Tara Duggan is a Project Management Professional (PMP) specializing in knowledge management and instructional design. For over 25 years she has developed quality training materials for a variety of products and services supporting such companies as Digital Equipment Corporation, Compaq and HP. Her freelance work is published on various websites.
The official answer to that question is simple. UNIX® is any operating system descended from that original Bell Labs software developed by Thompson, Ritchie et al in 1969 and bearing a licence from Bell Labs or its successor organisations in ownership of the UNIX® name. Thus, for example, HP-UX as shipped on Hewlett Packard’s enterprise machinery is one of several commercially available UNIXes, while the Ubuntu Linux distribution on which this is being written is not.
The real answer is considerably less clear, and depends upon how much you view UNIX as an ecosystem and how much instead depends upon heritage or specification compliance, and even the user experience. Names such as GNU, Linux, BSD, and MINIX enter the fray, and you could be forgiven for asking: would the real UNIX please stand up?In the beginning, it was a relatively contiguous story. The Bell Labs team produced UNIX, and it was used internally by them and eventually released as source to interested organisations such as universities who ran it for themselves. A legal ruling from the 1950s precluded AT&T and its subsidiaries such as Bell Labs from selling software, so this was without charge. Those universities would take their UNIX version 4 or 5 tapes and install it on their DEC minicomputer, and in the manner of programmers everywhere would write their own extensions and improvements to fit their needs. The University of California did this to such an extent that by the late 1970s they had released it as their own distribution, the so-called Berkeley Software Distribution, or BSD. It still contained some of the original UNIX code so was still technically a UNIX, but was a significant departure from that codebase.
UNIX had by then become a significant business proposition for AT&T, owners of Bell Labs, and by extension a piece of commercial software that attracted hefty licence fees once Bell Labs was freed from its court-imposed obligations. This in turn led to developers seeking to break away from their monopoly, among them Richard Stallman whose GNU project started in 1983 had the aim of producing an entirely open-source UNIX-compatible operating system. Its name is a recursive acronym, “Gnu’s Not UNIX“, which states categorically its position with respect to the Bell Labs original, but provides many software components which, while they might not be UNIX as such, are certainly a lot like it. By the end of the 1980s it had been joined in the open-source camp by BSD Net/1 and its descendants newly freed from legacy UNIX code.
In the closing years of the 1980s Andrew S. Tanenbaum, an academic at a Dutch university, wrote a book: “Operating Systems: Design and Implementation“. It contained as its teaching example a UNIX-like operating system called MINIX, which was widely adopted in universities and by enthusiasts as an accessible alternative to UNIX that would run on inexpensive desktop microcomputers such as i386 PCs or 68000-based Commodore Amigas and Atari STs. Among those enthusiasts in 1991 was a University of Helsinki student, Linus Torvalds, who having become dissatisfied with MINIX’s kernel set about writing his own. The result which was eventually released as Linux soon outgrew its MINIX roots and was combined with components of the GNU project instead of GNU’s own HURD kernel to produce the GNU/Linux operating system that many of us use today.
So, here we are in 2019, and despite a few lesser known operating systems and some bumps in the road such as Caldera Systems’ attempted legal attack on Linux in 2003, we have three broad groupings in the mainstream UNIX-like arena. There is “real” closed-source UNIX® such as IBM AIX, Solaris, or HP-UX, there is “Has roots in UNIX” such as the BSD family including MacOS, and there is “Definitely not UNIX but really similar to it” such as the GNU/Linux family of distributions. In terms of what they are capable of, there is less distinction between them than vendors would have you believe unless you are fond of splitting operating-system hairs. Indeed even users of the closed-source variants will frequently find themselves running open-source code from GNU and other origins.
At 50 years old then, the broader UNIX-like ecosystem which we’ll take to include the likes of GNU/Linux and BSD is in great shape. At our level it’s not worth worrying too much about which is the “real” UNIX, because all of these projects have benefitted greatly from the five decades of collective development. But it does raise an interesting question: what about the next five decades? Can a solution for timesharing on a 1960s minicomputer continue to adapt for the hardware and demands of mid-21st-century computing? Our guess is that it will, not in that your UNIX clone in twenty years will be identical to the one you have now, but the things that have kept it relevant for 50 years will continue to do so for the forseeable future. We are using UNIX and its clones at 50 because they have proved versatile enough to evolve to fit the needs of each successive generation, and it’s not unreasonable to expect this to continue. We look forward to seeing the directions it takes.
As always, the comments are open.
It is quite common for carmakers to introduce a product in multiple markets with some changes to the exteriors, interiors, equipment list and powertrain options. A different name can also be used in specific markets. A latest example is Honda ZR-V that has been unveiled in Japan.
2023 Honda ZRV for Japan looks similar to ZR-V sold in China. It also closely resembles HR-V sold in US. Of course, there are changes that ensure a distinctive profile for Japan-spec ZR-V. Pre-order bookings for the SUV will open in Japan in September. After Japan, new ZR-V is likely to be introduced in Europe next year. European markets will get only the e:HEV variants.
Changes that make Japan-spec new ZR-V unique include its focus on using body-coloured paint across majority of exterior surfaces. So, while Chinese ZR-V has black coloured bumper and fog lamp housing, Japan-spec ZR-V has everything in the same shade as the body colour. This specific trim unveiled in Japan utilizes Crystal Garnet Metallic colour.
Talking about US-spec HR-V, the SUV has faux skid plate in metallic shade and black coloured fog lamp housing. The grille outline is largely the same for Chinese ZR-V and US HR-V, but the inserts are different on both SUVs. Japan-spec ZR-V uses the same outline for the grille, but it gets a new design featuring vertical slats in black finish. The new grille design significantly enhances the SUV’s overall look and feel.
On the sides too, Japan-spec 2023 Honda ZRV utilizes the Crystal Garnet Metallic colour on the fender and body cladding. In comparison, Chinese ZR-V and US HR-V have conventional black cladding. Use of black on Japanese ZR-V is limited to the dual-tone turn indicators and B and C pillars. At the rear, the SUV has dual exhaust pipes in metallic finish.
Interiors of Japan-spec ZR-V look similar to that of US-spec HR-V. Some of the matching bits include the digital instrument cluster, free-standing touchscreen infotainment system and physical climate controls. These features are themselves borrowed from latest-gen Civic.
However, the bulky gear lever, as used with automatic variants, has been replaced with buttons. This ensures a clutter-free, modern look for the SUV. Upholstery is also new and looks more premium in burgundy shade with contrasting orange stitching.
Most important change for 2023 Honda ZRV in comparison to Chinese ZR-V and US HR-V is that the Japanese version gets e:HEV powertrain. It comprises a newly developed 2.0-litre direct injection engine, an electric CVT and built-in 2 electric motors. While performance specs have not been revealed, a similar hybrid powertrain is in use with FWD-only Civic e:HEV. Combined power output is at 181 hp.
Apart from the hybrid powertrain, Japan-spec ZR-V will also get an ICE-only version. It will be powered by a 1.5-litre turbo gasoline motor. Both variants will be available with AWD option. More details about new ZR-V will be revealed in coming months. India launch of new 2023 Honda ZRV is not planned.
When Numarine announced the 22XP, the latest, 74-foot iteration of its XP expedition line, there was a twist. The 22XP would come in two different forms: identical above the waterline, but totally different underneath. One version would be a slow-moving, full-displacement vessel with a full keel and wave-piercing bulb, while the other would be a semi-displacement cruiser with speed rails. The slower version would come with twin 425 hp Cummins engines and a 12-knot, or 14.5 mph, top speed, while faster version would have 1,200 hp MANs, while moving at a faster clip of 21 knots, or 24 mph.
So crazy, in fact, it could just start a trend.
“We had clients who loved the boat when they saw drawings of it—especially the amount of volume it offered,” Numarine CEO Omer Malaz told me onboard the 22XP last week as it sliced through the steely waters of Istanbul’s Bosporus Strait. “But not everyone wants to go 12 knots. So, what was I to do?” He pauses for effect: “I made a fast version of course.”
Most boat builders typically work the other way around. They build a hull and design several different topsides for it. This is the first time that we’re aware of, where a yacht builder designed two entirely different hulls for the same interior and superstructure. It’s not a bad idea since the explorer cruiser market has exploded, but has gone in two directions: Some builders make slow, long-distance cruisers while others go for faster semi-displacement yachts. Never the twain shall meet. Until now.
The faster iteration of the 22XP has speed numbers much more in line with a typical large express cruiser. Beyond the 24-mph top speed, the boat cruises at a sprightly 21 mph.
Regardless of the bottom, the visible portion of the 22XP certainly looks the part of the explorer. With imposing bulwarks, an inverted, raked-back windshield, and a superstructure that spans the bulk of her 74’2” length—providing loads of interior space on the main deck—the vessel has the bones of a boat ready to go exploring in the fjords of Norway of down to Tierra del Fuego.
However, this burly outline is delicately offset by some sharp design choices made by the boat’s exterior designer, Can Yalman, a longtime Numarine collaborator. In particular, the angular hull windows forward help to minimize the boat’s apparent bulk, while a gracefully curved flybridge reaches way back, lending a certain softness to the upper part of the superstructure.
The full-keel version of the boat that I was aboard performs like a typical explorer as well, with a design emphasis not just on volume and comfort, but of course on performance and range.
It should come as no surprise that this yacht has legs. At an 8-knot cruise she can travel 2,000 nautical miles—enough to make it from New York City to Curacao on one tank of fuel. And though the Bosporus was characteristically calm when I was there, the 22XP felt solid as we pushed through the sizable wakes of the many passing tankers and cargo ships that frequent this important passage. It’s a characteristic attributable to the boat’s construction method. The hull is hand-laid with vinylester resin because the builder feels the hand-laying process lends boats more punch over the more weight-savings-conscious resin-infusion process many other builders favor.
This model’s layout was of particular import to Numarine during the design process, as onboard comfort was a necessity. On the accommodations level, there’s a full-beam, en suite amidships master, though it also has a massive forepeak VIP that benefits from a beam that carries well forward, and which is also well lit, thanks to the big hull side windows. I’d imagine some owners would be tempted to claim this space as their own.
But Malaz is not one of them. “I’d stay in the amidships master because it’s a bit bigger, and also quieter under way,” he says. The rest of the lower level is fleshed out with two additional cabins, including a guest to starboard with an athwartships queen-sized berth.”
The Numarine founder has long been a speed demon on the water—including years of racing—so this seems like a pivotal moment. “I just want a small engine and a big boat, with lots of volume,” Malaz says. “Sound attenuation has become important to me. I want the boat to be quiet—to the point where I can hear people around me.” Then he pauses. “At least quieter than my 94-mph tender.”
The pandemic has permanently changed the way Filipino professionals work and has driven companies over the past two years to seek out the best work-from-anywhere laptops for their hard-working teams. More than just enabling business teams to multi-task and collaborate productively, office bosses also need to make sure all staff are safeguarded with iron-clad security against cyber threats. This, especially since in-person IT support is hard to provide.
The HP EliteBook 640 G9 was built with these fundamental needs in mind, making sure the hybrid work setup runs smoothly – with employees staying secure and private while handling any task at hand.
Power your hybrid team
A 12th Gen Intel® CoreTM powered laptop, the HP EliteBook 640 G9 has a CoreTM i7 processor under the hood, which can process heavy data and handle media-editing, media-creation, and similar demanding workloads with ease. Complemented with a super-fast 16 GB DDR4-3200 memory, users can easily run multiple applications concurrently and multitask like a pro.
The laptop runs on Windows 11 Pro operating system, which has a range of advancements in security and identity protection that especially helps ensure the security of your data when moving from device to device.
It also comes with impressive graphics powered by Intel® Iris® Xᵉ Graphics, which translates into better editing experiences and faster content creation. Clear audio performance is courtesy of HP Dynamic Audio5 and HP AI Noise Reduction to eliminate background noise in video calls.
Starting at 1.37 kg, this lightweight but powerful laptop sports a 14-inch, IPS display – which delivers faster response times and wider viewing angles. It also features a narrow bezel for a more immersive experience, and anti-glare to reduce eyestrain.
Protected by HP Wolf Security
One of the most powerful tools available for businesses running hybrid operations is the HP Wolf Security. Dubbed as a hardware-enforced, always-on, resilient defense setup, it capitalizes on the fact that local hardware is more challenging for hackers to access.
From the hardware level, HP Wolf Security delivers a robust endpoint protection that extends across software and services. Its features include in-memory breach detection, threat containment by isolation, self-healing firmware, and even remote recovery from firmware attacks.
Overall, it’s an out-and-out defense system against constantly evolving cyber threats. Not only does it help protect your digital data at all times and lessen business disruption, it helps you achieve peace of mind, which is a boon for every entrepreneur and business executive.
Cost-effective for business
For all its productivity power, speed, superior multi-tasking, and premium security features, the HP EliteBook 640 G9 is surprisingly inexpensive for a top-notch business laptop.
Indeed, it’s one of the most sensible value-for-money propositions to drive team productivity in the era of hybrid business operations.
Interested buyers may visit their nearest Authorized HP Reseller store or order via the HP Official Store in Lazada (https://bit.ly/HPLazadaFlagshipStore) or Shopee (https://bit.ly/HPShopeeOfficialStore).
More information on the HP EliteBook series is also available at www.hp.com/ph-en/laptops/business/elitebooks.html.