week has shown that people are still very skittish about AI, and rightfully so. There are still many unknowns about AI, but Moor Insights & Strategy’s assessment is that Zoom is well positioned to securely deliver a broad set of AI solutions customized for its users. Zoom has established that it intends to do so without using customer content to train its AI models. As the company navigates data privacy concerns, I hope it can strike a balance to meet users’ concerns while advancing technology to meet their business needs.

The company admittedly had an operational misstep. Let’s not confuse that with reprehensible intent. Zoom as an organization and its CEO personally have acknowledged its customers’ concerns and made necessary adjustments to the TOS that accurately reflect Zoom's sensible data privacy and security governance. I now look forward to seeing Zoom get back to focusing on connecting millions of people worldwide, bringing solutions to meetings, contact centers and more to make people and gatherings more meaningful and productive.

Note: This analysis contains content from Moor Insights & Strategy CEO and Chief Analyst Patrick Moorhead.

Moor Insights & Strategy provides or has provided paid services to technology companies, like all tech industry research and analyst firms. These services include research, analysis, advising, consulting, benchmarking, acquisition matchmaking, and video and speaking sponsorships. The company has had or currently has paid business relationships with 8×8, Accenture, A10 Networks, Advanced Micro Devices, Amazon, Amazon Web Services, Ambient Scientific, Ampere Computing, Anuta Networks, Applied Brain Research, Applied Micro, Apstra, Arm, Aruba Networks (now HPE), Atom Computing, AT&T, Aura, Automation Anywhere, AWS, A-10 Strategies, Bitfusion, Blaize, Box, Broadcom, C3.AI, Calix, Cadence Systems, Campfire, Cisco Systems, Clear Software, Cloudera, Clumio, Cohesity, Cognitive Systems, CompuCom, Cradlepoint, CyberArk, Dell, Dell EMC, Dell Technologies, Diablo Technologies, Dialogue Group, Digital Optics, Dreamium Labs, D-Wave, Echelon, Ericsson, Extreme Networks, Five9, Flex, Foundries.io, Foxconn, Frame (now VMware), Fujitsu, Gen Z Consortium, Glue Networks, GlobalFoundries, Revolve (now Google), Google Cloud, Graphcore, Groq, Hiregenics, Hotwire Global, HP Inc., Hewlett Packard Enterprise, Honeywell, Huawei Technologies, HYCU, IBM, Infinidat, Infoblox, Infosys, Inseego, IonQ,  IonVR, Inseego, Infosys, Infiot, Intel, Interdigital, Jabil Circuit, Juniper Networks, Keysight, Konica Minolta, Lattice Semiconductor, Lenovo,  Linux Foundation, Lightbits Labs, LogicMonitor, LoRa Alliance, Luminar, MapBox, Marvell Technology, Mavenir, Marseille Inc, Mayfair Equity, Meraki (Cisco), Merck KGaA, Mesophere, Micron Technology, Microsoft, MiTEL, Mojo Networks, MongoDB, Multefire Alliance, National Instruments, Neat, NetApp, Nightwatch, NOKIA, Nortek, Novumind, NVIDIA, Nutanix, Nuvia (now Qualcomm), NXP, onsemi, ONUG, OpenStack Foundation, Oracle, Palo Alto Networks, Panasas, Peraso, Pexip, Pixelworks, Plume Design, PlusAI, Poly (formerly Plantronics), Portworx, Pure Storage, Qualcomm, Quantinuum, Rackspace, Rambus, Rayvolt E-Bikes, Red Hat, Renesas, Residio, Samsung Electronics, Samsung Semi, SAP, SAS, Scale Computing, Schneider Electric, SiFive, Silver Peak (now Aruba-HPE), SkyWorks, SONY Optical Storage, Splunk, Springpath (now Cisco), Spirent, Splunk, Sprint (now T-Mobile), Stratus Technologies, Symantec, Synaptics, Syniverse, Synopsys, Tanium, Telesign,TE Connectivity, TensTorrent, Tobii Technology, Teradata,T-Mobile, Treasure Data, Twitter, Unity Technologies, UiPath, Verizon Communications, VAST Data, Ventana Micro Systems, Vidyo, VMware, Wave Computing, Wellsmith, Xilinx, Zayo, Zebra, Zededa, Zendesk, Zoho, Zoom, and Zscaler. Moor Insights & Strategy founder, CEO, and Chief Analyst Patrick Moorhead is an investor in Fivestone Partners, Frore Systems, Groq, MemryX, Movandi, and Ventana Micro.

Fri, 11 Aug 2023 12:50:00 -0500 Melody Brue en text/html https://www.forbes.com/sites/moorinsights/2023/08/11/no-zoom-is-not-stealing-your-data-heres-why/
Killexams : 10 Difficult Interview Questions and How to Answer Them No result found, try new keyword!Keep reading to uncover some tricky interview questions that often stump candidates, plus tips on how to answer them with poise and confidence, so you can leave a lasting impression. This is one ... Fri, 28 Jul 2023 09:18:00 -0500 en-us text/html https://www.msn.com/ Killexams : ChatGPT answers more than half of software engineering questions incorrectly
June Wan/ZDNET

ChatGPT's ability to provide conversational answers to any question at any time makes the chatbot a handy resource for your information needs. Despite the convenience, a new study finds that you may not want to use ChatGPT for software engineering prompts.  

Before the rise of AI chatbots, Stack Overflow was the go-to resource for programmers who needed advice for their projects, with a question-and-answer model similar to ChatGPT's. 

Also: How to block OpenAI's new AI-training web crawler from ingesting your data

However, with Stack Overflow, you have to wait for someone to answer your question while with ChatGPT, you don't. 

As a result, many software engineers and programmers have turned to ChatGPT with their questions. Since there was no data showing just how efficacious ChatGPT is in answering those types of prompts, a new Purdue University study investigated the dilemma. 

To find out just how efficient ChatGPT is in answering software engineering prompts, the researchers gave ChatGPT 517 Stack Overflow questions and examined the accuracy and quality of those answers. 

Also: How to use ChatGPT to write code

The results showed that out of the 512 questions, 259 (52%) of ChatGPT's answers were incorrect and only 248 (48%) were correct. Moreover, a whopping 77% of the answers were verbose. 

Despite the significant inaccuracy of the answers, the results did show that the answers were comprehensive 65% of the time and addressed all aspects of the question. 

To further analyze the quality of ChatGPT responses, the researchers asked 12 participants with different levels of programming expertise to provide their insights on the answers. 

Also: Stack Overflow uses AI to provide programmers new access to community knowledge

Although the participants preferred Stack Overflow's responses over ChatGPT's across various categories, as seen by the graph, the participants failed to correctly identify incorrect ChatGPT-generated answers 39.34% of the time.  

Purdue University

According to the study, the well-articulated responses ChatGPT outputs caused the users to overlook incorrect information in the answers. 

"Users overlook incorrect information in ChatGPT answers (39.34% of the time) due to the comprehensive, well-articulated, and humanoid insights in ChatGPT answers," the authors wrote. 

Also: How ChatGPT can rewrite and Boost your existing code

The generation of plausible-sounding answers that are incorrect is a significant issue across all chatbots because it enables the spread of misinformation. In addition to that risk, the low accuracy scores should be enough to make you reconsider using ChatGPT for these types of prompts. 

Tue, 08 Aug 2023 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.zdnet.com/article/chatgpt-answers-more-than-half-of-software-engineering-questions-incorrectly/
Killexams : Dumps for the ‘Car Doctor’

Q. I have a 2005 Buick Lacrosse and it has been making a clacking, snapping sound when I brake, and 50-100 ft after brake is released. The sound itself seems to come from the from the brake on the left side, and toward the center front in the car. Sometimes if I hit an unforeseen bump which cannot be avoided, I hear the same sound. The mechanic replaced the left front tie rod, but the noise remains.

A. I would start by going on a road test with a mechanic so you both hear the same noise. I suspect that the first repair was on the right track. It is possible something in the front suspension, inner tie-rod end wear is common, stabilizer links, body mounts or even a brake caliper is shifting could be making the noise.

Q. The speedometer is reading way out of normal range (on the dial). Does the dash need to be removed to repair this, or does the speedometer mechanism have to be replaced entirely? Can it be reset?

A. This really depends on the age and type of vehicle. Nearly all speedometers today are electronic and do not use traditional cable drives. The issue could be the speed sensor in the transmission, or a faulty circuit in the instrument panel. A technician with a scan tool should be able to determine is the speed sensor is working properly.

Q. The steering wheel whirrs when I make a sharp right or left turn and the noise seems to be outside the car. Is this a simple repair job?

A. There could be several causes of this noise, from low power steering fluid to a worn or losoe power steering belt.

Q. I own a 2015 Mercedes GLK 250 diesel, which has displayed the check engine light frequently. The dealership has checked this out with repairs and claimed it to be part of the recall for diesel emissions. The recall was completed, and the light still returned intermittently. It frequently occurred after long road trips over 150 miles and with subsequent driving sometimes went off by itself. Mercedes high end repair shops recommended replacement of the entire sensor board since they said it was easier to affect a repair by its replacement rather than trying to replace the sensors individually. This is a very expensive repair. They said that since l am a Mercedes owner, I could afford the expense. Hogwash. Is this a Mercedes engineering fiasco?

A. The first thing that needs to be performed is a test to see what codes are causing the check-engine light. There are some common issues with this vehicle. Some or all of the following could cause a check engine light to be illuminated intermittently. There could be a vacuum leak, damaged and leaking O-rings, damaged water pump impeller, low battery voltage and even contaminated coolant or engine oil. Using the “parts-cannon or shotgun” approach of just throwing parts at the car almost never actually repairs the issue and is certainly not in the customer’s best interest.

Q. I have a 2006 Toyota Sienna, 103,000 miles, runs great, well maintained with no problems. Should I have the transmission fluid changed? As far as I know. The fluid was never changed.

A. Toyota considers it a lifetime fill and unless there is a leak or other issue is good for the lifetime of the car. But you could certainly change it as a preventative measure. If you do use only Toyota or equivalent fluid, not a generic fluid used in some flushing machines. If it were my vehicle and I drove it “normally” I would leave well enough alone.

Q. My Husband’s car was taken to get an oil change and inspection sticker yesterday. They did the oil change but rejected the car for the sticker. The reason was front body rot/rust. A front cross member piece is needed because it is so badly rusted. The car is a 2007 Chrysler Pacifica; do you think one could be found? He loves the car, and it still looks great. Any suggestions?

A. Yes, you can find a good rust free front subframe on eBay motors and other salvage yard websites. The part is $6-$900 plus about six hours labor to install it, plus a wheel alignment. There could be added expenses due to other rusty parts, but yes it can be repaired.

Q. I own a 2016 black Subaru Forester and I need to touch up some scratches. Can you please recommend a good brand to purchase for me to do the job myself?

A. The brand that I have been most happy with over the years is www.automotivetouchup.com Great color match and everything from touch up pens to quarts and gallons. Plus, they have clear coat paint to get the factory finish look. Recently I was alerted to another similar company https://touchuppaintfactory.com which also has factory color match in all size applicators. Like all painting, the preparation before painting is what determines the outcome of the job.

Q. I recently saw a Chevrolet at a car show, it was a small two-door wagon (not a Chevrolet Vega). The car was highly modified with a big V-8 engine. The steering wheel was on the left and I suspect it may have been a Canadian car. Is this enough of a clue to know what it could be?

A. What you may have seen (and I just saw one recently) was a Chevrolet Caravan. The car was from Brazil and sort of a combination of a Chevy and Opel. Sometimes referred to as an Opala, the factory engine was a 2.5-liter, 150 cubic-inch four-cylinder, but over the years many four-cylinder engine were replaced with a larger 250 cubic inch straight six-cylinder engine.

Got a car question, email the Car Doctor for a personal reply. jpaul@aaanortheast.com

Sat, 12 Aug 2023 04:30:00 -0500 By John Paul Senior Manager Public Affairs And Traffic Safety Aaa Northeast en-US text/html https://www.courant.com/2023/08/12/questions-and-answers-for-the-car-doctor/
Killexams : The Most Important Career Question To Ask Yourself—And Why Your Answer Matters

Like most people, you’re probably eager to make progress in your career.

But sometimes, as you acquire more experience and take on additional responsibilities, you become so incredibly busy you lose track of why you’re working so hard in the first place. And given your efforts, you might wonder why you’re not moving closer to your goals.

Before spending another minute on your to-do list, it’s imperative that you pause and ask yourself one simple yet important question: Why am I doing this?

And by “this,” I mean each activity, behavior, and environment you choose to engage in. Consider every aspect of your professional world: your job, role and responsibilities, industry, how and with whom you spend your time, and when, where, and how you work.

Though asking yourself that question might seem silly initially, your answer matters because it can help you gain more awareness about your actions and understand whether you’re making the right decisions to move you closer to your goals.

Ideally, your answer to the question is:

  • Because it gives me knowledge
  • Because it provides income
  • Because it fulfills me, and
  • Because it aligns with and supports my goals.

But, if your answer is:

  • Because I’ve always done it
  • Because someone else expects me to, or
  • I’m not sure

You may have outgrown that activity, association, role, or season in your career, or strayed from doing what matters most.

Though realizing this can be jarring, there is good news:

First, discovering this enables you to see and acknowledge that you’re in a career rut.

Though it seems obvious, many people don’t realize when they’re in a rut, career-wise. They busy themselves being busy, ignoring the red flags of their discontent or using their fear to avoid confronting their reality. But the first step in solving a problem is identifying it as a problem.

Second, it provides greater clarity around what you want (and don’t want).

Asking yourself, “Why am I doing this?” leads to another essential question: “What do I want?” Now is the time to answer that question honestly—even if the answer differs from what you thought it might (or should) be. Equally as valuable is what your awareness tells you you don’t (or no longer) want. Clarity is about focus, so drill down and get specific.

Third, it helps you take action that aligns with and supports your goals.

Without alignment, you’ll forever spin your wheels and waste your efforts on being busy but not productive. When you understand why you’re doing what you’re doing, you ensure your choices reinforce that. True career progress comes from taking action aligned with what matters most to you.

Remember, every decision you make, from the profession you pursue to the people you interact with to the environment you operate in, should be an intentional choice that aligns with and support your goals.

If it is, great, carry on.

But if it isn’t, asking and answering this question can be the wake-up call you need to make much-needed changes.

Fri, 28 Jul 2023 12:00:00 -0500 Amy Blaschka en text/html https://www.forbes.com/sites/amyblaschka/2023/07/29/the-most-important-career-question-to-ask-yourself-and-why-your-answer-matters/
Killexams : Grade Questions and Answers

Q: Who is allowed to submit or enter final grades?

A: Final grades must be entered or submitted online via myPurdue Faculty Self Service or BrightSpace by the instructor of record for that course.

Q: How do you know that you're an instructor of record?

A: Log into myPurdue and look in the My Course channel from the Faculty tab. If you have access to course lists, you will see your course offerings. If all do not appear, select the more link under your visible courses.

Q: What if I make a mistake or need to change a student’s final grade after I have submitted it?

A: Grades can be resubmitted through myPurdue or BrightSpace as often as you need up to the deadline. Corrections after that will require a Form 350 or a change submitted using the Grade Change Workflow in myPurdue.

Q: I keep getting the same final grade roster when I click Final Grade entry.

A: Scroll to the bottom of your final grade page and look for the link called "CRN Selection". Click on it and a drop down for all the courses you are faculty of record will display. Click on the arrow for a full list. Select your next CRN, then hit Submit.

Q: When can students see grades in Banner/myPurdue?

A: Students will be able to view grades after they have been rolled to academic history. That process should be complete by 8:00 a.m. the morning after the grade entry deadline.

Q: Can grades be printed?

A: To print a copy of grades for your records, click on "download course roster" from your final grade page.

Q: How can grades be viewed after grades have been rolled to history?

A: Faculty may view their grade rosters again after the deadline has passed and all end of term processing has completed in myPurdue. This is typically by 8:00 a.m. the following day. Grade reports are available using Cognos – Public Folders-Validate-Grades through the schedule deputy in each department for faculty.

Q: What if I have a Pass or No-Pass class?

A: A grade of Pass (P) or No-Pass (N) may be used if the course was originally set up with that grading criteria. If you are assigning an incomplete grade for a Pass or No-Pass class, the grade of PI should be given. If you are pushing grades from BrightSpace, the letter grade you push will automatically convert to a P or N based on the rules in university regulations.

Q: How do I handle regular incomplete grades?

A: Incomplete grades are assigned when a student has attended class, but has not completed work and has been allowed time to do so. As before, a Registrar Form 60 must completed for each student with an Incomplete or (I) grade submitted..

Incompletes are not to be used for students who never attended class and are still on the class roster. Failure to complete the class or turn in passing coursework is noted as an (F).

Q: How do I know if I should assign an "F" grade or an "FN" grade?

A: A grade of F (Failing) is awarded to students who complete the course and participate in activities through the end of the term but fail to achieve the course objectives. A grade of FN (Failing/Non-authorized Incomplete) is awarded to students who did not officially withdraw from the course, but who failed to participate in course activities through the end of the term. The FN grade is to be used when, in the opinion of the instructor, completed assignments or course activities or both were insufficient to make normal evaluation of academic performance possible. Note that once the FN grade is entered, the instructor is required to indicate the date the student last participated in course activity at an academically related activity, i.e., the last date the student completed an exam, quiz, assignment, paper, project, or attended class (if attendance was taken).

Thu, 26 Feb 2015 14:13:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.purdue.edu/registrar/faculty/grading/grade-faq.html
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