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https://killexams.com/exam_list/HPKillexams : Global Shapers Lagos and HP Life partners to accelerate digital transformation in Nigeria
The Lagos State chapter of the Global Shapers Community has announced an international partnership with HP Life to promote and accelerate digital transformation within the borders of Africa’s most populous nation, Nigeria.
Global Shapers Community, Lagos, has been implementing the Project Digiterate programme for the past four years.
Project Digiterate is an initiative that empowers and equips youths in underserved communities aged between 15 and 35 with critical digital and technology skills.
The year 2022 marks five years of Project Digiterate, and HP Life has completed a partnership agreement with the Global Shapers Community, Lagos, to boost the impact of the initiative and empower more youths.
HP Life is one of the largest major online education technology services providers. It is set to grant access to its learning platform and resources to all Global Shapers beneficiaries within this partnership timeframe to consolidate the HP Life campaign, “HP 40 Days of Doing Good”.
The two companies will collaborate to identify and implement innovative solutions in the digital transformation and skill development ecosystems to nurture youths in key areas of the exponentially advancing global workforce.
They aim to deliver the broader Nigerian economy and young people a competitive advantage locally and internationally.
Ayobami Bamisaiye, Outgoing Curator at Global Shapers Community, Lagos, said:
“Global Shapers is undertaking a major impact scaling milestone for Project Digiterate that appreciates the support and expertise of a global technology organization to achieve our vision of becoming the shapers of a better society.
HP Life will be exposed to more youths as they are now a major technology partner working with the Global Shapers Community, Lagos, on this major project. The project is set to impact thousands of youths, Strengthen and deliver edutech services that ensure that Nigerian youths are the best equipped on and off the job.”
Emmanuel Asika, Country Head, HP Nigeria, said:
“Global Shapers Community, Lagos has achieved the advanced ambitious youth impact goal of becoming one of the most society transformation organizations in the world.
As a major technological partner, HP Life will provide the Global Shapers community with all the educational materials at our disposal to advance their already thriving community impact digital transformation program.”
Global Shapers Community and HP Life will also emphasize developing additional programs and initiatives that promote diversity and inclusion.
Through the partnership, Global Shapers Community, Lagos will receive various rights and benefits, including branding across digital platforms, project and team appearances at HP Life events and exclusive group and beneficiary experiences.
Visit www.globalshapers.org/hubs/lagos-hub. Follow Global Shapers Lagos on Twitter at @lagosshapers.
ABOUT GLOBAL SHAPERS COMMUNITY, LAGOS
Born out of the World Economic Forum, the Global Shapers Community is a network of inspiring young people under 30 working together to address local, regional, and global challenges.
With more than 14,000 members, the Global Shapers Community spans 456 city-based hubs in 150 countries. The Lagos Hub was one of the first Global Shapers Hubs created and comprises of a group of dynamic young leaders drawn from business, non-profit, private, public service, across major sectors of the Nigerian economy.
We are committed to positively impacting our community through several initiatives to ensure a continued effort and commitment to living up to the World Economic Forum’s values, aptly summarized as ‘Committed to improving the state of the world’.
Together with our partners in Lagos, we have implemented several projects in the thematic areas of Education & Employment, Climate & Environment, and Equity & Inclusion; impacting millions of lives in the city.
ABOUT HP Life
HP LIFE is a global training program available both online and offline via Learning Equality’s Kolibri platform. HP LIFE gives people all over the world the opportunity to build skills for the future — whether they want to start or grow their own business, enter the workforce or secure a better job — by providing access to free, accessible IT and business skills training courses in eight languages.
It is also an adaptable educational resource used on the ground by trainers, educators, and mentors to enrich curricula, support business creation, and Strengthen employability skills. HP LIFE is a program of the HP Foundation.
Tue, 02 Aug 2022 19:50:00 -0500Sponsored Posten-UStext/htmlhttps://businessday.ng/sponsored/article/global-shapers-lagos-and-hp-life-partners-to-accelerate-digital-transformation-in-nigeria/Killexams : Ministry conducts second episode of Teacher's Spirit ProgramJakarta (ANTARA) - The Education, Culture, Research, and Technology Ministry established the second Teacher's Spirit Program that discussed non-technical skills supporting implementation of the Freedom in Learning curriculum.
"The program is a virtual learning series to hone the educators' non-technical skills to support a student-focused learning method in accordance with the Freedom in Learning Curriculum," the Director General of Teachers and Educators at the ministry, Iwan Syahril, noted in his written statement received here on Tuesday.
The Teacher's Spirit Program was first launched in June 2021.
Syahril noted that the program was one of the proofs of successful collaboration between the government and private entity.
"This collaboration and cooperation can be (pursued) because the Education, Culture, Research, and Technology Ministry and HP Indonesia believed that development and improvement of Indonesia's future generation is being (influenced) by digital transformation, as one of the many factors," he stated.
Since 2005, HP had taken various initiatives to Strengthen the quality of education, including by establishing the first episode of the Teacher's Spirit Program in the last year, he pointed out.
"From the data we received, the Teacher's Spirit Program assisted in improving the skills of some 160 thousand teachers," he stated.
HP also collaborated to conduct Innovative Learning Transformation in schools.
"Thus, we want to express gratitude to HP for the valuable collaboration and cooperation," he added.
Innovative Learning Transformation was a framework to prepare schools to integrate with changes in the 21st century.
The framework supported national schools with an effective and modern teaching and learning method while still taking Creativity, Collaboration, Communication, Compassion, Critical Thinking, and Computational Logic (6C) into account.
Syahril reminded the teachers to utilize the Teacher's Spirit Program as a way to learn and Strengthen themselves.
On the same occasion, the director of early education and public education of the directorate general of teachers and educators at the Education, Culture, Research, and Technology Ministry, Santi Ambarukmi, noted that the second Teacher's Spirit Program aimed to train Indonesian teachers to implement the Freedom in Learning curriculum.
"There are three expectations of this program, that is to compel teachers and educators to understand some nontechnical skills that support the implementation of the Freedom in Learning curriculum. This is also to compel the teachers and educators to (comprehend) the use of technology in teaching and learning in the classroom and compel teachers and educators to collaborate and inspire each other," she remarked.
Mon, 25 Jul 2022 21:52:00 -0500text/htmlhttps://en.antaranews.com/news/241281/ministry-conducts-second-episode-of-teachers-spirit-programKillexams : ‘The role of the safety practitioner is evolving towards managing how the work is set up,’ SHP meets Marcin Nazaruk
Ahead of EHS Congress, taking place in Berlin in September, SHP catches up with speaker Marcin Nazaruk, Human Performance and Culture Leader at Baker Hughes, on how to learn from ‘normal work’to get safety and business results and how to implement the findings.
What is your background in safety and how does your experience help you in your current role?
Marcin Nazaruk (MN): “My background combines multiple fields including industrial psychology, safety management, business, behavioural science, systems thinking, and many others.
“My work involves working at all levels of the hierarchy. Some days I’m on the shop floor learning from the operators how the work is really done compared to how it was imagined to be done. Other times, I work with supervisors, executives, engineers, central corporate teams, as well as customers and contractors.
“I take the most useful elements from different models and make them work to tangibly reduce the risk. For example, we were recognised by the Center for Offshore Safety with a Leadership Award for showing 37% in accident reduction through the practical application of learning from ‘normal work’.
“I’ve spent years translating modern safety science into practical, hands-on tools and developed many industry guides and practitioner toolkits available through various industry bodies, as well as training and content for the executive leaders. Click here for the full list of the tools.”
How is the role of the safety practitioner changing, and why is it important to modernise outdated practices?
(MN): “The role of the safety practitioner is evolving towards managing how the work is set up which requires collaboration across departments and levels of hierarchy.
“This is because the level of risk depends not only on how well hazards are controlled but also on how easy the organisation makes it to do the right thing. For example, an incorrect procedure may force people to come up with their own way of doing things but the problem with the procedure is due to corporate document management processes. The insufficient amount of time available for the job not only may force people to skip some steps but it also implies planning and resourcing issues higher up in the organisation which in turn are influenced by terms of contracts, organisational strategy, or cost management.
“Breaking down the silos and helping people in various departments realise their indirect impact on risk in operations is the next wave of efforts toward achieving high reliability.
“The consequence of not accounting for these factors in safety management is repeat accidents.
“If you’d like to learn how to proactively identify issues with the work set up and find organisational factors that will create your next accident, get in touch.”
At EHS Congress in September, you will be sharing with delegates how to learn from ‘normal work’ to get safety and business results. How would you describe ‘normal work’ and why is learning from it important?
(MN): “’Normal work’ is about how people adapt to changing conditions and challenges as part of their job.
“For example, using a crane to lift a load. Every time an operator does it, there may be something different about the situation, such as:
Less time available than planned.
Additional people in the area.
One person being off work.
Correct tools not available, e.g., lifting slings.
“Overcoming these challenges is part of what needs to be done. It’s ‘normal work’.
“It’s easy to see how these factors can increase the risk, and yet, none of them would be classified as a hazard because none of them is a source of harm.
“Popular approaches to safety management focus on controlling identified hazards but miss a whole world of organizational factors.
“Learning from normal work (also known as pre-accident investigations, or learning from success), is about proactively looking into the things that make the work difficult and increase the chances of human error, non-conformance, or unsafe acts in order to tangibly reduce the risk.
What are your top three tips for practically implementing learning from ‘normal work,’ to get better results?
(MN): “The factors that will create your next accident exist today. We can find and address them before they lead to an event. However, it requires changing how we think about failure and the type of questions that we ask.
“My top three tips would be:
Build a shared mindset among the key stakeholders on the Human Performance Principles and the modern view of incident causation.
Develop skills to learn about the local constraints and organisational factors.
Integrate the learning from ‘normal work’ concepts and tools with your existing safety processes to ensure the sustainability of the effort.
“To help organisations to apply these points in practice, I was the lead author of the new guide on this subject that will be published by the International Association of Oil and Gas Producers (IOGP) later in 2022.
The Safety & Health Podcast brings you the full recording of Louis Theroux’s keynote session at Safety & Health Expo.
Louis sat down with SHP Editor Ian Hart, in front of a packed Keynote Theatre audience, to discuss all things, from communicating effectively and working in hostile to health and health and wellbeing.
‘The role of the safety practitioner is evolving towards managing how the work is set up,’ SHP meets Marcin NazarukSHP catches up with Marcin Nazaruk to how to learn from ‘normal work’ to get safety and business results and how to implement the findings.
SHP - Health and Safety News, Legislation, PPE, CPD and Resources
‘But… What do we do about the dimwits?’
‘The health and safety role has also evolved so quickly,’ in conversation with Mark Cardnell
‘Being driven by a purpose or a mission that feeds your needs and expectations helps create a safe environment,’ SHP meets Bertrand Gibert
Tue, 02 Aug 2022 21:15:00 -0500text/htmlhttps://www.shponline.co.uk/culture-and-behaviours/the-role-of-the-safety-practitioner-is-evolving-towards-managing-how-the-work-is-set-up-shp-meets-marcin-nazaruk/Killexams : DPI: Learning recovery will take 3-4 years
By Emily Walkenhorst, WRAL education reporter
Raleigh, N.C. — It will take students three to four years to get back on track following learning disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, North Carolina Department of Public Instruction officials said Monday.
DPI leaders told a state House select committee that they believe some literacy efforts are already resulting in positive outcomes and that lessons learned will eventually result in better outcomes beyond just the next few years.
At the same time, they said they must work with colleges and other organizations to reach and help young people who have already left high school or who will do so soon.
“Essentially, we’ll lose most of high schoolers,” said Rep. John Torbett, R-Gaston. Torbett is chairman of the House Select Committee on an Education for North Carolina's Future.
For those still in school, State Superintendent Catherine Truitt is pushing a “competency-based” learning model and “accelerated” learning.
What that means is that in the next few years, or already in many places, schools will use tools that test students’ skills to identify what they’ve mastered and what they haven’t and suggest tailored approaches to helping each student. That will work better, Truitt said, than traditional remedial learning, such as having a student take an entire course over again. In higher education, colleges across the country have dropped remedial coursework requirements altogether, after research has failed to consistently prove that they help.
“If as a state we had already switched to this … then teachers would have known right away where they were, what gaps they have” last fall, as soon as some learning recovery efforts started, Truitt said. Unaddressed, gaps in learning compound and result in even worse performance as students get older, Truitt said.
Jenny Jones Coldren, a mother of three Durham Public Schools students and former teacher in the system worries that testing is not enough.
"I am concerned that we are not doing the things that would help us recover from it," she said, noting that in her years as teacher, she never once worked in a school that was fully staffed.
Coldren thinks having more hands on deck is more important now than ever, and she thinks state politicians need to allot more money to make that possible.
"We’re not keeping our teachers in the classroom, and we’re not hiring enough qualified teachers," she said.
The state is studying, with University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill researchers, how schools are spending the funds and how well certain efforts are working.
Truitt started DPI’s new Office of Learning Recovery and Acceleration, directed by Michael Maher, to study the pandemic’s impact on learning and devise a response. Maher and employees from that office have been meeting with school systems, explaining the concept of acceleration to them and encouraging them to use research-based approaches to learning recovery, office Deputy Director Lynne Barbour said.
In the meantime, the state is taking new approaches to deciding how to help students catch up and is in the early stages of implementing a new memorizing curriculum that they hope will Strengthen literacy skills.
Truitt said Monday early test results show promise for increased literacy coaching and other approaches in reading.
According to DPI, those who were kindergartners in 2021-22 showed 67% memorizing proficiency, while first graders — whose kindergarten year would have been among those disrupted by in-person learning restrictions — showed 63% memorizing proficiency this spring. That's a stark increase from the fall for those same students. Then, just 27% of kindergartners and 38% of first graders demonstrated memorizing proficiency.
The state is also rolling out professional development for teachers on a more phonics-based approached to teaching children how to read. Not all schools have begun the training, which lasts two years and will take teachers dozens of hours to complete.
CORRECTION: An earlier version of this article cited a state report on memorizing proficiency for first graders and kindergarteners that has now been corrected. Students showed an improvement this spring, compared to last fall. Pre-pandemic proficiency data was not shared.
Mon, 01 Aug 2022 08:38:00 -0500Emily Walkenhorstentext/htmlhttps://www.wral.com/getting-students-back-on-track-from-covid-learning-loss-will-take-3-to-4-years-state-officials-say/20398856/Killexams : IBM Research Rolls Out A Comprehensive AI And Platform-Based Edge Research Strategy Anchored By Enterprise Partnerships & Use Cases
I recently met with Dr. Nick Fuller, Vice President, Distributed Cloud, at IBM Research for a discussion about IBM’s long-range plans and strategy for artificial intelligence and machine learning at the edge.
Dr. Fuller is responsible for providing AI and platform–based innovation for enterprise digital transformation spanning edge computing and distributed cloud management. He is an IBM Master Inventor with over 75 patents and co-author of 75 technical publications. Dr. Fuller obtained his Bachelor of Science in Physics and Math from Morehouse College and his PhD in Applied Physics from Columbia University.
Edge In, not Cloud Out
In general, Dr. Fuller told me that IBM is focused on developing an "edge in" position versus a "cloud out" position with data, AI, and Kubernetes-based platform technologies to scale hub and spoke deployments of edge applications.
A hub plays the role of a central control plane used for orchestrating the deployment and management of edge applications in a number of connected spoke locations such as a factory floor or a retail branch, where data is generated or locally aggregated for processing.
“Cloud out” refers to the paradigm where cloud service providers are extending their cloud architecture out to edge locations. In contrast, “edge in” refers to a provider-agnostic architecture that is cloud-independent and treats the data-plane as a first-class citizen.
IBM's overall architectural principle is scalability, repeatability, and full stack solution management that allows everything to be managed using a single unified control plane.
IBM’s Red Hat platform and infrastructure strategy anchors the application stack with a unified, scalable, and managed OpenShift-based control plane equipped with a high-performance storage appliance and self-healing system capabilities (inclusive of semi-autonomous operations).
IBM’s strategy also includes several in-progress platform-level technologies for scalable data, AI/ML runtimes, accelerator libraries for Day-2 AI operations, and scalability for the enterprise.
It is an important to mention that IBM is designing its edge platforms with labor cost and technical workforce in mind. Data scientists with PhDs are in high demand, making them difficult to find and expensive to hire once you find them. IBM is designing its edge system capabilities and processes so that domain experts rather than PhDs can deploy new AI models and manage Day-2 operations.
Why edge is important
Advances in computing and storage have made it possible for AI to process mountains of accumulated data to provide solutions. By bringing AI closer to the source of data, edge computing is faster and more efficient than cloud. While Cloud data accounts for 60% of the world’s data today, vast amounts of new data is being created at the edge, including industrial applications, traffic cameras, and order management systems, all of which can be processed at the edge in a fast and timely manner.
Public cloud and edge computing differ in capacity, technology, and management. An advantage of edge is that data is processed and analyzed at / near its collection point at the edge. In the case of cloud, data must be transferred from a local device and into the cloud for analytics and then transferred back to the edge again. Moving data through the network consumes capacity and adds latency to the process. It’s easy to see why executing a transaction at the edge reduces latency and eliminates unnecessary load on the network.
Increased privacy is another benefit of processing data at the edge. Analyzing data where it originates limits the risk of a security breach. Most of the communications between the edge and the cloud is then confined to such things as reporting, data summaries, and AI models, without ever exposing the raw data.
IBM at the Edge
In our discussion, Dr. Fuller provided a few examples to illustrate how IBM plans to provide new and seamless edge solutions for existing enterprise problems.
Example #1 – McDonald’s drive-thru
Dr. Fuller’s first example centered around Quick Service Restaurant’s (QSR) problem of drive-thru order taking. Last year, IBM acquired an automated order-taking system from McDonald's. As part of the acquisition, IBM and McDonald's established a partnership to perfect voice ordering methods using AI. Drive-thru orders are a significant percentage of total QSR orders for McDonald's and other QSR chains.
McDonald's and other QSR restaurants would like every order to be processed as quickly and accurately as possible. For that reason, McDonald's conducted trials at ten Chicago restaurants using an edge-based AI ordering system with NLP (Natural Language Processing) to convert spoken orders into a digital format. It was found that AI had the potential to reduce ordering errors and processing time significantly. Since McDonald's sells almost 7 million hamburgers daily, shaving a minute or two off each order represents a significant opportunity to address labor shortages and increase customer satisfaction.
Example #2 – Boston Dynamics and Spot the agile mobile robot
According to an earlier IBM survey, many manufacturers have already implemented AI-driven robotics with autonomous decision-making capability. The study also indicated that over 80 percent of companies believe AI can help Strengthen future business operations. However, some companies expressed concern about the limited mobility of edge devices and sensors.
To develop a mobile edge solution, IBM teamed up with Boston Dynamics. The partnership created an agile mobile robot using IBM Research and IBM Sustainability Software AI technology. The device can analyze visual sensor readings in hazardous and challenging industrial environments such as manufacturing plants, warehouses, electrical grids, waste treatment plants and other hazardous environments. The value proposition that Boston Dynamics brought to the partnership was Spot the agile mobile robot, a walking, sensing, and actuation platform. Like all edge applications, the robot’s wireless mobility uses self-contained AI/ML that doesn’t require access to cloud data. It uses cameras to read analog devices, visually monitor fire extinguishers, and conduct a visual inspection of human workers to determine if required safety equipment is being worn.
IBM was able to show up to a 10X speedup by automating some manual tasks, such as converting the detection of a problem into an immediate work order in IBM Maximo to correct it. A fast automated response was not only more efficient, but it also improved the safety posture and risk management for these facilities. Similarly, some factories need to thermally monitor equipment to identify any unexpected hot spots that may show up over time, indicative of a potential failure.
IBM is working with National Grid, an energy company, to develop a mobile solution using Spot, the agile mobile robot, for image analysis of transformers and thermal connectors. As shown in the above graphic, Spot also monitored connectors on both flat surfaces and 3D surfaces. IBM was able to show that Spot could detect excessive heat build-up in small connectors, potentially avoiding unsafe conditions or costly outages. This AI/ML edge application can produce faster response times when an issue is detected, which is why IBM believes significant gains are possible by automating the entire process.
IBM market opportunities
Drive-thru orders and mobile robots are just a few examples of the millions of potential AI applications that exist at the edge and are driven by several billion connected devices.
Edge computing is an essential part of enterprise digital transformation. Enterprises seek ways to demonstrate the feasibility of solving business problems using AI/ML and analytics at the edge. However, once a proof of concept has been successfully demonstrated, it is a common problem for a company to struggle with scalability, data governance, and full-stack solution management.
Challenges with scaling
“Determining entry points for AI at the edge is not the difficult part,” Dr. Fuller said. “Scale is the real issue.”
Scaling edge models is complicated because there are so many edge locations with large amounts of diverse content and a high device density. Because large amounts of data are required for training, data gravity is a potential problem. Further, in many scenarios, vast amounts of data are generated quickly, leading to potential data storage and orchestration challenges. AI Models are also rarely "finished." Monitoring and retraining of models are necessary to keep up with changes the environment.
Through IBM Research, IBM is addressing the many challenges of building an all-encompassing edge architecture and horizontally scalable data and AI technologies. IBM has a wealth of edge capabilities and an architecture to create the appropriate platform for each application.
IBM AI entry points at the edge
IBM sees Edge Computing as a $200 billion market by 2025. Dr. Fuller and his organization have identified four key market entry points for developing and expanding IBM’s edge compute strategy. In order of size, IBM believes its priority edge markets to be intelligent factories (Industry 4.0), telcos, retail automation, and connected vehicles.
IBM and its Red Hat portfolio already have an established presence in each market segment, particularly in intelligent operations and telco. Red Hat is also active in the connected vehicles space.
There have been three prior industrial revolutions, beginning in the 1700s up to our current in-progress fourth revolution, Industry 4.0, that promotes a digital transformation.
Manufacturing is the fastest growing and the largest of IBM’s four entry markets. In this segment, AI at the edge can Strengthen quality control, production optimization, asset management, and supply chain logistics. IBM believes there are opportunities to achieve a 4x speed up in implementing edge-based AI solutions for manufacturing operations.
For its Industry 4.0 use case development, IBM, through product, development, research and consulting teams, is working with a major automotive OEM. The partnership has established the following joint objectives:
Increase automation and scalability across dozens of plants using 100s of AI / ML models. This client has already seen value in applying AI/ML models for manufacturing applications. IBM Research is helping with re-training models and implementing new ones in an edge environment to help scale even more efficiently. Edge offers faster inference and low latency, allowing AI to be deployed in a wider variety of manufacturing operations requiring instant solutions.
Dramatically reduce the time required to onboard new models. This will allow training and inference to be done faster and allow large models to be deployed much more quickly. The quicker an AI model can be deployed in production; the quicker the time-to-value and the return-on-investment (ROI).
Accelerate deployment of new inspections by reducing the labeling effort and iterations needed to produce a production-ready model via data summarization. Selecting small data sets for annotation means manually examining thousands of images, this is a time-consuming process that will result in - labeling of redundant data. Using ML-based automation for data summarization will accelerate the process and produce better model performance.
Enable Day-2 AI operations to help with data lifecycle automation and governance, model creation, reduce production errors, and provide detection of out-of-distribution data to help determine if a model’s inference is accurate. IBM believes this will allow models to be created faster without data scientists.
Maximo Application Suite
IBM’s Maximo Application Suite plays an important part in implementing large manufacturers' current and future IBM edge solutions. Maximo is an integrated public or private cloud platform that uses AI, IoT, and analytics to optimize performance, extend asset lifecycles and reduce operational downtime and costs. IBM is working with several large manufacturing clients currently using Maximo to develop edge use cases, and even uses it within its own Manufacturing.
IBM has research underway to develop a more efficient method of handling life cycle management of large models that require immense amounts of data. Day 2 AI operations tasks can sometimes be more complex than initial model training, deployment, and scaling. Retraining at the edge is difficult because resources are typically limited.
Once a model is trained and deployed, it is important to monitor it for drift caused by changes in data distributions or anything that might cause a model to deviate from original requirements. Inaccuracies can adversely affect model ROI.
Day-2 AI Operations (retraining and scaling)
Day-2 AI operations consist of continual updates to AI models and applications to keep up with changes in data distributions, changes in the environment, a drop in model performance, availability of new data, and/or new regulations.
IBM recognizes the advantages of performing Day-2 AI Operations, which includes scaling and retraining at the edge. It appears that IBM is the only company with an architecture equipped to effectively handle Day-2 AI operations. That is a significant competitive advantage for IBM.
A company using an architecture that requires data to be moved from the edge back into the cloud for Day-2 related work will be unable to support many factory AI/ML applications because of the sheer number of AI/ML models to support (100s to 1000s).
“There is a huge proliferation of data at the edge that exists in multiple spokes,” Dr. Fuller said. "However, all that data isn’t needed to retrain a model. It is possible to cluster data into groups and then use sampling techniques to retrain the model. There is much value in federated learning from our point of view.”
Federated learning is a promising training solution being researched by IBM and others. It preserves privacy by using a collaboration of edge devices to train models without sharing the data with other entities. It is a good framework to use when resources are limited.
Dealing with limited resources at the edge is a challenge. IBM’s edge architecture accommodates the need to ensure resource budgets for AI applications are met, especially when deploying multiple applications and multiple models across edge locations. For that reason, IBM developed a method to deploy data and AI applications to scale Day-2 AI operations utilizing hub and spokes.
The graphic above shows the current status quo methods of performing Day-2 operations using centralized applications and a centralized data plane compared to the more efficient managed hub and spoke method with distributed applications and a distributed data plane. The hub allows it all to be managed from a single pane of glass.
Data Fabric Extensions to Hub and Spokes
IBM uses hub and spoke as a model to extend its data fabric. The model should not be thought of in the context of a traditional hub and spoke. IBM’s hub provides centralized capabilities to manage clusters and create multiples hubs that can be aggregated to a higher level. This architecture has four important data management capabilities.
First, models running in unattended environments must be monitored. From an operational standpoint, detecting when a model’s effectiveness has significantly degraded and if corrective action is needed is critical.
Secondly, in a hub and spoke model, data is being generated and collected in many locations creating a need for data life cycle management. Working with large enterprise clients, IBM is building unique capabilities to manage the data plane across the hub and spoke estate - optimized to meet data lifecycle, regulatory & compliance as well as local resource requirements. Automation determines which input data should be selected and labeled for retraining purposes and used to further Strengthen the model. Identification is also made for atypical data that is judged worthy of human attention.
The third issue relates to AI pipeline compression and adaptation. As mentioned earlier, edge resources are limited and highly heterogeneous. While a cloud-based model might have a few hundred million parameters or more, edge models can’t afford such resource extravagance because of resource limitations. To reduce the edge compute footprint, model compression can reduce the number of parameters. As an example, it could be reduced from several hundred million to a few million.
Lastly, suppose a scenario exists where data is produced at multiple spokes but cannot leave those spokes for compliance reasons. In that case, IBM Federated Learning allows learning across heterogeneous data in multiple spokes. Users can discover, curate, categorize and share data assets, data sets, analytical models, and their relationships with other organization members.
In addition to AI deployments, the hub and spoke architecture and the previously mentioned capabilities can be employed more generally to tackle challenges faced by many enterprises in consistently managing an abundance of devices within and across their enterprise locations. Management of the software delivery lifecycle or addressing security vulnerabilities across a vast estate are a case in point.
Multicloud and Edge platform
In the context of its strategy, IBM sees edge and distributed cloud as an extension of its hybrid cloud platform built around Red Hat OpenShift. One of the newer and more useful options created by the Red Hat development team is the Single Node OpenShift (SNO), a compact version of OpenShift that fits on a single server. It is suitable for addressing locations that are still servers but come in a single node, not clustered, deployment type.
For smaller footprints such as industrial PCs or computer vision boards (for example NVidia Jetson Xavier), Red Hat is working on a project which builds an even smaller version of OpenShift, called MicroShift, that provides full application deployment and Kubernetes management capabilities. It is packaged so that it can be used for edge device type deployments.
Overall, IBM and Red Hat have developed a full complement of options to address a large spectrum of deployments across different edge locations and footprints, ranging from containers to management of full-blown Kubernetes applications from MicroShift to OpenShift and IBM Edge Application Manager.
Much is still in the research stage. IBM's objective is to achieve greater consistency in terms of how locations and application lifecycle is managed.
First, Red Hat plans to introduce hierarchical layers of management with Red Hat Advanced Cluster Management (RHACM), to scale by two to three orders of magnitude the number of edge locations managed by this product. Additionally, securing edge locations is a major focus. Red Hat is continuously expanding platform security features, for example by recently including Integrity Measurement Architecture in Red Hat Enterprise Linux, or by adding Integrity Shield to protect policies in Red Hat Advanced Cluster Management (RHACM).
Red Hat is partnering with IBM Research to advance technologies that will permit it to protect platform integrity and the integrity of client workloads through the entire software supply chains. In addition, IBM Research is working with Red Hat on analytic capabilities to identify and remediate vulnerabilities and other security risks in code and configurations.
Telco network intelligence and slice management with AL/ML
Communication service providers (CSPs) such as telcos are key enablers of 5G at the edge. 5G benefits for these providers include:
Reduced operating costs
Increased distribution and density
The end-to-end 5G network comprises the Radio Access Network (RAN), transport, and core domains. Network slicing in 5G is an architecture that enables multiple virtual and independent end-to-end logical networks with different characteristics such as low latency or high bandwidth, to be supported on the same physical network. This is implemented using cloud-native technology enablers such as software defined networking (SDN), virtualization, and multi-access edge computing. Slicing offers necessary flexibility by allowing the creation of specific applications, unique services, and defined user groups or networks.
An important aspect of enabling AI at the edge requires IBM to provide CSPs with the capability to deploy and manage applications across various enterprise locations, possibly spanning multiple end-to-end network slices, using a single pane of glass.
5G network slicing and slice management
Network slices are an essential part of IBM's edge infrastructure that must be automated, orchestrated and optimized according to 5G standards. IBM’s strategy is to leverage AI/ML to efficiently manage, scale, and optimize the slice quality of service, measured in terms of bandwidth, latency, or other metrics.
5G and AI/ML at the edge also represent a significant opportunity for CSPs to move beyond traditional cellular services and capture new sources of revenue with new services.
Communications service providers need management and control of 5G network slicing enabled with AI-powered automation.
Dr. Fuller sees a variety of opportunities in this area. "When it comes to applying AI and ML on the network, you can detect things like intrusion detection and malicious actors," he said. "You can also determine the best way to route traffic to an end user. Automating 5G functions that run on the network using IBM network automation software also serves as an entry point.”
In IBM’s current telecom trial, IBM Research is spearheading the development of a range of capabilities targeted for the IBM Cloud Pak for Network Automation product using AI and automation to orchestrate, operate and optimize multivendor network functions and services that include:
End-to-end 5G network slice management with planning & design, automation & orchestration, and operations & assurance
Network Data and AI Function (NWDAF) that collects data for slice monitoring from 5G Core network functions, performs network analytics, and provides insights to authorized data consumers.
Improved operational efficiency and reduced cost
Future leverage of these capabilities by existing IBM Clients that use the Cloud Pak for Network Automation (e.g., DISH) can offer further differentiation for CSPs.
5G radio access
Open radio access networks (O-RANs) are expected to significantly impact telco 5G wireless edge applications by allowing a greater variety of units to access the system. The O-RAN concept separates the DU (Distributed Units) and CU (Centralized Unit) from a Baseband Unit in 4G and connects them with open interfaces.
O-RAN system is more flexible. It uses AI to establish connections made via open interfaces that optimize the category of a device by analyzing information about its prior use. Like other edge models, the O-RAN architecture provides an opportunity for continuous monitoring, verification, analysis, and optimization of AI models.
The IBM-telco collaboration is expected to advance O-RAN interfaces and workflows. Areas currently under development are:
Multi-modal (RF level + network-level) analytics (AI/ML) for wireless communication with high-speed ingest of 5G data
Capability to learn patterns of metric and log data across CUs and DUs in RF analytics
Utilization of the antenna control plane to optimize throughput
Primitives for forecasting, anomaly detection and root cause analysis using ML
Opportunity of value-added functions for O-RAN
IBM Cloud and Infrastructure
The cornerstone for the delivery of IBM's edge solutions as a service is IBM Cloud Satellite. It presents a consistent cloud-ready, cloud-native operational view with OpenShift and IBM Cloud PaaS services at the edge. In addition, IBM integrated hardware and software Edge systems will provide RHACM - based management of the platform when clients or third parties have existing managed as a service models. It is essential to note that in either case this is done within a single control plane for hubs and spokes that helps optimize execution and management from any cloud to the edge in the hub and spoke model.
IBM's focus on “edge in” means it can provide the infrastructure through things like the example shown above for software defined storage for federated namespace data lake that surrounds other hyperscaler clouds. Additionally, IBM is exploring integrated full stack edge storage appliances based on hyperconverged infrastructure (HCI), such as the Spectrum Fusion HCI, for enterprise edge deployments.
As mentioned earlier, data gravity is one of the main driving factors of edge deployments. IBM has designed its infrastructure to meet those data gravity requirements, not just for the existing hub and spoke topology but also for a future spoke-to-spoke topology where peer-to-peer data sharing becomes imperative (as illustrated with the wealth of examples provided in this article).
Edge is a distributed computing model. One of its main advantages is that computing, and data storage and processing is close to where data is created. Without the need to move data to the cloud for processing, real-time application of analytics and AI capabilities provides immediate solutions and drives business value.
IBM’s goal is not to move the entirety of its cloud infrastructure to the edge. That has little value and would simply function as a hub to spoke model operating on actions and configurations dictated by the hub.
IBM’s architecture will provide the edge with autonomy to determine where data should reside and from where the control plane should be exercised.
Equally important, IBM foresees this architecture evolving into a decentralized model capable of edge-to-edge interactions. IBM has no firm designs for this as yet. However, the plan is to make the edge infrastructure and platform a first-class citizen instead of relying on the cloud to drive what happens at the edge.
Developing a complete and comprehensive AI/ML edge architecture - and in fact, an entire ecosystem - is a massive undertaking. IBM faces many known and unknown challenges that must be solved before it can achieve success.
However, IBM is one of the few companies with the necessary partners and the technical and financial resources to undertake and successfully implement a project of this magnitude and complexity.
It is reassuring that IBM has a plan and that its plan is sound.
Paul Smith-Goodsonis Vice President and Principal Analyst for quantum computing, artificial intelligence and space at Moor Insights and Strategy. You can follow him onTwitterfor more current information on quantum, AI, and space.
Note: Moor Insights & Strategy writers and editors may have contributed to this article.
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Mon, 08 Aug 2022 03:51:00 -0500Paul Smith-Goodsonentext/htmlhttps://www.forbes.com/sites/moorinsights/2022/08/08/ibm-research-rolls-out-a-comprehensive-ai-and-ml-edge-research-strategy-anchored-by-enterprise-partnerships-and-use-cases/Killexams : ‘The health and safety role has also evolved so quickly,’ in conversation with Mark Cardnell
Mark Cardnell (CFIOSH, FIIRSM, FinstLM, AIFireE) is an international award-winning health and safety practitioner and who is recognised as a leading authority in supporting organisations in transitional change, management systems and behavioural safety. In this article Mark works through some lessons learnt from his own career path to share with the wider community.
I think we can all relate to how time passes so quickly particularly as you get older! I look back even now at some 30 years plus working in the health and safety arena and I cannot believe not only how the time passes so quickly, but as importantly how the health and safety role has also evolved so quickly.
Personally, I have always welcomed change; I enjoy change and I have always been able to adopt to change. I understand and fully except that some people find change challenging and disruptive but as organisations adapt to the “new norm” after COVID for example, and they modify their respective structures, the role of the health and safety professional will most certainly be as important as ever and one that will be very much subjected to this evolutional change even further. I used the terminology “after COVID” – maybe I am being a little hasty on that subject with COVID infection rates are on the rise again according to national news outlets?
I have been incredibility lucky to have had the opportunity to work alongside some of the most prestige organisations in the country. Each has brought its very own unique and sometimes complex demands, but as importantly each one has left a positive impression on me. It is not always a direct noticeable impact, but sometimes one I have looked back to and then realised what I have learnt from the experience.
In 2017 I joined the IIRSM mentoring scheme as a mentor and welcomed the opportunity to work with a gentleman who has now successfully progressed to IOSH Chartered status and who now holds a very important role within Central Government. From our first meeting I was aware of his enthusiasm to understand health and safety from the foundation level and already understood his strengths and as importantly recognised his weaknesses. This enabled him to embrace the learning opportunities on offer from many different areas. He spoke to me on many occasions about health and safety was being seen as a “tick box” process and how he felt personally rewarded where he was able to use the learning to develop and implement sensible, constructive and methodical approaches for the benefit of everyone.
I feel this is an effective first lesson – that personal fulfilment is the first key element to success and how behaviour and positive leadership are instrumental throughout the whole process.
I believe, for me, every role I have ever undertaken has brought something new. The continuous developed element is most definitely required – there is always something new to learn and experience within health and safety. I don’t believe you can know everything. The field of health and safety is too vast a spectrum for that. However, one real positive change I have witnessed is a more willingness to share, materials, knowledge, experience and most importantly time and passion. The mentoring programs, webinars, free on-line training and accreditation bodies are great example of this.
Learning and development
It is an important part of health and safety to transpose information and assist others in their career paths. Everyone needs a little support and the opportunity to develop at some point in time. I respect the fact I couldn’t have achieved what I have without the fantastic support I received over the years.
This is lesson number two. Help and assistance has many forms, from a simple direction to mentoring and beyond. This sharing of experience, knowledge and personal support has many positive advantages including mental health, general life expectations and communications skills as examples.
I am always amazed at where my work continues to take me – throughout Facilities Maintenance, Finance and Banking, Leisure, NHS-Healthcare, Military, Construction, Retail, Engineering, Logistics, Education, Government services, Local/Central Government and enforcement support and beyond. Each sector has its own ways of working and working across such muti-disciplines provides a fantastic opportunity over time to brings the learning from all these organisations and people into my passion of designing and implementing health and safety systems and processes that make health and safety easier to understand, be cost effective and enhance the real outcome of keeping people safe, enthusiastic, respected and positively engaged.
Understand the organisation
Lesson number three. Never take it for granted that it will be a specific individual or group that observes your work. I can assure you if your work is visually stimulating, legally correct and interesting the world will be watching.
Health and safety management systems can sometimes be generic in their format and not fully cater for the specific requirements of the organisation or its people. I recall a quote noted to me some years ago – “Not everyone is right-handed”!
I think it is important to fully understand the organisation, its people and its direction before implementing systems and processes to ensure that the most effective delivery and output can be achieved. We now have so much more choice in our lives than ever before, so methodical research to finding the right solution is time well spent. Just because something works for others is no ensure it will work for you. I would like to think we are a world away from the copy, cut and paste days!
One area that has most certainly been a success for me is the development of data management (health and safety) information into dashboards. Dashboards are not a new concept but do provide the opportunity to display health and safety information in both word, numeral and pictorial formats.
My first ever dashboard back in 2015 was developed using what I thought was a very basic knowledge of Microsoft Excel. This dashboard due to its in-depth content and presentational format was noted by the Care Quality Commission (CQC) in a healthcare site inspection report as “An Outstanding Practice”. As my personal skills and knowledge have progressed so have the dashboards and their development has been called upon through many organisations including Central Government.
My first dashboard management system was nominated in the International Institute of Risk and Safety Management – IIRSM Risk Excellence Awards 2018 and was followed by the nomination in the 2019 awards for “Mentor of the Year” – for supporting individual competence for members to develop their own dashboard management systems. Success was also displayed in the IIRSM 2020 awards where some of the dashboards were used in the winning entry to the Health and Safety Wellbeing Strategy by the Cabinet Office.
Lesson three. There is always room for enhancements. Keeping systems and processes updated maybe time consuming, but it is worth the investment. It’s not just legislation and best practice – people change, environments change, and organisational structures change for example.
The Healthcare sector is one specific area that has continually provided me with the greatest challengers but through the dedication and respect displayed by the people who continue to support us in some of the darkest times of our lives it has also been the most rewarding sector to contribute to. Healthcare has opened so many doors for me personally. Within this article I have mentioned some keys points noting support, dedication, respect, teamwork, research, individual and group involvement, mental health and continued personal development. All these key phases have been instrumental to effective working in this arena and have required the knowledge gained from other sectors to make this requirement work so well.
Skills and knowledge
Lesson four. I believe it takes a lot of cross pollination of skills and knowledge to enhance a sector. Sector specific knowledge should be the foundation stone, but the inputting of other wider knowledge and experience enhances the process even further.
My charity contribution gives me great pleasure to provide something back to the wider community who are under huge pressures with the “cost of living crisis”, health issues and general life demands as examples. Mental health I expect to be the new pandemic and should not be considered an individual crisis.
I hope that new members entering the health and safety profession can quickly see that it is not all just examinations and certificates, but one of seeking the experience and working knowledge and enhancing the personal skills to engage, develop, respect and implement and being and supporting ownership, leadership and accountability at all levels.
This hub page complies all the latest government coronavirus updates. It includes what you can and cannot do in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, workplace advice from multiple sources, including information on welcoming staff back to the workplace and the latest vaccination information.
It also contains a host of useful external links and resources to find further information.
‘The health and safety role has also evolved so quickly,’ in conversation with Mark CardnellMark Cardnell (CFIOSH, FIIRSM, FinstLM, AIFireE) works through some lessons learnt from his own career path to share with the wider community.
Safety & Health Practitioner
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WASHINGTON (AP) — As U.S. opioid deaths mounted in 2016, the incoming head of the Food and Drug Administration promised a “sweeping review” of prescription painkillers in hopes of reversing the worst overdose epidemic in American history.
Dr. Robert Califf even personally commissioned a report from the nation’s top medical advisers that recommended reforms, including potentially removing some drugs from the market. But six years later, opioids are claiming more lives than ever, and the FDA has not pulled a single drug from pharmacy shelves since the report's publication. In fact, the agency continues putting new painkillers on the market — six in the last five years.
Wed, 27 Jul 2022 06:15:00 -0500en-UStext/htmlhttps://www.timesunion.com/news/article/FDA-chief-s-long-promised-opioid-review-faces-17332081.php?IPID=Times-Union-HP-nation-world-packageKillexams : Combined Cycle Plants: Know Your Limitations and Keep Your Plant Both Online and Operating Efficiently
Steadily increasing demands leading to excessive cycling and starts/stops can cause heat rate loss, poor unit performance, and increased plant outages. See as Marnie and Maya demonstrate that even relatively flexible combined cycle plants are impacted by this.
1. Marnie and Maya arrive at the multi-unit combined cycle power plant to help the station’s performance engineer Strengthen operations. Source: POWER
Maya signed her name on the entry form in the guard shack at the plant gate, while her boss gazed at the row of combustion turbines and heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs, Figure 1). “There’s just something simply romantic about a combined cycle power plant! Rankine cycle and Brayton cycle in a dance of electrons! It’s like a marriage between people of totally different faiths! It’s like cats and dogs living together peacefully! It’s …”
Maya interrupted. “It is like that breakfast you ate at the hotel ma’am. Chicken and, um, waffles?”
“You’re right! Like chicken and waffles!” exclaimed Marnie Surfaceblow, vice president of Surfaceblow & Associates International. As the security guard handed her a visitor badge and gave a raised eyebrow, Maya Sharma, Marnie’s lead field engineer, shrugged her shoulders and said simply, “Forgive her. She has consumed several liters of coffee this morning.”
“Don’t exaggerate, Maya, my able assistant, surely it wasn’t more than two liters. Now, my good man,” said Marnie to the guard, “would you please inform your plant manager that Surfaceblow & Associates have arrived to save the day?!”
“I’ll alert the media,” the guard muttered quietly, as Maya smirked at the apt comment.
After the requisite plant kickoff meeting, safety video viewing, and personal protective gear checks, Marnie and Maya were escorted to the control room and introduced to K. Adamina Katz, the performance engineer in charge of four “sister” combined cycle units. Keeping more than 2 GW of power efficiently online was her responsibility, and it was clear it weighed heavily upon her.
“So, Adamina, I hear the plant owners have a goal of reducing forced outage rates and improving your average annual net plant heat rate by at least 2%, and that you already have some good ideas? By the way, what is the ‘K’ short for?” Marnie asked.
Adamina, a hard-nosed engineer with more than a quarter century of experience, looked at the two women and sighed, “Katherine.” Marnie’s eyes lit up. “Katherine Katz. Wait … Kitty Katz …”
“Ma’am!” interjected Maya, seeing storm clouds gathering in their client’s eyes. Marnie halted, pouted briefly, and picked up a stack of plant outage reports to break the tension. “Please excuse my employer, Ms. Katz; she is suffering from coffee overdose,” Maya said.
“Just call me Ada,” the plant engineer replied warmly to Maya, then cast a side-eye toward Marnie. “But, yeah, of course I have ideas. I spend 10 hours a day, five days a week with these units, monitoring and inspecting and trying to optimize performance every single day. But instead of listening to me, they call for high-priced consultants and ignore me. No offense, but I already know what needs to be done. And speaking of names, just what does ‘Marnie’ mean?”
Marnie and Maya shared a glance; they had been in this situation many times before, and they understood exactly how Ada felt. Marnie spoke first: “I see your point. One way to look at this is if we agree with your ideas for improving operations and maintenance at the plant, then you’re going to get high-priced support for all of your project goals. And ‘Marnie’ means ‘joy,’ as does Maya’s family name ‘Sharma.’ ”
“So, both of you think you can bring some joy to my power plant?”
“We hope to, Ms. Katz. I do know how you are feeling. I was a plant operator for several years, and despite my knowledge and experience, I was often ignored.” Maya pulled up a chair and started her tablet. “Tell me the story of your power station, the tale of your problems, and your ideas to solve them.”
Understanding the Operation
Suspicion yielding to the hope that maybe things could get better, Ada told her story. “Demand has surged since we bounced back from the COVID-19 slump. We were shut down for much of 2020, but since early 2021 we’ve been in load-following mode. Sure, we were designed to cycle, but not this much! Our number of major cycles—defined as a load change of greater than +/- 25% in five minutes—has increased by 10 times. And instead of maybe 25 starts per year per unit, now, we’re up to more than 150!”
“That’s true across the industry,” mused Marnie as she read through plant outage notes. “In 2019, the average number of starts for combined cycle plants was 39 per year. Just three years later, it’s likely to hit 70, and the average could break 100 by 2023.”
Ada nodded. “We spend a lot more time in startup, part-load, and even parked at minimum load. We’ve made lots of upgrades to reduce off-peak power consumption. We installed variable frequency drives—VFDs—on several large pumps, use rapid air-bag heat bottling systems on our HRSGs, tried hard to optimize spray flows during transient conditions …”
“Good for you!” interrupted Marnie. “A lot of folks don’t realize that spraying to correct heat imbalances can cause subtle but cumulative heat rate loss. How did you find it?”
“We have a fantastic monitoring and diagnostics engineer—me. I’ve spent ages looking through our data for heat rate trends showing anomalies, and noticed large efficiency drops as soon as we started to bring a second HRSG online. Part of it was a side effect of trying to bring the second HRSG up too quickly. While we were more responsive to load changes and gained some efficiency, we also suffered from a transient heat imbalance, meaning we had to spray the reheat while we were sandbagged on the main steam. We ended up with a net efficiency loss.” Ada shook her head. “I guess you could say I caused the problem, then solved it.”
“Making mistakes is common. Accepting mistakes is sacrament. And learning from mistakes is progress,” ruminated Maya, as both Marnie and Ada turned to look at her. “It is an old Marathi saying of my Auntie Komal.”
“And one we live by,” added Marnie. “My able apprentice and I just worked at a plant with leaking feedwater heater drain valves due to having too many trips and deep cycles. Now, we know you don’t have feedwater heaters on these units, but how has your condenser and cooling water system handled the increased cycling?”
“We went through some low-load optimization to reduce station service. We changed vacuum pump operation so we aren’t running more pumps than HRSGs online. We rebuilt the boiler feed pump internals and put VFDs on half of them. It gave us a small benefit, but I don’t think it’ll pay for itself. We resisted putting VFDs on the circulating water pumps because I thought we should keep the water flow as high as possible to reduce condenser pressure.” Ada stopped and thought for a moment. “All the same, we’re struggling with higher condenser pressures and reduced cleanliness, and we suspect it could be a cooling tower issue.”
Marnie thought briefly. “It could be. Cooling towers have gained much more importance now that so many plants have to transition to or be built with closed-loop cooling systems. I assume you’ve back-flushed and inspected the system to make sure you don’t have loose fill stuck on your condenser tubes?”
“Our condenser seems fine overall,” Ada responded. “We can easily inspect it since we have extra access hatches. We’re always doing visual inspections to keep the condenser as clean as possible. The tubes are clean, but stained a bit.”
Ada sat at her computer, and within a few minutes pulled up an electronic inspection report, complete with color photos of clean, albeit red-tinted tube sheets and tubes. Marnie raised an eyebrow and looked at Maya, who nodded and mouthed silently, “I see.”
“OK, Ms. Kit … Ada. I’m sorry, I can’t get that out of my head. I think that’s the coolest name ever! And …” Maya cleared her throat loudly and glared at her boss. “… and I think there’s a couple of problems here. And it’s unsurprising—many plant engineers have seen increased efficiency, performance, and operations problems at combined cycle plants that are forced to cycle more. Even rarer issues are occurring more frequently, like increased switchyard transformer failures, decreased hydrogen purity in generators, superheater header cracking, and even lined pipe spalling.”
2. A frustrated Ada is encouraged by the always-optimistic team of Marnie and Maya. Source: POWER
Ada sat down with a sigh on her desk surface (Figure 2). “That sounds demoralizing. How are plant engineers supposed to deal with all these new problems?”
Grabbing her hard hat, Marnie replied, “The same way we always have—one at a time, with investigation, analysis, and creative solutions. Let’s do a little investigation right now and see what we can find.”
As they approached the first condenser of four at the plant, Marnie asked Ada, “So, easier maintenance is why you have those extra inspection hatches?”
“That’s right,” replied Ada. “One of our engineering managers had a strong maintenance background, and hated trying to get access to the tubes during outages.”
“And according to your inspection reports, you open these hatches more than once a month just to do inspections?” Marnie asked. Ada nodded affirmatively. “So, how often do you replace the door seals?”
Ada thought, then replied, “Pretty much the normal interval, once every two years, I think.”
“I … see. You know your oxygen level has been creeping up over the last couple of years, and what that means, right?” asked Marnie.
“Of course, I do,” Ada snapped. “That’s power plant 101. But it’s hard to tell what our new normal should be when we’re always coming on and off line, and ramping up and down on load. Our maintenance budget is so tight I can’t just implement every possible fix to see what works. We’re trying though—like adding a hydrazine system to help remove oxygen, except, it doesn’t work very well.”
“Oh, it’s doing something,” replied Marnie, as Maya nodded in agreement, “just not really what you want it to. Right. Let’s conduct some air leakage testing and inspections, and then Maya is going to use her young eyes and giant chess-club brain to look over your DCS data.”
“Carrom, ma’am, chess is too quiet,” countered Maya.
Connecting the Dots
After a long morning and afternoon testing leaks and analyzing data, Marnie and Maya sat in an unearthly-clean conference room enjoying a working break while they waited for Ada to rejoin them. Marnie dumped her eighth artificial sweetener packet into her coffee, and mused, “When grandpa learned his trade, a brilliant engineer like him could tell how a power plant was running by the sound of it, by the vibration through the plant floor. There were less moving parts, plant systems were simpler and less inter-tied, and the margins were wider. A combined cycle power plant is a strict machine, needing information just as much as it needs fuel to operate. And as operating margins get even tighter, that information will mean the difference between operating or shutting down. Ah, here’s our client.”
Ada greeted the two engineers, sat down, and without any formalities asked for the verdict. Marnie quickly obliged. “You’re on the right track with your low-load optimization effort, but you made a critical mistake. You should have kept at least two, sometimes all three, condenser vacuum pumps in service at all times.”
Marnie rotated her laptop to show her calculations. “It’s true you’re saving auxiliary power by running on just one pump, since each of these pumps takes 175 hp to pull 30 standard cubic feet per minute of air. Unfortunately, at low loads your air leakage is much higher than at full load—in some cases as much as four times higher. Most combined cycle plants were never designed for extended low-load operation, so while your pumps look oversized at full load, at low load they just barely make the grade. Plus, your condenser has extra access doors and you use them as much as possible. That’s good for inspections, but remember, every time you open a door those seals have a chance of not setting right. Using my portable leak sensor, I found small leaks at half of the hatches.”
Maya nodded agreement with her boss, then added, “Your hydrazine system helped scavenge oxygen, but sadly, not enough. And since some hydrazine breaks down to form ammonia, if you do not have sufficient dissolved gas extraction, then any ammonia will remain in your system longer. It then will remove copper from your tubing. Recall, we saw copper stains on your condenser tube sheets?”
“I see,” replied Ada. “So, the solution is to run all the vacuum pumps while operating, even with just one HRSG in service?”
“Start with small changes. Try running two vacuum pumps first and watch your data trends to see if that helps. Then, try it with three and see if the difference is worth it. Note that running all three pumps means you don’t have a spare.” Marnie paused, then added, “You could consider upsizing your first pump, then running with it and one of the others, keeping the third as a spare.”
As Ada took notes, Maya continued, “By my calculations operating with two pumps will provide an average reduction in condenser pressure of one inch of mercury at minimum load. That should provide you with a 2% heat rate improvement.”
Marnie nodded her head in agreement. “See if you can install some top-quality inspection windows in your condenser and Strengthen your cleanliness instrumentation, rather than opening it up all the time. And replace those door seals at least every year. Remember, the best way to get air out of your condenser is by not letting it in to begin with. And just like that time I let the mountain lion into my sun porch by accident, once it gets inside, it’s going to cause nothing but trouble.” Ada and Maya shared a look and simultaneously whispered “mountain lion?”
Marnie continued. “You’ve done a great job by thinking through the problem, all you needed was a little backup. Plant engineers like yourself know their plant better than anyone else, but in this day and age it’s critical to keep in touch with others at similar plants or facing the same challenges that you are. Since many more challenges will continue to be faced by power plants like yours, our engineering evolution must be continuous in order to survive.”
“This is truth,” added Maya. “I evolved to survive traveling the world working with a boss who makes pets of venomous snakes and lets wild lions roam her house.”
As Ada and Maya shared laughter, Marnie smiled good-humoredly and simply said, “Please don’t exaggerate, Maya. It was only one snake and one mountain lion, for goodness’ sake.”
—Una Nowling, PEis an adjunct professor of mechanical engineering at the University of Missouri-Kansas City.
Sun, 31 Jul 2022 16:23:00 -0500en-UStext/htmlhttps://www.powermag.com/combined-cycle-plants-know-your-limitations-and-keep-your-plant-both-online-and-operating-efficiently/Killexams : Global Agriculture Tractors Market Size Will Reach US$ 98,798.5 Million by 2030 – Exclusive Report by Astute Analytica
Companies covered in Agriculture Tractors Market are Deere & Company, Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd. India, Sonalika Group, and CNH Industrial America LLC. Other prominent players in the market include Massey Ferguson Ltd., Escorts Ltd., Kubota Corporation, AGCO Corp (Fendt), SDF S.p.A. (Deutz Fahr), New Holland (CNH Industrial N.V.), Claas Group, among others
New Delhi, July 28, 2022 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- According to a recently published study by Astute Analytica, the Global Agriculture Tractors Market is expected to increase from 60,177.3 million in 2021 to reach US$ 98,798.5 million by 2030. The market is growing at a CAGR of 9.4% during the forecast period. Factors such as strong government financial support, and the rising adoption of mechanized farming by farmers in developing countries in Asia and Africa, have been pivotal to market growth. This trend has been further strengthened by the continuous migration of the population to urban centers, which has, in turn, created a dearth of farm laborers in many countries, subsequently pushing farmers to shift to farm equipment leaving behind conventional practices. All of these have added to the strong demand and usage of tractors in the market.
Browse in-depth TOC on “Agriculture Tractor Market”
The market demand is primarily characterized by the need for high-performance tractors. With support from government-led initiatives, rising adoption of mechanized farming in developing markets, and the need for technological innovations in the farm sector, the market for tractors in developing countries has seen significant growth. The global market for agricultural tractors is expanding because of the rising demand for high-performance tractors for use in muddy and heavy soil conditions. The market has been expanding due to the multiple uses of tractors in farming operations like planting, sowing, and others. This, along with favorable government programs, is encouraging more farmers to choose agriculture as a means of subsistence. It is estimated that the market for agricultural tractors would expand throughout the course of the forecast period due to the promotion of farm mechanization through equipment purchase subsidies. Moreover, since farmers have little discretionary income and pay high labor costs, low-power tractors are in high demand in underdeveloped countries. Most small and marginal farmers employ compact, space-efficient, and terrain-appropriate smaller and specialized tractors for agricultural purposes. Furthermore, major market competitors are launching new products that can satisfy demand in developing countries. For instance, river basins and other areas have soft soil which is perfect for low horsepower tractors. Likewise, for horticulture, tractors with less than 40 horsepower are preferred. As a result, manufacturers are putting a lot of effort into developing high-performance tractor components and technology. Therefore, leading market players are undertaking technological innovations by launching autonomous tractors which come with the latest machine learning, and data analysis functions to Strengthen operational efficiency, crop yield, labor productivity, and safety.
The unaffordability of high-powered tractors by small and medium-sized farmers has prompted companies to invest more in R&D and offer products at a lesser price. This has increased their overall cost of production and thereby affected their profit margins. This has affected the overall market for agriculture tractors.
The increasing utilization of energy sources results in the rising amount of energy dissipation and carbon emissions, which urgently demands sustainable and efficient energy utilization. Therefore, increasing environmental concerns and demand for green initiatives are emerging opportunities in the Global Agriculture Tractor Market.
Growth Insights Utility Tractors to dominate Based on type, the market is segmented into utility tractors, row crop tractors, garden tractors, orchard type tractors, rotary tillers and implement carrier tractors. The utility tractors segment has the highest share in the Global Agriculture Tractor Market in 2021 and is estimated to dominate the market throughout the forecast period. Utility tractors perform multiple tasks of loading, digging, and cultivation even in tight spaces and are available at a lower price and hence can cater to a large pool of small farmers. Electric tractors to see a higher growth rate In terms of product (fuel), the market is categorized into internal combustion engines (ICE) and electric motors. Among these, the internal combustion engine (ICE) segment dominates the Agriculture Tractor market in 2021 and is further estimated to continue its dominance over the projection period 2022-2030. However, the electric motors segment is analyzed to see the highest compound annual growth rate over the forecast period. 36-50 Horsepower is the most preferred engine type In terms of engine power, the market is categorized into <20 Horsepower, 21-35 Horsepower, 36-50 Horsepower, 51-90 Horsepower, 91-120 Horsepower, 121-150 Horsepower, 151-180 Horsepower, 181 HP-250 Horsepower, and >250 Horsepower. Among these, the 36-50 Horsepower segment dominates the agriculture tractor market Globally in 2021 and is further estimated to continue its dominance over the projection period 2022-2027. The segment is expected to record the highest compound annual growth rate over the forecast period. Low cost, compact size, greater suitability for small farms along with greater convenience to perform the task at a smaller scale have pushed its high demand among small and medium farmers. 2-wheeled tractors dominate the fleet In terms of the number of wheels, the market is categorized into 2-wheeler, 3-wheeler, and 4-wheeler. Among these, the 2-wheeler segment dominates the Agriculture Tractor market in 2021 and is expected to retain its dominant position throughout the term analyzed. The segment is also expected to see the highest compound annual growth rate over the forecast period. The versatility of 2-wheelers in multiple uses, low upfront cost, and easy mobility in small lands make them a popular choice among farmers.
Deere & Company, Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd. India, Sonalika Group, and CNH Industrial America LLC. Other prominent players in the market include Massey Ferguson Ltd., Escorts Ltd., Kubota Corporation, AGCO Corp (Fendt), SDF S.p.A. (Deutz Fahr), New Holland (CNH Industrial N.V.), and Claas Group
By Tractor Type, By Product (Fuel), By Wheel Type, By Engine Power, By Region
North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa
The Asia Pacific accounts for the bulk of the market share Based on geography, the Agriculture Tractor market of Global is bifurcated into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East & Africa, and South America. The Asia Pacific region lead the Global Agriculture Tractor Market in 2021. The high dependence on agriculture as a source of livelihood for many of the developing South Asian countries, increasing focus on agricultural production and food security along with many favorable government initiatives is pushing the growth of the agriculture tractors market in the region.
John Deere is an American firm manufacturing agricultural machinery, heavy equipment, forestry machinery, etc. The company has a full line of innovative solutions for a variety of farming activities through their user-friendly, cutting-edge technology integrated range of tractors.
Mahindra & Mahindra is a multinational automobile manufacturer. The company has smart and innovative solutions to support the farmers revolutionize farming while also improving the lives of the farmers. The company’s tractors range from 20 HP to 36 HP and are equipped with the newest features to help do all tasks with ease. These tractors are suitable for a variety of crops, including row crops such as cotton and sugarcane, as well as vineyards and orchards.
Case IH. is an American agricultural machinery manufacturer which creates powerful, reliable, and highly efficient equipment for agricultural purposes. The company has launched modern farming providing market-leading agricultural solutions and innovative products including tractors, combines, balers, hay and forage equipment, sugar cane harvesters, cotton pickers, coffee harvesters, tillage, seeding, planting, application, material handling, and precision farming equipment.
Sonalika International is India’s newest and fastest-growing tractor brand fully equipped to produce every component needed in the production of a tractor, from sheet metal through the entire tractor. The company’s product ranges from 20 to 120 horsepower, realizing that each farmer's needs are unique.
The following are the various segments of the Global Agriculture Tractor Market:
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