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Exam Code: EC1-349 Practice test 2022 by team
Computer Hacking Forensic Investigator
EC-Council Investigator Topics
Killexams : EC-Council Investigator courses - BingNews Search results Killexams : EC-Council Investigator courses - BingNews Killexams : Best Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery Certifications in 2019

Business continuity (BC) and disaster recovery (DR) are the yin and yang of the IT world. BC keeps systems running and data available despite interruptions or faults. DR brings systems back to normal operation after a disaster has occurred.

Business continuity planning (BCP) and disaster recovery planning (DRP) remain important elements in IT governance and compliance. This is especially true for corporations and organizations that must meet various mandates regarding privacy, confidentiality, and availability of systems and data. With increasing proliferation and use of cloud-based backup services – including a broad range of BC and DR offerings – BCP and DRP have become more tractable and sometimes even less costly over the past five years.

This probably explains why we’re in something of a heyday for BCP and DRP certifications, as that IT niche explodes with investment and activity. Given that costs and complexities of designing, implementing, and maintaining technology platforms for BCP and DRP have gotten somewhat simpler and less burdensome, many more organizations are venturing into this area of IT.

We performed an informal online job board survey to identify the number of job postings for which employers require relevant certifications. This snapshot in time gives you an idea of what employers are looking for in the real-world job market and indicates ample opportunities for those interested in business continuity and disaster recovery.

Our top five certifications are the CBCP from DRI International, the CBCI from BCI (a U.K.-based organization), the C/DRE from Mile2, the CBCM from Certified Information Security and the EDRP from EC-Council. To pick those leaders, we looked at the state of BC and DR certification, examined various market and salary surveys, and performed an informal job board survey that reveals the number of job posts across the U.S. in which our featured certifications were mentioned on a given day.

Job board search results (in alphabetical order, by certification)

Note: The ISO 22301 Certified Business Continuity Manager (CBCM) and the Certified Disaster Recovery Engineer (C/DRE) certifications are also featured in this article. They are absent from this table because unrelated certifications use the same initials and/or the certification name is generic. Searching for “Certified Business Continuity Manager” resulted in almost 700 hits, and a search for “Certified Disaster Recovery Engineer” resulted in about 500 hits. Many of those results don’t apply to the CBCM or C/DRE certification.

According to SimplyHired, disaster recovery managers earn an average of almost $76,000 annually. On the low end, reported salaries averaged about $45,000 annually, while top earners came in just over $127,000.

CBCI: Business Continuity Institute’s Certification of the BCI

It’s hard not to see the Business Continuity Institute (BCI) as a competitor to DRI, and it’s plain that these two organizations share some friendly rivalry. Where DRI is headquartered in New York and active in more than 50 countries across North America, Latin America, Asia, Australia, the Middle East and North Africa, BCI is based in the U.K. and most active in Europe, Asia, Africa and the Middle East.

BCI supports more than 9,100 members in 125 countries around the world, and it works with more than 3,000 organizations in public and private sectors, plus the so-called third sector – that part of an economy or society that’s composed of nongovernmental and nonprofit organizations or associations, such as charities, volunteer and community groups, cooperatives, and NGOs. Founded in 1994, BCI is younger than DRI.

The primary certification from BCI is the Certificate of the Business Continuity Institute, also known as CBCI. A single test is required, which is delivered at the end of the recommended training course. Training is available in person or online, and exams that are not administered as a part of a classroom course may be taken online. Candidates should review the exam registration page for complete technical details before attempting the exam.

BCI offers follow-on levels of membership in the organization at associate (AMBCI, Associate Member of BCI), member (MBCI, full Member of BCI), Associate Fellow (AFBCI) and Fellow (FBCI) levels. Application and renewal fees vary by geography depending on whether or not a member is located in a country with high, upper middle, lower middle or low income. Interested candidates should check the BCI fee table for current membership and renewal rates. The institute also sponsors a Business Continuity Management (BCI) Diploma, a 30-week academic certificate program in business continuity based on the BCI’s codified body of knowledge, supported by general background and specialist college courses.

For those pursuing a BC certification outside North America, particularly in Europe or countries belonging to the British Commonwealth, the CBCI is a compelling credential. Likewise, those who wish to focus on BC at the undergraduate level would be well advised to investigate the organization’s BCI Diploma. Though somewhat expensive, the credential is well recognized and highly regarded.

The CBCI credential is valid for three years. As long as a credential holder has moved to a more advanced level of BCI membership, no exams are required. However, if a credential holder has not advanced to a higher membership level, they must take the current CBCI test to maintain that credential. In addition, credential holders are required to pay an annual membership fee.

CBCI facts and figures

Certification name

 Certification of the BCI (CBCI)

Prerequisites  and required courses

Recommended training includes instructor-led classroom or instructor-led online CBCI training. Prices vary by geography and training provider, but candidates can expect to pay approximately $2,750 (three-day course) to $3,600 (five-day course). Course length is 32 hours. test may be taken at end of course or scheduled for later time. Classroom courses may not be available in all geographies.

Candidates may also complete the eight-hour Introduction to Business Continuity course (£1,050, approximately $1,360).

Number of exams

One test (120 multiple-choice questions, two hours). test may be taken at the completion of any training course or completed online.

Cost per exam

£350 including VAT (approximately $450)


Self-study materials

In addition to formal training, BCI offers numerous resources, including the Good Practice Guidelines 2018 (available from the BCI bookstore; free for members; U.S. obtain version is £30 including VAT, approximately $40), BC24 Online Incident Simulation Game, a knowledge bank, webinars and mock exams.

CBCM: Certified Business Continuity Manager

The ISO 22301 Certified Business Continuity Manager, or CBCM, credential comes from an organization named Certified Information Security (CIS). Based in Orange Park, Florida, the organization has been active since 1999. It offers credentials based on ISO Standards 31000 (Risk Analysis), 27001 (Information Security) and 22301 (Business Continuity Management). This organization also teaches ISACA CISM, CISA and CRISC courses, as well as training courses for (ISC)2 CISSP and a variety of fraud control courses (auditing, forensics and fraud investigation).

The CBCM is Certified Information Security’s expert-level BCM certification. Candidates must have five years of documented, relevant BC experience. It covers all the competence requirements documented in ISO 22301, which go well beyond the confines of IT subjects into such things as evacuation plans, public warnings and communication, and recovery services and suppliers. It requires a reasonably complete understanding of the entire discipline of BCM.

The CBCM is especially suitable for those IT professionals charged with designing or managing BCM efforts within a single organization, or who may work as BCM consultants or trainers for multiple organizations. Individuals on track for upper IT management or C-level positions with IT oversight responsibility are likely to find the CBCM a valuable credential to help them stay on track for such roles.

To maintain the credential, certification holders must pay an annual maintenance fee (currently $80) and earn a minimum of 120 continuing professional education (CPE) credits during a three-year certification cycle. At least 20 CPEs must be reported annually.

CBCM facts and figures

Certification name

ISO 22301 Certified Business Continuity Manager (CBCM)

Prerequisites and required courses

CIS membership ($20 application fee plus $80 membership fee; annual membership renewal of $80 required each January)

Completion of three training courses:

  • CIS Policy Workshop: ISO 31000 Enterprise Risk Management ($399.95)
  • CIS Policy Workshop: ISO 22301 Business Continuity Management ($299.95)
  • Best Practices to Deploy, Exercise, and Certify BCM ($299.95)

Five or more years of verifiable experience plus completion of three candidate endorsement forms

Annual renewal required

Number of exams

Three: RM 101, BCMS 101 and BCMS 102 (all exams administered online)

Cost per exam

$100 (total $300)


Self-study materials

Practice exams available for $75 each

CBCP: DRI International’s Certified Business Continuity Professional

DRI International describes itself as “a global leader in BCM (business continuity management) education and certification,” and it offers credentials for BC and DR. The organization, founded in 1988, seeks to promote a base of “common knowledge” (cert-speak for concepts, terminology, best practices, processes and procedures for some body of work or expertise) for the continuity management profession. It also certifies qualified individuals in BC and promotes those individuals’ credibility and professionalism. DRI offers certification tracks in BCM (including advanced topics), auditing, public sector, healthcare continuity and risk management.

DRI has certified more than 15,000 professionals with representation in more than 100 countries, more than half of which are taught in native languages. We chose the DRI Certified Business Continuity Professional (CBCP) credential as the “poster child” for the organization, not only because it is the most popular and best recognized of its various certifications (13 in all), but also because it is preceded by an associate-level credential (ABCP), augmented by specialist certs (CFCP for various functional continuity disciplines, and CBCV for vendors) and followed by a master-level cert (MBCP).

The CBCP is an excellent credential for current or aspiring BC practitioners, but because it includes a “verifiable experience” component, candidates must have some reasonable facsimile of on-the-job BCP experience to qualify for this credential.

Recertification is required annually. Candidates must pay an annual maintenance fee and earn a minimum of 80 continuing education activity points (CEAPs) every two years to maintain this credential. Candidates should check the certification page for details on eligible activities.

CBCP: Facts and figures

Certification name

Certified Business Continuity Professional (CBCP)

Prerequisites and required courses

Required: Minimum two years of verifiable experience in at least five of the subject areas of the Professional Practices for Business Continuity Management. Subject areas include the following:

  • Program Initiation and Management
  • Risk Assessment
  • Business Impact Analysis
  • Business Continuity Strategies
  • Incident Response
  • Plan Development and Implementation
  • Awareness and Training Programs
  • Business Continuity Plan Exercise, Audit and Maintenance
  • Crises Communications
  • Coordination with External Agencies

All experience must be within 10 years of date of application.

Application required.

Five subject matter essays (minimum of 250 words) required; two of the five essays must be from the Business Impact Analysis, Developing Business Continuity Strategies, Developing and Implementing Business Continuity Plans, or Maintaining and Exercising Business Continuity Plans subject areas.

A minimum of two references required for each subject area.

Number of exams

One test (75 percent required to pass)

Cost per exam 

Qualifying test fee: $750
Application fee: $400
Annual renewal fee: $200


Self-study materials

In-person and online self-paced training available from DRI. In-person training runs $2,750 for a 4.5-day course. Self-paced training is $295 per module. Modules cover all of the Professional Practice areas.

CBCP & CPSCP Exams Study Guide & Practice Questions 2015/16 Edition, CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform; approximately $65 from Amazon

Certified Business Continuity Professional: CBCP Exam, available from for $99 download

C/DRE: Mile2’s Certified Disaster Recovery Engineer

With more than seven years of ongoing activity in training and certification, Mile2 has established both staying power and credibility. According to its Cyber Security Certification Roadmap, the company offers credentials in areas such as virtualization, application and source code, auditing, healthcare, wireless security, forensics, incident handling, pen-testing hacking, cloud security, and IS management leadership as well as disaster recovery and cyber warfare. Credentials cater to a wide range of skill sets, from fundamental levels to more advanced and specialized credentials.

The Certified Disaster Recovery Engineer (C/DRE) credential is Mile2’s pinnacle DR certification. The associated C/DRE training course is approved by the National Initiative for Cybersecurity Careers and Studies, and it has been certified by the National Security Agency as meeting the CNSSI-4016: National Information Assurance Training Standards for Risk Analysis Security. It also maps to the NIST/Homeland Security NICCS Cybersecurity Workforce Framework and is on the approved FBI Cybersecurity Certification Requirement (Tier 1-3) list.

With a focus on the defense establishment, especially for information or cybersecurity coverage, Mile2 is well positioned to offer training and certification for individuals who work in the defense industry in particular, or for local, state, or federal government agencies or contracting companies in general. That said, the C/DRE is not on the list of DoD Approved 8570 Baseline Certifications.

C/DRE facts and figures

Certification name 

Certified Disaster Recovery Engineer (C/DRE)

Prerequisites and required courses

A minimum of one year of information systems or IS management experience is required.

Recommended training: C/DRE course ($2,500)

Number of exams


Cost per exam

$400 (100 multiple-choice questions, two hours to complete)


Self-study materials

Mile2 maintains a list of learning resources, including practice test questions, study guides ($50), courseware kits ($500), online training video subscriptions ($550 per annual subscription), e-books and prep guides at the Mile2 Store.

EDRP: EC-Council’s Disaster Recovery Professional

The EC-Council Disaster Recovery Professional (EDRP) certification comes from an organization with deep and well-recognized roots in the information security community. Home to such certifications as the Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH), various forensic and penetration testing credentials, the EC-Council also offers certifications aimed at security managers and executives, software developers, network architects, and disaster recovery professionals. The EDRP is gaining traction with companies and organizations seeking to validate skills and knowledge for those who plan, organize, and oversee testing of their disaster response, recovery support, and business resumption practices and procedures.

The EDRP is as much about identifying vulnerabilities and managing risks for organizations as it is about planning, designing, testing and, when necessary, implementing responses to interruptions of access or service or responses to disasters. courses covered include preparing a disaster recovery plan, assessing risk factors, developing policy and procedure, understanding the relationships and roles among various groups and individuals who implement such plans, and managing the recovery process.

Although we mention the EDRP last on our list, that doesn’t mean it ranks last in perceived value or name recognition. If anything, the EDRP is probably the best-known of the bunch. It is entirely worth pursuing for IT professionals responsible for or involved in any organization’s DR or BC planning, testing and implementation.

EDRP facts and figures

Beyond the top 5: More BCP/DRP certifications

Given the popularity and indisputable importance of BC and DR in any organization’s operations and governance, it should come as no surprise that these five credentials (and the rather more substantial programs to which all of them belong) do not encompass the entire field of available credentials. When considering alternatives to these five, you’ll want to vet the sponsoring organization’s reputation and longevity first.

Among many others, certifications from the Business Resilience Certification Consortium International (BRCCI, formerly known as Sentryx) are worth looking into for those who don’t find something in our previous listings that attracts their interest and investment. The Certified Business Resilience Manager (CBRM) and Certified Business Resilience IT Professional (CBRITP) are most pertinent to this article. Like many other programs covered here, these certifications are elements in a broader certification program that also includes the BRCCI Certified Business Resilience Auditor (CBRA) and the Master’s Achievement in Business Resilience (MABR) credentials.

For certification candidates in Southeast Asia (mainly Singapore, Indonesia and Malaysia), the Business Continuity Management (BCM) Institute offers several BCP/DRP certifications, such as the Business Continuity Certified Specialist (BCCS), the Disaster Recovery Certified Specialist (DRCS) and several others through the expert level.

Tue, 28 Jun 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : How People Make Hacking a Legit Career Choice

The media, journalists, and the public are prone to oversimplification. And hackers are no exception. Hackers get a bad rap in movies and TV shows. Their reputation is often that of a shadowy, secretive, or marginal group. Here's how people make hacking a legit career choice.

Calendar - Calendar

Possibly it's the evil genius who can quickly break government systems. Why? Maybe it's political beliefs or just the lols. But, even the introvert, "the basement hacker," who is untrained and disorganized, can be a dangerous adversary.

As such, your imagination probably doesn't conjure ethical hackers. In exact years, though, many large companies have hired white hat hackers. Why? They're hired to prevent attacks, bugs, and threats and test and monitor their systems.

What's more, ethical hackers are making a solid living. According to ZipRecruitor, the national average is $135,269 a year for an ethical hacking job in the US.

Apart from a high salary, a good hacker can make money in various ways outside of their regular job. For example, if you want to make your own schedule or don't want to be tied to any one location, that's appealing.

But how can you make hacking a legit career choice? Well, let's find out.

Why Are Hackers Hired?

Professional hackers test the security of companies. To verify whether their security controls are effective, they hire hackers. Additionally, they will make security suggestions.

Before releasing a new web application, a company might hire hackers to find weaknesses. The application will be less vulnerable to hackers when it hits the market as a result.

In addition, private companies and governments hire hackers. Competitive intelligence is in the interest of private companies. To force customers to switch to their services by making their competitors unavailable. Isn't that illegal? I wouldn't pursue this career path, although it's 100% illegal.

Hacking other companies is considered espionage. Government information is mainly kept electronically, so accessing government agencies or third-party providers can be beneficial. Some governments also use cybercrime as a revenue source. North Korea is one of the most infamous examples because its dedicated cybercrime division generates millions of dollars every year.

Understanding Different Types of Hacking

Again, there are lots of controversies over hacking. A hacker can serve either a malicious or a beneficial purpose, as shown above.

Hackers generally fall into three categories:

  • White Hat
  • Black Hat
  • Grey Hat

Grey Hat and White Hat hackers undertake ethics-based hacking.

In contrast, black hat hackers engage in illegal activities.

Awareness of different types of hackers and their legal nuances will help professionals understand their ethical hacker boundaries. For instance, when starting out, you could be a Penetration Tester. To prevent cyber-attacks, vulnerabilities must be identified in a system or application. Then, in the event that their system has a fault, they inform the organization.

What Skills Are Needed to Be an Ethical Hacker

Blackhat hackers have sometimes become whitehat hackers. To be a successful ethical hacker, you need high ethical standards. Blackhat hackers are undoubtedly technical. Their problem is that they lack character discipline.

Candidates for ethical hacking jobs should possess the following skills as well as the "ethical" part:

  • Hardware knowledge. It's vital for you to understand the features of visual display units (VDU), central processing units (CPU), keyboards, hard drives, speakers, sound cards, mice, graphics cards, and motherboards.
  • Basic and advanced computer skills. Learning basic computer skills like data processing, managing files, and creating presentations is key to using computers. But, to be successful, you also need advanced computer skills. These skills include programming, coding, and managing databases.
  • Expertise in computer networking. An ethical hacker should be familiar with networking commands. Among them are OSI models, IP addresses, MAC addresses, subnetting, and routing.
  • A good understanding of operating systems. Operating systems such as Ubuntu, Linux, and Red Hat are essential to building a successful career in ethical hacking.
  • Programming language skills. Programmers use Java, Javascript, SQL, Bash, Python, C, C++, Ruby, Perl, and PHP to write these codes.
  • Cybersecurity skills. You should learn cybersecurity techniques. These include phishing, man-in-the-middle attacks, app protection, hardware protection, database management systems, spyware, and password management.
  • Know methodologies and tools used in penetration testing. For ethical hackers, penetration testing is essential. The goal is to find weaknesses and strengthen security frameworks.

Problem-solving skills, pressure tolerance, and the ability to think outside the box are also critical. Ethical hackers also require passion, communication skills, flexibility, and innovative thinking.

How to Become an Ethical Hacker

So, how do you make a successful and fulfilling career in ethical hacking? The following is a complete career path for getting into ethical hacking.

Academics should be the first step.

To succeed in ethical hacking, you should do this first. If you plan to study ethical hacking, however, make sure your field of study is related to it. In general, CyberSecurity or IT.

A degree in Computer Science, Information Technology, or a related field will provide you with the foundation. It can also help you make a living hacking even though there is no requirement for specific education.

You can earn a Bachelor's or Master's degree in CS/IT. In addition, you can take courses on ethical hacking. These qualifications are also required when hiring ethical hackers by various organizations.

One of the most well-known certifications is offered by EC-Council. During their 5-day ethical hacking certification, they teach everything from ethical hacking to types of attacks. After completing the course, candidates can take the Licensed Penetration Tester exam.

Become familiar with programming languages and operating systems.

Ethical hackers must be proficient in programming languages and frameworks. Among its many benefits are the ability to identify programming errors and vulnerabilities, the implementation of security solutions, and automation of tasks — to name a few.

Various programming languages are available to enter this field, including C/C++, Java, Python, Ruby, and others. Besides that, you'll have to learn several operating systems like LINUX, UNIX, Windows, and iOS. Of course, these operating systems must be well understood by ethical hackers.

An understanding of network security and network administration.

Ethical hacking requires an understanding of computer networks and cyber security concepts. You must have a basic to advanced knowledge of computer networking and security, such as:

  • Virtual Private Networks (VPN)
  • Firewalls
  • Cryptography
  • Denial of Service attacks (DoS attacks)

It is also imperative to consider various hacking concepts, including Penetration Testing, Cloud Computing malware, SQL Injection, and Vulnerability Assessment.

Various resources are available for learning about computer networks and cybersecurity, including books, journals, YouTube videos, and online courses.

Enhance your ethical hacking skills by participating in training programs.

To learn ethical hacking, you must work your way up from beginner to advanced. Meanwhile, you can learn about ethical hacking through books and videos. But, of course, you'll also have to interact with experts and get hands-on to gain more knowledge and exposure.

A relevant and worthwhile training program or boot camp can also help you gain practical experience in ethical hacking.

Obtain relevant certifications.

After you complete the above learning processes, it's time to get certified and validate your ethical hacking skills. You can land various career opportunities even if you have no experience. Certifications include:

  • Certified Ethical Hacker
  • Global Information Assurance Certification
  • Offensive Security Certified Professional
  • Certified Vulnerability Assessor

Certifications such as Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH) are among the most demanding and renowned ethical hacking certifications. Within 240 minutes, candidates must answer 125 multiple-choice questions about SQL Injection, Backdoors, Session Hijacking, and other ethical hacking topics.

Become an ethical hacker.

Now you can start your professional career as an ethical hacker. At first, you might be a Security Analyst or Penetration Tester. From there, ethical hacking jobs include Network Security Administrators, System Administrators, Web Security Managers, and Information Security Managers.

Additionally, you can join several government organizations, such as the investigation department, law enforcement, etc., as an ethical hacker besides private businesses.

The Best Ways to Make Money as a Computer Hacker


The easiest way to make money hacking? Working as a penetration tester. In essence, you'd be a full-time employee testing company security.

The low barrier to entry makes this an ideal first job. Moreover, you'll be able to learn from more experienced people. As such, you get to grow at work and increase your pay.


As a freelancer, you can work either part-time with a job or full-time. There are many bug bounty programs where companies, such as Apple, Intel, and Cisco, permit people to hack into their networks, applications, and websites. In exchange for disclosing what the hacker has discovered, the company rewards the hacker with cash.

If this is something that interests you, here's a list of the 30 top bug bounty programs here. There's no limit to how much you can work, and it's open to everyone.

However, there is a great deal of competition. In addition, it can be hard to find bugs significant enough to warrant a reward early on in your career. As such, I would recommend this to intermediate to experienced computer hackers.


Unlike freelance work, a contract position usually involves working for one client. Usually, this is for a short time period, such as 6-12 months.

Many companies don't hire penetration testers full-time for a variety of reasons. For example, a company only needs to test new products once or twice a year. So basically, they'll hire someone for a short while to perform the testing and then let them go when they're no longer needed.

Developing software.

Programmers might find this interesting. Most hacking tasks are performed using premade scripts or software. However, experienced hackers usually create custom scripts and tools to simplify their work.

As a hacker, you can make serious money selling software. It's easy to resell tools once you make them and update them. Eventually, you can earn passive income this way.

Start your own business.

Despite their skill, many hackers do not continue hacking full-time. Instead, they often take their expertise and start a security business that tests companies' security. This method can maximize profits, but it will require a high level of experience, expertise, and specific knowledge.

It's even possible for people to go from getting criminal charges for cybercrime to setting up their own businesses. The case of Kevin Mitnick, who was convicted of computer and communications crimes in 1995, is an example of this. As of today, he is the founder and CEO of Mitnick Security Consulting LLC. Aside from being the Chief Hacking Officer for KnowBe4, he is also an advisory board member for Zimperium.

Image Credit: Cottonbro; Pexels; Thank you!

The post How People Make Hacking a Legit Career Choice appeared first on Calendar.

Tue, 12 Jul 2022 13:02:00 -0500 John Rampton en text/html
Killexams : City Council considers environmental advisory committee, agreement with Allegheny and more

Meadville City Council will vote on preliminary approval of an ordinance establishing an environmental advisory council when it confronts a lengthy agenda tonight.

Among other items of business include discussion of council’s policy regarding communications it receives, discussion and possible vote on a cooperative police agreement with Allegheny College, and adjustments to spending plans for federal grant funds.

Formation of the environmental advisory council was the next priority following the adoption last month of a climate action plan for the city. Because formation of such a body requires passage of an ordinance, City Council will vote on the first and second readings tonight. If those votes are in favor of adoption, a third and final vote would be held when council meets July 20.

The environmental advisory council, if approved, is expected to function much the same as other boards, commissions and committees appointed by council, attorney Gary Alizzeo told members of council during discussions of a draft ordinance last month.

The committee would consist of three to seven members appointed by City Council. A major focus of their activity would be exploring grant opportunities related to the city’s environmental priorities, according to council’s June discussion. The committee’s role, however, would be advisory.

“They’re not authorized to go out and commit the city to anything,” Alizzeo said.

The city maintains more than 15 such organizations, ranging from the Market Authority and Meadville Area Recreation Authority, which oversee the Market House and Meadville Area Recreation Complex, respectively, to the Zoning Hearing Board, which hears zoning appeals and variance requests, and the Beautification Committee, which “examines aesthetic issues in the City,” according to the city’s website.

To avoid confusion between City Council and the proposed environmental advisory council, Alizzeo proposed last month that the latter be referred to as a committee though the ordinance, following the language of state laws governing the formation of such bodies, calls it a council.

In another discussion continued from June, council will return to the issue of a cooperative police agreement with Allegheny College. During a June 15 discussion, Alizzeo described the proposal as an update of the existing agreement signed in 2016 that contains “no dramatic changes” and that had been endorsed by Chief Michael Tautin of Meadville Police Department.

Council members raised several questions regarding the arrangement.

“What are we, the city, getting out of this agreement with Allegheny College?” asked Deputy Mayor Larry McKnight.

The agreement preserves the primacy of Meadville Police Department in the investigation of any serious crimes, including felonies and first-degree misdemeanors, but allows Allegheny police to respond to less serious incidents, according to Alizzeo.

McKnight, Councilwoman Autumn Vogel and Mayor Jaime Kinder all touched on the subject of financial compensation to the city as the discussion continued.

A proposed repurposing of federal Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) program funds would support a historic building preservation plan for the Market House.

“By doing that and going through that process, that puts you a little bit ahead of the game in applying for different historical grants,” City Manager Maryann Menanno told Market Authority board members last month, “because you’ve already done that type of historic review.”

CDBG rules require the city to set aside 2 percent of the administrative portion of its grant awards for planning purposes, according to Menanno. Suitable uses for the funds have been hard to identify — eligible projects tended to be either much too expensive or very minor in nature, she said.

Tue, 05 Jul 2022 22:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Be the first to know

UVALDE, Texas (AP) — A new wave of anger swept through Uvalde on Tuesday over surveillance footage of police officers in body armor milling in the hallway of Robb Elementary School while a gunman carried out a massacre inside a fourth-grade classroom where 19 children and two teachers were killed.

The video published Tuesday by the Austin American-Statesman is a disturbing 80-minute recording of what has been known for weeks now about one of the deadliest school shootings in U.S. history: that heavily armed police officers, some armed with rifles and bulletproof shields, massed in the hallway and waited more than an hour before going inside and stopping the May 24 slayings.

But the footage, which until now had not surfaced publicly, anguished Uvalde residents anew and redoubled calls in the small South Texas city for accountability and explanations that have been incomplete — and sometimes inaccurate — in the seven weeks since the shooting. Hours after the video was published, some residents at a Uvalde City Council meeting said they had not been able to bring themselves to watch it.

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Jesus Rizo said officers who are paid taxpayer dollars to protect people should not have “sat there” when children were in danger.

“You could've saved some lives. You could have held somebody's hand as they were dying,” he said. “The parents could have seen them one last time as they were dying.”

Others demanded consequences for police and more information in an investigation marked by confusing statements that have had to be retracted at times.

“Give these families some closure," said Daniel Myers, a pastor in Uvalde and family friend to one of the victims.

An investigative committee led by Texas lawmakers had earlier announced plans to show the video to Uvalde residents for the first time Sunday, in addition to sharing their findings after weeks of closed-door testimony from more than 40 witnesses.

"This has been the most unprofessional investigation or handling of it that I’ve ever seen in my life," Uvalde Mayor Don McLaughlin said in an interview with The Associated Press. “These families get blindsided constantly."

The footage from a hallway camera inside the school shows the gunman entering the building with an AR-15 style rifle and includes 911 tape of a teacher screaming, “Get down! Get in your rooms! Get in your rooms!”

Two officers approach the classrooms minutes after the gunman enters, then run back amid the sounds of gunfire.

As the gunman first approaches the classrooms a child whose image is blurred can be seen poking their head around a corner down the hallway and then running back while shots ring out. Later, about 20 minutes before police breach the room, the video shows a man wearing a vest that says “sheriff” use a hand sanitizer dispenser mounted on the wall.

Throughout the video, the screams of children are redacted.

Officials said the 77 minutes of footage they are preparing to release this weekend does not contain images of children in the classroom. Rep. Dustin Burrows, a Republican who is leading the investigation, said after the video was posted by the Statesman that "watching the entire segment of law enforcement’s response, or lack thereof, is also important.”

But the video alone does not answer all the questions that remain — nearly two months later — about the law enforcement response. Among them are how schools police Chief Pete Arredondo came to the forefront of the massive law enforcement response involving numerous local, state and federal agencies.

State authorities have cast Arredondo as the on-scene commander and said his errors delayed police killing the gunman. Arredondo, however, has told the Texas Tribune he didn’t consider himself to be in charge of operations and that he assumed someone else had taken control of the law enforcement response. He did not have a police radio at the time.

The roles of the ranking on-scene officers from other agencies, including the Texas Department of Public Safety, remain unclear. McLaughlin has accused DPS of minimizing its involvement in the response and releasing inaccurate timelines.

Last week, a critique of the police response written by tactical experts and requested by DPS alleged that a Uvalde police officer had a chance to open fire on the gunman before he entered the school. McLaughlin has said that account was inaccurate.

“All they keep doing is piling missed facts on missed facts, and throwing it out there and see what sticks,” McLaughlin said.

In a statement, DPS Director Steve McCraw said the video provides “horrifying evidence" that the law enforcement response was a failure.

Weber reported from Austin, Texas. Associated Press writers Jake Bleiberg in Dallas and Robert Jablon in Los Angeles contributed to this report.

Copyright 2022 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without permission.

Tue, 12 Jul 2022 15:08:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Get Government & Politics updates in your inbox!

RABAT, Morocco (AP) — The European Commission vowed Friday to step up its work with Morocco to fight human smugglers who are using “new, extremely violent methods" — a move that comes two weeks after 23 people died at the border between Morocco and the Spanish enclave of Melilla.

EU Commissioner for Home Affairs Ylva Johansson and Spanish Interior Minister Fernando Grande-Marlaska met with Morocco's Interior Minister Abdelouafi Laftit in Rabat to discuss the events of June 24, when hundreds of sub-Saharan migrants and asylum-seekers attempted to storm through a border post and scale a border fence into Melilla. In addition to the deaths, some 200 Moroccan and Spanish law enforcement officers and more than 70 civilians were injured.

“We have discussed how we can further cooperate on fighting the smugglers, preventing such violent and dangerous situation as we saw two weeks ago,” Johansson said in a video message after the meeting.

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There were no further details on what exactly the new, violent methods being used by smugglers were but the European Commission said it would enhance police cooperation with Morocco, including with joint investigations.

Mustafa Baitas, a spokesman for the Moroccan government, said Thursday the events at the Nador-Mellila border were “planned and orchestrated” in a way that was not typical of other attempts to storm the border into Spain.

At the time, Moroccan authorities said the migrants had died as a result of a stampede. But several human rights organizations have called for an independent investigation into the deaths and condemned authorities on both sides of the border for excessive use of force. Morocco's Human Rights Association says 27 migrants died, four more than Morrocan authorities have reported. Many of the victims were believed to be Sudanese, it tweeted.

"The Commissioner and the two ministers welcomed the fact-finding commission set up by the Moroccan National Human Rights Council," the EU Commission statement said. Spanish prosecutors also announced last week they had launched an investigation into June 24.

Videos showing countless Black men lying on the ground that day, some motionless and bleeding as Moroccan officers stood over them, sparked public outrage and condemnation from the United Nations chief. Other images showed groups of men climbing a fence while hurling rocks at Moroccan anti-riot police and then collapsing on the ground.

“We profoundly lament the death of those migrants,” Grande-Marlaska said Friday while calling the events “a violent assault on our borders."

Both Grande-Marlaska and Johansson praised Morocco for its work, which according to the European Commission has prevented 26,000 irregular departures and dismantled around 100 criminal trafficking networks.

Follow AP’s coverage of migration issues at

Copyright 2022 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without permission.

Fri, 08 Jul 2022 05:28:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Scottsbluff city council hears landfill update, expresses need for alternative location during interim

Interim city manager Kevin Spencer provided the Scottsbluff City Council with an update on the landfill, voicing concern about the feasibility of the new regional landfill project proposed to be built north of Scottsbluff.

The council has authorized $497,000 for TriHydro Corporation to conduct site evaluations, including testing and to draft a permit for a new landfill site, but the work is far from over.

“The application for the permit is 93% complete is what they’re telling us,” Spencer said. “It sounds to me like that 7% is still a lot of work to do.”

Spencer shared the update with the council about the current state of the landfill and the need for a transfer station, voicing concern about TriHydro approaching the council for additional funds in the future. He said there is $12,000 remaining of the $497,000.

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The city has worked in partnership with Gering to secure a site as the current landfill is expected to reach capacity in three years.

One of the concerns Spencer mentioned was the rising prices based on tonnage patrons will experience in the future. The council reviewed updated numbers from TriHydro, which were last updated in December of 2021.

“Because of those rising costs we may have to consider some alternatives,” Spencer told the council. “It might not be feasible to do this right now.”

Currently, the city pays Gering tipping fees of $48 per tonnage of collected waste. TriHydro’s tipping fee estimates ranged from $65.65 to $97.

“You can see that that’s a considerable increase,” Spencer said.

The city had budgeted for a transfer station during the current fiscal year, which was pushed back into next year’s budget proposal. The council will likely review that proposal later in July.

“We’re going to need a transfer station if we do site this new landfill or if we decide to go somewhere else,” Spencer said.

The next step would be to approve an agreement to form a landfill association and create a board of directors and committee, which are important to the permitting process.

“In the near future, there might be some difficult decisions to make,” he said.

Council member Nathan Green said the council has been aware they would likely need to secure a secondary option to get through the transition period once the current landfill reaches capacity and while the new location is constructed. However, he expressed a concern with the cost to the city the longer it waits.

“We all know the longer we wait the higher the costs get, so getting started with it early on – it seems like a lot now, but it’s going to be a lot more tomorrow,” Green said. “I think we have a good footing for getting the association started.”

Securing a landfill site has been a priority for Scottsbluff and as the current situation unfolds, Spencer said they have inquired about alternative sites. He contacted Torrington Disposal Service landfill, located five miles west of Torrington. The company gave Spencer a ballpark figure of $50-$55 a ton.

The city accepted bids in 2018, so a lot of that work has been done, Spencer said. However, fuel prices and other labor expenses have likely increased since then.

Vice mayor Jordan Colwell voiced a need to explore their options.

“Even with three years left, my opinion is, we need to start looking to go somewhere else,” Colwell said.

The council agreed they need to have an alternative location and back-up during the interim, given that they will likely be unable to get the new landfill sited in time.

“The realization that this is going to cost millions of millions of dollars that neither one of us have,” Colwell said.

The landfill project construction cost had jumped since the project’s inception, climbing from $5 million to $11 million.

The landfill has been a subject of discussion for several years for the council as Scottsbluff and Gering search for a new joint landfill location.

During the March 15, 2021, meeting, Gering city engineer Annie Folck went before the Scottsbluff council to discuss a change order request from TriHydro for additional funds for site investigation for a property north of Scottsbluff, proposed as the new joint landfill site.

The council voted to approve an additional $233,012 in spending to evaluate a proposed landfill site for the Twin Cities. Additional costs were incurred due to unexpected requirements for monitoring the groundwater. The original budget was $264,512.

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Tue, 05 Jul 2022 16:28:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : EU Co-Legislators Reached Political Agreement on The Corporate Sustainability Reporting Directive

Tuesday, June 28, 2022


On 21 June 2022, the European Parliament (Parliament) and the Council of the European Union (Council) reached a provisional political agreement on the Corporate Sustainability Reporting Directive (CSRD).As of 27 June 2022, the agreed text has not yet been made publicly available.  

The proposal for the CSRD, first presented by the European Commission (Commission) on 21 April 2021, foresees the adoption of EU-wide sustainability reporting standards and aims to revise and strengthen the rules set out already in 2014 in the Non-Financial Reporting Directive (NFRD).The new proposal came after the Parliament’s call for an extension of the scope of the NFRD beyond public-interest entities. Furthermore, the evidence gathered by the Commission showed deficiencies in the current non-financial reporting framework, making it difficult for investors and other stakeholders to compare publicly available information, resulting in accountability gap of reporting companies.

With the new proposal, the European Union aims to achieve more complete and meaningful sustainability reporting that includes not only information on climate-related courses but also on other matters such as biodiversity, social rights, and human rights, taking the non-financial reporting to a new level. 


The new reporting requirements will apply to all (listed and non-listed) large companies, i.e., companies with over 250 employees and €40 million turnover, as defined in the Accounting Directive.3

The new rules will also apply to listed Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). Following Parliament’s proposal, an opt-out clause was introduced in the proposed text making it possible for in-scope SMEs not to apply CSRD requirements until 2028.

Non-European companies will also be in the scope of the CSRD. In particular, non-European companies with at least one subsidiary or branch and generating an annual net turnover of €150 million will be subject to the new EU reporting requirements. Non-European companies will also benefit from a transitional period before the rules would fully enter into force. 

When it comes to company groups, while parent companies will have the responsibility to report the relevant information and to assess the information of their subsidiaries and branches, the company group will be obliged to present only one consolidated report. 


The CSRD provides that the sustainability information to be reported by in-scope companies will need to be independently audited and certified by an accredited independent auditor or certifier, just like financial information. This obligation effectively results in matching the level of importance amongst both types of reporting, ensuring companies will comply with reporting standards adopted at EU level and provide reliable, transparent, and comparable data. The non-financial reporting will be included in the so-called managing report, which will contain all the information subject to audit. 

In the initial proposal, the Commission proposed for the sustainability assurance to be performed by the statutory auditor or audit firm, arguing that it would help with the consistency between financial and non-financial auditing. However, under the provisional agreement, non-financial reporting audit will be open also to other auditors and assurance providers, provided they will obtain a certification for non-financial auditing. 

The process of accreditation for non-financial auditors and assurance providers will be carried out at national level. Furthermore, Member States will also set the requirements to ensure the quality of the assurance engagement carried out by independent assurance services providers; the requirement should also ensure consistent outcomes in the assurance of sustainability reporting. 

The European Financial Reporting Group (EFRAG) will be the authority in charge of setting up the European sustainability reporting standards. The standards will be built as much as possible on already existing international standardisation initiatives and relevant EU policies. EFRAG is set to publish some initial general standards in early summer 2023 and the standards for companies in specific sectors are expected to be published in June 2024.


The CSRD sets a precedent in sustainability reporting, broadening the scope by not only including environmental courses but also social and human rights, biodiversity, and work ethics. Furthermore, for the first time, financial and non-financial reporting are considered equally important.

The reporting will have to be performed in accordance with the new EU sustainability reporting standards set up by EFRAG. The information provided by companies will then be audited by independent and certified auditors. 

In terms of timeline, the application of the new requirements will take place in three different phases. The reporting will enter into force as of 1 January 2024 for companies already in scope of the NFRD. For companies not previously subject to the NFRD, the new reporting requirements will enter into force as of 1 January 2025. Finally, for listed SMEs the requirements will enter into force as of 1 January 2026.

Next Steps:

Both the Parliament and the Council need to formally approve the provisional agreement, after which  the CSRD will be published in the EU Official Journal. It will enter into force 20 days after publication and its provisions will have to be transposed into Member States’ national legislation within 18 months.

Paula Esteban Gómez also contributed to this article.


Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2013/34/EU, Directive 2004/109/EC, Directive 2006/43/EC and Regulation (EU) No 537/2014, as regards corporate sustainability reporting.

Directive 2014/95/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2014 amending Directive 2013/34/EU as regards disclosure of non-financial and diversity information by certain large undertakings and groups.

Directive 2013/34/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 on the annual financial statements, consolidated financial statements and related reports of certain types of undertakings, amending Directive 2006/43/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council and repealing Council Directives 78/660/EEC and 83/349/EEC.

Tue, 28 Jun 2022 08:20:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Community discussion highlights needs to address mental health, gun violence

Sat, 02 Jul 2022 06:19:00 -0500 en text/html Killexams : Community center, EDC on Thursday agenda for Nolanville City Council

The Nolanville City Council is set to discuss a variety of courses Thursday, including several grants submissions and how it plans to conduct advertising for renovation bids for the community center.

In addition, the council will hear the Nolanville Economic Development Corporation’s 2023 fiscal year budget presentation, as well as several amendments to it.

The council meets every other Thursday at 6 p.m. at City Hall. Meetings may be attended in person at 101 N. Fifth St.

Tue, 05 Jul 2022 07:31:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Jefferson City Council delays vote for salary increase for city employees

JEFFERSON CITY − Jefferson City Council postponed a vote that would increase the salary for city employees during its meeting Tuesday night. It is the second time the vote has been postponed.

This is a discussion that has gained the attention of the public. The archived videos surrounding the subject have gotten more than triple the amount of views from other meeting videos on their page. 

Mayor Carrie Tergin said she was very concerned and disappointed with the decision to wait on this proposal. Tergin apologized to city employees.  

"My apologies to our employees," Tergin said. "I'm doing the best I can, I know you all are, but please don't supply up."  

She asked council if somebody could tell her if they were going to get it figured out in two weeks, at the next city council meeting. 

Council members debated on increasing pay for all city employees at its meeting Tuesday night.

Councilman Scott Spencer said the council needed more information before making a decision. 

"We have to be dependent on information that staff, city administrator, finance, you as the leader of this council supply us," Spencer said. "Once we get that information, I'm committed to move this bill forward."

During the discussion, the arguments got quite tense as a clear divide was made. It was clear that most council members agreed with raising salaries, however, the debate was on how and when. 

Some council members expressed concerns with expenses and how they would fit into the current budget as well as future budgets. Other council members expressed frustrations with waiting and getting lost in the process. 

The original proposal started with City Administrator Steve Crowell. 

Crowell said the proposal was originally brought to council "back in April." Initially, raising the salary for city employees was a reaction to what other cities, the county and the state were doing. However, now he said inflation is creating an even bigger need for the salary adjustment. 

Crowell said they need to create a competitive advantage so they can retain current employees and recruit new employees. 

James Noah is the president Jefferson City Firefighters Local 671. Noah spoke at the meeting to advocate for the city employees. 

"We need to do something," Noah said. "We're bleeding out as a municipality and we're just at the start of it." 

Noah said they are competing with other cities. 

"The city of Columbia adjusted their salary by 3% effective next pay period two weeks ago," Noah said. "We're already competing with them as far as our employees, as far as our recruitment and as far as our retention." 

Noah said if they don't get ahead of it, they'll "lose dire members at an exponential rate" and there will be "no one to perform the jobs that need to be done."

Noah said he has 10-year members looking at leaving because they can go down the road to Columbia and make $2.50 more. 

Council member Wiseman, sponsor of the proposal, ended the discussion and placed the bill on the informal agenda, which places discussion and any further action on hold.

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Wed, 06 Jul 2022 09:04:00 -0500 en text/html
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