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Killexams : Legato Administrator education - BingNews Search results Killexams : Legato Administrator education - BingNews Killexams : Best System Administrator Certifications for 2022
  • Certification programs help system administrators stand out from their peers while expanding and validating their skills. 
  • Certification training and testing help IT professionals earn professional credibility and more power to direct and control their career paths. 
  • Numerous certifications are available, but several are exceptionally valued and respected. 
  • This article is for system administrators and IT professionals who want to expand their knowledge and professional credibility through certification programs.

System administrators are the glue holding together business operations, ensuring smooth-running IT infrastructures. The role requires in-demand career skills that range from server and client configuration and maintenance to access controls, network services and application resource requirements. SysAdmins may even work with more user-facing products, like directory and name services, network addressing, database services, web and desktop applications, and email. They’re often the company “tech expert” – sometimes at several organizations simultaneously. 

System administrator certifications help IT professionals navigate their career paths, expand their knowledge and demonstrate their expertise to managers and employers. SysAdmin certs may even help you secure managerial and executive level jobs and higher pay.

TipTip: If you’re a SysAdmin specializing in database services, consider exploring the best database certifications for database administrators and developers.

Best system administrator certifications

After examining various credentials, we developed this list of our five favorite system administrator certifications for 2022. These certifications are geared toward various experience levels, product interests and skill sets. They can foster your development within system administration, encourage you to explore new areas of expertise, and help you set and achieve career goals

1. Microsoft Certified: Azure Solutions Architect Expert 

Many businesses operate within Microsoft ecosystems, making Microsoft certifications extremely valuable and sought after. However, Microsoft has overhauled its certification processes in accurate years, replacing broad certificates like Microsoft Certified Solutions Expert with a wider variety of role-based certification options divided into the following roles: 

  • Data engineer
  • Data scientist
  • Artificial intelligence engineer
  • Security engineer
  • DevOps engineer
  • Functional consultant
  • Developer
  • Administrator
  • Solutions architect 

Certifications come in beginner, intermediate, and expert levels, based on applicants’ experience. 

Various system administrators may find some Microsoft certifications more advantageous than others. However, the Azure Solutions Architect Expert is the most in-demand certification for a SysAdmin with IT operation experience.  

The Azure Solutions Architect Expert certification is ideal for someone with extensive experience using Azure to solve problems and make decisions for a business’s tech needs. Candidates must have experience with every level of IT operations as well as DevOps. Candidates will be tested on their knowledge and ability to design solutions for data storage, identity, infrastructure and more using Azure. 

This certification combines elements of system administration, Azure implementation and solutions architect experience. Candidates should have one prerequisite qualification: the Azure Administrator Associate certification.  

TipTip: If you have solutions architect experience, check out our list of the best enterprise architect certifications. Credentials at the architect level can lead to some of the highest-paid tech industry positions.

Microsoft Certified: Azure Solutions Architect Expert facts and figures

2. Professional Oracle Linux 8 System Administrator 

Although Oracle is known for its database products and solutions, it also distributes Linux products geared for the enterprise and designed to support cloud environments. Oracle Linux is optimized for various Oracle products and platforms, such as:

  • Oracle Exadata Database Machine
  • Oracle Exalytics In-Memory Machine
  • Oracle Exalogic Elastic Cloud
  • Oracle Database Appliance

To support Oracle Linux, the company offers several Oracle Linux System Administrator learning paths. It also provides several standalone Linux administration courses. Oracle’s Linux certifications are considered among the best Linux certifications to earn. We’ll highlight the Professional Oracle Linux 8 System Administrator certification below. 

The OCP Oracle Linux System Administrator certification, currently at version 8, covers many tools and processes. Candidates must be well-versed in:

  • Linux file systems
  • Control groups
  • Container concepts
  • Advanced storage administration techniques
  • Oracle cluster management 
  • Using Ksplice Uptrack commands 

The certification also tests for knowledge of network bonding, task automation, security configuration and more. 

SysAdmins who support Oracle Solaris might also be interested in the Oracle Solaris System Administrator certification, which Oracle offers at the Associate and Professional levels. Oracle also offers a Cloud Database Migration and Integration Professional certificate

Professional Oracle Linux 8 System Administrator certification facts and figures

Did you know?Did you know?: Oracle certifications are vendor-specific certifications to advance your networking career and are frequently sought after by SysAdmins.

3. RHCE: Red Hat Certified Engineer

In the realm of Linux system administrator certifications, Red Hat certifications stand out. Red Hat’s more senior-level certifications are especially popular among IT professionals and the firms that hire them. Those holding the Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE) credential qualify for highly competitive job roles, including the following:

  • Senior Linux administrator
  • Senior UNIX administrator
  • Senior systems engineer
  • Infrastructure systems engineer
  • IT analyst 

The RHCE is considered a high-level credential that’s not easy to obtain. Candidates must first obtain the Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA) credential. The RHCE credential expands the RHCSA’s understanding of automation in multisystem environments. Candidates must then pass an intense, demanding, four-hour, hands-on, performance-based exam. Those who earn the RHCE can go on to earn the Red Hat Certified Architect (RHCA) in Infrastructure credential.

Candidates can choose a path based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 or Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8. RHCE certification is valid for three years from the date the certification was achieved. To maintain the certification, a credential holder must pass any RHCA test or pass the RHCE certification test again before the end of the three years.

TipTip: See our Red Hat certification guide for additional Red Hat professional certifications based on software products, virtualization, storage and cloud-based solutions.

RHCE facts and figures

Certification name Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE)
Prerequisites and required courses

Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA) certification via one exam: EX200 Red Hat Certified System Administrator

Recommended courses: 

  • Red Hat System Administration I (RH124)
  • Red Hat System Administration II (RH134)
  • Red Hat System Administration III: Linux Automation with Ansible (RH294)

Note: Courses are not required, but Red Hat requests that candidates who opt out of the courses demonstrate equivalent experience.

Number of exams One exam: EX294 Red Hat Certified Engineer exam
Cost per exam $400 (RHCE test fee only)
Self-study materials Several online education resources, including, offer courses to help you prepare for the RHCE exam. In addition, some books are available with resources to help you study for the test.

4. CompTIA Server+

CompTIA certifications, such as the A+ for hardware technicians, Network+ for network admins and Security+ for security specialists, are highly regarded in the computing industry. The CompTIA Server+ certification is no exception. 

Companies such as Intel, HP, Dell, Lenovo, Xerox and Microsoft recommend or require their server technicians to earn CompTIA Server+ credentials.

The Server+ certification test focuses on fundamental, vendor-neutral server-related topics, including:

  • Server hardware
  • Operating systems
  • Storage systems
  • Networking
  • The IT environment (documentation, diagrams and best practices)
  • Security and disaster recovery
  • Virtualization 
  • Troubleshooting

Individuals seeking positions across the system administration world, including data technician, network administrator, IT technician and data center engineer, can benefit from CompTIA Server+ certification. This certification also provides new IT professionals with an excellent foundation for more specialized certifications.

Candidates for the Server+ certification take one exam: SK0-005. CompTIA recommends that candidates have at least two years of practical experience working with servers and either CompTIA A+ certification or comparable knowledge. This certification also stands out because it does not expire – certification is good for life. 

CompTIA Server+ facts and figures

Certification name CompTIA Server+
Prerequisites and required courses Required: None Recommended: CompTIA A+ certification plus 18 to 24 months of IT experience
Number of exams One exam: SK0-005 (90 minutes, 90 multiple-choice and performance-based questions; 750 on a scale of 100 to 900 required to pass)
Cost per exam $358; purchase vouchers through CompTIA Marketplace; test administered by Pearson VUE
Self-study materials Links to practice questions, test objectives, e-books and other training resources are available on the certification page. test study bundles, including e-books and CertMaster practice, are available from the CompTIA Marketplace.

Did you know?Did you know?: CompTIA also offers some of the best computer hardware certifications as well as vendor-specific Dell certifications, help desk certifications and more.

5. VCAP-DCV Design 2022: VMware Certified Advanced Professional – Data Center Virtualization Design 2022

VMware certifications are must-have credentials for IT professionals interested in virtualization. With a comprehensive certification program encompassing all skill levels, VMware credentials are recognized globally as the best in their class of professional certifications.  

The latest incarnation of the VMware vSphere product is Version 8. VMware offers five credentials related to the vSphere product:

  • Certified Technical
  • Certified Professional
  • Certified Advanced Professional (Data Center Virtualization Design)
  • Certified Advanced Professional (Data Center Virtualization Deploy)
  • Certified Design Expert 

VMware also offers a wide range of badges for specific product applications. We’re highlighting the intermediate certification: Certified Advanced Professional – Data Center Virtualization Design. 

Training is required for non-credential holders seeking to obtain the VCAP-DCV credential. VMware offers various training options to meet the training prerequisite: self-paced (on demand), live online and live classroom – some of which include virtual labs. Those possessing a valid VCAP-DCV Design certificate must attend a training course or pass the VCAP-DCV Design exam. 

VCAP-DCV Design 2022 facts and figures

Certification name VMware Certified Advanced Professional – Data Center Virtualization 2022 (VCAP-DCV)
Prerequisites and required courses Path 1 (non-VCP credential holders): Earn the VCP-DCV 2022 and pass the VCAP-DCV Design exam. Additional training courses are recommended but not required. 

Path 2 (active VCAP-DCV Design or Deploy 2019 or newer credential holders): Pass the VCAP-DCV Design exam. Training is recommended but not required.

Path 3 (VCAP-CMA Design or Deploy 2019 or newer, VCAP-DTM Design or Deploy 2019 or newer, VCAP-NV Design or Deploy 2019 or newer holders): Earn the VCP-DCV 2022 and pass the VCAP-DCV Design exam. Training is recommended but not required. 

Path 4 (VCAP-DCV Design 2021 holder): Either attend the training course in 2022 or pass the VCAP-DCV Design exam.  Path 5 (VCAP6.5-DCV Design or Deploy or older): Earn the VCP-DCV 2022 and pass the VCAP-DCV Design exam. Training is recommended but not required. 

Number of exams Professional DCV exam (130 minutes, 70 single and multiple-choice questions; must score 300 out of 500 to pass)

Exam for certification: VCAP-DCV Design Exam (150 minutes, 60 single and multiple-choice questions; must score 300 out of 500 to pass)

Cost per exam Professional DCV exam: $250 VCAP-DCV Design exam: $450 
Self-study materials VMware offers a downloadable test guide for each exam. VMware Customer Connect Learning offers test prep subscriptions.

Key TakeawayKey takeaway: Earning the best IT certifications, including system admin certs, is an excellent career advancement tool for amassing and validating your skills and knowledge.

Beyond the top 5: More SysAdmin certifications

In addition to the five system administrator certifications we highlighted above, many other certification programs can help further the careers and professional development of IT professionals in system administration.

It makes sense to investigate the plethora of vendor-specific programs available for those who work with systems from companies like Brocade, Dell EMC, HPE, IBM, NetApp and Symantec. Many play into critical system specialty areas, such as storage, security and virtualization, while others offer a broad range of platforms for these and other technology areas. 

Here are some examples:

  • IBM Certified System Administrator MQ V9.1: IBM Certified System Administrator MQ V9.1 is for SysAdmins who cover admin activities such as migrating, configuration, availability, performance tuning and problem determination.
  • NetApp Certified Data Administrator (NCDA): NCDA is geared toward professionals who manage NetApp data storage controllers running the ONTAP operating system.
  • ServiceNow Certified System Administrator: ServiceNow Certified System Administrator is aimed at professionals adept at configuring, implementing and managing ServiceNow systems.

Vendor-neutral certification programs also offer a variety of interesting and potentially valuable credentials. For example, Linux Professional Institute certifications are well known and widely recognized in IT shops and operations that depend on Linux servers to handle their workloads. 

TipTip: Tech professionals may also want to consider certifications in adjacent fields, including big data certifications, starter cybersecurity certifications and project management certifications.

Job board search results (in alphabetical order by certification)

The following chart shows the results of an informal job search we conducted to give you an idea of the relative frequency with which our top five certifications appear in actual job postings. While all the certifications are popular, the CompTIA Server+ stands out as the clear favorite.

Certification SimplyHired Indeed LinkedIn Jobs Linkup Total
Microsoft Certified: Azure Solutions Architect Expert (Microsoft) 1,722 4,281 554 2,711 9,268
Oracle Linux 8 System Administrator (Oracle) 1,831 2,232 166 765 4,994
RHCE (Red Hat) 417 527 1,015 1,972 3,931
Server+ (CompTIA) 6,817 5,082 1,125 4,182 17,206
VCAP-DCV Design 2022  (VMware)* 2,884 2,885 220 4,932 10,921

* When searching for VCP – Data Center credentials, we found most job descriptions didn’t indicate a specific version.

Although employers tend to pay SysAdmins less than some of their IT peers, such as network engineers and enterprise IT architects, a career in system administration is still worth pursuing. SimplyHired reports $79,283 as the national average salary for system administrators, with a range of $49,718 to $136,224. similarly reports that $76,942 is the average base salary for system administrators, while senior system administrators can expect an average salary of around $92,803.  

Building a dynamic IT skill set

IT systems are dynamic. They grow with companies and change with evolving technology. Therefore, it’s important for system administrators to nourish their skills. Certifications and training show you’re qualified to handle the responsibilities of your desired position while demonstrating your willingness to learn and grow. 

As you move through your career in system administration, you may want to branch into new specialties or software. Fortunately, in addition to receiving certifications, you can access many excellent courses and educational resources to help you continue to grow in your field. 

Ed Tittel and Kim Lindros contributed to the reporting and writing in this article.

Sun, 22 Jan 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : Ed.D. in K-12 Administration Program

Discover what’s next. In Bethel’s Doctor of Education: Leadership in K-12 Administration program, you’ll be prepared for the complex and challenging role of school and district leadership. By integrating a values-informed framework into your administrative practices, you’ll grow as a trustworthy leader capable of transforming students, colleagues, and communities. With an emphasis on innovation, clarity, and collaboration, you will be prepared to understand and meet the needs of today’s school communities.

In our Ed.D. in K-12 Administration program, you’ll prepare for the wonderfully complex and challenging role of leadership in K-12 settings. Students can earn a principal, superintendent, and special education director license. Non-license-seeking students complete an individualized directed study.
Tue, 14 Feb 2023 12:05:00 -0600 en-US text/html
Killexams : Public Administration Degree Types And Career Paths

Editorial Note: We earn a commission from partner links on Forbes Advisor. Commissions do not affect our editors' opinions or evaluations.

Individuals looking to Strengthen communities or society at large can pursue public administration degrees. These programs allow students to develop skills in areas such as leadership, community organizing, fundraising and budgeting. Graduates with public administration degrees can pursue employment with the government or with non-government entities.

Public administration professionals include public affairs specialists, park managers, urban planners and public works managers. Public administration degrees can open the door to many professional roles that Strengthen local communities and public sector efforts.

Southern New Hampshire University

Serve your community and shape the future of public service with a transformative and practical public administration program from Southern New Hampshire University

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Public Administration Explained

What is public administration? Public administration professionals work in government agencies and nonprofit organizations to serve and Strengthen communities. These individuals focus on areas such as housing, transportation, public health and emergency management to advance society through research and the implementation of programs.

The scope of public administration efforts can vary based on employer, role and sector. For example, professionals with public administration degrees might handle tasks relating to planning, staffing, organizing or budgeting.

What is a Public Administration Degree?

Public administration degrees exist at multiple levels and with various focuses. Read on to learn about some of the most common degrees in public administration.

Bachelor of Public Administration (BPA)

A BPA offers a foundation in the field for undergraduate students. These programs typically comprise 120 credits and take four years of full-time enrollment to complete. Enrollees explore courses in public policy, public budgeting and public planning, along with project management for government agencies and nonprofit organizations.

Admission requirements align with most bachelor’s degrees—candidates must possess a high school diploma or the equivalent and provide supporting documentation of any education completed. Some schools may require letters of recommendation or responses to writing prompts.

Potential careers for BPA graduates include budget director, public administration consultant and nonprofit director.

Master of Public Administration (MPA)

Master of public administration degrees require enrollees to complete 36 to 45 credits and generally take two years to complete. Coursework dives deeper into public administration syllabus through classes in human resource management, organizational theory and administrative law.

MPA candidates must provide undergraduate transcripts demonstrating GPAs in the 3.0 range, with some institutions offering guaranteed admission for applicants with GPAs of 3.5 or higher from partner schools. Programs may also require candidates to provide a resume or CV, a personal statement, letters of recommendation and graduate test scores.

Potential MPA jobs include development coordinator, urban planner, environmental consultant and policy manager.

Master of Public Policy (MPP)

A master of public policy degree shares some similarities with public administration. However, public policy vs. public administration differ since public policy focuses on creating and shifting policy rather than implementing it. MPPs typically comprise 35 to 48 credits and take about two years to earn.

Admission requirements align with MPA degrees, with candidates submitting letters of recommendation, transcripts with GPAs in the 3.0 range and personal statements.

MPP courses typically cover international affairs, social and urban policy, economic development and business policy. With an MPP, a graduate can explore professional roles in the public and private sectors as consultants, policy research assistants, community outreach managers and government relations managers.

Master of Business Administration (MBA) in Public Administration

An MBA in public administration includes the business-centric courses typical of an MBA degree while diving deeper into the intersection between government and private enterprise. Along with standard MBA courses in business ethics, business law, economics and supply chains, enrollees take public administration classes like public budgeting and enterprise management.

MPA timelines are similar to those of MPP and MPA degrees, though some schools offer accelerated programs that allow enrollees to complete their MBA in one year.

Ph.D. in Public Administration

At the doctoral level, professionals and students can pursue a Ph.D. in public administration. These degrees may include 54 to 93 credits, though some schools allow learners to apply credits from master’s programs to their Ph.D. requirements. Admission requirements are typically more restrictive than for master’s degrees, often requiring a 3.2 GPA in a relevant master’s program.

Ph.D. students must complete dissertations and defend their research before a panel of faculty members to earn this terminal degree. Courses may include economics for policy analysis, along with seminars in public management, policy implementation and organization theory. A Ph.D degree-holder with a focus on public administration can pursue employment in academia or roles like city manager, policy analyst or research director.

Ph.D. in Public Policy

Similar to the divide between MPAs and MPPs, a Ph.D. in public policy covers courses more geared toward creating policy rather than implementation. Instructors deliver classes in research methodology, microeconomics for public policy and the political and social context of the policy process.

Like the Ph.D. in public administration, graduates with a public policy Ph.D. can work in the public or private sectors or academia. Other common professional roles for public policy Ph.D. graduates include nonprofit manager, superintendent, health planner and policy researcher.

Candidates must have master’s degrees, with some schools requiring majors related to public policy. Applicants may also need to provide graduate test scores to gain admission.

Popular Fields for Public Administration Graduates

A public administration degree qualifies you to pursue employment in several sectors. As of 2019, graduates with public policy or social services degrees worked in the following sectors, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

  • 32% worked in community and social service occupations
  • 15% worked in management occupations
  • 9% worked in office and administrative support positions
  • 9% worked in education and library roles
  • 7% worked in business and financial operations occupations
  • 29% worked in other fields

The following section explores potential employment sectors for graduates with public administration degrees.

Business and Finance

Median Annual Salary: $76,570
Projected Occupation Growth (2021-2031): +7%
Field Overview: Individuals with public administration degrees who work in business and finance handle money-related tasks for their organizations. They might track income and expenditures, plan to meet financial goals or examine companies’ financial records.
Common Roles: Accountant, auditor, budget analyst, financial analyst

Community and Social Services

Median Annual Salary: $48,410
Projected Occupation Growth (2021-2031): +10%
Field Overview: Community and social services professionals assist clients and patients in overcoming challenges through treatments like therapy, rehabilitation and community-level strategies. These workers find employment in various settings, such as healthcare facilities, public health departments and nonprofits.
Common Roles: Health education specialist, rehabilitation counselor, family counselor, social worker

Education, Training and Library

Median Annual Salary: $57,220
Projected Occupation Growth (2021-2031): +7%
Field Overview: This field covers public education. Though an MPA can help these professionals develop a greater understanding of this field, teachers and instructional coordinators typically need education degrees and state licensure as well.
Common Roles: Teacher, instructional coordinator, library technician


Median Annual Salary: $102,450
Projected Occupation Growth (2021-2031): +8%
Field Overview: Management professionals oversee teams of workers, collaborate with other stakeholders and establish organizational policies. These roles appear in the public and private sectors in various industries.
Common Roles: Emergency management director, human resources manager, top executive, computer and information systems manager

Office and Administrative Support

Median Annual Salary: $38,050
Projected Occupation Growth (2021-2031): -4%
Field Overview: These professionals provide assistance in office settings by creating, organizing and tracking documents. In a public administration context, they may help deliver information to the public and track documentation for public policy efforts.
Common Roles: Office clerk, financial clerk, public safety telecommunicator

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) About Public Administration Degrees

What is a public administration degree good for?

A public administration degree serves individuals looking to affect change in both small-scale and large-scale communities. Public administration graduates can pursue employment in city planning, nonprofits, public works and education.

Is a public administration degree worth it?

Payscale reports that individuals with MPAs earn an average annual salary of around $73,000. This strong income, along with the fulfilling nature of the work, can make a public administration degree worth it for driven individuals.

Wed, 15 Feb 2023 17:14:00 -0600 Matt Whittle en-US text/html
Killexams : Bronx education administrator gives back, inspires students

A Bronx educator is helping students reach their potential through the lessons he has learned in life.

Ja'keel Daniels is the academic dean and principal in residence at DREAM Mott Haven Middle School on Wales Avenue. He's been in that role for the past two years.

He's accomplished a lot in his seven-year career as an educator, which includes earning his Ph.D.

However, Daniels says academics didn't always play an important part of his life.

In his younger years, grades took a back seat to his standout skills in baseball - his primary focus until he says he experienced what he called "an awakening."

"Once I got kicked out of high school, this changed me. I saw the impact it had on my mom," Daniels says.

Now he's passing that passion to students and teachers at DREAM Mott Haven.

In addition to mentoring students, he also runs the school's Saturday Academy, a weekend program that provides emotional support to students and helps those who are falling behind.

The Bronx charter school will soon be launching its first-ever student athletic program, which will be led by Daniels.

Daniels says he's excited to combine his passion for sports and academics together. n mandate in workplace environments starting Friday.

Tue, 07 Feb 2023 23:31:00 -0600 text/html

Va. school struggles after a student overdose then a lockdown in same week

On Friday, Chris Willmore, Wakefield High’s longtime principal, decided along with other school officials to cancel classes so students had the time and the space to process the double trauma.

By Moriah Balingit and Salvador RizzoFebruary 3, 2023
Thu, 16 Feb 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : Nebo School Board of Education appoints 7 new administrators

1 / 8

The Nebo School District Administration Office is pictured Friday, April 13, 2018, in Spanish Fork.

Isaac Hale, Daily Herald file photo

2 / 8

The Nebo School District Board of Education appointed Penny McEntire as the principal of Orchard Hills Elementary on Wednesday, Feb. 8, 2023

Courtesy Nebo School District

3 / 8

The Nebo School District Board of Education appointed Clint Cornwall as the principal of Art City Elementary on Wednesday, Feb. 8, 2023.

Courtesy Nebo School District

4 / 8

The Nebo School District Board of Education appointed Marcy Caldwell as the principal of Canyon Elementary on Wednesday, Feb. 8, 2023.

Courtesy Nebo School District

5 / 8

The Nebo School District Board of Education appointed Matt Christensen as the director of secondary education on Wednesday, Feb. 8, 2023.

Courtesy Nebo School District

6 / 8

The Nebo School District Board of Education appointed RaShel Shepherd as the director of student success and education equity on Wednesday, Feb. 8, 2023.

Courtesy Nebo School District

7 / 8

The Nebo School District Board of Education appointed Jim Welburn as coordinator of human resources on Wednesday, Feb. 8, 2023.

Courtesy Nebo School District

8 / 8

With the retirement of Spencer Sainsbury, the Nebo School District Board of Education appointed Ryan Kay as the coordinator of food services on Wednesday, Feb. 8, 2023.

Courtesy Nebo School District

The Nebo School Board of Education appointed seven new administrators last week, including three principals.

Penny McEntire (Orchard Hills Elementary), Clint Cornwall (Art City Elementary) and Marcy Caldwell (Canyon Elementary) were announced as new principals on Wednesday, along with Jim Welburn as the district’s coordinator of human resources, Matt Christensen as director of secondary education, RaShel Shepherd as director of student success and education equity, and Ryan Kay as coordinator of food services.

As principals, McEntire, Cornwall and Caldwell’s responsibilities include approving teacher curriculums, advising and disciplining students, and making sure their schools are safe places for students and staff.

McEntire previously worked in the district as a Title I coordinator, an instructional coach and an elementary school teacher. She taught studying recovery, kindergarten, first grade and third grade, and has won several awards within the district for her service.

“I am appreciative of this assignment and thrilled to work alongside the students, teachers and community of Orchard Hills Elementary. As an educator, I value the roles of each of these stakeholders in relationship to the academic, social and emotional growth of each student. It is my pleasure to add my skill sets and my experience to the wonderful faculty, staff and students at Orchard Hills,” McEntire said.

Within the district, Cornwall has also served as a Title I coordinator, as well as a teacher for the third, fourth and fifth grades. He is endorsed in English as a second language, or ESL, and has taught for the Migrant Summer program.

“The colleagues, students and parents I’ve worked with have taught me and supported me to become the person I am today. I will ensure that all students feel safe, supported and successful. I am humbled and look forward to working with the staff, students and community of Art City Elementary,” Cornwall said.

Caldwell has been a facilitator, a teacher for second and fourth grades, and a music planning technician for the district.

“I want to thank you for this incredible opportunity. I am excited, grateful and humbled to have the opportunity to be appointed the principal of Canyon Elementary and work side by side with the educators, parents, students and community to continue a legacy of engaging in a collaborative culture of deep learning,” Caldwell told the school board.

As director of secondary education, Christensen will advise educational services and the assistant superintendent for all secondary education matters. The director also oversees the process of the district and state testing from start to finish.

Christensen has been a principal, an assistant principal, and taught history, exercise and driver’s education classes. He has also coached sports teams for 11 years, including football, golf and basketball.

Christensen said, “I absolutely love Nebo School District and have sincerely enjoyed all of the opportunities I have had. I really like working with people, not for people. For me it is about relationships and working together to help our students.”

As director of student success and education equity, Shepard will be an advocate for essential student resources, discourage discrimination of any kind, help develop policy, ensure equal opportunities are given according to each student’s unique needs and background, and make sure all students, regardless of disability, gender or race, are given equal opportunities to access a quality education.

Shepherd has served as secondary director for the past three years, as a principal in the district for 16 years and as an assistant principal for three years. Shepherd previously taught mathematics for five years in secondary education and then served as a counselor for four years. She has won several awards at the district and state levels.

She stated, “I am passionate about educational equity and connection. I have so much gratitude and have loved mentoring and working closely with our amazing administrators.”

As coordinator of human resources, Welburn will monitor recruitment, the selection of candidates and hiring of potential faculty and staff within the district.

Welburn served as coordinator of student services for the past five years and as a principal for 12 years. Before entering administration, he taught social studies, drivers education, geography, government and law, psychology, Portuguese, and was a coach and guidance counselor.

Kay will assure that the school cafeterias are running smoothly and serving nutritious and regulation-approved meals to students and faculty as the coordinator of food services.

Kay has served as the human resources coordinator for the past six years. He was a principal for four years and previously taught kindergarten in two districts. When asked about education, he said, “I cannot think of a profession that has the potential to impact lives the way educators do.”


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Tue, 07 Feb 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en-US text/html
Killexams : What Is Public Administration? Skills, Degrees And Careers

Editorial Note: We earn a commission from partner links on Forbes Advisor. Commissions do not affect our editors' opinions or evaluations.

The field of public administration tackles some of society’s most intractable challenges in areas like housing, poverty and the environment. Whether they work in government or the nonprofit sector, public administrators translate theory into practice, enacting policies that set quantifiable goals and achieve measurable results.

If you feel passionate about public service, public administration could be the career track for you. But what is public administration, exactly?

In this article, we outline the scope of the field, including the skills and public administration degrees that prepare candidates for careers in this field.

Southern New Hampshire University

Serve your community and shape the future of public service with a transformative and practical public administration program from Southern New Hampshire University

Learn More

Defining Public Administration

Public administration is the planning, preparation and execution of policy meant to build and strengthen civil society. Public administration officials analyze and evaluate all aspects of public policy programs, especially budgets, as part of creating and implementing those programs.

Public administrators typically work for local, state or federal government agencies. They may also work for mission-driven nonprofits focused on particular policy areas like homelessness and emergency preparedness.

Public Policy vs. Public Administration

These fields are often discussed as being the same, but there is a key difference between public policy vs. public administration. Public policy focuses more on the analysis and creation of policies intended to benefit society, while public administration concentrates on the implementation of those policies.

Skills for Public Administrators

Analytical Skills

Analytical skills involve the ability to gather information from large bodies of data and make decisions based on conclusions drawn from the data. In public administration, this can mean scrutinizing budgets and reviewing the outcomes of past programs to Strengthen efficiency and achieve the best results from new or continuing policies.


Because public administrators often liaise between government agencies and the public, effective communication is an essential part of their role. They should be able to describe needs to funders and policy planners while also ensuring transparent decision-making and policy processes.


Decision-making in public administration affects people’s lives and should therefore rely on the best available data and reflect a clear understanding of the end goals to be achieved.

While it’s impossible to predict all the potential outcomes of a given decision, public administrators are expected to base their decisions on objective analysis with an understanding of potential consequences.


Leadership in public administration entails a demonstrated understanding of the relevant issues. Public administration leaders must be able to weigh the needs of stakeholders and establish consensus about policies to achieve the maximum good.

Since profit isn’t a big motive in public service, leaders should also know how to inspire team members in an effective, ethics-driven way.


In public administration, problem-solving means first identifying the real-world problem that needs to be fixed. Public administrators must then review available data to reach a potential policy solution, also incorporating input from the communities directly affected by the problem.

The final step is to choose the best possible proposal given any constraints at hand, whether related to budget, time or personnel.

Time Management

Time management promotes efficiency in public administration. Because policy initiatives are often time-driven, with quantifiable results expected by a given deadline, the ability to determine priorities and set schedules is essential.

Degrees in Public Administration

Bachelor of Public Administration

A bachelor’s degree in public administration is the first step toward a career in public service. The degree typically entails four years of undergraduate study and 120 credit hours.
To apply to the best bachelor of public administration programs, you will need a high school diploma (or GED equivalent) and GPA and SAT/ACT scores.

Master of Public Administration (MPA)

Ready to take the next step beyond a bachelor’s degree? An MPA degree prepares candidates for leadership roles in public service. Curricula focus intensely on finance and budgeting, program analysis and management.

Full-time MPA students can complete their master’s in two years. Part-time students can expect to take three to four years, depending on the number of credits required to graduate (generally a minimum of 42). To apply, you should have an accredited bachelor’s degree and a minimum 3.0 GPA. Relevant work experience can sometimes compensate for a lower GPA.

Before you apply, remember that any MPA program should be fully accredited by the Network of Schools of Public Policy, Affairs, and Administration, the internationally recognized accreditation agency for public administration degree programs.

Master of Public Policy (MPP)

Another step beyond a bachelor’s degree in public administration is a master of public policy, which further hones your skills in policy analysis, quantitative methods, and communications.
While MPA programs prepare students to manage agencies, the MPP degree focuses on research and the close analysis of policy, intending to Strengthen it.

All candidates should have an accredited bachelor’s degree. Programs usually require a minimum of 30 credits to graduate and take one to two years to complete, depending on the institution.

MBA in Public Administration

Where an MPA prepares you for a career in the government or at a nonprofit, the master of business administration is typically the springboard to a career at a private company. Applicants to MBA degree programs should have a bachelor’s degree from an accredited institution.

Ph.D. in Public Administration

Requiring a minimum of three to four years, a Ph.D. in public administration involves writing academic papers, giving lectures and teaching undergraduate courses, all while conducting extensive research that culminates in a dissertation.

Candidates should have an MPA with a GPA of 3.0. They should also have management experience in the public service sector.

Ph.D. in Public Policy

A Ph.D. in public policy provides advanced graduate training for top research positions in academia and government. This degree can also prepare learners for executive roles with nonprofits and other institutions that make policy.

A master’s degree is the prerequisite for a Ph.D. in public policy. Prospective candidates should expect to spend at least four years earning this degree, and the Ph.D. is usually conferred upon completion of a dissertation.

Careers in Public Administration

Emergency Management Director

Median Annual Salary: $76,730 per year
Required Education: Bachelor’s degree
Job Description: Emergency management directors establish the plans and procedures for responding to public emergencies like natural disasters and large-scale accidents. These professionals also help prepare for such emergencies before they happen.

Social and Community Service Manager

Median Annual Salary: $74,000 per year
Required Education: Bachelor’s degree
Job Description: Social and community service managers oversee social service programs and organizations that support the well-being of a given community.

Urban and Regional Planner

Median Annual Salary: $78,500 per year
Required Education: Master’s degree
Job Description: Urban and regional planners are responsible for land use plans and programs that help build communities, prepare for growing populations and renew infrastructure.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) About Public Administration

What is public administration?

Public administration is a profession centered on the conception, management and implementation of policies meant to Strengthen the public good. The term “public administration” also refers to the academic study and professional training that leads to careers in government or with nonprofits.

What is the job of a public administrator?

Public administrators are the frontline personnel who work to help society by developing and executing programs that address issues such as poverty or environmental degradation. These professionals’ responsibilities involve budget analysis, human resources, networking and public relations.

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