Download todays updated ABFM exam prep and sample test

Simply studying, memorizing ABFM cram all day and night in enough in order to ABFM examination with great marks if a person downloads ABFM exam prep from You may download 100% totally free sample test before you purchase the full version associated with ABFM brain dumps. Choose, in case you really would like to go through the specific ABFM exam. Go through PDF and Question Bank along with VCE examination sim.

Exam Code: ABFM Practice test 2022 by team
ABFM Family Medicine Board Certification Exam

Number of questions: 200 questions Percent
01. Basic science aspects of vascular neurology 4-6%
02. Risk factors and epidemiology 8-12%
03. Clinical features of cerebrovascular diseases 8-12%
04. Evaluation of the patient with cerebrovascular disease 13-17%
05. Causes of stroke 18-22%
06. Complications of stroke 4-6%
07. Treatment of patients with stroke 28-32%
08. Recovery, regenerative approaches, and rehabilitation 4-6%
TOTAL 100%

Content Areas
01. Basic science aspects of vascular neurology
A. Vascular neuroanatomy
1. Extracranial arterial anatomy
2. Intracranial arterial anatomy
3. Collaterals
4. Alterations of vascular anatomy
5. Venous anatomy
6. Spinal cord vascular anatomy
7. Specific vascular-brain anatomic correlations
8. End vessel syndromes
B. Stroke pathophysiology
1. Cerebral blood flow
a. Vascular smooth muscle control
b. Vasodilation and vasoconstriction
c. Autoregulation
d. Vasospasm
e. Rheology
f. Blood flow in stroke
2. Blood-brain barrier in stroke
3. Coagulation cascade
a. Clotting factors
b. Platelet function
c. Endothelium function
d. Biochemical factors
4. Metabolic and cellular consequences of ischemia
a. Ischemic cascade
b. Reperfusion changes
c. Electrophysiology
d. Gene regulation
5. Inflammation and stroke
6. Brain edema and increased ICP
a. Secondary effects
7. Restoration and recovery following stroke
8. Secondary consequences from intracranial bleeding
C. Neuropathology of stroke
1. Vascular neuropathology
2. Atherosclerosis and atherosclerotic plaque
3. Brain and meningeal biopsy
a. Indications
4. Pathological/imaging/clinical correlations
02. Prevention, risk factors, and epidemiology
A. Populations at risk for stroke
1. Non-modifiable risk factors
2. Age, gender, ethnicity, geography, family history
B. Modifiable risk factors for stroke
1. Hypertension
2. Diabetes mellitus
3. Cholesterol
4. Homocysteine
5. Obesity
6. Alcohol abuse
7. Tobacco use
8. Drug abuse
9. Exercise and other lifestyle factors
C. Infections predisposing to stroke
D. Genetic factors predicting stroke
E. Stroke as a complication of other medical illness
F. Special populations at risk for stroke
1. Children and adolescents
2. Young adults
3. Pregnancy
G. Stroke education programs and regional health services
1. Screening
2. Medical economics
3. Primary versus high risk prevention
4. National stroke programs
H. Concepts of clinical research
1. Use and interpretation of statistics
2. Clinical trial design and methodology
3. Understanding the medical literature
4. Rules of evidence and guidelines
5. Rating instruments and stroke scales
I. Outcomes
1. Prognosis
2. Mortality and morbidity of stroke subtypes
03. Clinical features of cerebrovascular diseases
A. Neuro-otology
1. Head and neck pathology
2. Vertigo and hearing loss in stroke
B. Neuro-ophthalmology
1. Retinal changes of vascular disease, including arterial hypertension
and retinal embolism
2. Other ocular manifestations of vascular disease
a. Ischemic oculopathy
b. Horner syndrome
c. Cavernous sinus syndrome
3. Disorders of ocular motility
4. Visual field defects
C. Transient ischemic attack (TIA)
1. General features of TIA
2. Carotid circulation TIA including amaurosis fugax
3. Vertebrobasilar circulation TIA
4. Asymptomatic carotid bruit or stenosis
5. Differential diagnosis of TIA
D. Ischemic stroke syndromes—cerebral hemispheres
1. Cortical stroke syndromes
a. Branch cortical artery syndromes
b. Watershed syndromes
2. Subcortical stroke syndromes
a. Lacunar strokes
b. Striatocapsular infarctions
c. Multiple lacunar infarcts
3. Major hemispheric syndromes
a. Internal carotid artery occlusion
b. Middle cerebral, anterior cerebral, or posterior cerebral artery
4. Behavioral and cognitive impairments following stroke
5. Bi-hemispheric stroke, including hypotensive events
6. Multifocal or diffuse disease
E. Ischemic stroke syndromes—brainstem and cerebellum
1. Basilar artery occlusion
a. Locked-in syndrome
b. Major brainstem strokes
2. Vertebral artery occlusion
3. Branch brainstem stroke syndromes
4. Syndromes from cerebellar arteries (brainstem/cerebellum)
5. Top-of-the-basilar syndromes
6. Thalamic syndromes
F. Ischemic stroke syndromes of the spinal cord
G. Vascular dementia (vascular cognitive impairment) and vascular cognitive
1. Multi-infarction (multiple subcortical infarctions)
2. White matter disease (leukoaraiosis, Binswanger subcortical
H. Features differentiating hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke
I. Intracerebral hemorrhage
1. Hypertension
2. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy
3. Coagulopathy/bleeding diatheses
4. Locations
a. Putamen
b. Thalamus
c. Lobar and white matter
d. Brainstem
e. Cerebellum
J. Subarachnoid hemorrhage
1. Saccular aneurysms
2. Other aneurysms
3. Unruptured aneurysm
4. Trauma
K. Vascular malformations
1. Hemorrhage
2. Other presentations
L. Primary intraventricular hemorrhage
M. Subdural or epidural hematoma
N. Venous thrombosis
1. Cavernous sinus
2. Superior sagittal sinus
3. Other sinus
4. Cortical thrombophlebitis
5. Deep cerebral veins
O. Carotid cavernous or dural fistulas
P. Pituitary apoplexy
Q. Hypertensive encephalopathy and eclampsia
R. Clinical presentations of primary and multisystem vasculitides
S. Hypoxia-ischemia
1. Cardiac arrest
2. Carbon monoxide poisoning
3. Cortical laminar necrosis
4. Other
T. Brain death
U. MELAS and metabolic disorders causing neurologic symptoms
V. Nonstroke presentations of vascular disease
W. Cardiovascular diseases
1. Heart disease, including coronary artery disease
2. Cardiac complications of stroke
3. Peripheral arterial disease
4. Aortic disease
5. Venous disease
X. Vascular presentations of other diseases of the central nervous system
Y. Infectious diseases and stroke
Z. Migraine
04. Evaluation of the patient with cerebrovascular disease
A. Evaluation of the brain and spinal cord
1. Computed tomography of brain
a. Acute changes of ischemic stroke
b. Acute changes of hemorrhagic stroke
c. Chronic changes of stroke
d. Complications of stroke
e. Vascular imaging by CT
f. Differential diagnosis by CT
g. CT perfusion
h. MR perfusion
2. Computed tomography of spine and spinal cord
3. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain
a. MRI sequences—T1, T2, FLAIR, DWI, PWI, gradient echo
b. MR spectroscopy
c. Acute changes of ischemic stroke
d. Acute changes of hemorrhagic stroke
i. Changes affected by time
e. Functional MRI
f. Vascular imaging by CT
g. Vascular imaging by MRI
4. PET and SPECT
5. EEG and evoked potentials—stroke
a. Changes in stroke
b. Complications of stroke
c. Monitoring
6. Examination of the CSF
7. ICP monitoring
B. Evaluation of the vasculature—occlusive or non-occlusive
1. Arteriography and venography
a. Cerebral
b. Spinal cord
2. Extracranial ultrasonography
a. Duplex and other imaging
b. Collateral flow challenges
c. Monitoring
3. Intracranial ultrasonography
a. Collateral flow changes
b. Contrast enhancement
c. Monitoring
4. CT angiography and CT venography
5. MR angiography and MR venography
C. Evaluation of the heart and great vessels
1. Electrocardiography
a. Monitoring
b. Holter and event monitors
2. TTE and TEE
a. Contrast-enhanced studies
3. Other chest imaging studies
a. Chest x-ray
b. Chest CT
c. Chest MRI
4. Other studies
a. Blood pressure monitoring
b. Blood cultures
c. Testing for ischemic heart disease
d. Peripheral artery disease
D. Other diagnostic studies
1. Hematologic studies
a. Blood count
b. Platelet count
c. Special coagulation studies
d. Antiplatelet (aspirin, clopidogrel) resistance studies
2. Immunological studies
a. Inflammatory markers
b. Other autoimmune studies (multisystem)
c. Serologic studies
3. Biochemical studies
a. Glucose
b. Cholesterol
c. Blood gases
d. Hepatic and renal tests
4. Urine tests
5. Biopsies
6. Evaluation for the complications of stroke
7. Evaluation for the consequences of stroke
a. Swallowing
b. Orthopedic
c. Other
8. Genetic testing
05. Causes of stroke
A. Atherosclerosis—ischemic stroke
1. Evaluation of patients prior to non-cerebrovascular operations
2. Asymptomatic bruit or stenosis
3. Aortic atherosclerosis
B. Non-atherosclerotic vasculopathies—ischemic stroke
1. Non-inflammatory
a. Dissection
b. Moyamoya disease
c. Fibromuscular dysplasia
d. Trauma
e. Radiation-induced vasculopathy
f. Saccular aneurysm
g. Other
2. Infectious
a. Syphilis
b. Herpes zoster
d. Cysticercosis
e. Bacterial meningitis
f. Aspergillosis
g. Mucormycosis
h. Cat-scratch disease
i. Behçet syndrome
j. Other
3. Inflammatory, non-infectious (angiitis)
a. Isolated CNS vasculitis
b. Multisystem vasculitis
c. Cogan syndrome
d. Eales disease
e. Polyarteritis nodosa
f. Wegener granulomatosis with polyangiitis
g. Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss
h. Takayasu disease
i. Systemic lupus erythematosus
j. Scleroderma
k. Rheumatoid arthritis
l. Mixed connective tissue disease
m. Ulcerative colitis and regional enteritis
n. Sarcoidosis
o. Other
C. Migraine
D. Other causes of ischemic stroke
1. Kawasaki disease
2. Lyme disease
3. Susac syndrome
E. Genetic and metabolic causes of stroke
3. Fabry-Anderson disease
4. Homocystinuria
5. Kearns-Sayre syndrome
6. Myoclonus epilepsy with ragged red fibers
7. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, type IV
8. Marfan syndrome
10. Other monogenetic small vessel brain diseases
11. Other
F. Drugs that cause stroke, including drugs of abuse
G. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy—infarction or hemorrhage
H. Cardioembolic causes of stroke
1. Atrial fibrillation
2. Cardiovascular procedures and operations
3. Acute myocardial infarction
4. Dilated cardiomyopathy
5. Rheumatic mitral or aortic stenosis
6. Infective endocarditis
7. Libman-Sacks endocarditis
8. Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis
9. Mechanical or bioprosthetic valves
10. Atrial myxoma
11. Sick sinus syndrome
12. Mitral valve prolapse
13. Patent foramen ovale, including atrial septal aneurysm
14. Congenital heart diseases, including cyanotic heart disease
15. Other
I. Prothrombotic causes of stroke
1. Inherited
a. Sickle cell disease
b. Factor V Leiden—activated protein C resistance
c. Prothrombin gene mutation
d. Protein S, C, antithrombin
e. Thalassemia
f. Iron deficiency anemia
g. Others
2. Acquired
a. Pregnancy
b. Cancer
c. Dehydration
d. Thrombocytosis
e. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
f. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis (HITT)
g. Leukemia
h. Disseminated intravascular coagulation
i. Nephrotic syndrome
j. Hemolytic uremic syndrome
k. Sepsis and inflammation
l. Other
3. Autoimmune causes of thrombosis
a. Lupus and lupus anticoagulant, Sneddon syndrome and
antiphospholipid antibodies
b. Others
4. Iatrogenic/drugs/toxins
a. Antineoplastic
b. Prothrombotic agents
c. Others
J. Bleeding diatheses
1. Inherited
a. Hemophilia
b. Sickle cell disease
c. Thalassemia
d. von Willebrands disease
e. Others
2. Acquired
a. Leukemia
b. Thrombocytopenia
c. Disseminated intravascular coagulation
d. Others
3. Systemic diseases
4. Iatrogenic/drugs/toxins
a. Anticoagulants
b. Antiplatelet aggregating agents
c. Thrombolytic agents
d. Drugs of abuse
e. Others
K. Aneurysms
1. Saccular
2. Infected
3. Traumatic
4. Neoplastic
5. Dolichoectatic
6. Dissecting
L. Vascular malformations
1. Arteriovenous
2. Developmental venous anomaly
3. Cavernous
4. Telangiectasia
5. Dural arteriovenous fistula
M. Trauma and intracranial bleeding
N. Moyamoya disease and syndrome
O. Hypertensive hemorrhage
P. Other causes of hemorrhage
1. Vasculitis
2. Tumors
a. Primary
b. Metastatic
3. Iatrogenic
Q. Genetic diseases causing hemorrhagic stroke
06. Complications of stroke
A. Early neurologic complications
1. Brain edema, increased ICP, and herniation
2. Hydrocephalus
3. Seizures
4. Hemorrhagic transformation
5. Recurrent infarction
6. Recurrent hemorrhage
7. Other
B. Early medical complications
1. Cardiac
2. Gastrointestinal
3. Pulmonary
4. Electrolyte
5. Other
C. Chronic neurologic sequelae
D. Chronic medical sequelae
07. Treatment of patients with stroke
A. Outpatient management
1. Patient educational materials
B. Medical therapies to prevent stroke
1. Antiplatelet agents
a. Aspirin
b. Clopidogrel
c. Ticlodipine
d. Dipyridamole
e. Cilostazol
f. Prasugrel
g. Ticagrelor
h. Others
2. Anticoagulant agents
a. Warfarin
b. Heparin
c. LMW heparins
d. Direct thrombin inhibitors
e. Factor X inhibitors
3. Thrombolytic agents
4. Neuroprotective agents and other acute treatments
5. Cardioactive agents
6. Medications to prevent stroke by treating risk factors
a. Hyperlipidemia
b. Diabetes mellitus
c. Hypertension
d. Smoking
e. Hyperhomocysteinemia
f. Antiinflammatory
g. Alcohol dependence and detoxification
7. Medications to treat autoimmune diseases and vasculitis
8. Medications to treat complications of stroke
a. Anticonvulsants
b. Antidepressants
c. Brain edema and increased ICP
i. Hypertonic saline
ii. Mannitol
9. Medications to Excellerate or restore neurologic function or to
augment rehabilitation
10. Medications to prevent rebleeding or vasospasm following a
a. Aminocaproic acid
b. Tranexamic acid
c. Nimodipine
11. Antimigraine medications
12. Vitamins
13. Interactions between medications
C. Hyperacute treatment of ischemic stroke
1. Emergency department
a. Intravenous thrombolytics
b. Intra-arterial thrombolytics
c. Mechanical thrombectomy
d. Anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents
e. Antihypertensives
f. Anticonvulsants
g. Other
2. Hospitalization – general management
a. Prevention of recurrent stroke
b. Prevention of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary
c. Blood pressure management
d. Treatment of complications
e. Treatment of comorbid diseases
f. Treatment of risk factors for stroke
g. Other
3. Intensive care unit
a. Osmotic agents
b. Steroids
c. Sedation
d. Blood products
e. Anti-vasospasm therapy
f. Management of ventriculostomy
g. Temperature control
h. Antiarrhythmics
i. Ventilator management
j. Pressors
k. Antibiotics
l. Other
4. Neurosurgical management
a. Hemorrhage
i. Evacuation
ii. Ventriculostomy
b. Ruptured aneurysms
i. Management of vasospasm
c. Vascular malformations
d. Surgical treatment of brain edema – decompressive
e. Other
D. Chronic care
1. Antidepressants
2. Sedatives
3. Stimulants
E. Treatment of venous thrombosis
F. Treatment of spinal cord vascular disease
G. Treatment of pituitary apoplexy
H. Professionalism, ethics, systems-based practice
1. Palliative care
2. End-of-life decisions
3. Advanced directives, informed consent, regulations
4. Other
08. Recovery, regenerative approaches, and rehabilitation
A. Functional assessment
B. Regeneration and plasticity
C. Predicting outcomes
D. Pharmacologic effects on recovery
E. Rehabilitation principles
F. Emerging approaches

Family Medicine Board Certification Exam
Certification-Board Certification teaching
Killexams : Certification-Board Certification teaching - BingNews Search results Killexams : Certification-Board Certification teaching - BingNews Killexams : Office of Teacher Education CERT-ABAL Certificate-Applied Behavior Analysis Professional Licensure CERT-BILG-EX Certificate-Bilingual/Bicultural Education Extension Teacher Certification CERT-BLGD-EX Certificate-Bilingual/Bicultural Education Extension Distance Learning Teacher Certification CERT-SPTB-IN Certificate-Bilingual Extension Institute Teacher Certification CERT-SPTD-IN Certificate-Bilingual Extension Institute DL Teachert Certification EDD-ELUE Doctor of Education-Urban Education Leaders Program Teacher Certification MA-ABAS-DU Master of Arts-Applied Behavior Analysis-Dual Teacher Certification MA-ARTE-IN Master of Arts -Art and Art Education Initial Certification Teacher Certification MA-ARTE-PF Master of Arts-Art and Art Education Professional Certification Teacher Certification MA-BILC-DU Master of Arts-Bilingual/Bicultural Education Dual Teacher Certification MA-BILC-TR Master of Arts-Bilingual/Bicultural Childhood Education Transitional B Teacher Certification MA-BILG-EX Master of Arts-Bilingual/Bicultural Education Extension Teacher Certification MA-BILS-DU Master of Arts-Bilingual/Bicultural Education Special Education Dual Teacher Certification MA-CUED-PF Master of Arts-Elementary Education Professional Certification Teacher Certification MA-CUSD-PF Master of Arts-C&T Secondary Education Professional Certification Teacher Certification MA-CUSE-IN Master of Arts-Secondary Inclusive Education Teacher Certification MA-DHEA-IN Master of Arts-Deaf and Hard of Hearing Initial Certification Teacher Certification MA-ECED-IN Master of Arts-Early Childhood Educaiton Initial Certification Teacher Certification MA-ECED-IX Master of Arts-Early Childhood Education Education Initial Cert Bilingual Teacher Certification MA-ECSE-DU Master of Arts-Early Childhood Education-Special Education Dual Certification Teacher Certification MA-ECSE-DX Master of Arts Early Childhood Education Special Ed Dual Cert Bilingual Teacher Certification MA-ECSE-IN Master of Arts-Early Childhood Education-Special Education Initial Certification Teacher Certification MA-ECSE-IX Master of Arts-Early Childhood Education Special Ed Initial Cert Bilingual Teacher Certification MA-ELBL-IN Master of Arts-Public School Building Leadership Teacher Certification MA-ELEM-DU Master of Arts-Elementary Inclusive Education-Dual Certification Teacher Certification MA-ELEM-IN Master of Arts-Elementary Inclusive Education Initial Certification Teacher Certification MA-ELGF-DU Master of Arts-Elementary Inclusive Education Initial/Gifted Extension Teacher Certification MA-ENGL-IN Master of Arts -Teaching of English Initial Certification Teacher Certification MA-ENGL-PF Master of Arts - Teaching of English Professional Certification Teacher Certification MA-ENGl-TR Master of Arts-Teaching of English Transitional B Teacher Certification MA-GIFT-EX Master of Arts-Gifted Education-Extension Teacher Certification MA-ITDA-IN Master of Arts-Intellectual Disabilities/Autism-Adolescence-Initial Teacher Certification MA-ITDC-TR Master of Arts-Intellectual Disabilities/Autism Childhood Transitional B Teacher Certification MA-ITDG-TR Master of Arts-Intellect Disabilities/Autism Midd Generalist Transitional B Teacher Certification MA-ITDS-DU Master of Arts-Intellectual Disabilities/Autism-Dual Teacher Certification MA-LITI-IN Master of Arts-Literacy Specialist Initial Certification Teacher Certification MA-MATH-IN Master of Arts-Mathematical Education Initial Certification Teacher Certification MA-MATH-PF Master of Arts-Mathematical Education Professional Certificationq Teacher Certification MA-MATH-TR Master of Arts-Mathematical Education Transitional B Teacher Certification MA-MULT-AN Master of Arts-Severe and Multiple Disabilities - Annotation Teacher Certification MA-MUSC-IN Master of Arts-Music and Music Education Initial Certification Teacher Certification MA-MUSC-PF Master of Arts-Music and Music Education Professional Certification Teacher Certification MA-PHED-IN Master of Arts-Physical Education Initial Certification Teacher Certification MA-PHED-PF Master of Arts-Physical Education Professional Certification Teacher Certification MA-READ-IN Master of Arts-Reading Specialist Initial Certification Teacher Certification MA-SCIB-IN Master of Arts -Biology 7-12 Initial Certification Teacher Certification MA-SCIB-TR Master of Arts-Biology 7-12 Transitional B Teacher Certification MA-SCIC-IN Master of Arts-Chemistry 7-12 Initial Certification Teacher Certification MA-SCIC-TR Master of Arts-Chemistry 7-12 Transitional B Teacher Certification MA-SCIE-IN Master of Arts-Earth Science 7-12 Initial Certification Teacher Certification MA-SCIE-TR Master of Arts-Earth Science 7-12 Transitional B Teacher Certification MA-SCIP-IN Master of Arts-Physics 7-12 Initial Certification Teacher Certification MA-SCIP-TR Master of Arts-Physics 7-12 Transitional B Teacher Certification MA-SIEE-IN Master of Arts-Special Inclusive Elementary Education-Initial Teacher Certification MA-SSTE-IN Master of Arts-Teaching of Social Studies Initial Certification Teacher Certification MA-SSTE-PF Master of Arts-Teaching of Social Studies Professional Certification Teacher Certification MA-SSTE-TR Master of Arts-Teaching of Social Studies Transitional B Teacher Certification MA-TESL-IN Master of Arts -TESOL Initial Certification Teacher Certification MA-TESL-TR Master of Arts-TESOL Transitional B Teacher Certification MA-TETS-IN Master of Arts-Technology Specialist Initial Certification Teacher Certification MA-TETT-IN Master of Arts-Technology for Teacherst Initial Certification Teacher Certification ME-COUB Master of Education-School Counselor (Distance Learning) Teacher Certification ME-COUM Master of Education-Mental Health Counseling Professional Licensure ME-COUM-BL Master of Education-Mental Health Counseling Bilingual Latino/a Professional Licensure ME-COUS Master of Education-School Counselor Teacher Certification ME-DHAE-DU Master of Education: Deaf Hard of Hearing Adolescence Education Dual Certification Teacher Certification ME-DHCI-DU Master of Education: Deaf Hard of Hearing Elementary Education Dual Certification Teacher Certification ME-DHEI-DU Master of Education: Deaf Hard of Hearing Early Childhood Education Dual Cert Teacher Certification ME-DHRI-DU Master of Education: Deaf Hard of Hearing reading Specialist Teacher Certification ME-ITDE-DU Master of Education-Intellectual Disabilities/Autism Early Childhood-Dual Teacher Certification ME-MUSC-IN Master of Education-Music and Music Education Initial Certification Teacher Certification ME-SPSM Master of Education-Applied Devel Learning Psychology-School Psychology Teacher Certification MS-CSDB-DU Master of Science-Communication Sciences and Disorders Bilingual Extension Dual Teacher Certification/Professional Licensure MS-CSDR Master of Science- Communication Sciences and Disorders Professional Licensure MS-CSDR-IN Master of Science- Communication Sciences and Disorders Initial Certification Teacher Certification/Professional Licensure MS-CSDR-PF Master of Science-Communication Sciences and Disorders Professional Certification Teacher Certification/Professional Licensure PHD-CLIN Doctor of Philosophy-Clinical Psychology Professional Licensure PHD-COUN Doctor of Philosophy-Counseling Psychology Professional Licensure PHD-COUN-BL Doctor of Philosophy-Counseling Psychology Bilingual Latino/a Professional Licensure PHD-SPSD Doctor of Philosophy-Applied Educational Psychology: School Psychology Teacher Certification/Professional Licensure Sat, 08 Aug 2020 16:52:00 -0500 en text/html Killexams : Alabama officials demand better teacher certification test pass rates The Gordon Persons Building in Montgomery, Ala., is home to the Alabama State Department of Education. © Trisha Crain/ The Gordon Persons Building in Montgomery, Ala., is home to the Alabama State Department of Education.

Want more state education news? Sign up for The Alabama Education Lab’s free, weekly newsletter, Ed Chat.

Alabama state officials on Thursday demanded better certification pass rates from the state’s future teachers and those who prepare them.

Wayne Reynolds, a former superintendent, said he was alarmed about a state report showing 53% of Alabama’s elementary teacher candidates passed the Praxis certification on their first try.

“Fifty percent is not impressive to me,” Reynolds said at a regular monthly meeting of the state Board of Education. He is vice president of the board.

Read more from the Ed Lab about teacher quality:

The first-attempt pass rate was reported by the Alabama Commission on Evaluative Services in September as part of a larger look at enrollment at the state’s teacher preparation programs

ACES sourced those rates to research by the National Council on Teacher Quality that evaluated first-attempt pass rates based on test results from 2015 through 2018.

Reynolds and other board members keyed in on the overall 53% pass rate and the wide range of first-attempt pass rates from the state’s 14 public universities, also published in the report.

State education officials responded by saying while low, the reported rate doesn’t necessarily reflect efforts from Alabama students and future teachers.

Alabama Superintendent Eric Mackey said the pass rates published in the report includes students who aren’t actually enrolled in an Alabama college but chose to have their results sent to that college or to the state department of education.

And some students might not be putting their full effort into that first round of taking the test, Huntingdon College Dean of Education Carolyn Corliss said, because her college pays for students to take the test once.

Deanise Peacock, who leads the teacher testing area at the state department of education, said the test for which the pass rate was published contains four subtests. One each for English language arts, math, science and social studies. A teacher would have to pass all four subtests to count as having passed the test.

But students might take the four subtests the first time simply as a matter of cost.

“Their thought process is to take the bundle. It’s a lower price,” Peacock said. And if they fail to pass one of the subtests, they can take just that test again.

“Which is a fine strategy, but it also hurts the numbers here.”

According to NCTQ, Alabama’s walk away rate – the percentage of test takers that never took the test again after failing on a first attempt – was between 22% and 25% for each of the four subtests for all students. Students of color had higher walk away rates: Between 33% and 37% of students of color didn’t take the test a second time after failing on their first attempt.

Peacock instead provided examples of individual pass rates on each of the four subtests, claiming the low overall passage rates masks much higher individual test passage rates.

An Alabama Education Lab look at NCTQ’s data found that Alabama was one of 16 states to require the same Praxis test, an elementary multiple subjects test. Of those 16 states, first-time pass rates ranged from 34% in New Jersey to 57% in Virginia.

Alabama’s 53% first-time pass rate was the third highest of the 16 states, behind Virginia and Idaho. That was not included in the ACES report.

Board members took education officials, including some deans of the colleges of education in attendance, to task, asking what action will be taken to Excellerate those first-attempt pass rates.

“Some deans focus on open enrollment,” Reynolds said. “They take everybody because they want equal opportunity, which is fine. But somewhere along the line with open enrollment, there has to be some discretion, and some guideposts to allow people to progress. And so that they don’t end up in our classroom as substandard teachers.”

Corliss told board members they now require pre-service teachers to be tutored prior to taking the Praxis for the first time.

Peacock said she talked with test publisher Educational Testing Service earlier in the week, after the published rates were brought to her attention, to try and find a better way of recording and reporting the data.

College officials can review the data monthly, she said, and remove results of test takers who are not enrolled at the college.

Katie Kinney, president of the Alabama Association for Colleges for Teacher Education, told the limitations of the first-attempt pass rate and what it measures means it isn’t useful in helping increase the quantity or quality of elementary teachers.

“We want data to inform continuous improvement for our programs,” Kinney said, “but first-time attempt pass rate data aren’t the data to aid us in that work.”

©2022 Advance Local Media LLC. Visit Distributed by Tribune Content Agency, LLC.

Sat, 15 Oct 2022 01:07:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Gov. Phil Murphy vetoes bill eliminating ‘unnecessary’ teaching certification

New Jersey Gov. Phil Murphy vetoed a bill on Thursday that would have eliminated a controversial requirement for new teachers.

To obtain a certification to teach in New Jersey, educators must pass a Board of Education-approved performance-based assessment known as “edTPA.”

The prerequisite is unpopular among many teaching candidates, with some calling it cumbersome and redundant. Lawmakers unanimously passed legislation to remove it, amid a nationwide teacher shortage.

Murphy, who said many states no longer use edTPA assessments, still thinks prospective teachers should take a performance-based evaluation.

He recommends shifting the responsibility of administering an alternative assessment from the state Board of Education to educator preparation programs, or EPPs.

EEPs can be carried out by colleges and universities, school districts, consortia, or other state-approved institutions, according to the Department of Education.

“I wholeheartedly agree that the current edTPA requirement for teaching candidates is counterproductive and should be eliminated, but also believe that other types of performance-based assessments can ensure that teaching candidates are ready to enter the classroom,” Murphy said in a statement. “My recommended changes, which come after months of productive discussions with stakeholders, allow educator preparation programs to select the performance-based assessment that best suits the needs of their students.”

Groups like the New Jersey Education Association had called on state leaders to eliminate the requirement for many years.

“Gov. Murphy’s conditional veto … preserves the core objective we have sought for six years — the elimination of edTPA as a requirement for teacher certification in New Jersey,” said NJEA officers, President Sean Spiller, Vice-President Steve Beatty, and Secretary-Treasurer Petal Robertson, in a joint statement.

“EdTPA is a costly, discriminatory, and unnecessary obstacle to teacher certification at a time when New Jersey schools are in dire need of qualified teachers. Eliminating it is a victory for all future educators who will not be saddled with a requirement that enriches [assessment firm] Pearson but does nothing to benefit New Jersey’s public school students.”

Gene Lepore, executive director of the New Jersey Association of State Colleges and Universities echoed the NJEA.

“We are pleased to see that the Governor’s recommendations preserve the autonomy of the colleges and universities to assess the performance of their teacher candidates. This is a process they engage in on an ongoing basis through classroom observations and as required by accreditation bodies. This legislation will simply eliminate an additional mandate that is costly and burdensome,” Lepore said.

Eliminating edTPA is just one of several initiatives to expand the pool of eligible teachers in New Jersey.

Last year, some lawmakers had hoped to pass legislation that would have ended the state’s residency requirement for public school employees.

WHYY is your source for fact-based, in-depth journalism and information. As a nonprofit organization, we rely on financial support from readers like you. Please give today.

Thu, 22 Sep 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Teacher Certification
This is a spot graphic on the teacher certification page.Students who wish to prepare for careers as music teachers in K-12 schools will need to complete the requirements for the professional teaching certificate issued by the Alabama State Department of Education. These requirements are met by completing the curriculum for the Bachelor of Arts in Music degree with a concentration in Music Education (Instrumental or Vocal/Choral).

Because the Alabama State Board of Education frequently changes or adds teacher certification requirements, it is essential that students stay informed about current certification requirements. Therefore, music majors concentrating in music education are required to meet with their music advisor and an advisor in the School of Education before registration each semester.

The Alabama teaching certificate is issued for two teaching fields in music: instrumental music and vocal/choral music, both valid for teaching kindergarten through grade twelve. Students are required to earn credit in at least one music ensemble per term for a minimum of seven terms — instrumental students must enroll in an instrumental ensemble and vocal/choral students must enroll in a vocal/choral ensemble. At least six of those terms must include involvement in the appropriate ensemble. Credit earned in excess of the minimum semester hour requirements for ensembles may be applied to music electives within the general studies portion of the teacher certification program. Read more about ensemble participation requirements.

Mon, 02 Feb 2015 19:52:00 -0600 en-US text/html
Killexams : Work Based Learning Experience and Internship Teacher Certification Program

Clarkson's Department of Education is excited to announce the offering of a new teacher certification extension that will extend your NYS Teaching Certificate.

This Coordinator of Work Based Learning Program Extension to your teaching certification will enable you to place students in a variety of work-based learning activities such as career exploration internships and cooperative and community-based work experience programs. Paid work experience outside the classroom is also required. Completing all requirements prepares you to apply to the NYSED for one of the following extensions:

BUS 574 Work Based Learning - Organization of your Program

This is the first of two courses that, when successfully completed, enable you to apply for an extension to your New York State Teacher Certification and allow you to place students in a variety of work based learning experiences including, internships, community based work experiences and cooperative work experiences. courses include: Cooperative Education as a plan of instruction, qualifications, roles, and duties of Work-Based Learning coordinators, making students job-hunt ready and interview smart, decreasing dropout rates with Work-Based Learning, aligning Career and Technical Education with technical skills, evaluation of Work-Based Learning programs, laws governing the employment of minors in NYS. This course is offered during the summer, online in conjunction with BUS 575.

Prerequisite: Valid New York State certification.

BUS 575 Work Based Learning - Operating your Program

This is the second of two courses that, when successfully completed, enable you to apply for an extension to your New York State Teacher Certification and allow you to place students in a variety of work based learning experiences including, internships, community based work experiences and cooperative work experiences. courses include: implementation of Work-Based Learning programs, structuring cooperative plans, development of steering committee & advisory board, student selection & placement, legal & illegal aspects of Work-Based Learning programs, work-site & training station selection plan, cooperative program documentation, as well as student preparation in sexual harassment & workplace safety training, integrating Career-Technical Student Organizations, techniques for effective supervision, program promotion, review, & accountability measures. This course is offered during the summer, online in conjunction with BUS 574.

Prerequisite: BUS 574 Work Based Learning - Organization of your Program.

Fri, 01 Oct 2021 07:19:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Best Enterprise Architect Certifications

Enterprise IT architect certifications appear most often at the apex of certification programs, where less than 1% of IT professionals ultimately ascend. Even so, many IT architect certifications are available, and you don’t need to invest in one certification sponsor’s vision to reach the top.

Many IT certifications in this area fall outside vendor umbrellas, which means they are vendor-neutral or vendor-agnostic. Nevertheless, the number of vendor-specific IT certifications exceeds vendor-neutral ones by a factor of more than 2 to 1. That’s why we devote the last section of this article to all such credentials, as we encountered them in search of the best enterprise architect certifications.

For IT pros who’ve already invested in vendor-specific certification programs, credentials at the architect level may indeed be worth pursuing. Enterprise architects are among the highest-paid employees and consultants in the tech industry.

What do enterprise architects do?

Enterprise architects are technical experts who are able to analyze and assess organizational needs, make recommendations regarding technology changes, and design and implement those changes across the organization.

How much does an enterprise architect earn?

The national average salary per SimplyHired is $130,150, in a range from $91,400 to a whopping $185,330. Glassdoor reports $133,433 as the average. Ultimately, the value of any IT certification depends on how long the individual has worked and in what part of the IT patch.

How do I become an enterprise architect?

Becoming an enterprise architect is not easy. While the requirements may vary by employer, most enterprise architects have a bachelor’s degree or higher in a computer-related field along with 5-10 years of professional work experience. Many enterprise architects obtain additional certifications past graduation.

Why should I get certified?

Certifications are a great way to demonstrate to prospective employers that you have the experience and technical skills necessary to do the job and give you a competitive edge in the hiring process. Certification holders also frequently earn more than their uncertified counterparts, making certifications a valuable career-building tool.

Which certifications are the best?

Below, you’ll find our top five certification picks. Before you peruse our best picks, check out the results of our informal job board survey. Data indicates the number of job posts in which our featured certifications were mentioned on a given day. The data should give you an idea of the relative popularity of each of these certifications.

Job board search results (in alphabetical order, by certification)

Certification SimplyHired Indeed LinkedIn Jobs LinkUp Total
AWS Certified Solution Architect (Amazon Web Services) 1,035 464 2,672 240 4,411
CTA (Salesforce) 303 787 3,201 353 4,644
ITIL Master (Axelos) 641 848 1,218 1,119 3,826
TOGAF 9 (The Open Group) 443 730 271 358 1,802
Zachman Certified – Enterprise Architect (Zachman) 86 107 631 252 1,076

AWS Certified Solution Architect

Making its first appearance on the leaderboard is the Certified Solutions Architect credential from Amazon Web Services (AWS). AWS, an Amazon subsidiary, is the global leader in on-demand cloud computing. AWS offers numerous products and services to support its customers, including the popular Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) and Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2). AWS also offers numerous cloud applications and developer tools, including Amazon Comprehend, Amazon SageMaker Batch Transform and Amazon Lightsail.

AWS offers certifications at the foundation, associate and professional levels across five role-based categories: architect, developer, operations, cloud and specialty certifications. Foundation-level certifications validate a candidate’s understanding of the AWS Cloud and serve as a prerequisite to AWS specialty certifications. Foundation certifications are a recommended starting place for those seeking higher-level credentials.

Associate credentials typically have no prerequisites and focus on technical skills. They are required to obtain professional-level certifications, which are the highest level of technical certification available. Specialty certs, meanwhile, focus on skills in targeted areas.

AWS Certified Solutions Architect – Associate 2019

AWS currently offers the following credentials:

  • Foundation credentials: AWS Certified Cloud Practitioner
  • Associate credentials: AWS Certified Solutions Architect Associate, AWS Certified Developer and AWS Certified SysOps Administrator
  • Professional: AWS Certified Solutions Architect Professional and AWS Certified DevOps Engineer
  • Specialty: AWS Certified Advanced Networking, AWS Certified Big Data and AWS Certified Security

The AWS Certified Solutions Architect credential is available at the associate and professional levels. The associate credential targets candidates with at least one year of experience architecting and implementing solutions based on AWS applications and technologies. AWS updated the associate-level test in February 2018 to include architecture best practices and new services.

The AWS Certified Solutions Architect – Professional certification targets senior AWS architects who can architect, design, implement and manage complex enterprise-level AWS solutions based on defined organizational requirements. Candidates should have a minimum of two years’ direct experience deploying and designing on the AWS cloud and be able to translate organizational requirements into solutions and recommend best practices. The associate credential is a mandatory prerequisite.

AWS Certified Solution Architect facts and figures

Certification name Certified Solution Architect – Associate

Certified Solution Architect – Professional

Prerequisites and required courses Associate: One year of hands-on experience recommended, AWS Certified Cloud Practitioner

Professional: Certified Solution Architect – Associate credential plus a minimum of two years of hands-on experience

Number of exams Associate: One test (65 questions, 130 minutes to complete)

Professional: One test (170 minutes to complete)

Certification fees Associate: $150 (practice test $20)

Professional: $300 (practice test $40)

Self-study materials AWS makes demo questions, practice exams, test guides, whitepapers and more available on the certification home page.

CTA: Certified Technical Architect

In 1999, Salesforce revolutionized the world of CRM when it introduced the concept of using the cloud to provide top-notch CRM software. Today, Salesforce has more than 150,000 customers, making it the industry leader for CRM enterprise cloud platforms. Currently, Salesforce offers solutions for various focus areas, including sales, service, marketing, commerce, engagement, community, productivity (Quip), platform and ecosystem, integration, analytics, enablement, internet of things (IoT), artificial intelligence, mobility, and industry (financial and health).

To meet industry needs for qualified and experienced professionals with the skills necessary to support its growing customer base, Salesforce developed and maintains a top-tier certification program. It offers many paths to candidates, including for administration, app building, architecture and marketing.

Salesforce Architect certifications are hierarchical, with most (but not all) lower-level credentials serving as prerequisites for more advanced credentials. At the top of the certification pyramid is the highest credential a Salesforce professional can earn – the Certified Technical Architect (CTA), which is our featured Salesforce certification.

The Salesforce Architect certification pyramid has three levels:

  • Specializations: These form the bottom tier of the pyramid. Salesforce offers eight specializations, four of which support application solutions, while the other four support system solutions. Application specializations include certifications for Data Architecture and Management Designer, Sharing and Visibility Designer, Platform Developer I, and Platform App Builder. System specializations include Development Lifecycle and Deployment Designer, Identity and Access Management Designer, Integration Architecture Designer, and Platform Developer I credentials.
  • Domain Architect: There are two Salesforce Domain Architect credentials: the Certified Application Architect and the Certified System Architect. The Certified Application Architect designation targets professionals with expert-level knowledge in Salesforce product functionality and features, while the Certified System Architect credential focuses on governance, integration and testing. Both credentials require the candidate to first earn their corresponding specialization certifications in addition to meeting other requirements.
  • Technical Architect: The Certified Technical Architect (CTA) is the highest Salesforce credential available. CTAs are experts in all Salesforce domains and possess skills necessary to design, build and implement Salesforce platform solutions. To earn the CTA, candidates must first obtain both the Certified Application Architect and Certified System Architect credentials or pass a single exam. Candidates must meet experience requirements and pass a rigorous board review, which validates their knowledge and skills in Salesforce competency areas, such as communication, development lifecycle and deployment planning, integration, solution architecture, data, security, and systems architecture.

Salesforce requires CTAs to maintain current skills. Credential holders must pass maintenance module exams with each new product release cycle (typically in summer, winter and spring). While challenging to earn, the CTA is important for IT professionals who are serious about a Salesforce technologies career.

CTA facts and figures

Certification name Certified Technical Architect (CTA)
Prerequisites and required courses Salesforce Certified Application Architect and Salesforce Certified System Architect credential:
  • Five years of implementation experience (must include development experience across the full software development lifecycle)
  • Three years of experience in an architect role
  • Two years of experience with the Lightning Platform (one year must be in an architect role while implementing Salesforce technologies and applications)
  • Experience as a technical architect on multiple complex deployments OR equivalent knowledge through project participation
  • Additional experience – guiding teams on platform technology; identifying and mitigating technical risks; exposure to project globalization, object-oriented design patterns, platform-specific design patterns and limits; developing code on the platform; building and addressing security complexities, mechanisms, and capabilities on the platform as part of a functional security model; knowledge of data migration, design trade-offs and ETL tools, large data volume considerations, risks and mitigation strategies, general mobile solutions and architecture, on-platform mobile solutions, and considerations as well as project and development lifecycle methodologies
Number of exams One test (four hours to complete; candidates must formulate, justify and present recommendations based on a hypothetical scenario to a review board)
Certification fees $6,000

Retake fee: $3,000

Self-study materials Salesforce maintains links on the certification webpage to numerous review materials, including the online documentation, tip sheets, user guides, exam guide and outline, Architect Journey e-books, Trailhead trails, and the Salesforce Certification Guide.

ITIL Master Certificate – IT Service Management

One of our favorite credential sets (and for employers as well, judging by job board numbers) is the ITIL for IT Service Management credentials from Axelos. Axelos is a global provider of standards designed to drive best practices and quality throughout organizations. ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure Library) joined the Axelos family in 2013.

Axelos manages ITIL credentialing requirements and updates, provides accreditation to Examination Institutes (EIs), and licenses organizations seeking to use ITIL. In addition to ITIL certifications, Axelos offers credentials for Prince2 2017 (which includes Foundation, Practitioner and Agile qualifications), Prince2 Agile, Resilia, MSP, MoP, M_o_R, P30, MoV, P3M3 and AgileSHIFT.

ITIL is a set of well-defined and well-respected best practices that specifically target the area of IT service management. There are more than 2 million ITIL-certified practitioners worldwide. ITIL is perhaps the most widely known and globally adopted set of best practices and management tools for IT service management and support.

ITIL Foundation (2011): Complete course and 2 practice exams

Axelos maintains a robust ITIL certification portfolio consisting of five ITIL credentials:

  • ITIL Foundation: An entry-level credential that validates general ITIL knowledge, including terminology, concepts, elements, services lifecycle and ITIL processes
  • ITIL Practitioner: A steppingstone credential for the Intermediate credential that tests a candidate’s ability to use ITIL principles within their business organization
  • ITIL Intermediate: An industry-recognized qualification with a modular structure, each module focusing on a different aspect of IT service management
  • ITIL Expert: An expert-level credential for candidates who possess broad ITIL knowledge that covers the entire ITIL scheme
  • ITIL Master: The highest ITIL credential from Axelos, targeting professionals who recommend and implement ITIL best practices

Axelos introduced ITIL 4 in early 2019. ITIL 3 practitioners should check the Axelos website frequently for updates about the transition to ITIL 4 and availability of the ITIL 4 transition modules.

The ITIL Master is the pinnacle ITIL certification, requiring experience, dedication, and a thorough understanding of ITIL principles, practices, and techniques. To gain the ITIL Master designation, candidates must have at least five years of managerial, advisory or other leadership experience in the field of IT service management. They must also possess the ITIL Expert certification. Once the skill and certification requirements are met, the real certification work begins.

Upon completing the prerequisites, candidates must register with PeopleCert, the sole approved Axelos Examination Institute, and submit an application. Next, candidates prepare and submit a proposal for a business improvement to implement within their organization. The proposal submission is followed by a “work package,” which documents a real-world project that encompasses multiple ITIL areas.

The work package (1) validates how the candidate applied ITIL principles, practices, and techniques to the project; and (2) documents the effectiveness of the solution and the ultimate benefit the business received as a result of the ITIL solution. Finally, candidates must pass an interview with an assessment panel where they defend their solution.

Axelos will soon be sponsoring 50 lucky people in their quest to obtain the ITIL 4 Master certification. You can register your interest in the program here.

ITIL Master facts and figures

Certification name ITIL Master Certificate – IT Service Management
Prerequisites and required courses ITIL Expert Certificate: Five years of IT service experience in managerial, leadership or advisory roles
Number of exams No test required, but candidates must complete the following steps:
  • Register with PeopleCert.
  • Submit application.
  • Submit proposal.
  • Submit work package.
  • Attend interview.
Certification fees $4,440 if all ITIL credits obtained through PeopleCert

$5,225 if some ITIL credits were obtained from other institutes

Self-study materials Axelos provides documentation to guide candidates in the preparation of proposal and work package submissions. Available documents include ITIL Master FAQs, ITIL Master Proposal Requirements and Scope, and ITIL Master Work Package Requirements and Scope.


A leader in enterprise architecture, The Open Group’s standards and certifications are globally recognized. The TOGAF (The Open Group Architecture Framework) standard for enterprise architecture is popular among leading enterprise-level organizations. Currently, TOGAF is the development and architecture framework of choice for more than 80% of global enterprises.

TOGAF’s popularity reflects that the framework standard is specifically geared to all aspects of enterprise-level IT architectures, with an emphasis on building efficiency within an organization. The scope of the standard’s approach covers everything from design and planning stages to implementation, maintenance, and governance.

The Open Group offers several enterprise architect credentials, including TOGAF, Open CA, ArchiMate, IT4IT and the foundational Certified Technical Specialist (Open CTS).

The Open Group reports that there are more than 75,000 TOGAF-certified enterprise architects. At present, there are two TOGAF credentials: the TOGAF 9 Foundation (Level 1) and TOGAF 9 Certified (Level 2). (The TOGAF framework is currently based on version 9.2, although the credential name still reflects version 9.)

The TOGAF 9 Foundation, or Level 1, credential targets architects who demonstrate an understanding of TOGAF principles and standards. A single test is required to earn the Level 1 designation. The Level 1 test focuses on TOGAF-related concepts such as TOGAF reference models, terminology, core concepts, standards, ADM, architectural governance and enterprise architecture. The Level 1 credential serves as a steppingstone to the more advanced TOGAF Level 2 certification.

The TOGAF 9 Certified, or Level 2, credential incorporates all requirements for Level 1. Level 2 TOGAF architects possess in-depth knowledge of TOGAF standards and principles and can apply them to organizational goals and enterprise-level infrastructure. To earn this designation, candidates must first earn the Level 1 credential and pass the Level 2 exam. The Level 2 test covers TOGAF concepts such as ADM phases, governance, content framework, building blocks, stakeholder management, metamodels, TOGAF techniques, reference models and ADM iterations.

Candidates wanting a fast track to Level 2 certification may take a combination exam, which covers requirements for both Level 1 and 2. Training is not mandatory for either credential but is highly recommended. Training classes run 2-5 days, depending on the provider and whether you’re taking the combined or single-level course. The Open Group maintains a list of approved training providers and a schedule of current training opportunities on the certification webpage.

TOGAF 9 facts and figures 

Certification name TOGAF 9 Foundation (Level 1)

TOGAF 9 Certified (Level 2)

Prerequisites and required courses TOGAF 9 Foundation (Level 1): None

TOGAF 9 Certified (Level 2): TOGAF 9 Foundation (Level 1) credential

Number of exams Level 1: One test (40 questions, 60 minutes, 55% required to pass)

Level 2: One test (eight questions, 90 minutes)

Level 1 and 2 combined test (48 questions, 2.5 hours)

Certification fees $320 each for Level 1 and Level 2 exams

$495 for combined Level 1 and Level 2 exam

Exams are administered by Pearson VUE. Some training providers include the test with the training course.

Self-study materials A number of resources are available from The Open Group, including whitepapers, webinars, publications, TOGAF standards, the TOGAF Foundation Study Guide ($29.95 for PDF; includes practice exam), practice questions (99 cents for PDF) and the TOGAF 9 Certified Study Guide (a combined study guide is available for $59.95). The Open Group also maintains a list of accredited training course providers and a calendar of training events.

Zachman Certified – Enterprise Architect

Founded in 1990, Zachman International promotes education and research for enterprise architecture and the Zachman Framework. Rather than being a traditional process or methodology, the Zachman Framework is more accurately referred to as an “ontology.” Ontologies differ from a traditional methodology or process in that, rather than focusing on the process or implementation, they focus on the properties, types and interrelationships of entities that exist within a particular domain. The Zachman Framework ontology focuses on the structure, or definition, of the object and the enterprise. Developed by John Zachman, this framework sets a standard for enterprise architecture ontology.

Zachman International currently offers four enterprise architect credentials:

  • Enterprise Architect Associate Certification (Level 1): Candidates must attend a four-day modeling workshop and pass a single exam. The workshop covers key concepts relating to enterprise architecture and the Zachman Framework, case studies, engineering vs. primitive models and manufacturing vs. composite models, and hands-on experience building Framework models. The workshop fee ($3,499) includes the test and certification fees for Level 1 and Level 2.
  • Enterprise Architect Practitioner Certification (Level 2): Architects must submit case studies of primitive and composite models that address specified management issues. Case studies must pass a referee review.
  • Enterprise Architect Professional Certification (Level 3): Candidates must complete a case study demonstrating primitive (architectural) and composite (implementation) models and complete a referee review. Level 3 credential holders may advertise themselves as “Zachman consultants.”
  • Enterprise Architect Educator Certification (Level 4): Designed for educators, this credential prepares candidates to develop and teach the Zachman Framework. To earn this credential, candidates should go through all educational materials related to the Zachman Framework, develop their own curricula and course materials, and present those materials for review and approval. While this is not required, Zachman recommends that Level 4 candidates obtain the Level 3 Professional designation.

Zachman credentials are valid for three years. To maintain these credentials, candidates must earn continuing education credits (referred to as EADUs). The total number of EADUs required varies by certification level.

Zachman Certified – Enterprise Architect facts and figures

Certification name Enterprise Architect Associate Certification (Level 1)

Enterprise Architect Practitioner Certification (Level 2)

Enterprise Architect Professional Certification (Level 3)

Enterprise Architect Educator Certification (Level 4)

Prerequisites and required courses Level 1 Associate: Four-day Modeling Workshop ($3,499)

Level 2 Practitioner: None

Level 3 Professional: None

Level 4 Educator: Review all materials related to The Zachman Framework; Level 3 Professional recommended

Number of exams Level 1 Associate: One exam

Level 2 Practitioner: No exam; case studies and referee review required

Level 3 Professional: No exam; case studies and referee review required

Level 4 Educator: None; must develop and submit curriculum and course materials for review and validation

Certification fees Level 1 Associate: test fee included as part of required course

Level 2 Practitioner: None, included as part of Level 1 required course

Level 3 Professional: Not available

Level 4 Educator: Not available

Self-study materials Live classroom and distance learning opportunities are available. Zachman also offers webcasts, a glossary, the Zachman Framework for Enterprise Architecture and reference articles.

Beyond the top 5: More enterprise architect certifications

The Red Hat Certified Architect (RHCA) is a great credential, especially for professionals working with Red Hat Enterprise Linux.

The Project Management Professional (PMP) certification from PMI continues to appear in many enterprise architect job descriptions. Although the PMP is not an enterprise architect certification per se, many employers look for this particular combination of skills.

Outside of our top five vendor-neutral enterprise architect certifications (which focus on more general, heterogeneous views of IT systems and solutions), there are plenty of architect-level certifications from a broad range of vendors and sponsors, most of which are vendor-specific.

The table below identifies those vendors and sponsors, names their architect-level credentials, and provides links to more information on those offerings. Choosing one or more of these certifications for research and possible pursuit will depend on where you work or where you’d like to work.

<td”>EMC Cloud Architect Expert (EMCCAe) <td”>GoCertify </td”></td”>

Sponsor Enterprise architect certification More information
BCS BCS Practitioner Certificate in Enterprise and Solutions Architecture BCS homepage
Cisco Cisco Certified Architect (CCAr) CCAr homepage
Enterprise Architecture Center of Excellence (EACOE) EACOE Enterprise Architect

EACOE Senior Enterprise Architect

EACOE Distinguished Enterprise Architect EACOE Enterprise Architect Fellow

EACOE Architect homepage
FEAC Institute Certified Enterprise Architect (CEA) Black Belt

Associate Certified Enterprise Architect (ACEA) Green Belt

FEAC CEA homepage
Hitachi Vantara Hitachi Architect (three tracks: Infrastructure, Data Protection, and Pentaho Solutions)

Hitachi Architect Specialist (two tracks: Infrastructure and Converged)

Training & Certification homepage
IASA Certified IT Architect – Foundation (CITA-F)

Certified IT Architect – Associate (CITA-A)

Certified IT Architect – Specialist (CITA-S)

Certified IT Architect – Professional (CITA-P)

CITA homepage
National Instruments Certified LabVIEW Architect (CLA) CLA homepage
Nokia Nokia Service Routing Architect (SRA) SRA homepage
Oracle Oracle Certified Master, Java EE Enterprise Architect Certified Master Java EE homepage
Red Hat Red Hat Certified Architect (RHCA) RHCA homepage
SOA (Arcitura) Certified SOA Architect SOA Architect homepage

These architect credentials typically represent pinnacle certifications within the programs to which they belong, functioning as high-value capstones to those programs in many cases. The group of individuals who attain such credentials is often quite small but comes with tight sponsor relationships, high levels of sponsor support and information delivery, and stratospheric salaries and professional kudos.

Often, such certifications provide deliberately difficult and challenging targets for a small, highly select group of IT professionals. Earning one or more of these certifications is generally the culmination of a decade or more of professional growth, high levels of effort, and considerable expense. No wonder, then, that architect certifications are highly regarded by IT pros and highly valued by their employers.

Choosing the right IT architect credential

Enterprise architect credentials will often be dictated by choices that your employer (or industry sector, in the case of government or DoD-related work environments) have already made independent of your own efforts. Likewise, most of the vendor-specific architecture credentials make sense based on what’s deployed in your work environment or in a job you’d like to occupy.

Though there are lots of potential choices IT pros could make, the real number they can or should make will be influenced by their circumstances.

Tue, 11 Oct 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : UHV faculty member presents information to state education board

Recently, Amy Barnhill, a University of Houston-Victoria professor of curriculum and instruction, presented information about a statewide pilot program for teacher certification and its implementation at UHV.

Barnhill attended a session of the Texas Education Agency’s State Board for Educator Certification. The board invited five education experts from across the state to present the results of its edTPA pilot program that has been used to assess teacher education programs. Barnhill attended the meeting in order to give an update on UHV, which is one of 40 programs participating in the pilot.

“Texas has been looking for a new way to assess educators, and these review sessions are a way for the board to listen to education professionals and decide if the project should move forward,” Barnhill said. “I am pleased to be part of the group that was invited to present information about UHV’s program experience with the board.”

This is not the first time that Barnhill has worked with the TEA to promote and Excellerate education in Texas. In 2019, she coordinated an effort contracted by the TEA to review lesson plans and add them to a free online database called the Texas Lesson Study Professional Development program.

“UHV is proud to be a part of this pilot program to support and Excellerate teacher education and preparation in Texas,” said Rachel Martinez, dean of the UHV College of Education & Health Professions. “Dr. Barnhill’s expertise in education curriculum and previous experience working with the TEA makes her the perfect individual to present this information.”

According to the TEA website, edTPA is an assessment and support system that is based on performance and is subject-specific. The system is used to emphasize, measure and support the kinds of skills and knowledge that educators need. In the program, potential teachers prepare portfolios that reflect the work they do in their classrooms and how their students performed during the teachers’ clinical or internship experiences.

During her presentation, Barnhill shared how UHV has successfully used the pilot program during the past two years. The university saw an increase in performance from the first year to the second year of the program, and the university was able to make some adjustments to the program based on the results, she said.

“UHV had a lot of participants in the pilot program, so we were able to collect a lot of good information about the program and how it worked when it was implemented,” Barnhill said. “It’s great to see TEA reaching out to experienced teachers and educators to listen to their feedback. It shows that they are working to make the best decision for education in Texas.”

Sat, 15 Oct 2022 20:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : The Alphabet Soup of Financial Certifications

What Are Financial Certifications?

Financial certifications, aka financial designations, are credentials that investment and financial industry professionals use. Represented by a trio or duo of letters after a name, they indicate a degree of education/training and specialization on the part of the individual.

If you have trouble telling the difference between a CFA®, CFP®, CIC, ChFC, or any of the other financial certifications, you're not alone. How do you sift through this alphabet soup to find the best financial professional for you? Let's look at the nine most popular designations with a brief explanation of the education and expertise each designation signifies and the kind of work done by the professionals holding them.

Guide To Financial Certifications

Types of Financial Certifications

Key Takeaways

  • Represented by a trio or duo of letters after a name, financial certifications indicate education/training and specialization on the part of an industry professional.
  • Common certifications for financial planners and investment advisors include the CFP (certified financial planner), CFA (chartered financial analyst), and ChFC (chartered financial consultant).
  • Other designations include the CPA (certified public accountant) and the CLU (chartered life underwriter).
  • While some certifications indicate a state-issued license to practice, others are simply awarded by industry associations or institutions.
  • Most certifications require candidates to put in many hours of study and pass exams, have a certain amount of experience, and meet high ethical and professional standards.

Certified Financial Planner (CFP)®

Those with the CFP® designation have demonstrated competency in all areas of financial planning. Candidates complete studies on more than 100 topics, including stocks, bonds, taxes, insurance, retirement planning, and estate planning. The program is administered by the Certified Financial Planner Board of Standards Inc.

In addition to passing the CFP certification exam, candidates must also complete qualifying work experience and agree to adhere to the CFP board's code of ethics, and professional responsibility and financial planning standards.

A financial planner works with individuals to help them understand their options and make financial decisions suited to their personal financial situation and goals. Because of the nature of their work, people place a good deal of trust in these individuals. The CFP board posts information on the financial planning process and current licensees, which lets clients of CFPs verify if their financial planners' designations are in good standing. The last thing anyone needs is to choose a CFP whose certification has been revoked.

Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA)®

This designation is offered by the CFA Institute (formerly the Association for Investment Management and Research [AIMR]). To obtain the CFA charter, candidates must successfully complete three difficult exams and gain at least three years of qualifying work experience, among other requirements. In passing these exams, candidates demonstrate their competence, integrity, and extensive knowledge in accounting, ethical and professional standards, economics, portfolio management, and securities analysis.

CFA charter holders tend to be analysts who work in the field of institutional money management and stock analysis, not financial planning. These professionals provide research and ratings on various forms of investments.

Certified Fund Specialist (CFS)

As the name implies, an individual with this certification has demonstrated his or her expertise in mutual funds and the mutual fund industry. These individuals often advise clients on which funds to invest in and, depending on whether or not they have their license, they will buy and sell funds for clients. The Institute of Business and Finance (IBF), formerly known as the Institute of Certified Fund Specialists, provides training for the CFS; and the course focuses on a variety of mutual fund topics, including portfolio theory, dollar-cost averaging, and annuities.

The knowledge these CFS designees hold is kept current through their continuing education requirements.

Chartered Financial Consultant (ChFC)

Individuals with the Chartered Financial Consultant (ChFC) designation have demonstrated their vast and thorough knowledge of financial planning. The ChFC program is administered by the American College of Financial Services. Candidates must complete an test in financial planning, including income tax, insurance, investment, and estate planning, and are required to have a minimum of three years of experience in a financial industry position.

Like those with the CFP designation, professionals who hold the ChFC charter help individuals analyze their financial situations and goals.

Chartered Investment Counselor (CIC)

Given by the Investment Adviser Association, CFA charter holders who are currently registered investment advisors can study for this is a designation. The CIC program's focus is on portfolio management. In addition to proving their high-level expertise in portfolio management, CIC candidates must also adhere to a strict code of ethics and provide character references.

Individuals who hold the CIC charter tend to be among the financial world's major players, such as those who manage large accounts and mutual funds.

Certified Investment Management Analyst (CIMA)

The Certified Investment Analyst (CIMA) designation focuses on asset allocation, ethics, due diligence, risk measurement, investment policy, and performance measurement. As this certification signifies a high level of consulting expertise, only individuals who are investment consultants with at least three years of professional experience are eligible to try for the CIMA. The Investments & Wealth Institute, formerly the Investment Management Consultants Association, offers CIMA courses.

Individuals who hold CIMA designations are required to prove their expertise through continual recertification, which requires CIMA designees to complete at least 40 hours of continuing education every two years.

CIMA designation holders tend to have careers with financial consulting firms, which involve extensive interaction with clients and managing large accounts.

Chartered Market Technician (CMT)®

The CMT® designation is granted by the New York-based CMT Association. The CMT is the highest level of training within the discipline of technical analysis and is the preeminent designation for practitioners worldwide. Technical analysis provides the tools to successfully navigate the gap between intrinsic value and market price across all asset classes through a disciplined, systematic approach to market behavior and the law of supply and demand.

Earning the CMT demonstrates mastery of a core body of knowledge of investment risk in portfolio management, including quantitative approaches to market research and rules-based trading system design and testing. CMTs likely would be employed in the sales and trading departments of sell-side firms, as research analysts in firms that provide technical analysis to their clients, or working as portfolio managers and investment advisors.

Certified Public Accountant (CPA) and Personal Financial Specialist (PFS)

A certified public accountant (CPA) is a designation provided to licensed accounting professionals. The CPA license is provided by the Board of Accountancy for each state.

Those holding the CPA designation have passed examinations in accounting and tax preparation, but their title does not indicate training in other areas of finance. So, those CPA holders who are interested in gaining expertise in financial planning in order to supplement their accounting careers need to become certified as personal finance certified (PFS).

The PFS designation is awarded by the American Institute of CPAs to those who have taken additional training and already have a CPA designation.

Public accountants⁠—individuals working for a firm that provides accounting and tax-related services to businesses and publicly traded companies—must hold a CPA designation.

Chartered Life Underwriter (CLU)

This designation is issued by the American College and those who hold it work mostly as insurance agents. The CLU designation is awarded to persons who complete a 10-course program of study and 20 hours of exams. The course covers the fundamentals of life and health insurance, pension planning, insurance law, income taxation, investments, financial and estate planning, and group benefits.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Financial Certifications

It's important to realize that not all certifications are created equal. While some, like the CPA, reflect a state-issued or -sanctioned license (allowing the person to legally practice or do certain activities), others are simply industry-awarded designations. They may indicate a certain degree of experience and education but aren't mandatory qualifications to work in the field.

While certifications are not everything, you should give extra credit to investment professionals who have them. Most of these certifications require candidates to put in many hours of study and meet high ethical and professional standards.

For instance, to get the CFA designation, candidates must put in approximately 250 hours of reading per exam, and there are three exams to pass. The tests are so intensive that approximately 64% of those who take just the level 1 test will fail. Those who make it through all three levels to become charter holders are also bound by a code of ethics and rules of professional conduct, among other requirements.

Although all of these exams are intense and the hours can be long, these designations should be only one part of your criteria when deciding on a financial professional.

Which Certifications Should a Financial Planner Have?

The CFP (certified financial planner) is a particularly prestigious designation. One of the oldest in the profession, it requires years of experience, successful completion of standardized exams in several areas, a demonstration of ethics, and a college degree—as well as ongoing education in the field.

If a planner wants to delve more deeply into investments and advise clients about them, they might also obtain a CIMA (certified investment analyst).

Which Financial Certifications Boost Income?

The certified investment analyst designation seems to. According to an Investments & Wealth Institute-commissioned survey, the financial advisors who are members of CIMA practices (defined as having at least one practice member with a CIMA certification) report earning a higher annual income compared to financial advisors who are members of practices with no CIMA certification. Some 12% of advisors at CIMA practices earn more than US$380,000, compared to 3% of advisors at practices with no CIMA designation.
A CPA also seems to offer a good return on investment. While the median salary of an accountant is $73,560 per year, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, senior CPAs with over 20 years of experience could command an average of $150,000 annual salary, according to Accounting Today magazine and the American Institute of CPAs.

How Do I Get Financial Certifications?

Financial certifications are usually awarded by a designated industry group, association, or degree-granting institution. Their requirements often include the taking of certain courses and the passing of exams, a certain number of years' experience or apprenticeship in the profession, a college degree, membership in the association, and a commitment to ongoing education in the field.

The Bottom Line

If you have to deal with a financial professional, it's important that you know the extent of his or her expertise in different areas of finance. Now you have an idea of what some of the designations mean and what they require from those who hold them.

Wed, 02 Apr 2014 16:59:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Superintendent blames Louisiana’s teacher certification backlog on lack of manpower

Only eight employees in the Louisiana Department of Education will process some 36,000 applications for teacher certification this school year, Superintendent Cade Brumley told the Senate Education Committee. (Canva image)

The Louisiana Department of Education will receive some 36,000 applications for teacher certifications this year, ranging from first-time educators to those who want to become principals or specialize in certain fields. But with only a few full-time employees handling those requests, the state’s top public education official said reducing a backlog will remain a challenge.

Superintendent Cade Brumley appeared Monday before the state Senate Education Committee to share details on why certifications take up to two months to approve. He told lawmakers the department’s certification staff has been reduced from 16 employees in 2011 to just eight currently.

“We’re moving pieces on the chess board all the time to accommodate, but there are only so many people to do the work,” Brumley said. 

The limited manpower means each certification specialist has to review an average of 300 applications a week to keep pace with the number coming in, Deputy Superintendent Jenna Chaisson said.   

Sen. Cleo Fields, D-Baton Rouge, who chairs the committee, asked Brumley why the education department didn’t budget for additional personnel in the certification program. The superintendent said cuts to administration didn’t allow for new hires, although he added the department is in the process of onboarding four part-time workers for certification.

Chaisson attributed the glut of applications to a combination of factors. They include the lapse of certification renewal extensions given because of COVID-19 and new certifications in areas such as algebra, geometry, dyslexia and sign language. 

The backlog has stretched the certification approval process to about 65 days for some applications, according to Chaisson. Before the pandemic, they could be processed within 10 to 15 days.

Brumley said there are more than 7,000 certifications awaiting approval, but Chaisson said school systems are able to request priority status if they have a teacher candidate they are ready to hire.

Another delaying factor lawmakers explored was the need for two criminal background checks for prospective teachers and certificate applicants. Sen. Beth Mizell, R-Franklinton, said the legislature might want to consider changing state law to require just one.

Despite the difficulties, Brumley reported to the committee that the number of teaching vacancies at Louisiana public schools has been cut in half over the past year – from 2,520 in 2021 to 1,203 this year. He credited the reduction to local school systems tapping into federal incentives for new hires, a pay raise the governor and legislature supported, and teachers who left classrooms during the pandemic returning to work.

The superintendent said his department intends to hire a consultant to look at how its certification program could be run more efficiently. He expects technology upgrades to be among the recommendations along with adding more personnel – the same suggestion made when a consultant conducted a similar review in 2020.

The post Superintendent blames Louisiana’s teacher certification backlog on lack of manpower appeared first on Louisiana Illuminator.

Tue, 11 Oct 2022 03:41:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Should You Pursue Certification in Lifestyle Medicine? Yes

Physician colleagues often ask me what the future holds for lifestyle medicine and whether they should pursue board certification. My short answer to the second question is "Yes, absolutely!" But first I share why I am confident that lifestyle medicine will become a foundation of all health and healthcare and that clinicians should prepare for it.

Cate Collings, MD

There is increasing recognition among policymakers and health leaders of the unsustainable costs — in human suffering and the $4.1 trillion spent on US healthcare in 2020 — of lifestyle- and diet-related chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and heart disease. COVID-19 and the worse outcomes associated with underlying chronic conditions contributed to awareness of just how sick Americans have become. The pandemic also shone a light on health disparities related to underlying lifestyle-related chronic disease prevalence and insufficient healthcare resources in many communities. Lifestyle medicine offers a promising path to narrow the health disparities gap.

Notably, for the first time in 50 years, the White House hosted a Conference on Hunger, Nutrition, and Health in September, with the goal to "[e]nd hunger and increase healthy eating and physical activity by 2030, so that fewer Americans experience diet-related diseases."

This growing recognition that we must reduce lifestyle-related diseases and prepare future and practicing clinicians to address the root causes of those diseases will ideally accelerate the US transition to high-value care. Lifestyle medicine leverages behavior changes in nutrition, physical activity, sleep, stress management, social connections, and use of risky substances as the first and primary way to treat many conditions, with medications and procedures as adjunctive treatment. It supports the Quintuple Aim of improved outcomes, lower costs, improved patient satisfaction, and improved provider satisfaction and has the potential to address health equity.

There is a strong case that value is precisely what lifestyle medicine can deliver, and this paves the way for paradigm change.

Health systems are increasing recognizing this value. The Health Systems Council, a collaborative community of health systems interested in integrating lifestyle medicine founded by the American College of Lifestyle Medicine (ACLM) in May 2021, already has more than 70 health system members. Accountable care organizations with a focus on lifestyle medicine have been created to help providers sustainably implement lifestyle behavior interventions. Even the US military is incorporating lifestyle medicine into its medical care for service members.

Momentum is growing for embedding lifestyle medicine into undergraduate medical education and build a new physician workforce tailored to current and future times. In November 2021, Rep. James McGovern introduced House Resolution 784, a resolution that passed the House supporting activities to ensure that health professional training programs, including medical schools, residency programs, and fellowships, incorporate substantive training in nutrition and diet.

The University of South Carolina School of Medicine Greenville is the first school to integrate lifestyle medicine into all 4 years of its curriculum. The Lifestyle Medicine Education Collaborative, a collection of open-access lifestyle medicine curricular resources developed there, provides a curriculum that other medical programs can integrate. Medical students have a hearty appetite for lifestyle medicine, and lifestyle medicine interest groups (LMIGs) for medical and other health professions students have exploded from a single campus in 2009 to 95 LMIGs today.

As of September 1, ACLM's Lifestyle Medicine Residency Curriculum (LMRC), a comprehensive curriculum piloted in 2018 that prepares residents to make evidence-based, lifestyle behavior interventions, is being implemented in 200 residency programs across 96 sites, with 1190 faculty and 4185 residents.

Lifestyle medicine education for physicians who trained 10 or more years ago may have consisted only of a few hours of learning about abject nutrient deficiencies and general suggestions to inspire patients to "exercise more" and "eat better." That's why I strongly urge practicing clinicians to pursue certification in lifestyle medicine. Education and certification will modernize their practice to meet current healthcare system needs.

As health systems or practices embrace lifestyle medicine and work within value-based contracts or population health goals, clinicians prepared with lifestyle medicine tools and knowledge will be valued and sought. More and more physicians and other clinicians are pursing board certification. Since 2017, 2004 US physicians and 778 other health professionals have certified.

Physicians are certified by the American Board of Lifestyle Medicine (ABLM). There are two pathways for physicians to qualify to take the exam. One is the experiential pathway for physicians who are already board-certified by a medical specialty board recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties or the American Osteopathic Association. Those physicians must be primary board-certified and have practiced medicine for at least 2 years before qualifying to take the ABLM exam.

 The other emerging pathway is educational. Physicians who complete the LMRC through a residency site are eligible to sit for the certification exam, though certification will not be issued until the physician successfully passes the primary board exam.

To prepare for the board exam, ACLM provides a catalogue of on-line courses for continuing medical education as well as a lifestyle medicine board review course. In addition, ACLM recently became a content provider to Ed Hub, the American Medical Association's online learning platform. And the annual ACLM conference is a learning and networking event in the journey towards board certification.

The healthcare landscape is shifting rapidly. Transformative changes are occurring, and I am confident that lifestyle medicine will be at the forefront to address our alarming trajectory of chronic disease and its associated misery and financial impact.

Follow Medscape on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and YouTube

Wed, 05 Oct 2022 07:48:00 -0500 en text/html
ABFM exam dump and training guide direct download
Training Exams List