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Cloud-Digital-Leader Google Cloud Digital Leader Study Guide |

Cloud-Digital-Leader Study Guide - Google Cloud Digital Leader Updated: 2024

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Exam Code: Cloud-Digital-Leader Google Cloud Digital Leader Study Guide January 2024 by team

Cloud-Digital-Leader Google Cloud Digital Leader

Exam Specification: Cloud-Digital-Leader Google Cloud Digital Leader

Exam Name: Cloud-Digital-Leader Google Cloud Digital Leader
Exam Code: Cloud-Digital-Leader
Exam Duration: 90 minutes
Passing Score: 70%
Exam Format: Multiple-choice and scenario-based questions
Exam Delivery: Online proctored exam

Course Outline:

1. Introduction to Google Cloud
- Overview of Google Cloud and its services
- Understanding the benefits of using Google Cloud for digital transformation
- Exploring the key concepts and terminology of Google Cloud

2. Cloud Adoption Framework
- Understanding the Google Cloud Adoption Framework
- Identifying business drivers and use cases for adopting Google Cloud
- Developing a cloud strategy and roadmap

3. Cloud Economics and Cost Management
- Evaluating the economic considerations of using Google Cloud
- Cost management strategies and best practices
- Optimizing resource usage and minimizing costs

4. Security and Compliance
- Understanding the security features and controls in Google Cloud
- Implementing security best practices for data protection
- Ensuring compliance with industry regulations and standards

5. Data Analytics and AI
- Leveraging Google Cloud's data analytics and AI capabilities
- Using BigQuery for data warehousing and analysis
- Exploring machine learning and AI services on Google Cloud

6. Application Modernization and DevOps
- Modernizing applications using Google Cloud's tools and services
- Implementing CI/CD pipelines and DevOps practices
- Containerization and deployment using Kubernetes

Exam Objectives:

1. Understand the key concepts and benefits of Google Cloud for digital transformation.
2. Apply the Google Cloud Adoption Framework to develop a cloud strategy and roadmap.
3. Evaluate the economic considerations and cost management strategies in Google Cloud.
4. Implement security measures and ensure compliance in Google Cloud.
5. Utilize data analytics and AI services for insights and decision-making.
6. Modernize applications and implement DevOps practices using Google Cloud.

Exam Syllabus:

Section 1: Introduction to Google Cloud (15%)
- Overview of Google Cloud and its services
- Benefits of using Google Cloud for digital transformation
- Key concepts and terminology of Google Cloud

Section 2: Cloud Adoption Framework (20%)
- Google Cloud Adoption Framework overview
- Identifying business drivers and use cases for Google Cloud adoption
- Developing a cloud strategy and roadmap

Section 3: Cloud Economics and Cost Management (15%)
- Economic considerations of using Google Cloud
- Cost management strategies and best practices
- Resource usage optimization and cost minimization techniques

Section 4: Security and Compliance (20%)
- Security features and controls in Google Cloud
- Implementing data protection and security best practices
- Compliance with industry regulations and standards

Section 5: Data Analytics and AI (15%)
- Leveraging Google Cloud's data analytics and AI capabilities
- Data warehousing and analysis using BigQuery
- Machine learning and AI services on Google Cloud

Section 6: Application Modernization and DevOps (15%)
- Application modernization using Google Cloud tools and services
- CI/CD pipelines and DevOps practices in Google Cloud
- Containerization and deployment using Kubernetes
Google Cloud Digital Leader
Google Digital Study Guide

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Google Cloud Digital Leader
Question: 74
Your company is running the majority of its workloads in a co-located data center. The workloads are running on
virtual machines (VMs) on top of a hypervisor and use either Linux or Windows server editions. As part of your
companys transformation strategy, you need to modernize workloads as much as possible by adopting cloud-native
technologies. You need to migrate the workloads into Google Cloud.
What should you do?
A. Export the VMs into VMDK format, and import them into Compute Engine
B. Export the VMs into VMDK format, and import them into Google Cloud VMware Engine
C. Migrate the workloads using Migrate for Compute Engine
D. Migrate the workloads using Migrate for Anthos
Answer: D
Anthos: Anthos lets you build, deploy, and manage applications anywhere in a secure, consistent manner. You can
modernize existing applications running on virtual machines while deploying cloud-native apps on containers in an
increasingly hybrid and multi-cloud world.
Question: 75
Your team is working on building a machine learning model. There are a bunch of terminologies that are being used.
What is an "instance" or an "example"?
A. An input variable is used in making predictions. E.g. number of rooms in a house price prediction model.
B. One row of a dataset containing one or more input columns and possibly a prediction result.
C. An answer for a prediction task, either the answer produced by a machine learning system or the right answer
supplied in training data. E.g. image contains a "cat".
D. The "knobs" that you tweak during successive runs of training a model. E.g. learning
Answer: B
One row of a dataset containing one or more input columns and possibly a prediction result.
A picture containing timeline
Description automatically generated
Question: 76
Which of the following is/are true about Bare Metal Solutions?
A. Enterprise-grade deployment platform
B. All your existing investment in tooling and best practices will work as is
C. Continue to run any version, and feature set, any database option, and any cus-tomizations (patchsets)
D. All of the Above.
Answer: D
Bare Metal Solution for Oracle
Bring your Oracle workloads to Google Cloud with Bare Metal Solution and jumpstart your cloud journey with
minimal risk.
Continue to run any version, any feature set, any database option, and any customizations (patchsets)
Enterprise-grade deployment platform
High availability with Oracle RAC
Works with any application, any Oracle versions
All your existing investment in tooling and best practices will work as is
Question: 77
Your organization runs an application on virtual machines in Google Cloud. This application processes incoming
images. This activity takes hours to create a result for each image. The workload for this application normally stays at
a certain baseline level, but at regular intervals it spikes to a much greater workload. Your organization needs to
control the cost to run this application.
What should your organization do?
A. Purchase committed use discounts for the baseline load
B. Purchase committed use discounts for the expected spike load
C. Leverage sustained use discounts for your virtual machines
D. Run the workload on preemptible VM instances
Answer: C
The idea of the Sustained Use discount is that the longer you run a VM instance in any given month, the bigger
discount you will get from the list price.
Question: 78
A startup is planning to create their entire suite of applications on Google Cloud. They are looking at various open
source technologies to build applications. One of the considera-tion is about having a well integrated monitoring tool.
They have to be able to constantly review load capacity and performance of their applications and virtual machines.
What would you advise them to do?
A. It is best to build a custom solution so that they know it integrates well with all their custom applications.
B. Since they are using open source for applications, find another open source monitoring tool and integrate it, which
could turn out to be very cheap.
C. Use the Google Cloud Operations Suite which contains monitoring among other operations tools.
D. Update the application code to regularly write to output logs. Export the logs to BigQuery to analyze them
Answer: C
Operations Suite is well integrated into Google and it s the recommended option. References:
Question: 79
Which Google Cloud product can report on and maintain compliance on your entire Google Cloud organization to
cover multiple projects?
A. Cloud Logging
B. Identity and Access Management
C. Google Cloud Armor
D. Security Command Center
Answer: D
Security Command Center is a centralized security and risk management platform for your Google Cloud resources.
It is a single tool that offers a variety of security features including:
Question: 80
Your organization consists of many teams. Each team has many Google Cloud projects. Your organization wants to
simplify the management of identity and access policies for these projects.
How can you group these projects to meet this goal?
A. Group each teams projects into a separate domain
B. Assign labels based on the virtual machines that are part of each teams projects
C. Use folders to group each teams projects
D. Group each teams projects into a separate organization node
Answer: C
Description automatically generated with medium confidence
Question: 81
Your organization is developing a mobile app and wants to select a fully featured cloud-based compute platform for it.
Which Google Cloud product or feature should your organization use?
A. Google Kubernetes Engine
B. Firebase
C. Cloud Functions
D. App Engine
Answer: B
Firebase is Googlesmobile development platform that empowers you to quickly build and grow your app
Question: 82
Your company has been using a shared facility for data storage and will be migrating to Google Cloud. One of the
internal applications uses Linux custom images that need to be migrated.
Which Google Cloud product should you use to maintain the custom images?
A. App Engine flexible environment
B. Compute Engine
C. App Engine standard environment
D. Google Kubernetes Engine
Answer: B
A custom image is a boot disk image that you own and control access to.
Use custom images for the following tasks:
Import a virtual disk to Compute Engine from your on-premises environment or from VMs that are running on your
local workstation or on another cloud platform. You can manually import boot disk images to Compute Engine, but
one disk at a time.
Graphical user interface, text, application, email
Description automatically generated
Question: 83
Your team is using BigQuery as your central data warehouse. You are running a certain workload that youve run
frequently over the last few days. It is a short, high capacity ana-lytics workload.
Which of the following would be an appropriate pricing model to use?
A. There is no need for any pricing model the first 1 TB of query data processed per month is free.
B. On-demand pricing
C. Flex Slots
D. Flat-rate reservations
Answer: C
Option A is Correct- BigQuery Flex Slots for cyclical workloads that require extra capacity, or for workloads that need
to process a lot of data in a short time, and so would be less expensive to run using reserved slots for a short time.
Question: 84
As your organization increases its release velocity, the VM-based application upgrades take a long time to perform
rolling updates due to OS boot times. You need to make the application deployments faster.
What should your organization do?
A. Migrate your VMs to the cloud, and add more resources to them
B. Convert your applications into containers
C. Increase the resources of your VMs
D. Automate your upgrade rollouts
Answer: B
Question: 85
Your organization needs to minimize how much it pays for data traffic from the Google network to the internet.
What should your organization do?
A. Choose the Standard network service tier.
B. Choose the Premium network service tier.
C. Deploy Cloud VPN.
D. Deploy Cloud NAT.
Answer: A
Choose the Standard network service tier. While Premium tier is the default for all egress traffic and offers the highest
performance, when cost is a consideration. Standard tier is the more economical.
Text, letter
Description automatically generated
Question: 86
What are the key features of Google Cloud Identity.
A. Multi-factor authentication (MFA)
B. Single sign-on (SSO)
C. Works with your favorite apps and Endpoint management
D. All of the Above
Answer: D
Cloud Identity:
A unified identity, access, app, and endpoint management (IAM/EMM) platform.
supply users easy access to apps with single sign-on.
Multi-factor authentication protects user and company data.
Endpoint management enforces policies for personal and corporate devices
Modernize IT and strengthen security
Multi-factor authentication (MFA)
Help protect your user accounts and company data with a wide variety of MFA verification methods such as push
notifications, Google Authenticator, phishing-resistant Titan Security Keys, and using your Android or iOS device as a
security key.
Endpoint management
Improve your companys device security posture on Android, iOS, and Windows devices using a unified console. Set
up devices in minutes and keep your company data more secure with endpoint management. Enforce security policies,
wipe company data, deploy apps, view reports, and export details.
Single sign-on (SSO)
Enable employees to work from virtually anywhere, on any device, with single sign-on to thousands of pre-integrated
apps, both in the cloud and on-premises.
Works with your favorite apps
Cloud Identity integrates with hundreds of cloud applications out of the box-and were constantly adding more to the
list so you can count on us to be your single identity platform today and in the future.
For More exams visit

Google Digital Study Guide - BingNews Search results Google Digital Study Guide - BingNews Google's cookie deprecation: Does it spell the end of effective digital advertising?

After years of delays and adjustments, Google's plan to wipe out third-party cookies from Chrome is finally happening. Starting on 4 January, the tech giant began testing Tracking Protection, a new feature that limits cross-site tracking by restricting website access to third-party cookies by default.  

Initially, this trial will impact only 1% of Chrome users globally, allowing industry players time to test their readiness for a web without third-party cookies. This also marks a key milestone in Google’s Privacy Sandbox initiative to phase out third-party cookies in Chrome by the end of the year.  

In fact, Google has been talking about the importance of adopting privacy-centric, durable strategies and solutions for years. In a conversation with MARKETING-INTERACTIVE, a spokesperson said the company recommends a three-prong approach, including strengthening first-party data, and reducing data use to Boost products with AI-powered solutions and privacy-preserving technologies.  

“In April 2023 we published results of an experiment serving interest-based ads with a combination of privacy-preserving signals instead of third-party cookies. Campaign performance maintained a pretty high fidelity relative to third-party cookies-based performance. We strongly encourage other ad tech providers to start testing these and other privacy-preserving techs early to find the best outcomes,” the statement reads.  

Will this set hurdles for effective digital advertising? 

The long-awaited deprecation of cookies is finally beginning but Google’s solution, the Chrome Privacy Sandbox, which only works on a Chrome browser, likely doesn’t benefit anyone other than Google, according to Chris Ngan, general manager of Hong Kong and Taiwan, The Trade Desk.  

“Removing third-party cookies appears to be just an exercise to position Chrome as a privacy-conscious browser, while attempting to do just enough to avoid the watchful eye of antitrust authorities, while in my view stopping digital advertising from reaching its full potential,” he added. 

However, Nathan Petralia, former managing director, Merkle Hong Kong, said the cookieless future does not necessarily spell the end of effective digital advertising.  

“While third-party cookies have enabled in-depth targeting and tracking, their loss pushes the industry to adapt with new strategies that can maintain personalisation and results while protecting user privacy,” he added. 

First-party data should still be used to take the guesswork out of marketing, create thoughtful, personalised campaigns, and build amazing digital experiences all customers crave, said Laura Quigley, senior vice president, APAC at Integral Ad Science. “This approach, combined with a well-planned and thoughtful contextual targeting strategy, will ensure success in an age of privacy,” she added. 

While retargeting and hyper-personalised ad experiences might become less effective, they open doors for other creative approaches, such as data-driven creativity, contextual relevance, brand storytelling, amongst others, she said.

How can industry players better embrace the cookieless future? 

Google's cookie phase-out presents a significant challenge and an opportunity. No silver bullet can replace its power, but a kaleidoscope of innovations has emerged: first-party data, contextual targeting, identity solutions and innovative measurement solutions. 

True enough, key industry players have come together to create a patchwork of different identity solutions over the past few years. They cover not only the browser environment but also growing channels such as digital audio and streaming.  

“These solutions have been built to do what cookies never could - benefit publishers and advertisers, while at the same time supporting the consumer experience,” The Trade Desk's Ngan said. 

Moving forward, marketers will need to be very clear about how consumer data is used, shared, and stored, with whom and for what purposes, said IAS’ Quigley.  

On the other hand, advertisers have a real opportunity to make an impact without sacrificing specificity. Quigley said regulatory bodies such as IAB will play a key role in privacy compliance and setting the standards for contextual targeting.  

“With the imminent ‘death of the cookie’, marketers will have to get innovative about their marketing, leading to a better connection, personalised, contextual offerings, and overall happier consumers," she said.

Furthermore, marketers and advertisers should focus on diversifying their approach to data collection and audience targeting, said Petralia.  

“Investing in first-party data strategies will become more crucial - improving direct customer relationships and collecting visitor data through engaging content and loyalty programs. Exploring new technologies like AI-driven predictive analytics and privacy-centric advertising platforms can also open up alternatives,” he added. 

Related articles:

3 things you need to do right now as we transition into a cookieless world
Opinion: When the cookies crumble: The CMO’s guide to a cookieless world
Study: 59% of Asia marketers unprepared for cookieless world

Thu, 04 Jan 2024 13:49:00 -0600 en text/html
Study: Google does a brain good

(CNN) -- Can Google make you smarter? Is the more you Yahoo, the better? A new study suggests that searching online could be beneficial for the brain.

Searching online triggers areas of the brain that control decision-making and complex reasoning.

A study at the University of California, Los Angeles, measured brain activity of older adults as they searched the Web.

"There's so much interest in exercising our minds as we age," said the researcher, Dr. Gary Small, a professor at the Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior at UCLA. "One result of this study is that these technologies are not all bad. They may be good in keeping our brains active."

To study what brains look like when people are searching the Internet, Small recruited two groups of people: one that had minimal computer experience and another that was Web savvy.

Members of the technologically advanced group had more than twice the neural activation than their less experienced counterparts while searching online. Activity occurred in the region of the brain that controls decision-making and complex reasoning, according to Small's study, which appears in the American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry.

Small said he can't pinpoint why there was more brain activity in the experienced users.

"The way I theorized is that when we are confronted with new mental challenges, we don't know how to deal with it," he said. "We don't engage neural circuits. Once we figure out a strategy, we engage those circuits. "

In the study, 24 people were divided into the two groups, who were similar in age ranging from 55 to 78 years old, sex and educational achievement. Their only difference was their technological experience.

The number of people in the study was small, "but adequate to see a difference between the groups. It was so significantly different," Small said.

The subjects went into the magnetic resonance imaging, or MRI, scanner, which is like a large tunnel. The MRI monitored their brain activity while the subjects strapped on goggles, through which they saw a book page or an Internet search page.

They were given search tasks such as finding out how to choose a car or looking up the benefits of eating chocolate or drinking coffee. They had buttons and keyboards to conduct a simulated online search.

Their other task was to read pages laid out like a book.

"The bottom line is, when older people read a simulated book page, we see areas of the brain activated that you'd expect, the visual cortex, and areas that control language and reading," he said. "When they search on the Internet, they use the same areas, but there was much greater activation particularly in the front part, which controls decision-making and complex reasoning. But it was only for the people who had previous experience with the Internet." Interactive: See MRIs of study participants' brain activity »

Liz Zelinski, a professor of gerontology and psychology at the University of Southern California, said the findings about the brain activity differences aren't surprising and offered this analogy: "If you wanted to study how hard people can exercise, and you take people that already exercise and people that don't exercise, aren't they going to be different to start out?"

Research has shown that as the brain ages, its structure and function also changes. Such changes have been linked to declines in brain speed, control and working memory and other cognitive abilities.

Taking on mentally challenging tasks could Boost brain health, according to recent studies. Brain teasers, such such as Nintendo's Brain Age game and computer programs are geared towards boomers and aging adults. And everyone has different recommendations from crossword puzzles to Sodoku to video games as ways to keep the brain sharp, Zelinski said.

Her recommendation: "Do something hard and challenging that's fairly unusual for them to do, something they haven't done before. The idea is it should be difficult. If you do a crossword puzzle all your life, it's not going to be challenging for you."

For many aging Americans, learning how to use a computer is a challenge.

The barrier for most seniors is the disinterest and intimidation, said Tobey Gordon Dichter, the founder of a nonprofit group, Generations on Line, a Philadelphia, Pennsylvania-based organization that provides instructions and encourages seniors to get on the Web.

"It does so much for the mind," Dichter said about searching online. "It allows for the mind to take where you where you want to go. It's on-demand information."

But it's difficult at first, she added. "When you're undertaking new frustrating tasks, like learning a language or how to use a computer, you're pushing those neurons."

The Pew Internet and American Life Project reported in a 2006 demo survey that about 32 percent of people who are 65 and older used the Internet.

Jewel Hall, 71, surfs the net on her laptop every other day. The Maryland resident said searching online forces her to think.

"It'll make you think, 'Do I have the right thing in there?' " Hall said. "Should I try to put something else in there? It makes you think, "What can I put in there to make the right things come up?' You do use your brain a lot."

Small has written a book, "iBrain," which examines the impact of technology on the human brain and said he wants to conduct further studies on the effects of technology on the organ.

Small encourages older adults to learn how to use search engines and said, "This could be exercising their brain and their neural circuitry in a way that's helpful."

All About NeurologyAging and the ElderlyInternet

Mon, 13 Oct 2008 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html
A Global Study on Digital Capabilities

As the digital economy expands and as countries are developing their digital maturity, there is a need for increased focus on coherent digital transformation strategies for a whole-of-government or even whole-of-nation approach. This approach would align the undergirding institutional structures, the physical and immaterial enablers of a digital economy, and digital capabilities towards the ambition of the digital transformation strategy, thereby enabling the desired outcomes.

Digital economy interventions have often focused on establishing the physical and immaterial enablers such as digital infrastructure and applications. However, this study posits that to succeed, digital transformation of countries, regions or cities must be driven by leadership and include strategies that address digital skills for all and fosters a digital culture.

This study is a deep dive into the digital capabilities of leadership, skills and culture and is aimed at stimulating reflection and at repositioning the human capital aspects of digital transformation as a key contributor alongside digital infrastructure and applications. Any digital strategy should supplement investments in technology with one or more ‘fit for purpose’ digital capability initiatives that invest in what is often labelled the 'soft' or ‘people’ infrastructure.

Fri, 03 Mar 2023 06:05:00 -0600 en text/html
Digital images designed to trick AI are affecting humans too No result found, try new keyword!Discover the subtle influence of adversarial images on human vision and AI systems, underscoring the crucial intersection of technology and perception. Thu, 04 Jan 2024 03:58:23 -0600 en-us text/html A Study Guide to Humanae Vitae

Written by the Priests and Pastoral Associates of Priests for Life


This study guide is based on the Vatican Translation of Humanae Vitae


Table of Contents:



Introduction to the Study Guide

Summary of the Introduction to the Encyclical and Section I: New Aspects of the Problem and Competency of the Magisterium

A Summary of Section II. Doctrinal Principles

Summary of Section III. Pastoral Directives 

Essay: Finding Our Way Back Home

Essay: Life, Purity and Humanae Vitae

Essay: The Transmission of Life -- On Whose Terms?

The Contraception of Grief: A Personal Testimony

Glossary of Terms




A Study Guide to Humanae Vitae

Fr. Frank Pavone, National Director, Priests for Life


Forty years is not a long time in Church history. Indeed, we are still living in the moment of Humanae Vitae (issued on July 25, 1968), and of the challenge it presents to the world.

Humanae Vitae does not identify the key problem of our day in the realm of sex or birth or "the pill," but rather in the myth that we can be God. Pope Paul writes at the beginning of the document, "But the most remarkable development of all is to be seen in man's stupendous progress in the domination and rational organization of the forces of nature to the point that he is endeavoring to extend this control over every aspect of his own life -- over his body, over his mind and emotions, over his social life, and even over the laws that regulate the transmission of life” (n.2).


The Pope here is painting a wider vision of the problem. We think everything belongs to us, but the reality is that we belong to God. "Humanae Vitae" means "Of human life." Human life came from God, belongs to God, and goes back to God. "You are not your own," St. Paul declares. "You have been bought, and at a price" (1 Cor. 6:19-20). Sex and having children are aspects of a whole cluster of realities that make up our lives and activities. We suffer from the illusion that all of these activities belong to us. “This is my life, my body, my choice.


The problem we face is not that our society is obsessed with sex. Rather, it is afraid of it-- afraid of the total reality and power of what it represents, where it comes from, and where it leads. Sex properly understood requires that we acknowledge God who made it. More than that, sex can never be separated from its purpose: to insert us into this immense, powerful movement of life and love that started when God said "Let there be light" (Genesis 1:3) and culminates when the Spirit and the Bride say "Come, Lord Jesus!" (Revelation 22:17).


Sexual activity means so much that it is wrong to diminish its message or deny its full reality: it belongs in the context of committed love (sealed by marriage) and openness to life precisely because this is the only context great enough to hold its message and reflect the greater reality to which the gift of sexuality points us and to which it commits us.


This is a reality that is bigger than all of us. It is the self-giving which starts in the Trinity, and is revealed in a startling way on the Cross, and then challenges each of us in our daily interaction with others, with God, and with our own eternal destiny. It is so real and so big that it is scary. That's why so many today are afraid of the full reality and meaning of sex. That's why Pope Paul VI wrote Humanae Vitae.


That is also why our Priests for Life pastoral team wrote this Study Guide. We have also established a special website,, to promote the teachings of this document. It is our daily prayer that this effort will lead many believers to understand, embrace, and proclaim the beautiful truth of human life. 




James J. Pinto, Jr., M.E.V.
Editor: A Study Guide to Humanae Vitae 


This Study Guide will be most effective if one first thoroughly familiarizes himself with its content and layout. Review the table of contents and the location of each section listed. The Study Guide is to be used by an individual or group as a side by side companion with the text  of Humanae Vitae included in this booklet. The three Essays offer unique insight with questions for further discussion. The Contraception of Grief: A Personal Testimony presents a riveting and practical witness to why Humanae Vitae is the wholesome truth.


The Glossary assists the reader in clarifying some key terms contained in the Encyclical. Glossary terms are listed by the number/paragraph in which they first appear. The terms will be marked with an *asterisk in the Humanae Vitae text as a note to the reader that the term is contained in the Glossary. 


After practicing Fr. Pavone’s Foreword one should read the Summary of the Introduction and Section I, followed by the practicing of the Introduction and Section I. of Humanae Vitae itself. After completing the Introduction and Section I. of Humanae Vitae; the reader answers the series of questions below the Summary of the Introduction and Section I.  The sequence followed for the Introduction and Section I is repeated for each following section: practicing the Study Guide Section Summary, practicing of the corresponding Encyclical section itself and returning to the Study Guide questions for that particular section. The questions are meant to refer the reader back to particular paragraphs/numbers (n.or n.n.) of that section where he/she will find the answers. One may work on the answers to these questions while practicing the paragraph/number, or, wait until he/she has read the entire section and then complete the answers. Continual returning to the text of the encyclical helps emphasize that the document itself is the primary source of instruction and the basis for individual and group applications. 


The three Essays have several questions at their conclusion to help foster reflection and discussion. A personal witness to the truth and wisdom of Humanae Vitae is presented in The Contraception of Grief: A Personal Testimony. 


This Study Guide is meant to be a “springboard” to delve more deeply into Humanae Vitae and its themes, in order to stimulate reflection, and a lifestyle of holiness. 


For those considering the possibility of facilitating a study group, this study guide lends itself to a discussion study group method of learning. While a leader/facilitator encourages the group and keeps it “on track”, it is the individual sharing and group dynamic that contribute most to the learning process. The facilitator is not a lecturer, neither is he there to supply all the answers. The facilitator seeks to shepherd the group learning process and does everything possible to solicit their contributions. Members interact and learn from everyone, including the facilitator. A Facilitator’s Guide is available through Priests for Life at The Facilitator’s Guide seeks to assist you in leading a group and lays out suggested study sessions.


It is our hope, that on the fortieth anniversary of Humanae Vitae, this study guide will assist in promoting the Church’s clear and authoritative word on transmitting human life. May all who hear this true, prophetic and lovely word be assured that: the Church has always issued appropriate documents on the nature of marriage, the correct use of conjugal rights, and the duties of spouses. These documents have been more copious in recent times. (n.4)


Mon, 25 Dec 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html
What Are Good Google Ads Benchmarks In 2023? [STUDY] (Festive Flashback)

Celebrate the Holidays with some of SEJ’s best articles of 2023.

Our Festive Flashback series runs from December 21 – January 5, featuring daily reads on significant events, fundamentals, actionable strategies, and thought leader opinions.

2023 has been quite eventful in the SEO industry and our contributors produced some outstanding articles to keep pace and reflect these changes.

Catch up on the best reads of 2023 to supply you plenty to reflect on as you move into 2024.

“Is this a good click-through rate for our campaigns?”

“Why is our cost per conversion high? Is this in line with our competitors?”

“What’s a good conversion rate?”

“Why was performance down yesterday?”

How many times do you get asked these questions in a week? A month?

Nothing’s more frustrating than getting these questions from your C-suite team without having data to back them up. Or, you have outdated data that is not useful in today’s advertising world.

Keeping up-to-date on industry Google Ads benchmarks is crucial to help answer these questions for your business.

Wordstream by LocaliQ recently published its Search Advertising benchmarks for 2023.

The data consists of data points from thousands of campaigns in both Google and Microsoft Ads for the top 20 industries. Some of the top industries include:

  • Arts & Entertainment.
  • Automotive.
  • Education.
  • Finance & Insurance.
  • Health & Fitness.
  • Home Improvement.
  • Shopping & Retail.
  • Travel.

While these benchmarks are a starting point, it’s important to note that many factors go into setting benchmarks that are attainable for your business.

We hope this data is useful for you to help level-set expectations and goals for your business, and get a sense of how you stack up to the competition.

In this report, you’ll find benchmarks for Search campaigns in Google & Microsoft Ads for:

  • Click-through rate (CTR).
  • Average cost-per-click (CPC).
  • Conversion rate (CVR).
  • Cost per acquisition (CPA).

Let’s dig into the data.

Average Click-Through Rate In Google & Microsoft Ads By Industry

The average click-through rate across all industries sat between 3-5% in 2023.

In LocaliQ’s data, the industries it pooled together outperformed that CTR, averaging over 6%.

Compared to when the company first started gathering data in 2015, the average CTR for Search ads was minimal at 1.35%.

The business category that boasted the highest CTR was Arts & Entertainment, with an astounding 11.78% CTR.

At the other end of the spectrum was Attorneys and Legal Services at a 4.76% CTR.

The CTR metric should be analyzed as only one indicator of performance, not the end-all-be-all when trying to determine if your ads are doing well.

Many factors can influence CTR, including:

  • Your competition (Is the SERP saturated?).
  • Your bidding strategy.
  • Your position on the results page.
  • Your ad copy relevancy.
  • Your audience targeting.

When analyzing your ads, Google gives you indicators of performance within your Quality Score. If your average CTR is below your peer set in your industry, Google will let you know.

When optimizing your Search Ads, make sure you’re taking a look at levers outside of just ad copy.

Average Cost-Per-Click In Google & Microsoft Ads By Industry

While the Attorneys and Legal Services showcased the lowest CTR, it also boasted the highest average CPC. In 2023, the average CPC for this industry came in at $9.21.

This average is unsurprising, given the higher-than-average cost of acquiring a customer.

On the lower end of the spectrum, Real Estate and Arts & Entertainment industries had the lowest average CPC at $1.55.

Similar to analyzing the CTR metric, average CPC is just one performance indicator.

For example, your ads may show a low average CPC and a low CTR. This could mean your bids aren’t high enough to be competitive in the market, and you may want to consider raising bids.

On the other hand, if you have a higher-than-average CPC, you’ll want to monitor these more closely to ensure you can prove your return on ad spend/investment.

Average Conversion Rates In Google & Microsoft Ads By Industry

The average conversion rate is calculated from the number of leads/sales you get divided by the number of clicks from your ad.

When looking at the data from 2023, the average conversion rate varied highly across industries.

On the high end of performance, Animals & Pets had the highest conversion rate at 13.41%, followed by Physicians and Surgeons at 13.12%.

The industries that had the lowest conversion rate included:

  • Apparel/Fashion & Jewelry: 1.57%
  • Furniture: 2.57%
  • Real Estate: 2.88%

When looking at these industries and the products they sell, these conversion rates make sense.

Furniture is a high-ticket item for many customers. Users do a lot of research online before making a purchase. Not only that, but because of the price tag, many customers end up purchasing in stores instead of online.

While the conversion rate may be low in this particular industry, it’s more important than ever to be able to measure offline conversions, such as in-store visits or purchases.

In the apparel industry, new brands seem to pop up every day.

If you do a simple search for Nike sneakers, the number of sellers and resellers for these types of products has skyrocketed in recent years.

The amount of competition can directly contribute to a low (or high) conversion rate.

Average Cost Per Acquisition In Google & Microsoft Ads By Industry

The average cost per acquisition is a core KPI that advertisers should keep a pulse on when analyzing performance.

It’s no surprise that certain industries have a much higher CPA compared to other industries. Some of the factors that can influence CPA include:

  • Average CPC.
  • Average CTR (this influences your CPC).
  • Audience targeting.
  • Conversion rate.
  • The type of product/service you’re selling.

The Careers & Employment industry had the highest CPA out of all industries at a whopping $132.95.

This is not surprising considering the possible barriers to entry during economic volatility.

In the past 12-16 months, many businesses have been forced to lay off a portion of their employees.

On the other hand, many workers are voluntarily leaving their professions to switch companies, start their own businesses, or simply take time off.

Those factors together can result in the high CPA in the Careers & Employment industry.

However, while the CPA may be high, many businesses in that industry find that well worth the investment, considering their return on each employee.

Those industries with lower-priced products and services likely have a lower CPA goal.

The industries that showed the lowest CPA in 2023 were Automotive Repair, Services & Parts at $21.12, followed by Animals & Pets at $23.57.

Compared to last year’s data, 21 out of the 23 industries reported an increase in CPA.

As mentioned above, such a large fluctuation in CPA could be due to the record inflation and economic instability of the past few years.


If you find yourself on the lower end of the spectrum compared to others in your industry, don’t fret!

These benchmarks are meant to be a guidepost for you.

If you’re struggling to Boost campaign performance, try following the tips below:

  • #1: Set the right (and realistic) goals for your campaigns.
  • #2: Test out other search engines besides Google.
  • #3: Choose the right budget(s) for your campaigns.
  • #4: Invest in a good keyword strategy.
  • #5: Focus on your landing page strategy and ad optimization.
  • #6: Don’t forget about the mobile experience!

Make sure to check out Wordstream by LocaliQ’s full report on benchmarks and tips to Boost your campaigns.

More resources:

Featured Image: VideoFlow/Shutterstock

Mon, 25 Dec 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html
Digital Marketing In 2024: The Ultimate Guide

Editorial Note: Forbes Advisor may earn a commission on sales made from partner links on this page, but that doesn't affect our editors' opinions or evaluations.

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Digital marketing has revolutionized how businesses attract and engage with potential customers for their products and services. Apart from this, it can still be a challenging concept to keep up with which digital strategy works best in this rapidly growing digital era.

Forbes Advisor India has brought together an ultimate guide that walks you through everything you need to be aware of while creating winning digital marketing strategies for your business. Further in this article, you’ll learn what digital marketing is, its types and methods that work best and examples that supply exceptional results.

Digital marketing has revolutionized how businesses attract and engage with potential customers for their products and services. Know more about its types that work best. 

What Is Digital Marketing?

Digital marketing at times called online marketing or internet marketing—is a means of engaging with likely buyers who use digital technologies. The basic goal of digital marketing is to attract interest and sales for products and services.

You can run digital marketing through the internet on any device connected to it using various communication strategies, including text messaging, email, online-based advertising and social media.

Why Is Digital Marketing Important in 2024?

Traditional marketing channels like broadcast television, radio and newspapers are still intact but are no longer dominated with the massive audiences they commanded in their heyday. To be a successful marketer, you need to focus where your audience is and market accordingly and nowadays, people are on the internet.

According to Statista, there are more than 1.2 billion internet users in India alone, and that number continues to grow. As digital usage increases, so will opportunities for digital marketing. But digital marketing isn’t just important because internet usage is so high; it’s vital because digital marketing techniques produce exceptional results.

In a recent Nielsen survey of marketers, 62% of participants reported that digital spending on social media marketing was either extremely or very effective for them. Search marketing and online/mobile display marketing each earned 57% high-to-very effectiveness ratings, while online/mobile video earned 58%.

What Is a Digital Marketing Strategy?

A marketing plan offers a road map for how you intend to use marketing to accomplish the goals and objectives defined in your company’s business plan. A digital marketing strategy details how you use digital technologies and communication to reach your target audience and convert prospects into buyers.

The best digital marketing strategists employ a range of digital mechanisms. Digital advertising, search engine optimization (SEO), social media marketing, content marketing and email marketing are just a few digital hacks that can work together to create extraordinary results. Your digital tactic should outline which tools you plan to opt for and how you plan to executive them for your business.

Types of Digital Marketing

Social Media Marketing

When you look at social media stats, the number of current and projected social media users is simply astounding. It’s estimated that 4.9 billion people worldwide use social media, and experts predict that number will rise to 5.9 billion by 2027.

As of 2023, Facebook still dominates with the most active users—2.9 billion global users— followed by YouTube with 2.5 billion, WhatsApp with 2 billion and Instagram with 2 billion. LinkedIn has more than 900 million users worldwide, while TikTok, Snapchat, Twitter and Pinterest each have over 450 million active users. Clearly, these massive audiences present incredible opportunities for marketers.

One of the important advantages of social media marketing is that you are not required to have to be effective. Every digital marketing platform allows you to create an account with no cost involved, which means you can share content immediately, even if you want to cut short your expenses or do not wish to spend on advertising. Social media channels also offer paid advertising opportunities that let you create highly targeted campaigns designed to reach your targeted audience.

Social media has a solid track record for generating sales; 76% of consumers report purchasing a product after seeing it on social media. For optimal results, it’s best to focus on one or two social channels when starting out and then expand when you’re comfortable. Also, consistency is key in social media marketing; you need to engage with your audience regularly.

Search Engine Optimization (SEO)

At this very moment, there’s a high chance that the internet users are searching for the products and services that your business has to offer. Those hot prospects will only be able to find you if your company’s site is visible on search engine results pages (SERPs). In simpler words, you have to be visible and appear on Google search results and rank high if you want your audience to be directed to your website.

Investing in search engine optimization (SEO) is one of the smartest marketing moves you can make. Great SEO can deliver an ROI of 700% or more. With some upfront planning, you can ensure that your website content is easy for prospective buyers to find. And, when you use compelling content and marketing messaging, you can convert more of your website visitors into buyers.

If you have an estimated or tight budget , SEO can be started easily by using free tools such as Google Keyword Planner and Google Trends to do your research. Paid SEO tools are also available and the planning process and SEO research are much more manageable with it. The best SEO software will equip you with the knowledge you need to rank higher on Google and other search engines.

SEO can be complicated, and if you don’t have knowledge of the field, you may want to hire an expert to help you. The best SEO services can help you with every aspect of SEO, including technical SEO, on- and off-page SEO, link-building, mobile SEO, keyword research and SEO copywriting.

Search Engine Marketing (SEM)

There was a time when search engine marketing (SEM) meant all forms of search marketing, including SEO aimed at building traffic organically and paid SEO, which charges a fee for sponsored posts that get priority placement on SERPs. Today, SEM mainly refers to paid search.

SEM can be especially constructive for businesses that are certain their prospects are searching online for similar products or services with the intent of buying them. For instance, if a user is searching for “plumbers near me,” they have an urgent requirement for it and are likely to hire a plumber soon.

Typically, the higher your business ranks on Google, the more traffic you can generate for your site. Hence, paying a fee to rank higher via paid advertising may supply your company an edge over your competitors.

Email Marketing

Email marketing has been around for a while but it remains one of the most powerful digital tools in the marketer’s toolbox. As of 2023, more than 347 billion emails are sent and received every day and that number is expected to climb to 376 billion by 2025. On average, every dollar invested in email marketing earns $36.

To capitalize on email marketing, you’ll need software access to help create email campaigns. The best email marketing software makes it simple to manage designs, contacts, send emails and track performance stats, like email open and conversion rates.

Many businesses use a full-fledged customer relationship management (CRM) system to manage their contact databases and email marketing campaigns. The right software for you will depend on your exact business needs. Forbes found that the best marketing CRMs for small businesses include HubSpot, Salesforce, Zoho and Zendesk.

Content Marketing

John F. Oppendahl coined the term content marketing at a meeting at the American Society of Newspaper Editors in 1996. Since then, marketers have used the term to describe all forms of communication that deliver value to targeted recipients. A strong content marketing initiative can generate significant results for your bottom line, as compelling content can build your follower base and drive sales.

Content marketing can take the form of the written word, audio, visuals or video. Blogs, e-books, case studies, infographics, white papers, podcasts, checklists, how-to guides and short- and long-form videos are all popular forms of content marketing. You can engage in content marketing or promote your content via a variety of outlets, including websites and social channels.

The best content marketing techniques offer helpful insights that potential buyers may want and need. You can simply use content marketing strategy to entertain, inform, persuade or educate. The most productive content marketing is never salesy but rather enlightening and influential. If your content is relatable enough, it can go viral as people will share your content with others who have interests.

Influencer Marketing

The rise in social media use and the number of breakout social stars with massive fan bases has sparked a meteoric rise in influencer marketing in recent years.

Influencers have large or highly targeted audiences that follow them via social media channels. As the name implies, influencers can use their “influence” to prompt fans to buy certain products or services. For example, if Selena Gomez, who has over 420 million Instagram followers, creates an Instagram post where she’s applying a particular brand’s mascara, sales for that product can skyrocket.

While an influencer’s recommendation can easily sway purchase decisions, those recommendations offered don’t come for free. Influencers charge an amount for mentioning, recommending and posting products and services to their followers. The charges can vary and are based on their follower count, audience engagement and type of post such as, for instance, a brief mention or a lengthy personalized promotion.

Some influencers have millions of social followers while others have smaller audiences, but their fans might be ideal for your brand. Influencer marketing can be pure gold for businesses whose target customers align with an influencer’s fan base.

Video Marketing

Video is so important to today’s marketers that it deserves special attention as one of the most effective and compelling digital marketing techniques you can employ for business growth.

Using a video marketing strategy can be done easily on your site, in social media, as a form of content marketing or a section of influencer marketing campaigns. In a study from animated video production company Wyzowl, 87% of marketers reported that video marketing has helped them increase sales, and 92% said video delivers a good return on investment.

The most popular types of videos used by marketers include sales, explainer, testimonial and product demonstration videos. In 2022, according to the Wyzowl study, 71% of marketers used videos in their social media.

Podcast Marketing

Starting a podcast for your business has ever crossed your mind? Are you considering marketing your products and services through advertising on popular podcasts in your business niche? Both can be considered as digital marketing strategies.

Thousands of businesses use podcast marketing to help create product awareness and establish their brand as a trusted authority. There are several ways to tap into the power of podcast marketing. You can choose to launch your own podcast, appear as a guest on podcasts in your business niche or buy advertising time on relevant podcasts.

Short Message Service (SMS) Marketing

SMS or text marketing is a means of communicating with potential buyers via simple text messages. SMS marketing delivers exceptionally high open rates, as studies have shown that recipients open an impressive 98% of text messages.

However, there are a few cons of SMS like limitations of 160 characters in a single message and there is no room for visual design. Plus, under the Telephone Consumer Protection Act (TCPA), you are required to have written permission to text promotional messages to someone—not everyone is wishing to sign up to receive advertising on their phones.

You can get started with SMS marketing by working with a texting service. The best mass texting services make it easy to get your company’s marketing messages out to your customer and prospect base.

What Are the Benefits of Digital Marketing?

Every type of digital marketing has its benefits. For example, marketing on LinkedIn is a terrific way to reach business professionals, while Instagram and TikTok have unlimited potential for B2C businesses. Meanwhile, email marketing lets you maintain an online relationship with your contact base, and content marketing helps you deliver high value to potential buyers.

Here are a few top benefits of digital marketing:

  • Options that fit every budget: You can get started with digital marketing on a shoestring budget or invest even more for more substantial results.
  • Potential to go viral: Anything that is viral or has great content in it, people tend to share it a lot. Digital content is super simple and easy to share, and the best content on the feed gets shared often, which leads to expanding your marketing reach.
  • Easy to get started: With just a couple of things you’re good to go, such as a social account and a device either a smartphone or a computer, to launch a basic digital marketing effort.
  • Track recipient behavior: Most forms of digital marketing let you monitor content views and engagement. You can also track what viewers do after seeing your content.
  • Strong return-on-investment (ROI) potential: When executed properly digital marketing can produce a stellar return on investment.

Three Digital Marketing Examples

If you’re on any digital device throughout the day, you likely encounter dozens of examples of digital marketing techniques. Below we highlight examples of companies using content marketing, influencer marketing and video marketing to promote their businesses.

Content Marketing Example

E-books are a popular form of content marketing. The secret to success with e-books is to offer sufficient recognized value so a person is willing to part with their contact information—generally with an email but at times a physical address or phone number—to receive it.

HubSpot is one of the best marketing CRM providers available, it offers a wide collection of free e-books and thoroughly promotes them through their site, email and social media marketing. This is one of the many ways in which HubSpot employs digital marketing in its marketing mix.

Influencer Marketing Example

Gymshark is a British fitness wear manufacturer and retailer and a big believer in influencer marketing. One of the influencer campaigns of the brand centered around the concept – it takes 66 days to change your life. To bring this campaign to life, Gymshark associated itself with six TikTok influencers to promote this message. Each influencer tagged their individual posts with #gymshark66 and as a result, the campaign generated more than 45.5 million views

Rahmel Dockery, who has 4 million followers on TikTok under the moniker @realdockery, is a Gymshark influencer. His TikTok post below—which tagged @gymshark and #gymshark—received 3 million likes, 10.9 thousand comments and 42.9 thousand shares. That’s a very significant reach for a single post and it demonstrates the power of working with the right influencers for your business.

Video Marketing Example

As a cloud-based platform, helps businesses manage projects, tasks and workflows. They use many types of digital marketing strategies, including video.

One of’s ways to use short-form videos is to explain the features and benefits of its products. The videos are hosted on the YouTube channel and promoted through the company’s website and social media channels (example screenshot of business OKRs below).

Digital Marketing Costs

Digital marketing costs are a bit complicated. Marketing investments differ with different digital marketing methods applied, demographics and audience size, advertiser and influencer policies, software used and the expense associated with producing digital promotional messages.

You can easily do digital marketing with a few pennies on social media, while influence marketing, large-scale email marketing and video marketing methods can cost you well into the thousands. The chart below offers an overview of costs associated with different types of digital marketing efforts.

Bottom Line

Digital marketing offers exceptional opportunities for your business as it helps you to reach ideal buyers and drive sales. The most popular types of digital marketing include SEO, email marketing, social media marketing and content marketing. You do not need a huge marketing budget to start with digital marketing. Even better, direct marketing investments are leading businesses to witness significant return on investment (ROI). 

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

What are the types of digital marketing?

The most popular types of digital marketing include email marketing, SEO, influencer marketing, SMS marketing and social media marketing. Content marketing, video marketing and paid search are also excellent digital marketing techniques.

What is the easiest type of digital marketing?

While every marketing effort requires a solid strategy, social media marketing is one of the easiest areas of digital marketing to start with. You can set up an account for free on Facebook, TikTok, Instagram, YouTube, Pinterest, Snapchat, LinkedIn or other social channels. Once your account is live, you can post valuable content about your products and services immediately.

What is the best digital marketing platform?

The best digital marketing platform is the one where your ideal buyers spend their time. For B2B businesses, LinkedIn is often the top platform. For local service-based businesses, Google Ads is a great platform. Instagram and TikTok are leading digital platforms for consumer goods and services.

What is the best social media management software for digital marketers?

The best social media management software are Buffer, SocialPilot and Sprout Social. Hootsuite is the best software for those managing multiple platforms, while Zoho Social is best for individual creators.

Is digital marketing a good career?

A digital marketing career is an excellent choice for those drawn to marketing, have strong communication skills and are comfortable working with digital technologies. Consider earning an online digital marketing degree to jump-start your success in this field.

Wed, 03 Jan 2024 08:27:00 -0600 Janette Novak en-GB text/html
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ESF Education Abroad is devoted to making transformational international experiences accessible to all ESF students regardless of major, cost, identity, or other defining factors. We do this by working with students on an individual basis to find the opportunities that best fit their personal needs and goals.

ESF students have hundreds of education abroad programs to choose from! Programs vary in length from one week up to a full academic year and are located all over the world, so there is something for everyone! Start to browse programs below, and please reach out to with any questions or to start planning your experience abroad.


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ESF Short-Term Programs Travel abroad with an ESF faculty member and your classmates! Most short-term courses are between one to three weeks in length and take place over spring or summer break.
ESF Exchange Programs Spend a semester or summer abroad with one of ESF's university partners.
ESF Partner Study Abroad Study abroad for a winter, summer, or semester with one of ESF's recommended study abroad providers, any other SUNY institution or through another study abroad program provider. Many of these programs are immersive or field-based opportunities. Short-term, summer, and semester programs are all available!


Quick Tips

Before researching programs, think about your goals for education abroad. What type of experience are you hoping to have and what are you most interested in learning? What type of opportunities do you have limited access to in Syracuse and how might you gain those abroad? Use these questions to help guide you to better understand what it is you want out of your international experience and how you might be able to find a program that fits those criteria.

In addition to thinking about what is important to you, take some time to recognize what is not important to you. When choosing a education abroad program, it can be easier to find a "perfect" match if you understand what you are willing to compromise. Are financials the most the important piece to you? Specific classes for your major? Perhaps a research Topic in a specific field? Rank the things that are most important to you so we can help you find that "perfect" opportunity.

You never know where you might find recommendations, advice or input. Ask your classmates, professors, advisors, parents, guardians, coaches, etc. You never know what you might discover. Don't forget to visit OIE as well – we serve as the repository for all of the different opportunities in front of you and can help guide you when you're not sure where to even start.

Fri, 14 Aug 2020 12:08:00 -0500 en text/html
Study shows digital leisure practicing does little to Boost practicing comprehension for students No result found, try new keyword!The study, "Do new forms of practicing pay off? A meta-analysis on the relationship between leisure digital practicing habits and text comprehension," was published in Review of Educational Research and ... Wed, 13 Dec 2023 01:57:00 -0600 en-us text/html Reading on digital devices does little to Boost reading, study suggests

Using digital devices to read for fun does little to Boost the ability of a student to read a text and understand its meaning, new research suggests.

For years, research has suggested that print reading, whether for leisure or school, improved the ability of people learning to read to comprehend text.

However, the use of digital practicing devices – including mobile phones, tablets or a computer – constant access to these devices, and new types of practicing materials have introduced new practicing habits.

A study now suggests there is virtually a non-existent relationship between digital practicing and improvement in practicing comprehension among primary and middle school students.

In sum, for developing readers, leisure digital practicing does not seem to pay off in terms of practicing comprehension, at least not as much as traditional print practicing does

Lidia Altamura, University of Valencia

Study co-author Lidia Altamura, a PhD student at the University of Valencia, Spain, said: “In sum, for developing readers, leisure digital practicing does not seem to pay off in terms of practicing comprehension, at least not as much as traditional print practicing does.

“Our findings are particularly surprising when you compare them to what we already know about the well-established positive association between practicing frequency in print and text comprehension.”

The researchers put forward two reasons why digital practicing may not have the same impact as print practicing for developing readers.

First, practicing on a screen may distract readers as devices tend to offer many other features.

Second, they say the internet has brought new types of reading, with features such as short and fast-paced stimuli, lower quality content and less sophisticated vocabulary.

The authors emphasise that educators and parents should encourage students, especially younger ones, to read in print more often than on digital devices.

We expected that digital leisure practicing for informational purposes, such as visiting Wikipedia or other educational webpages, or practicing the news, would be much more positively linked to comprehension

Lidia Altamura

“Based on our results, we cannot just assume that all leisure practicing will be beneficial for developing readers,” said Ms Altamura, adding that “the medium used matters”.

Based on what they know from previous studies, the researchers estimate that if a student spends 10 hours practicing in print in their free time, their ability to comprehend will likely be six to eight times higher than if they read on digital devices for the same amount of time.

Ms Altamura added: “We expected that digital leisure practicing for informational purposes, such as visiting Wikipedia or other educational webpages, or practicing the news, would be much more positively linked to comprehension.

“But even that was not the case.”

The study focused on the specific links between leisure practicing habits on digital devices and understanding what is being read.

The authors found there were small negative relationships between leisure digital practicing and comprehension at primary school and middle school.

According to the findings, at high school and university, the relationship turned slightly positive.

However, the research indicates that regardless of education stage, digital practicing habits had a smaller relationship with practicing comprehension, compared to print practicing results from previous research.

The findings are based on the authors’ review of 25 studies, published between 2000 and 2022, involving around 470,000 participants from at least three dozen countries.

The study is published in the Review of Educational Research journal.

Tue, 12 Dec 2023 23:31:00 -0600 en text/html

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