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Whether you’re heading to a physical campus, taking classes online or a mix of both, a laptop is sure to be the control center for your studies. Getting a new machine can better help you stay on top of your schedule and handle your furious multitasking with dozens of tabs devoted to research while you write your essays. Given we’re still dealing with ongoing inflation and the global chip supply shortage, you might be concerned about rising prices or what might be in stock. The good news is, companies are still making a ton of new laptops, and there are plenty of models for you to consider. We compiled this guide to help you make the right choice, alongside a list of this year’s best laptops.

What to expect

Since the introduction of Apple’s M1-powered MacBooks and Windows 11 last year, not much has changed significantly. Apple unveiled its new M2 system-on-chip (SoC), alongside two laptops that are equipped with it, including a redesigned MacBook Air. Meanwhile, new PCs keep getting announced, with models this year typically powered by 12th-gen Intel processors or the latest AMD Ryzen chips.

Though the shift to ARM-based systems has been successful for Apple, the PC industry is still struggling to keep up, and Windows on ARM is still tough to recommend. Snapdragon laptops may look and feel sleek, offer excellent battery life and built-in cellular radios, but they’re typically quite expensive, especially considering their limited app compatibility.

Speaking of, most laptops with top-of-the-line specs can cost you around $1,800 to $2,000 these days. For most students, though, a midrange machine might be enough. Depending on your field of study, you could get by with an Intel Core i3 processor or equivalent, with at least 6GB of RAM. If you need to run specialized software for design or programming, consider upgrading to a beefier system with more memory. On the other hand, if you do most of your coursework online or in a browser, getting a Chromebook could save you a lot of money.

You’ll also want to pay attention to a device’s weight. There are a lot of premium ultraportables in the 13-inch category, with chips like Intel’s Core i3 or i5, that cost around $1,000. And if that’s too expensive, you’ll still have respectable options in the $600 to $800 range, but they might be heavier and use older, slower processors. I’ve included our favorite budget-friendly model in this roundup but we also have a complete guide to more-affordable laptops that you can check out as well.

With some laptop makers deciding to get rid of headphone jacks this year, it’s important to check specs lists when you’re shopping for newer machines. If you don’t have wireless headphones or use equipment that plugs into the 3.5mm jack, you’ll want to steer clear of devices like Dell’s new XPS 13 Plus.

Finally, while most laptops in 2022 offer WiFi 6 or 6E and Bluetooth 5.0 or later, the compatible routers or other devices that would enable those faster connections aren’t very prevalent yet. Chances are, your campus WiFi might still be stuck on an older setup, so it’s not crucial that you get a system with the latest standards yet. Of course, it doesn’t hurt to get a laptop that’s future-proof, but just know that of all the things to look out for, WiFi 6E shouldn’t be a dealbreaker in your decision-making process.

Engadget Picks

Best Apple: MacBook Air M1

Apple MacBook Air M1/M2

Apple

Though Apple just released the new MacBook Air with M2, we have yet to fully test its performance and battery life. Plus, it costs $200 more than the M1 model, which is still retailing for $999. In fact, even though it’s older, the M1 MacBook Air is a solid machine, outperforming many PCs while maintaining a fanless design, which is why we’re recommending it over the new model. You’ll still get a great keyboard and excellent battery life, along with a nice Retina display.

Of course, it uses a 720p webcam, while the new model has a sharper 1080p setup housed in a notch. The latter also has thinner display bezels that make it look more modern, as well as a Magsafe port that lets you keep charging while still having access to the device’s two USB-C ports. But if you’re already living a largely wireless life and don’t mind a not-so-great camera, you might find the M1 MacBook Air is a better deal.

If you can wait a little longer and can spare the extra $200, the new MacBook Air could be worth considering. It also comes in a fresh Midnight shade which could set you apart from the sea of silver or gray in your lecture hall.

Buy MacBook Air M1 at Amazon - $999 Buy MacBook Air M2 at Amazon - $1,199

Best Windows: Dell XPS 13 Plus

Dell XPS 13 Plus

Engadget

The best PC has long been Dell’s well-rounded XPS 13 series and I still recommend it to anyone that doesn’t want a Mac. Yes, the new XPS 13 Plus lacks a headphone jack, and we haven’t got one in to test yet. But the XPS 13 is a well-rounded machine and reliable workhorse that will get you through classes and late-night writing sessions without breaking a sweat.

Like its predecessors, the XPS 13 Plus offers a lovely OLED screen with impressively thin bezels and packs a roomy, comfortable keyboard. It also features a new minimalist design that looks more modern. I’m not sure about the row of capacitive keys at the top in lieu of traditional function keys, but from our time with an early sample, they at least worked.

If you don’t like the changes Dell has made to the XPS 13, or if you definitely need a headphone jack, the older generations are still solid options. There’s also the Samsung Galaxy Book 2 Pro series, which feature beautiful OLED screens and sharper webcams in thin and light frames. I also like Microsoft’s Surface Laptops, and the most accurate edition offers great performance and battery life, albeit in an outdated design.

Buy XPs 13 Plus at Dell - $1,275

Best for gaming: Razer Blade 15

Razer Blade 15

Will Lipman Photography for Engadget

Just because your laptop might primarily be for school or work doesn’t mean you can’t use it for fun. Those looking to game on their machines should prioritize responsive screens and ample ports for their favorite accessories that can best help them defeat their virtual enemies. If you’re considering a gaming-first machine that you can use for school, check out our guide to buying a gaming laptop. It covers details about different CPUs and GPUs, minimum specs and more. Our favorite gaming laptop is the Razer Blade 15, which has an Intel Core i7 processor, and an NVIDIA RTX 3070 graphics for $2,500.

It’s the most expensive item on this list, but you also get a 15-inch quad HD screen that refreshes at 240Hz. Different configurations are available, depending on your preference, including a Full HD 360Hz and a 4K 144Hz version. The Blade series is also one of the most polished gaming laptops around.

Those looking for something cheaper and more portable should consider the ASUS ROG Zephyrus G14, which was our favorite model last year. The main reason it got bumped down a notch is because the 2022 refresh is almost $600 more expensive. It’s still a solid gaming laptop though, with an excellent display, roomy trackpad and plenty of ports in spite of its thin profile.

Buy Blade 15 at Razer - $2,500

Best Chromebook: Lenovo Flex 5 Chromebook

Lenovo Flex 5 Chromebook

Will Lipman Photography for Engadget

If you can do most of your schoolwork through web-based apps, a Chromebook is worth considering. Sure they don’t generally look fancy, nor have high-end specs. But they’re often more affordable and have longer battery life. Our favorite Chromebook is Lenovo’s Flex 5 Chromebook, which Engadget’s resident Chrome OS aficionado Nathan Ingraham described as “a tremendous value.”

This laptop nails the basics, with a 13-inch Full HD touchscreen, a fantastic keyboard and a 10th-generation Intel Core i3 processor. The 4GB of RAM and 64GB of storage may sound meager, but in our testing the Flex 5 held up in spite of this constraint. It’s also nice to see one USB-A and two USB-C ports, eight-hour battery life and a 360-degree hinge that makes it easy to use the Flex 5 as a tablet. That’s a bonus, especially now that Chrome OS supports Android apps.

Though the Flex 5 is almost two years old by now, it’s a solid device for around $400. In fact, you can sometimes find it on sale for as little as $300, making it a great option for someone looking for a basic browser-based machine on a tight budget.

Buy Flex 5 Chromebook at Amazon - $430

Best budget: HP Pavilion Aero 13

HP Pavilion Aero

Daniel Cooper / Engadget

If you’re looking for something under $800, your best bet is the HP Pavilion Aero 13. For $750, you’ll get a Full HD screen with a 16:10 aspect ratio and surprisingly thin bezels, as well as a comfortable keyboard and spacious trackpad. Importantly, the Aero 13 provides relatively powerful components compared to others in this price range, with an AMD Ryzen 5000 series processor and Radeon graphics. Plus, it has a generous array of ports and enough juice to last you the entire work day and then some.

Buy Pavilion Aero 13 at HP - $799

Best Convertible: Microsoft Surface Pro 8

Microsoft Surface Pro 8

Will Lipman Photography for Engadget

For those who need their laptops to occasionally double as tablets, the Surface Pro series is a no-brainer. Compared to notebooks with rotating hinges, tablets with kickstands are often much slimmer and lighter. The Surface Pro 8 is the most accurate model and it features Microsoft’s sleek new design with a thinner profile and minimal bezels. The Pro 8 also has a 120Hz display that makes scrolling long documents or spreadsheets feel much faster, and you can drop the refresh rate down to 60Hz if you want to conserve battery life.

We also like Microsoft’s Type Covers, though it’s worth noting that they’ll cost you an additional $100 to $180. Those who want to doodle or sketch on the display may appreciate the Surface Slim Pen 2’s haptic feedback.

Unless you’re bent on sticking to Apple’s ecosystem, in which case an iPad Pro would suit you best, the Surface Pro 8 is arguably the best convertible laptop around.

Buy Surface Pro 8 at Amazon - $1,099
Thu, 22 Jul 2021 05:13:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.engadget.com/best-laptops-for-students-130054631.html
Killexams : Best student laptop deals for August 2022

A new school year approaches, and regardless or how you might feel about that, one thing all students can agree on is the importance of having a good laptop for doing classwork (as well as for winding down with some streaming or gaming after class). Computers aren’t cheap, though, and we know as well as anybody that cash can be tight when you’re a student. If you’re gearing up for the new school year, you need a new machine for work and/or play, and you’re on a budget, you’ve come to the right place. We’ve got a hand-picked selection of the best cheap student laptop deals available this month. Better still, all of them come in at less than $1,000 — and most for much less than that.

Best student laptop deals

  • HP Chromebook 11 – $98, was $225
  • Dell Inspiron 15 3000 –
  • Lenovo Yoga 6 13 2-in-1 –
  • Asus ZenBook Flip 15 2-in-1 —
  • Apple MacBook Air M1 –

HP Chromebook 11 – $98, was $225

HP 11.6-inch Chromebook

Why Buy

  • Portable size
  • Budget-friendly
  • Long battery life
  • Relatively durable for its size

While some would say that the HP Chromebook 11 is a bargain bin computer, the truth is that it’s a surprisingly good all-arounder for the price point, even if it may not wow anybody.

In terms of specs, they’re about what you’d expect for a computer that you can pick up for just a couple hundred bucks. The CPU is an AMD A4, a basic mobile processor but more than enough to run ChromeOS. While you aren’t going to be a productivity powerhouse on the Chromebook 11a, you will be able to handle most productivity software you can get on ChromeOS, which is really what this computer is designed for. More importantly, the 11.6-inch screen with a 1366 x 768 is big enough to feel bigger than your average tablet while not so big that it becomes weight and a distraction.

As for the other specs, you get 4GB of RAM, so don’t open a dozen browser tabs, and 32GB of internal storage, which should be enough for most use cases, but you can always supplement it with one of our external hard drive deals. Interestingly enough, the Chromebook 11 does have an AMD Radeon R4 integrated GPU, which, while not the most powerful graphics out there, should be able to handle a few games from the Play store here and there.

Ultimately, the Chromebook 11 was created as a budget-friendly all-around device for those who really need a device to study (or even work) but can’t afford to drop several hundred dollars. On the bright side, it’s also pretty good for other general tasks, such as streaming, browsing, and even some light mobile gaming, so it’s a great deal overall.

Dell Inspiron 15 3000 – $323, was $430

Dell Inspiron 15 3000 Laptop

Why Buy

  • Large Display
  • Good size for productivity
  • Nice touchpad
  • Comes with Windows 11

While we need to make certain concessions and compromises when it comes to budget computers, one thing we generally don’t like compromising on is usability, and that’s where the 15.6 inch screen of the Inspiron 15 3000 comes in. With a Full HD resolution and reasonably good size, it provides for a large amount of screen real estate for your apps and productivity, and not only that, but the larger size also means you get a relatively big keyboard to type on, which is always appreciate with a budget computer. Even better, the trackpad is surprisingly nice to use as it tracks well and is pretty big, so you won’t have to do some weird hand gymnastics to control your mouse. We’ll also mention the 720p webcam at the front, which is excellent if you need to do Zoom meetings with classmates for projects and whatnot.

In terms of pure specs, you get an 11th-gen Intel Core i3 CPU which is powerful enough to run most productivity software comfortably. Similarly, you get yourself 8GB of RAM and 128GB of internal storage, which is much more than a cheap Chromebook. For graphics, you get an integrated Intel UHD Graphics, which might let you play some simple indie games or games that don’t require a ton of resources. Or, you could just grab one of our desktop monitor deals to help with some extra productivity and screen real estate. Either way, the Inspiron 15 3000 works well across a variety of needs, whether it’s study, entertainment, or general use.

Overall, the Inspiron 15 3000 is a great alternative to tablets and Chromebooks, especially if you want something with a bigger screen and keyboard but don’t want to go over a $400 budget.

Lenovo Yoga 6 13 2-in-1 – $500, was $750

The Lenovo Yoga 6 13 2-in-1 laptop in dark teal.

Why Buy

  • Great performance
  • Excellent keyboard
  • Solid build quality
  • Very portable for its size

Convertible 2-in-1 laptops can be very handy, especially for studying and presenting work; unfortunately, they can be pretty expensive due to that versatility, which is why it’s nice to see an affordable one that has some great specs. Where the Lenovo Yoga 6 shines is in its screen with its 13-inch 1200 resolution and IPS panel, providing some crisp and rich colors for when you’re drawing or writing. The hinges are also pretty sturdy, so there’s minimal wobble if you’re worried about that, although there is one downside: the peak brightness is 300 nits, which isn’t bad by any means, although 400 would have been nicer. Nonetheless, it’s hardly a deal-breaker, especially given the touch experience is pretty nice, with good palm rejection and relatively fast movement.

As for the specs, you get an AMD Ryzen 5 5500U processor which is a pretty powerful little CPU and should handle most productivity and general tasks that anybody but extreme power-users can throw at it. You also get 8GB of RAM, which is just at that sweet spot for general computer use, and should supply you ample space to have a few tabs and apps open simultaneously without a slow down of the computer. You get AMD’s Radeon integrated graphics, so while it could theoretically handle a little light gaming, don’t expect to be playing any AAA games at the highest settings.

While the Lenovo Yoga 6 starts moving us halfway to our $1,000 budget limit, it sits at a nice spot between budget computers and mid-tier computers, giving you just enough specs for an overall enjoyable experience without increasing the cost exorbitantly. So if you want something that works just as well for studying as it does for general use, this is likely the best bang for your buck.

Asus ZenBook Flip 15 2-in-1 — $800, was $1,200

The ASUS ZenBook Flip 15 Q528EH.

Why Buy

  • Excellent performance
  • Discrete graphics
  • Great battery life
  • Nice big display

The Asus ZenBook lineup of laptops includes some of the best in the industry and often rank highly among our own favorites, so it’s not surprising that the Flip 15 is an excellent overall 2-in-1, and if you’re able to splurge a little, this is the laptop to get.

Power is one of the biggest highlights of the Asus ZenBook Flip, being incredibly powerful for a 2-in-1, making this a great day-to-day companion at school and uni without worrying about falling behind in the performance department. Even though it’s a convertible laptop sporting a 15-inch fold-flat touchscreen with barely any bezels, it’s also great to type on, with good action on the keys and a good layout that doesn’t make you feel constantly cramped as something smaller would. Equally important is the FHD screen and discrete GPU in the form of an Nvidia GeForce 1650 Max-Q, which isn’t super-important in this case, but is always nice to have.

Internal specs include an Intel i7 CPU which should be able to handle most applications. Internal storage comes courtesy of a 512GB SSD, and the 16GB of RAM should be more than enough for most use cases unless you’re an extreme power user. Also, battery life is pretty impressive, and it comes with Wi-Fi and Bluetooth, so you have future-proof connectivity, at least until Wi-Fi 7 arrives and becomes widely available. While this 2-in-1 is a little bit on the pricier side, it’s a premium option for students who want a compact ultrabook with great performance and you get a lot of hardware for your money here. Plus, it looks really gorgeous, and good aesthetics are always welcome.

Apple MacBook Air M1 – $850, was $1,000

Why Buy

  • Powerful M1 chip provides perfect performance
  • Great battery life
  • Lovely keyboard to use
  • Runs completely silent

The M1 Apple Macbook Air hardly requires any introduction, although this year’s entry into the interval releases and updates is a rather large one, and that’s due to the inclusion of the M1. In fact, this is the first version of the Macbook Air that drops Intel CPUs altogether in favor of Apple’s M1 chip, adding the sort of detail and integration that only a company with complete control over the design could.

One of the first things you’ll notice with the new Macbook Air is that it makes hardly any noise at all, which is impressive given the performance of the M1, which can sometimes equal or even beat Intel’s Tiger Lake architecture. Pair that with the 8GB of RAM, and you get a laptop that is enjoyable to use and that can handle most productivity software handily, and the 256GB internal storage is also nice to have although slightly on the smaller side, so grabbing one of our external hard drive deals is probably warranted.

Another big change is the new Big Sur OS, which brings some interesting UI changes and overall flow to using the computer, which works well with the updated internals to provide overall excellent performance. As for the screen, it’s a 13.3-inch Retina Display and should be no surprise that it’s gorgeous, as is expected for displays that come from Apple, and even better, it can connect up to one external monitor for that extra screen space when you’re at a desk.

Overall, the Apple Macbook Air is an excellent little laptop for students already using Apple and want a great Apple computer without spending well over $1,000 for one of the premium options. Also, much like the XPS 13 touch, it’s gorgeous and thin, which is always a plus.

When are the best student laptop deals?

This can be a complex question to answer, depending on what sort of laptop you want to get and what brand you’re going for. The obvious answer is to wait for one of the big three sales periods, with the biggest one in the summer being Prime Day, which typically lands in July. You’ll likely see a lot of great deals during then, although maybe not for Apple laptops since those sorts of deals tend to be few and far between, and they tend to happen around Apple’s release events. The next one of those will be in October, so you might see a few good Apple discounts then.

Beyond that, there’s Black Friday and Cyber Monday, which happen on the 25th and 28th of November respectively. You’ll also likely see some great laptop sales during those periods, especially Cyber Monday, although the caveat is that a lot of these are limited stock deals. That means that you really have to be on top of the sales for both days, and you can still miss out on a good discount if you wait too long to decide. It’s a big risk, but it might be worth checking what sort of stuff went for sale last year in your favorite shops and plan accordingly.

Of course, there are also a ton of sales throughout the year, which we like to keep on top of through our best laptop deals and best gaming laptop deals articles. Since we know that a lot of students are probably on tight budgets, we also like regularly update our best refurbished laptops deals for those who need to save money, and we even maintain some great Chromebook deals and tablet deals, both of which can sometimes be cheaper than a full-on laptop. Also, keep in mind that many retailers tend to have great sales around when school semesters start, so you might find some good back-to-school deals if you keep an eye out.

Ultimately, if the savings are minimal, it’s better to bite the bullet and get the product you want now. You never know when the discount might happen again or if it’s as steep as you expect it to be, so if it’s even $50 or $100 worth of savings, it might be a good idea to consider buying it outright. Even if the product you want does have a better deal down the road, you shouldn’t feel bad for something you couldn’t possibly know. So the guidance here is to buy what you like if you need it and can afford it and not worry too much about waiting for the potentially best deal possible.

Editors' Recommendations

Tue, 02 Aug 2022 09:32:00 -0500 Albert Bassili en text/html https://www.digitaltrends.com/dtdeals/best-student-laptop-deals/
Killexams : Internet of Things MSc

Afghanistan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Master Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90%; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 80%; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 70%; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Albania
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7 out of 10

Algeria
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licence; Diplome de [subject area]; Diplome d'Etudes Superieures; Diplome de Docteur end Pharmacie; or Diplome de Docteur en Medecine from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Angola
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Grau de Licenciado/a (minimum 4 years) from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 17 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 15 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 13 out of 20

Argentina
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo/ Grado de Licenciado/ Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 7.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 6.5 out of 10

Armenia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 87 out of 100
UK 2:1 degree: 75 out of 100
UK 2:2 degree: 61 out of 100

Australia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) or Bachelor Honours degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: High Distinction; or First Class with Honours
UK 2:1 degree: Distinction; or Upper Second Class with Honours
UK 2:2 degree: Credit; or Lower Second Class with Honours

Austria
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 1.5 out of 5.0
UK 2:1 degree: 2.5 out of 5.0
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5.0

The above relates to grading scale where 1 is the highest and 5 is the lowest.

Azerbaijan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90%; or GPA 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 80%; or GPA 4 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 70%; or GPA 3.5 out of 5

Bahamas
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from the University of West Indies.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours
UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours
UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours

Bahrain
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0; or 90 out of 100
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0; or 80 out of 100
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.3 out of 4.0; or 74 out of 100

Bangladesh
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.2 to 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 to 3.3 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.3 to 2.7 out of 4.0

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.  For some institutions/degrees we will ask for different grades to above, so this is only a guide. 

Barbados
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from the University of West Indies, Cave Hill or Barbados Community College.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours*; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0**
UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours*; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0**
UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours*; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0**

*relates to: the University of West Indies, Cave Hill.

**relates to: Barbados Community College.

Belarus
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9 out of 10; or 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 7 out of 10; or 4 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 5 out of 10; or 3.5 out of 5

Belgium
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 80% or 16/20*; or 78%**
UK 2:1 degree: 70% or 14/20*; or 72%**
UK 2:2 degree: 60% or 12/20*; or 65%**

*Flanders (Dutch-speaking)/ Wallonia (French-speaking)
**German-speaking

Belize
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from the University of West Indies.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours
UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours
UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours

Benin
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Maitrise or Masters from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Bolivia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Bachiller Universitario or Licenciado / Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 85%* or 80%**
UK 2:1 degree: 75%* or 70%**
UK 2:2 degree: 65%* or 60%**

*relates to: Titulo de Bachiller Universitario

**relates to: Licenciado / Titulo de [subject area] 

Bosnia and Herzegovina
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7.5 out of 10

Botswana
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 5 years) or Master Degree from the University of Botswana.

UK 1st class degree: 80%
UK 2:1 degree: 70%
UK 2:2 degree: 60%

Brazil
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Título de Bacharel / Título de [subject area] or Título de Licenciado/a (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 8.25 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 7.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 6.5 out of 10

The above grades assumes that the grading scale has a pass mark of 5.

Brunei
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours
UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours
UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours

Bulgaria
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 5.75 out of 6.0
UK 2:1 degree: 4.75 out of 6.0
UK 2:2 degree: 4.0 out of 6.0

Burundi
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diplome d'Etudes Approfondies from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 85%; or 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 75%; or 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 60%; or 12 out of 20

Cambodia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 80%; or GPA 3.5 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 70%; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 60%; or GPA 2.35 out of 4.0

Cameroon
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree; Licence; Diplome d'Etudes Superieures de Commerce; Diplome d'Ingenieur de Conception/ Travaux; Doctorat en Medecine/ Pharmacie; or Maitrise or Master 1 from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20; or GPA 3.6 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20; or GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Canada
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Bachelor Honours Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.6 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.2 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

China
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 85 to 95%
UK 2:1 degree: 75 to 85%
UK 2:2 degree: 70 to 80%

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.  Generally, we do not accept applications from students studying at Affiliate Colleges.

Colombia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licenciado en [subject area] or Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.60 out of 5.00
UK 2:1 degree: 4.00 out of 5.00
UK 2:2 degree: 3.50 out of 5.00

Congo, Dem. Rep. of
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diplome d'Etudes Approfondies or Diplome d'Etudes Speciales from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20; or 90%
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20; or 80%
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20; or 70%

Congo, Rep. of
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diplome d'Etudes Superieures or Maitrise from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Costa Rica
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachiller or Licenciado from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7.5 out of 10

Croatia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Advanced Diploma of Higher Education Level VII/1 (Diploma - Visoko obrazovanje) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.5 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 4 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 3 out of 5

Cuba
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado/ Arquitecto/ Doctor/ Ingeniero from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 4 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5

Cyprus
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 8 out of 10; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 7.0 out of 10; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 6.0 out of 10; or GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Czech Republic
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 1.2 out of 4
UK 2:1 degree: 1.5 out of 4
UK 2:2 degree: 2.5 out of 4

The above relates to grading scale where 1 is the highest and 4 is the lowest.

Denmark
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 12 out of 12 (2007 onwards); or 11 out of 13 (before 2007)
UK 2:1 degree: 7 out of 12 (2007 onwards); or 8 out of 13 (before 2007)
UK 2:2 degree: 4 out of 12 (2007 onwards); or 7 out of 13 (before 2007)

Dominican Republic
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licenciado/ Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 95/100
UK 2:1 degree: 85/100
UK 2:2 degree: 78/100

Ecuador
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado / Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90%; or 9/10; or 19/20; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 80%; or 8/10; or 18/20; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 70%; or 7/10; or 14/20; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Egypt
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 85%; or GPA 3.7 out of 4
UK 2:1 degree: 75%; or GPA 3.0 out of 4
UK 2:2 degree: 65%; or GPA 2.5 out of 4

El Salvador
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licenciado/ Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 5 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 8.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 7.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 6.5 out of 10

Eritrea
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Estonia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree; University Specialist's Diploma; or Professional Higher Education Diploma from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.5 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 3.5 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 2 out of 5

The above grades assumes that 1 is the pass mark. 

Eswatini
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 80%
UK 2:1 degree: 70%
UK 2:2 degree: 60%

Ethiopia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Fiji
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from one of the following institutions: Fiji National University, the University of Fiji, or the University of South Pacific, Fiji.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.0 out of 5.0*; or overall grade A with High Distinction pass**; or GPA 4.0 out of 4.5***
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.33 out of 5.0*; or overall grade B with Credit pass**; or GPA 3.5 out of 4.5***
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.33 out of 5.0*; or overall grade S (Satisfactory)**; or GPA 2.5 out of 4.5***

*relates to Fiji National University

**relate to the University of Fiji

***relates to the University of South Pacific, Fiji

Finland
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree/ Kandidaatti/ Kandidat (minimum 180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution; or Bachelor degree (Ammattikorkeakoulututkinto/ Yrkeshögskoleexamen) from a recognised University of Applied Sciences.

UK 1st class degree: 4.5 out of 5; or 2.8 out of 3
UK 2:1 degree: 3.5 out of 5; or 2 out of 3
UK 2:2 degree: 2.5 out of 5; or 1.4 out of 3

France
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licence; Grade de Licence; Diplome d'Ingenieur; or Maitrise from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 12 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 11 out of 20

Gambia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 80%; or GPA 4.0 out of 4.3
UK 2:1 degree: 67%; or GPA 3.3 out of 4.3
UK 2:2 degree: 60%; or GPA 2.7 out of 4.3

Georgia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 91 out of 100; or 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 81 out of 100; or 4 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 71 out of 100; or 3.5 out of 5

Germany
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 1.5 out of 5.0
UK 2:1 degree: 2.5 out of 5.0
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5.0

The above relates to grading scale where 1 is the highest and 5 is the lowest.

Ghana
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: First Class
UK 2:1 degree: Second Class (Upper Division)
UK 2:2 degree: Second Class (Lower Division)

Greece
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Degrees from recognised selected institutions in the University sector or Degrees (awarded after 2003) from recognised Technological Educational Institutes.

UK 1st class degree: 8 out of 10*; or 9 out of 10**
UK 2:1 degree: 7 out of 10*; or 7.5 out of 10**
UK 2:2 degree: 6 out of 10*; or 6.8 out of 10**

*Relates to degrees from the University Sector.
**Relates to degrees from Technological Educational Institutes.

Grenada
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from the University of West Indies.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours
UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours
UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours

Guatemala
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licenciado / Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90%
UK 2:1 degree: 80%
UK 2:2 degree: 70%

The above grades assumes that the pass mark is 61% or less.

Guinea
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Master; Maitrise; Diplome d'Etudes Superieures; or Diplome d'Etudes Approfondies from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Guyana
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Graduate Diploma (Postgraduate) or Masters degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Honduras
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado/a / Grado Academico de Licenciatura (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90%; or 4.7 out of 5; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 80%; or 4.0 out of 5; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 70%; or 3.5 out of 5; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Hong Kong
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours Degree from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours
UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours
UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours

Hungary
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor degree (Alapfokozat) or University Diploma (Egyetemi Oklevel) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.75 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 4 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5

Iceland
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor degree (Baccalaureus or Bakkalarprof) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 8.25 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 7.25 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 6.5 out of 10

India
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 70% to 80%
UK 2:1 degree: 60% to 70%
UK 2:2 degree: 50% to 60%

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.  For some institutions/degrees we will ask for different grades to above, so this is only a guide.  

For India, offers may be made on the GPA scale.

We do not consider the Bachelor of Vocation (B. Voc.) for Masters entry.

Indonesia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Sarjna I (S1) Bachelor Degree or Diploma IV (D4) (minimum 4 years) from selected degree programmes and institutions.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.6 to 3.8 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 to 3.2 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.67 to 2.8 out of 4.0

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from and the degree that you study.

Iran
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 17.5 to 18.5 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 15 to 16 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 13.5 to 14 out of 20

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.  

Iraq
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 85 out of 100
UK 2:1 degree: 75 out of 100
UK 2:2 degree: 60 out of 100

Ireland
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Honours Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours
UK 2:1 degree: Second Class Honours Grade I
UK 2:2 degree: Second Class Honours Grade II

Israel
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90%
UK 2:1 degree: 80%
UK 2:2 degree: 65%

Italy
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Laurea (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 110 out of 110
UK 2:1 degree: 105 out of 110
UK 2:2 degree: 94 out of 110

Cote D’ivoire (Ivory Coast)
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diplome d'Ingenieur; Doctorat en Medicine; Maitrise; Master; Diplome d'Etudes Approfondies; or Diplome d'Etudes Superieures Specialisees from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Jamaica
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from the University of West Indies (UWI) or a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0; or First Class Honours from the UWI
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0; or Upper Second Class Honours from the UWI
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0; or Lower Second Class Honours from the UWI

Japan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: S overall* or A overall**; or 90%; or GPA 3.70 out of 4.00
UK 2:1 degree: A overall* or B overall**; or 80%; or GPA 3.00 out of 4.00
UK 2:2 degree: B overall* or C overall**; or 70%; or GPA 2.3 out of 4.00

*Overall mark is from the grading scale: S, A, B, C (S is highest mark)
**Overall mark is from the grading scale: A, B, C, D (A is highest mark)

Jordan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 85%; or GPA of 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 75%; or GPA of 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 70%; or GPA of 2.5 out of 4.0

Kazakhstan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 3.8 out of 4.0/4.33; or 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 3.33 out of 4.0/4.33; or 4.0 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 2.67 out of 4.0/4.33; or 3.5 out of 5

Kenya
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours; or GPA 3.6 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: Second Class Honours Upper Division; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: Second Class Honours Lower Division; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Kosovo
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7.5 out of 10

Kuwait
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.67 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.67 out of 4.0

Kyrgyzstan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.7 out of 5; or GPA 3.7 out of 4
UK 2:1 degree: 4.0 out of 5; or GPA 3.0 out of 4
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5; or GPA 2.4 out of 4

Laos
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Latvia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (awarded after 2002) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 7.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 6 out of 10

Lebanon
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree; Licence; or Maitrise from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90% or Grade A; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0; or 16 out of 20 (French system)
UK 2:1 degree: 80% or Grade B; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0; or 13 out of 20 (French system)
UK 2:2 degree: 70% or Grade C; or GPA 2.5 out of 4.0; or 12 out of 20 (French system)

Lesotho
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours Degree (minimum 5 years total HE study); Masters Degree or Postgraduate Diploma from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 80%
UK 2:1 degree: 70%
UK 2:2 degree: 60%

Liberia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90% or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 80% or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 70% or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Libya
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 85%; or 3.7 out of 4.0 GPA
UK 2:1 degree: 75%; or 3.0 out of 4.0 GPA
UK 2:2 degree: 65%; or 2.6 out of 4.0 GPA

Liechtenstein
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 5.6 out of 6.0
UK 2:1 degree: 5.0 out of 6.0
UK 2:2 degree: 4.4 out of 6.0

Lithuania
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7 out of 10

Luxembourg
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Macau
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (Licenciatura) (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Macedonia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diploma of Completed Higher Education - Level VII/1 or Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7 out of 10

Madagascar
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Maîtrise; Diplome d'Ingenieur; Diplôme d'Etat de Docteur en Médecine; Diplôme d’Etat de Docteur en Chirurgie Dentaire; Diplôme d'Études Approfondies; Diplôme de Magistère (Première Partie) – also known as Master 1; or Diplôme de Master – also known as Master 2 from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Malawi
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 80% or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 70% or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 60% or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Malaysia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: Class 1; or 3.7 out of 4.0 CGPA
UK 2:1 degree: Class 2 division 1; or 3.0 out of 4.0 CGPA
UK 2:2 degree: Class 2 division 2; or 2.6 out of 4.0 CGPA

Maldives
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (awarded from 2000) from the Maldives National University.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Malta
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Bachelor Honours Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours; or Category I
UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours; or Category IIA
UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours; or Category IIB

Mauritius
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: Class I; or 70%
UK 2:1 degree: Class II division I; or 60%
UK 2:2 degree: Class II division II; or 50%

Offer conditions will vary depending on the grading scale used by your institution.

Mexico
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado/ Titulo (Profesional) de [subject area] from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.0 to 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8.0 to 8.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7.0 to 7.5 out of 10

Offer conditions will vary depending on the grading scale your institution uses.

Moldova
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (Diploma de Licenta) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 6.5 out of 10

Monaco
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Mongolia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.6 out of 4.0; or 90%; or grade A
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.2 out of 4.0; or 80%; or grade B
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.8 out of 4.0; or 70%; or grade C

Montenegro
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diploma of Completed Academic Undergraduate Studies; Diploma of Professional Undergraduate Studies; or Advanced Diploma of Higher Education from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7 out of 10

Morocco
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diplome d'Ecoles Nationales de Commerce et de Gestion; Diplome de Docteur Veterinaire; Doctorat en Medecine; Docteur en Medecine Dentaire; Licence; Diplome d'Inegeniuer d'Etat; Diplome de Doctorat en Pharmacie; or Maitrise from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 13 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 11 out of 20

Mozambique
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Grau de Licenciado (minimum 4 years) or Grau de Mestre from from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Myanmar
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 80% or GPA of 4.7 out of 5.0
UK 2:1 degree: 70% or GPA of 4.0 out of 5.0
UK 2:2 degree: 60% or GPA of 3.5 out of 5.0

Namibia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours Degree or Professional Bachelor Degree (NQF level 8 qualifications) - these to be awarded after 2008 from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 80%
UK 2:1 degree: 70%
UK 2:2 degree: 60%

Nepal
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 80%; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 65%; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 55%; or GPA of 2.4 out of 4.0

Bachelor in Nursing Science are not considered equivalent to UK Bachelor degrees.

Netherlands
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 8 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 7 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 6 out of 10

New Zealand
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) or Bachelor Honours Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: A-*; or First Class Honours**
UK 2:1 degree: B*; or Second Class (Division 1) Honours**
UK 2:2 degree: C+*; or Second Class (Division 2) Honours**

*from a Bachelor degree
**from a Bachelor Honours degree

Nigeria
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.50 out of 5.00; or GPA 6.0 out of 7.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.50 out of 5.00; or GPA 4.6 out of 7.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.80 out of 5.00; or GPA 3.0 out of 7.0

Norway
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: Overall B grade with at least 75 ECTS (of 180 ECTS min overall) at grade A or above.
UK 2:1 degree: Overall B grade
UK 2:2 degree: Overall C grade

Oman
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Pakistan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.0 to 3.8 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 2.6 to 3.6 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.0 to 3.0 out of 4.0

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.  For some institutions/degrees we will ask for different grades to above, so this is only a guide. 

Palestine, State of
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90% or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 80% or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 70% or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Panama
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licenciado / Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 91%
UK 2:1 degree: 81%
UK 2:2 degree: 71%

Papua New Guinea
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: Class I
UK 2:1 degree: Class II, division A
UK 2:2 degree: Class II, division B

Paraguay
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado / Titulo de [professional title] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 4 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out fo 5

Peru
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Grado Academico de Bachiller or Titulo de Licenciado/ Titulo (Professional) de [subject area] from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 17 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Philippines
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from selected institutions or Juris Doctor; Bachelor of Laws; Doctor of Medicine; Doctor of Dentistry/ Optometry/ Veterinary Medicine; or Masters Degree from recognised institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 3.6 out of 4.0; or 94%; or 1.25 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 3.0 out of 4.0; or 86%; or 1.75 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 2.5 out of 4.0; or 80%; or 2.5 out of 5

The above 'out of 5' scale assumes 1 is highest mark and 3 is the pass mark.

Poland
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licencjat or Inzynier (minimum 3 years) - these must be awarded after 2001 from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.8 out of 5.0
UK 2:1 degree: 4.5 out of 5.0
UK 2:2 degree: 3.8 out of 5.0

The above grades are based on the 2 to 5 scale, where 3 is the pass mark and 5 is the highest mark.

Portugal
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licenciado (minimum 180 ECTS credits) or Diploma de Estudos Superiores Especializados (DESE) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Puerto Rico
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90/100 or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 80/100 or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 70/100 or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Qatar
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0; or GPA 4.4 out of 5.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0; or GPA 3.6 out of 5.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0; or GPA 2.8 out of 5.0

Romania
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.75 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8.0 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7.0 out of 10

Russia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 4.0 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5

Rwanda
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours Degree (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 85%; or 17 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 70%; or 15 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 60%; or 13 out of 20

Saudi Arabia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.75 out of 5.0; or GPA 3.75 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.75 out of 5.0; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 5.0; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Senegal
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Maîtrise; Master II; Diplôme d'Études Approfondies (DEA); Diplôme d'Études Supérieures Specialisées (DESS); Diplôme d'État de Docteur en Médecine; Diplôme d'Ingénieur; Diplôme de Docteur en Chirurgie Dentaire; or Diplôme de Pharmacien from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16/20
UK 2:1 degree: 14/20
UK 2:2 degree: 12/20

Serbia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Advanced Diploma of Higher Education from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7 out of 10

Sierra Leone
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (Honours) or a Masters degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: First Class honours; or GPA 4.7 out of 5; or GPA 3.75 out of 4
UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class honours; or GPA 4 out of 5; or GPA 3.25 out of 4
UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours; or GPA 3.4 out of 5; or GPA 2.75 out of 4

Singapore
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) or Bachelor Honours degree from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.3 out of 5.0; or GPA 3.6 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.8 out of 5.0; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 3.3 out of 5.0; or GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Slovakia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (180 ECTS credits) (minimum 3 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 93%; or 1 overall (on 1 to 4 scale, where 1 is highest mark)
UK 2:1 degree: 86%; or 1.5 overall (on 1 to 4 scale, where 1 is highest mark)
UK 2:2 degree: 72%; or 2.5 overall (on 1 to 4 scale, where 1 is highest mark)

Slovenia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Univerzitetni Diplomant (180 ECTS credits) (minimum 3 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7 out of 10

Somalia
Bachelor degrees from Somalia are not considered for direct entry to our postgraduate taught programmes. Holders of Bachelor degrees from Somali National University can be considered for our Pre-Masters programmes on a case by case basis.

South Africa
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: NQF Level 8 qualifications such as Bachelor Honours degrees or Professional Bachelor degrees from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 75%
UK 2:1 degree: 70%
UK 2:2 degree: 60%

South Korea
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.2 out of 4.5; or GPA 4.0 out of 4.3; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.5 out of 4.5; or GPA 3.3 out of 4.3; or GPA 3.2 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.5; or GPA 2.8 out of 4.3; or GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Spain
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo Universitario Oficial de Graduado en [subject area] (Grado) or Titulo Universitario Oficial de Licenciado en [subject area] (Licenciatura) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 8.0 out of 10; or 2.5 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 7.0 out of 10; or 2.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 6.0 out of 10; or 1.5 out of 4.0

Sri Lanka
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (Special or Honours) or Bachelor Degree (Professional) (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.5 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Sudan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours degree from a recognised institution or Bachelor degree in one of the following Professional subjects: Architecture; Dentistry; Engineering; Medicine/Surgery from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 80%
UK 2:1 degree: 65%
UK 2:2 degree: 60%

Sweden
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (Kandidatexamen) or Professional Bachelor Degree (Yrkesexamenfrom) (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: Overall B grade with at least 75 ECTS at grade A or above (180 ECTS minimum overall); or at least 65% of credits graded at VG overall
UK 2:1 degree: Overall B grade (180 ECTS minimum overall); or at least 50% of credits graded at VG overall
UK 2:2 degree: Overall C grade (180 ECTS minimum overall); or at least 20% of credits graded at VG overall.

Switzerland
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor degree (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 5.5 out of 6; or 9 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 5 out of 6; or 8 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 4.25 out of 6; or 7 out of 10

Syria
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 85%
UK 2:1 degree: 75%
UK 2:2 degree: 65%

Taiwan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 85 to 90%
UK 2:1 degree: 70 to 75%
UK 2:2 degree: 65 to 70%

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.  

Tajikistan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Specialist Diploma or Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 4.0 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5

Tanzania
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.4 out of 5.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.5 out of 5.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.7 out of 5.0

Thailand
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.40 to 3.60 out of 4.00
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.00 to 3.20 out of 4.00
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.40 to 2.60 out of 4.00

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.

Trinidad and Tobago
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0; or First Class Honours from the University of West Indies
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0; or Upper Second Class Honours from the University of West Indies
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0; or Lower Second Class Honours from the University of West Indies

Tunisia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licence; Diplome National d'Architecture; Maitrise; Diplome National d'Ingeniuer; or Doctorat en Medecine / Veterinaire from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 13 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 11 out of 20

Turkey
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.40 to 3.60 out of 4.00
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 2.80 to 3.00 out of 4.00
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.30 to 2.50 out of 4.00

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.

Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.60 out of 4.00
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.00 out of 4.00
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.50 out of 4.00

Turkmenistan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Diploma of Higher Education (awarded after 2007) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 4.0 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5

Turks and Caicos Islands
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (accredited by the Council of Community Colleges of Jamaica) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0; or 80%
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.3 out of 4.0; or 75%
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.7 out of 4.0; or 65%

Uganda
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.4 out of 5.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 4.0 out of 5.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 5.0

Ukraine
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 10 out of 12; or 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 12; or 4.0 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 6 out of 12; or 3.5 out of 5

United Arab Emirates
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

United States of America
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.2 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Uruguay
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado/ Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 10 to 11 out of 12
UK 2:1 degree: 7 to 9 out of 12
UK 2:2 degree: 6 to 7 out of 12

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.

Uzbekistan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) or Specialist Diploma from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90%; or 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 80%; or 4.0 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 71%; or 3.5 out of 5

Venezuela
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado/ Titulo de [subject area] from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 81%
UK 2:1 degree: 71%
UK 2:2 degree: 61%

Non-percentage grading scales, for example scales out of 20, 10, 9 or 5, will have different requirements. 

Vietnam
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 8.0 out of 10; or GPA 3.7 out of 4
UK 2:1 degree: 7.0 out of 10; or GPA 3.0 out of 4
UK 2:2 degree: 5.7 out of 10; or GPA 2.4 out of 4

Yemen
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters (Majister) degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90%
UK 2:1 degree: 80%
UK 2:2 degree: 65%

Bachelor Degrees from Lebanese International University (in Yemen) can be considered for entry to postgraduate taught programmes - please see Lebanon for guidance on grade requirements for this.

Zambia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 75%; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 65%; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 55%; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Zimbabwe
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) or Bachelor Honours degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 75%
UK 2:1 degree: 65%
UK 2:2 degree: 60%

Sat, 02 Nov 2019 21:23:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.qmul.ac.uk/postgraduate/taught/coursefinder/courses/internet-of-things-data-msc/
Killexams : Best student laptop: Top 5 notebooks for school and university

Introduction

With school and university reopening in just a matter of weeks, it’s best to get organized for the new term. And finding the best student laptop for your studies is arguably the most important job of all.

But walking into Currys doesn’t always ensure you the best value laptop, so we’ve decided to step in and help. Our team of experts review lots and lots of laptops every year, so we thought we may as well create this list of our top recommended picks.

Every course and subject has different demands from a laptop, so we’ve made sure to include a great variety of options, from affordable and portable devices for on-the-go note taking to incredibly powerful beasts that will help out any design student.

Every laptop reccomended has gone through a thorough testing process, as we use industry-standard benchmark software to compared processing speeds, as well as using professional equipment to ensure your screen is good enough to make Stranger Things look spectacular.

Struggling to find the right student laptop for your studies? There’s no cause for concern, as we’ll be updating this list through 2022 and beyond as we publish more reviews on our website.

And if you’re happy to widen your search, it’s worth checking out our Best Laptop, Best Budget Laptop and Best Gaming Laptop lists too.

How we test

Learn more about how we test laptops

Every laptop we review goes through a series of uniform checks designed to gauge key things including build quality, performance, screen quality and battery life. 

These include formal synthetic benchmarks and scripted tests, plus a series of real world checks, such as how well it runs the most frequently used apps. 

We also make sure to use every laptop we review as our primary device for at least a week to ensure our review is as accurate as possible.

Apple MacBook Air M2 (2022)

Best student laptop you can buy

Pros

  • Fantastic performance
  • Sleek, updated design
  • Excellent keyboard and trackpad
  • Long battery life

Cons

  • Expensive starting price and upgrades
  • More colours would have been nice
  • The M1 version remains an excellent buy for less

While not every student should feel they need to spend this much on a laptop, the MacBook Air M2 (2022) is a great pick for those who can afford it and want a reliable machine that can tackle tasks tougher than simple browsing and word processing.

The M2 chipset at the heart of this machine not only chews through everyday tasks, but it’s more than fast enough for photo editing, 4K video editing and even some gaming. During the review process, our reviewer spent (far) too long playing Football Manager 2022 – for testing purposes, of course.

If your day mainly consists of typing, then the MacBook Air M2 (2022) is one of the best machines on this list for that. Our reviewer found the keyboard a joy with just enough travel and big function keys. Below the keyboard sits a huge trackpad that’s very responsive.

Battery Life is strong enough to make it through a full day of work, while the display is great for bouts of Netflix after class. If you don’t need the extra graphics firepower that the latest Air offers, it’s also worth checking out the more affordable MacBook Air M1 laptop. It may be a couple of years older, but it still provides a stellar productivity performance.

Reviewer: Max Parker
Full review: Apple MacBook Air M2 (2022) review

Microsoft Surface Laptop Go 2

The best value student laptop

Pros

  • Fantastic value for money
  • Extremely portable design
  • Smooth performance for basic tasks
  • Better battery life than the original

Cons

  • Low-resolution display
  • Lack of keyboard backlight
  • No fingerprint scanner on base configuration

If you need a laptop for school or university, there’s a good chance you’ll be on a tight budget and can’t justify spending over a grand. If that’s the case, we recommend checking out Microsoft’s Surface Laptop Go 2.

This is one of the most affordable Windows laptops on the market, and yet still offers excellent build quality and is portable enough for frequent trips to the library.

Its processor is slightly out of date compared to more expensive laptops, but our tests proved it’s still perfectly speedy enough for day-to-day tasks such as web browsing, opening emails and hammering out essays. We’d only advise opting for a more powerful option if you need a laptop for gaming or content creation.

Our only major concern with this laptop is the poor screen resolution. At just 1536×1024, we found that video doesn’t look as sharp as it does on a more conventional 1080p laptop display. That dinky 12-inch screen isn’t ideal for video streaming either, proving problematic if you want to view multiple web browsers and apps simultaneously.

But if you don’t need a laptop for video streaming, or simply don’t care about crystal clear picture quality, then the Surface Laptop Go 2 remains one of the best student laptop options for your studies.

Reviewer: Ryan Jones
Full review: Microsoft Surface Laptop Go 2 review

Acer Chromebook Spin 513

Best Chromebook for students

Pros

  • Super-light and portable design
  • Sharp display with decent colours
  • Outstanding battery life
  • Whisper-quiet performance

Cons

  • Flat speakers
  • Mediocre performance
  • No keyboard backlight

The Acer Chromebook Spin 513 is our favourite Chromebook on the market right now, and can be found for under £300, ensuring that it won’t make too much of a dent on your student loan. 

The Spin 513 weighs in at only 1.2kg and is very easy to take out on the go, which we found to be useful for hybrid working. Since this laptop runs on ChromeOS, this won’t be the best pick for those who need access to software like Adobe Photoshop, but is perfectly fine if you stick to the basics.

The Qualcomm Snapdragon 7c processor worked wonderfully for us during web browsing, word processing and didn’t falter when we ran multiple Chrome taps on it at once. The processor also doesn’t require a dedicated cooling system, meaning that this machine will run quietly during those late-night study sessions. 

The foldable design of the Spin 513 – as well as the bundled stylus – also means you can use this as a tablet if you want to kick back and watch some TV after a long day of classes. While we wouldn’t recommend this as a creative device, it will fare fine for any essay-based work and ChromeOS should ensure a seamless and simple experience.

Reviewer: Reece Bithrey
Full review: Acer Chromebook Spin 513 review

MacBook Pro 16-inch (2021)

Best student laptop for high-performance content creation

Pros

  • Stunning display
  • Amazing performance
  • The ports and MagSafe are back

Cons

  • RAM upgrades are expensive

If you are looking for the best performance for content creation, the MacBook Pro is your best bet. Our review gives this the title of best laptop for creative duties for a reason; the 14 / 16-inch Mini LED screen has a resolution of 3456 x 2234 and presents a wonderfully crisp and detailed picture based on our time using it. 

The latest MacBook Pro is available with either an M1 Pro or M1 Max chip, which offer blistering speeds that can handle everything from basic productivity tasks to complex 3D animation and 4K video renders. Our benchmark results show that there are very few laptops available that can deliver a performance as good as this for content creation.

We were also pleased to see Apple adding a number of ports to this laptop, with MagSafe charging, HDMI, Thunderbolt and an SD card reader all present and accounted for.

Since the MacBook Pro is most expensive laptop on this list, we would not recommend it to anyone who doesn’t need a high-end performance. Any creative student will definitely see a stark difference between this laptop and many others in regards to demanding media tasks, though any essay writers out there don’t need to splash out this much to find their perfect laptop.

Reviewer: Max Parker
Full review: MacBook Pro review

Microsoft Surface Laptop Studio

Best student laptop for designers

Pros

  • Versatile hinge is great for digital artists
  • Sharp and vibrant display
  • Top-class design and keyboard
  • Surprisingly good battery life

Cons

  • Weak graphics power compared to rivals
  • Screen lacks pro-grade colour accuracy
  • Stylus isn’t bundled in

The Surface Laptop Studio is the best laptop on this list for any students who like to create digital art. Featuring a versatile hinge that allows it to be used both as a clamshell laptop and a tablet, this is ideal for typing up essays as well as drawing directly onto the screen.

During testing, we loved how easy it was to pull the screen forward and magnetically clip it to the deck just above the trackpad. Unfortunately, the Microsoft Slim Pen is not bundled with this device and will need to be bought separately. However, if you do get one, we found it felt great on the touchscreen with the 4069 pressure levels available making it wonderfully reactive and great for digital painting and design work. 

The Surface Laptop packs an 11th-gen H-Series Intel processor – with i5 and i7 options available – with our unit performing well during basic tasks like web browsing and watching Netflix. This is not the most powerful laptop on this list, but its touch screen and versatile hinge set it apart from the rest, and it will work great provided you don’t need the most powerful specs. 

While the MacBook Pro is the better option for high-performance tasks, any student who creates digital art should still seriously consider the Microsoft Surface Laptop Studio.

Reviewer: Ryan Jones
Full review: Microsoft Surface Laptop Studio review

FAQs

What should a student look for in a laptop?

A good keyboard, long battery life and snappy performance are all key things to consider when purchasing a student laptop. You’ll also want to make sure it isn’t too heavy, with 1.3kg and under being an ideal heft. Screen quality is worth thinking about if you plan on using the laptop for Netflix and YouTube.

Do students need a laptop with a GPU?

A dedicated GPU is only worth considering if your a creative/design student who who will be doing lots of video editing, 3D modelling or animation. Gamers will also benefit from a powerful GPU. But be warned, a GPU will crank up the price, make the laptop heavier and shorten the battery life, so only get a laptop with one if its essential.

How much RAM does a student laptop need?

Honestly, most people will be fine with 8GB RAM, but it may be worth investing in 16GB of RAM or beyond for heavier workloads such as content creation and gaming.

UK RRP

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AUD RRP

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Trusted Reviews test data

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Wed, 27 Jul 2022 00:55:00 -0500 By Ryan Jones en text/html https://www.trustedreviews.com/best/best-student-laptop-3444216
Killexams : Can a fee curb groundwater exploitation

The public notice issued recently by the Central Groundwater Authority (CGWA), under the Ministry of Jal Shakti, rattled groundwater users. It essentially says that all the users of groundwater for drinking and domestic use — residential apartments/group housing societies/government water supply agencies in urban areas, bulk water suppliers, industrial/infrastructure/mining projects, swimming pool whether existing or new — are required to take permission for groundwater drawal from the CGWA latest by June 30, 2022.

All the existing users are given a one-time opportunity to register their groundwater drawal by June 30, by paying a registration fee of ₹10,000; the completed application must be submitted before September 30. It further says that strict action shall be initiated against users who continue to draw groundwater without seeking a no-objection certificate (NOC) from the CGWA, and such groundwater drawal will be considered illegal.

Is the fee for using groundwater justified? How did we reach this situation?

Groundwater use for various purposes has increased tremendously over time. India’s annual groundwater draft is the largest in the world. Estimated at 245 billion cubic meter (bcm), it is about 64 per cent of the total groundwater potential (398 bcm) in 2020. States like UP, Punjab, MP, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Gujarat together accounted for about 144 bcm (59 per cent) in the total draft of groundwater (see Table).

About 89 per cent of groundwater is used for irrigation alone. Along with the increased exploitation, the net irrigated area using groundwater also increased from 7.30 million hectares (mha) in 1960-61 to about 48 mha in 2018-19.

While the benefits of groundwater are huge, its continuous exploitation has brought many negative externalities, particularly to farmers. A study by NASA (2009) showed that the groundwater level had been declining about one meter every three years in States like Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana. Shockingly, between 2002 and 2008, about 109 cubic km of groundwater reportedly vanished from these regions due to continuous exploitation.

With increasing groundwater drawal every year, not only has the quality of water deteriorated but the number of overexploited blocks has also increased. CGWB data show that the number of blocks classified as other than safe has increased from 1,645 (28.74 per cent) in 2004 to 2,538 (36.44 per cent) in 2020.

Most of these over-exploited blocks are located in Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu. The total number of blocks categorised as saline water also increased from 30 to 100 during this period. Importantly, a World Bank (2010) study, ‘Deep wells and prudence: Towards pragmatic action for addressing groundwater exploitation in India’, cautioned that about 60 per cent of India’s aquifers will reach a critical stage by 2032. Can these unprecedented changes be ignored?

Groundwater exploitation has been rising since the introduction of Green Revolution. But faulty electricity pricing followed by successive governments is one of the key reasons for the overexploitation of groundwater. The provision of heavily subsidised or free electricity often encourages users (not only farmers) to exploit more groundwater as the marginal cost of lifting water from aquifers is close to zero.

This is evident from the level of groundwater exploitation in States such as Punjab, Haryana and Tamil Nadu, where electricity is supplied free for irrigation for many years now. The average stage of groundwater development (that is, the ratio of annual groundwater draft and net annual groundwater availability) in the three States was as high as 127 per cent in 2020; these States have fewer number of safe blocks as well. If preventive actions are not taken to control the reckless exploitation of water, will it not affect the agricultural sector?

Besides increasing the subsidy burden of the States, free electricity does more harm than good, particularly to farmers having shallow tube-wells. As deep bore-wells exploit more groundwater, the water in shallow wells gets depleted and then they become defunct. The depleting water level shortens the life of the wells, which has a huge impact on resource-poor farmers who cannot install deep bore-wells with larger HP pump-sets.

According to the 5th Minor Irrigation Census (2017), a total of 4.14 lakh open wells in India became defunct between 2006-07 and 2013-14.

Now, considering the ever-increasing exploitation of groundwater, the government has introduced a registration fee for using groundwater. Will this be enough to control the over-exploitation of groundwater? The answer is ‘no’, because this nominal fee will not have any impact on the large users.

Instead of having a uniform fee for all users, a discriminated fee can be fixed for agriculture, industry and domestic users keeping in view the ability-to-pay principle. For non-agricultural purposes, the fee can be fixed based on the level of exploitation of water, depth of the well and HP of the pump-set. For agriculture, the fee can be fixed by farm size or HP of the pump-set or based on the consumption of electricity. In any case, the fee alone will not be sufficient to control the over-exploitation of groundwater.

Groundwater exploitation and electricity pricing policies are intertwined. Most States that provide electricity free or at a low unit cost for irrigation are experiencing over-exploitation of groundwater. Therefore, there is a need to revisit the electricity pricing policies. While free electricity may be provided for marginal farmers having pump-set capacity of less than 5 HP capacity, progressive pro-rata (kWh-based tariff) pricing may be fixed for all other farmers. This may also discourage the farmers from cultivating water-intensive crops, which is the root cause for the increased exploitation of groundwater.

Wherever free electricity is supplied, judicious rationing has to be followed in its supply. Studies show that solar-powered irrigation pumps help reduce the exploitation of groundwater besides saving huge subsidies on electricity. An ambitious scheme, PM-KUSUM, was introduced in 2019 with a budget of ₹34,422 crore, and with a huge subsidy component, for the installation of solar pumps. The benefits of solar-powered pumps need to be communicated to all the stakeholders.

Any measure introduced to control the reckless exploitation of groundwater will hugely benefit the farmer and the government.

The writer is former full-time Member (Official), Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices, New Delhi. The views are personal

Published on July 21, 2022

Thu, 21 Jul 2022 02:24:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/opinion/can-a-fee-curb-groundwater-exploitation/article65667108.ece
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