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Killexams : IBM Administration reality - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/C8010-726 Search results Killexams : IBM Administration reality - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/C8010-726 https://killexams.com/exam_list/IBM Killexams : New US Semi Fab: Reality or Illusion?

Will the news of a new semiconductor fab on U.S. soil be a boost to the economy and technological stability or is it merely a fanciful political scheme? To answer that question, let’s start with the news that has created so much discussion in the electronics space.

Recently, the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) announced its intention to build and operate an advanced 5nm semiconductor fab in the U.S. state of Arizona. TSMC, headquartered in Taiwan, is the largest chip manufacturer in the world. The company currently operates a fab in Camas, Washington and design centers in both Austin, Texas and San Jose, California. The Arizona facility would be TSMC’s second manufacturing site in the United States.

The new manufacturing plant would be supported with funds from Arizona and the U.S. government. The fab will have a 20,000 wafer-per-month capacity, create over 1,600 jobs directly and thousands more indirectly, explained the company in a press statement.

This by TSMC is welcomed in the U.S. but not without controversy. Shortly after the announcement of the new fab, the U.S. Department of Commerce announced new restrictions on TSMC’s second-largest customer, HiSilicon of China – which is fully owned by Huawei. Some industry experts feel that the two events are related to the issue of U.S. export control.

Here’s where the political side of the TSMC fab announcement begins to emerge. Huawei, already part of the US trade war with China, was recently placed under new and more stringent export control. On May 19, the Commerce Department issued new rules to more fully close off Huawei's access to the semiconductor chips it needs to build cellphones and 5G infrastructure. This could conceivably block China's big telecommunications company from entering the much desired global 5G mobile network space.

According to the Commerce Department’s press release, the new rules ban other chipmakers — mostly based in South Korea and Taiwan — from using U.S. machines and software to manufacture semiconductors for China’s Huawei. The new restrictions remove a loophole that had allowed semiconductor makers to continue to sell components and designs to Huawei as long as they were made outside the U.S.

South Korea is included in this ban as the country’s leading chip fab – Samsung – has recently put $8 billion into building a new logic fab at Pyeongtaek in South Korea and another $8 billion unto expanding its memory fab at Xi’an in China. The Pyeongtaek fab is due to run first silicon next year using Samsung’s 5nm EUV process.

The reaction from the semiconductor industry has been generally good but mixed.

Some point out that a better site for the TSMC fab would be in New York state, where Globalfoundries (after acquisitions from IBM) maintain several chip foundries. But New York is a Democrat-controlled state while Arizona state is controlled by the Republicans. The current White House administration is also Republican based.

However, one counterpoint to this argument is that Intel already owns a large chip fab in Chandler, Arizona. Further, Intel has been a long-time partner with TSMC, sending their business to the Taiwanese fab when Intel was running at full capacity and needed extra chip making facilities. Intel might benefit from a U.S.-owned commercial foundry in Arizona, such as the proposed TSMC facility.

Another benefit for Intel might be that Arizona and the U.S. government will offer business incentives to TSMC and their vendors (like Intel and others) to help offset construction costs and higher operational cost in the U.S.

Regardless of the potential political or economic motivations, TSMC is unlikely to complain with either location as the company hopes to appease President Trump who has been very unhappy with their business support for Chinese semiconductor companies like Huawei. TSMC would undoubtedly probably prefer to be on the president’s good side to lessen further complications.

Semiconductors manufacturing facility. (Image Source: Semi Fab, Adobe Stock)

It’s not just about politics or economics. The Department of Defense has been in talks with Intel for many years concerning chip fabs that support work by the Pentagon. Such activities are better performed on U.S. soil and not a politically unstable, small island next to mainland China.

There is also a technology angle to the proposed fab. In a exact blog, semiconductor industry pundit David Manners suggested that the new fab is actually an obsolescent one. Manner’s points out that the capacity is small at around 20k wafers per month (wpm), while TSMC’s ‘megafabs’ in Taiwan are five times bigger performing at 100k wpm.

Of course, China has its own fab that might take on the work from Huawei that has been banned by the U.S. and others. To be specific, the U.S. has banned Huawei and China from purchasing US-made semiconductor manufacturing equipment. Without such equipment, it will be near impossible to make leading-node chips.

In response, Huawei has reportedly turned to China’s main chip fab - SMIC – to place orders for 14nm chips. This process node is apparently the best that SMIC can do without more advanced US manufacturing equipment. SMIC has received billions of dollars in support from the Chinese government.

Regardless of the geo-political posturing, economic or technology concerns, it’s important to remember that the TSMC proposal is merely a statement of intent. Whether it happens or not, TSMC will still come out ahead. The fab’s willingness to work with the U.S may keep the current administration from interfering with most of its other business – except for Huawei. If the fab is eventually build, TSMC is likely to receive significant incentives for building and operating another facility in the U.S. Still, the U.S. will benefit as well by having a new fab in the states. Stay tuned!

Huawei offices in Silicon Valley. (Image Source: Huawei offices, Adobe Stock)

John Blyler is a Design News senior editor, covering the electronics and advanced manufacturing spaces. With a BS in Engineering Physics and an MS in Electrical Engineering, he has years of hardware-software-network systems experience as an editor and engineer within the advanced manufacturing, IoT and semiconductor industries. John has co-authored books related to system engineering and electronics for IEEE, Wiley, and Elsevier.

Thu, 07 Jul 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.designnews.com/governmentdefense/new-us-semi-fab-reality-or-illusion
Killexams : Biden's recession juggling act

President Biden has a new headache: He can't avoid the debate over whether the U.S. is in a recession, but if he dwells on it, he may hasten the very slowdown he's desperate to avoid.

Why it matters: In economics, psychology matters. If the country and consumers believe we're in a recession — even if we technically aren't — the economy will eventually slow down, turning Biden's inflation problem into a potential stagflation nightmare.

  • Presidents can't talk their way out of an economic downturn, but they do have a unique ability to set the general tone of the country. Biden, like his predecessors, likes to accentuate positive economic data.
  • But with a 9.1% inflation rate and potentially two quarters of negative GDP growth, Biden can’t push the glass-half-full argument too far. His initial sanguine call on inflation — insisting it would be short-term — has already eroded some of his credibility.

Driving the news: On Thursday, the Commerce Department will release the initial GDP numbers for the second quarter of 2022, with economists expecting a 0.5% increase. Still, there are plenty of worrying signs: the Atlanta Fed’s "nowcast" model suggests GDP growth will come in at -1.6%.

  • Biden officials have been pre-butting the numbers and challenging the yeoman's definition that a recession is two consecutive quarters of negative economic growth, as Axios' Neil Irwin reported last week.
  • "Certainly in terms of the technical definition, it is not a recession," Brian Deese, the director of the National Economic Council, said on CNN on Monday morning.

What they're saying: Biden on Monday again downplayed the recession risk.

  • "My hope is we go from this rapid growth to steady growth and so we'll see some coming down," he said.
  • "But I don't think, God willing, we're going to see a recession," he said. "I'll be surprised."
  • Biden has a "strong antenna of what American families are going through," an administration official said today. "He really did grow up in a family where if the price of gas went up a nickel, it was a kitchen table discussion."

Between the lines: The risk in speaking too optimistically about the economy is a lack of credibility with voters — and markets.

  • “As president, you are always trying to be optimistic about the economy today and tomorrow," said Gary Cohn, who ran the National Economic Council under former President Trump and is now vice chairman of IBM.
  • "But you risk looking out of touch with voters that are suffering today and who are very concerned about the economic reality of tomorrow."

Flashback: After the 9/11 attacks, then-President George W. Bush tried to bolster the airline industry and the broader economy by encouraging Americans to head to Disney World.

  • "Take your families and enjoy life the way we want it to be enjoyed," he said.

The big picture: By custom, the National Bureau of Economic Research officially determines whether the U.S. economy is in recession.

  • "I do want to emphasize: What a recession really means is a broad-based contraction in the economy," Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen said on NBC’s "Meet the Press" this weekend.

Go deeper: Biden’s task will be all the more complicated if two big economic indicators — GDP and jobs growth — supply different readings.

  • While growth may be slowing, the economy has added an average of 375,000 jobs a month over the past three months.
  • But Americans' views on the economy are no longer as closely tied to the unemployment rate after the pandemic, according to a new paper.
Mon, 25 Jul 2022 12:09:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.axios.com/2022/07/26/biden-recession-economy-gdp
Killexams : The 8 Most Powerful Computers in The World No result found, try new keyword!We're used to seeing powerful computers in science fiction capable of processing massive amounts of data in a matter of seconds, machines so advanced they make modern personal computers look like toys ... Mon, 01 Aug 2022 23:00:14 -0500 en-us text/html https://www.msn.com/en-us/news/technology/the-8-most-powerful-computers-in-the-world/ar-AA10dR27 Killexams : Biden wants an industrial renaissance. He can’t do it without immigration reform.

JOHNSTOWN, Ohio — Just 15 minutes outside of downtown Columbus, the suburbs abruptly evaporate. Past a bizarre mix of soybean fields, sprawling office parks and lonely clapboard churches is a field where the Biden administration — with help from one of the world’s largest tech companies — hopes to turn the U.S. into a hub of microchip manufacturing.

In his State of the Union address in March, President Joe Biden called this 1,000-acre spread of corn stalks and farmhouses a “field of dreams.” Within three years, it will house two Intel-operated chip facilities together worth $20 billion — and Intel is promising to invest $80 billion more now that Washington has sweetened the deal with subsidies. It’s all part of a nationwide effort to head off another microchip shortage, shore up the free world’s advanced industrial base in the face of a rising China and claw back thousands of high-end manufacturing jobs from Asia.

But even as Biden signs into law more than $52 billion in “incentives” designed to lure chipmakers to the U.S., an unusual alliance of industry lobbyists, hard-core China hawks and science advocates says the president’s dream lacks a key ingredient — a small yet critical core of high-skilled workers. It’s a politically troubling irony: To achieve the long-sought goal of returning high-end manufacturing to the United States, the country must, paradoxically, attract more foreign workers.

“For high-tech industry in general — which of course, includes the chip industry — the workforce is a huge problem,” said Julia Phillips, a member of the National Science Board. “It’s almost a perfect storm.”

From electrical engineering to computer science, the U.S. currently does not produce enough doctorates and master’s degrees in the science, technology, engineering and math fields who can go on to work in U.S.-based microchip plants. Decades of declining investments in STEM education means the U.S. now produces fewer native-born recipients of advanced STEM degrees than most of its international rivals.

Foreign nationals, including many educated in the U.S., have traditionally filled that gap. But a bewildering and anachronistic immigration system, historic backlogs in visa processing and rising anti-immigrant sentiment have combined to choke off the flow of foreign STEM talent precisely when a fresh surge is needed.

Powerful members of both parties have diagnosed the problem and floated potential fixes. But they have so far been stymied by the politics of immigration, where a handful of lawmakers stand in the way of reforms few are willing to risk their careers to achieve. With a short window to attract global chip companies already starting to close, a growing chorus is warning Congress they’re running out of time.

“These semiconductor investments won’t pay off if Congress doesn’t fix the talent bottleneck,” said Jeremy Neufeld, a senior immigration fellow at the Institute for Progress think tank.

Given the hot-button nature of immigration fights, the chip industry has typically been hesitant to advocate directly for reform. But as they pump billions of dollars into U.S. projects and contemplate far more expensive plans, a sense of urgency is starting to outweigh that reluctance.

“We are seeing greater and greater numbers of our employees waiting longer and longer for green cards,” said David Shahoulian, Intel’s head of workforce policy. “At some point it will become even more difficult to attract and retain folks. That will be a problem for us; it will be a problem for the rest of the tech industry.”

“At some point, you’ll just see more offshoring of these types of positions,” Shahoulian said.

A Booming Technology

Microchips (often called “semiconductors” by wonkier types) aren’t anything new. Since the 1960s, scientists — working first for the U.S. government and later for private industry — have tacked transistors onto wafers of silicon or other semiconducting materials to produce computer circuits. What has changed is the power and ubiquity of these chips.

The number of transistors researchers can fit on a chip roughly doubles every two years, a phenomenon known as Moore’s Law. In exact years, that has led to absurdly powerful chips bristling with transistors — IBM’s latest chip packs them at two-nanometer intervals into a space roughly the size of a fingernail. Two nanometers is thinner than a strand of human DNA, or about how long a fingernail grows in two seconds.

A rapid boost in processing power stuffed into ever-smaller packages led to the information technology boom of the 1990s. And things have only accelerated since — microchips remain the primary driver of advances in smartphones and missiles, but they’re also increasingly integrated into household appliances like toaster ovens, thermostats and toilets. Even the most inexpensive cars on the market now contain hundreds of microchips, and electric or luxury vehicles are loaded with thousands.

It all adds up to a commodity widely viewed as the bedrock of the new digital economy. Like fossil fuels before them, any country that controls the production of chips possesses key advantages on the global stage.

Until fairly recently, the U.S. was one of those countries. But while chips are still largely designed in America, its capacity to produce them has declined precipitously. Only 12 percent of the world’s microchip production takes place in the U.S., down from 37 percent in 1990. That percentage declines further when you exclude “legacy” chips with wider spaces between transistors — the vast majority of bleeding-edge chips are manufactured in Taiwan, and most factories not found on that island reside in Asian nations like South Korea, China and Japan.

For a long time, few in Washington thinking about America’s flagging chip production. Manufacturing in the U.S. is expensive, and offshoring production to Asia while keeping R&D stateside was a good way to cut costs.

Two things changed that calculus: the Covid-19 pandemic and rising tensions between the U.S. and China.

Abrupt work stoppages sparked by viral spread in Asia sent shockwaves through finely tuned global supply chains. The flow of microchips ceased almost overnight, and then struggled to restart under new Covid surges and ill-timed extreme weather events. Combined with a spike in demand for microelectronics (sparked by generous government payouts to citizens stuck at home), the manufacturing stutter kicked off a chip shortage from which the world is still recovering.

Even before the pandemic, growing animosity between Washington and Beijing caused officials to question the wisdom of ceding chip production to Asia. China’s increasingly bellicose threats against Taiwan caused some to conjure up nightmare scenarios of an invasion or blockade that would sever the West from its supply of chips. The Chinese government was also pouring billions of dollars into a crash program to boost its own lackluster chip industry, prompting fears that America’s top foreign adversary could one day corner the market.

By 2020 the wheels had begun to turn on Capitol Hill. In January 2021, lawmakers passed as part of their annual defense bill the CHIPS for America Act, legislation authorizing federal payouts for chip manufacturers. But they then struggled to finance those subsidies. Although they quickly settled on more than $52 billion for chip manufacturing and research, lawmakers had trouble decoupling those sweeteners from sprawling anti-China “competitiveness” bills that stalled for over a year.

But those subsidies, as well as new tax credits for the chip industry, were finally sent to Biden’s desk in late July. Intel isn’t the only company that’s promised to supercharge U.S. projects once that money comes through — Samsung, for example, is suggesting it will expand its new $17 billion chip plant outside of Austin, Texas, to a nearly $200 billion investment. Lawmakers are already touting the subsidies as a key step toward an American renaissance in high-tech manufacturing.

Quietly, however, many of those same lawmakers — along with industry lobbyists and national security experts — fear all the chip subsidies in the world will fall flat without enough high-skilled STEM workers. And they accuse Congress of failing to seize multiple opportunities to address the problem.

STEM help wanted

In Columbus, just miles from the Johnstown field where Intel is breaking ground, most officials don’t mince words: The tech workers needed to staff two microchip factories, let alone eight, don’t exist in the region at the levels needed.

“We’re going to need a STEM workforce,” admitted Jon Husted, Ohio’s Republican lieutenant governor.

But Husted and others say they’re optimistic the network of higher ed institutions spread across Columbus — including Ohio State University and Columbus State Community College — can beef up the region’s workforce fast.

“I feel like we’re built for this,” said David Harrison, president of Columbus State Community College. He highlighted the repeated refrain from Intel officials that 70 percent of the 3,000 jobs needed to fill the first two factories will be “technician-level” jobs requiring two-year associate degrees. “These are our jobs,” Harrison said.

Harrison is anxious, however, over how quickly he and other leaders in higher ed are expected to convince thousands of students to sign up for the required STEM courses and join Intel after graduation. The first two factories are slated to be fully operational within three years, and will need significant numbers of workers well before then. He said his university still lacks the requisite infrastructure for instruction on chip manufacturing — “we’re missing some wafer processing, clean rooms, those kinds of things” — and explained that funding recently provided by Intel and the National Science Foundation won’t be enough. Columbus State will need more support from Washington.

“I don’t know that there’s a great Plan B right now,” said Harrison, adding that the new facilities will run into “the tens of millions.”

A lack of native STEM talent isn’t unique to the Columbus area. Across the country, particularly in regions where the chip industry is planning to relocate, officials are fretting over a perceived lack of skilled technicians. In February, the Taiwanese Semiconductor Manufacturing Corporation cited a shortage of skilled workers when announcing a six-month delay in the move-in date for their new plant in Arizona.

“Whether it’s a licensure program, a two-year program or a Ph.D., at all levels, there is a shortfall in high-tech STEM talent,” said Phillips. The NSB member highlighted the “missing millions of people that are not going into STEM fields — that basically are shut out, even beginning in K-12, because they’re not exposed in a way that attracts them to the field.”

Industry groups, like the National Association of Manufacturers, have long argued a two-pronged approach is necessary when it comes to staffing the high-tech sector: Reevaluating immigration policy while also investing heavily in workforce development

The abandoned House and Senate competitiveness bills both included provisions that would have enhanced federal support for STEM education and training. Among other things, the House bill would have expanded Pell Grant eligibility to students pursuing career-training programs.

“We have for decades incentivized degree attainment and not necessarily skills attainment,” said Robyn Boerstling, NAM’s vice president of infrastructure, innovation and human resources policy. “There are manufacturing jobs today that could be filled with six weeks of training, or six months, or six years; we need all of the above.”

But those provisions were scrapped, after Senate leadership decided a conference between the two chambers on the bills was too unwieldy to reach agreement before the August recess.

Katie Spiker, managing director of government affairs at National Skills Coalition, said the abandoned Pell Grant expansion shows Congress “has not responded to worker needs in the way that we need them to.” Amid criticisms that the existing workforce development system is unwieldy and ineffective, the decision to scrap new upgrades is a continuation of a trend of disinvesting in workers who hope to obtain the skills they need to meet employer demand.

“And it becomes an issue that only compounds itself over time,” Spiker said. “As technology changes, people need to change and evolve their skills.”

“If we’re not getting people skilled up now, then we won’t have people that are going to be able to evolve and skill up into the next generation of manufacturing that we’ll do five years from now.”

Congress finally sent the smaller Chips and Science Act — which includes the chip subsidies and tax credits, $200 million to develop a microchip workforce and a slate of R&D provisions — to the president’s desk in late July. The bill is expected to enhance the domestic STEM pool (at least on the margins). But it likely falls short of the generational investments many believe are needed.

“You could make some dent in it in six years,” said Phillips. “But if you really want to solve the problem, it’s closer to a 20-year investment. And the ability of this country to invest in anything for 20 years is not phenomenal.”

Immigration Arms Race

The microchip industry is in the midst of a global reshuffling that’s expected to last a better part of the decade — and the U.S. isn’t the only country rolling out the red carpet. Europe, Canada, Japan and other regions are also thinking about their security, and preparing sweeteners for microchip firms to set up shop in their borders. Cobbling together an effective STEM workforce in a short time frame will be key to persuading companies to choose America instead.

That will be challenging at the technician level, which represents around 70 percent of workers in most microchip factories. But those jobs require only two-year degrees — and over a six-year period, it’s possible a sustained education and recruitment effort can produce enough STEM workers to at least keep the lights on.

It’s a different story entirely for Ph.D.s and master’s degrees, which take much longer to earn and which industry reps say make up a smaller but crucial component of a factory’s workforce.

Gabriela González, Intel’s head of global STEM research, policy and initiatives, said about 15 percent of factory workers must have doctorates or master’s degrees in fields such as material and electrical engineering, computer science, physics and chemistry. Students coming out of American universities with those degrees are largely foreign nationals — and increasingly, they’re graduating without an immigration status that lets them work in the U.S., and with no clear pathway to achieving that status.

A National Science Board estimate from earlier this year shows a steadily rising proportion of foreign-born students with advanced STEM skills. That’s especially true for degrees crucial to the chip industry — nearly 60 percent of computer science Ph.D.s are foreign born, as are more than 50 percent of engineering doctorates.

“We are absolutely reliant on being able to hire foreign nationals to fill those needs,” said Intel’s Shahoulian. Like many in the chip industry, Shaoulian contends there simply aren’t enough high-skilled STEM professionals with legal status to simultaneously serve America’s existing tech giants and an influx of microchip firms.

Some academics, such as Howard University’s Ron Hira, suggest the shortage of workers with STEM degrees is overblown, and industry simply seeks to import cheaper, foreign-born labor. But that view contrasts with those held by policymakers on Capitol Hill or people in the scientific and research communities. In a report published in late July by the Government Accountability Office, all 17 of the experts surveyed agreed the lack of a high-skilled STEM workforce was a barrier to new microchip projects in the U.S. — and most said some type of immigration reform would be needed.

Many, if not most, of the foreign nationals earning advanced STEM degrees from U.S. universities would prefer to stay and work in the country. But America’s immigration system is turning away these workers in record numbers — and at the worst possible time.

Ravi (not his real name, given his tenuous immigration status) is an Indian national. Nearly three years ago, he graduated from a STEM master’s program at a prestigious eastern university before moving to California to work as a design verification lead at an international chip company. He’s applied three times for an H-1B visa, a high-skilled immigration program used extensively by U.S. tech companies. But those visas are apportioned via a lottery, and Ravi lost each time. His current visa only allows him to work through the end of year — so Ravi is giving up and moving to Canada, where he’s agreed to take a job with another chip company. Given his skill set, he expects to quickly receive permanent legal status.

“The application process is incredibly simple there,” said Ravi, noting that Canadian officials were apologetic over their brief 12-week processing time (they’re swamped by refugee applications, he said).

If given the choice, Ravi said he would’ve probably stayed in California. But his story now serves as a cautionary tale for his younger brother back home. “Once he sort of completed his undergrad back in India, he did mention that he is looking at more immigration-friendly countries,” Ravi said. “He’s giving Canada more thought, at this point, than the United States.”

Ravi’s story is far from unique, particularly for Indian nationals. The U.S. imposes annual per-country caps on green cards — and between a yearly crush of applicants and a persistent processing backlog, Indians (regardless of their education or skill level) can expect to wait as long as 80 years for permanent legal status. A report released earlier this year by the libertarian Cato Institute found more than 1.4 million skilled immigrants are now stuck in green card backlogs, just a slight drop from 2020’s all-time high of more than 1.5 million.

The third rail of U.S. politics

The chip industry has shared its anxiety over America’s slipping STEM workforce with Washington, repeatedly asking Congress to make it easier for high-skilled talent to stay. But unlike their lobbying for subsidies and tax breaks — which has gotten downright pushy at times — they’ve done so very quietly. While chip lobbyists have spent months telling anyone who will listen why the $52 billion in financial incentives are a “strategic imperative,” they’ve only recently been willing to discuss their immigration concerns on the record.

In late July, nine major chip companies planned to send an open letter to congressional leadership warning that the shortage of high-skilled STEM workers “has truly never been more acute” and urging lawmakers to “enact much-needed green card reforms.” But the letter was pulled at the last minute, after some companies thinking about wading into a tense immigration debate at the wrong time.

Leaders in the national security community have been less shy. In May, more than four dozen former officials sent a leader to congressional leadership urging them to shore up America’s slipping immigration edge before Chinese technology leapfrogs ours. “With the world’s best STEM talent on its side, it will be very hard for America to lose,” they wrote. “Without it, it will be very hard for America to win.”

The former officials exhorted lawmakers to take up and pass provisions in the House competitiveness bill that would’ve lifted green card caps for foreign nationals with STEM Ph.D.s or master’s degrees. It’d be a relatively small number of people — a February study from Georgetown University’s Center for Security and Emerging Technology suggested the chip industry would only need around 3,500 foreign-born workers to effectively staff new U.S.-based factories.

“This is such a small pool of people that there’s already an artificial cap on it,” said Klon Kitchen, a senior fellow focused on technology and national security at the conservative American Enterprise Institute.

Kitchen suggested the Republican Party’s wariness toward immigration shouldn’t apply to these high-skilled workers, and some elected Republicans agree. Sen. John Cornyn, whose state of Texas is poised to gain from the expansion of chip plants outside Austin, took up the torch — and almost immediately got burned.

Sen. Chuck Grassley, Iowa’s senior Republican senator, blocked repeated attempts by Cornyn, Democrats and others to include the green card provision in the final competitiveness package. Finding relief for a small slice of the immigrant community, Grassley reasoned, “weakens the possibility to get comprehensive immigration reform down the road.” He refused to budge even after Biden administration officials warned him of the national security consequences in a classified June 16 briefing, which was convened specifically for him. The effort has been left for dead (though a push to shoehorn a related provision into the year-end defense bill is ongoing).

Many of Grassley’s erstwhile allies are frustrated with his approach. “We’ve been talking about comprehensive immigration reform for how many decades?” asked Kitchen, who said he’s “not inclined” to let America’s security concerns “tread water in the background” while Congress does nothing to advance broader immigration bills.

Most Republicans in Congress agree with Kitchen. But so far it’s Cornyn, not Grassley, who’s paid a price. After helping broker a deal on gun control legislation in June, Cornyn was attacked by Breitbart and others on his party’s right flank for telling a Democratic colleague immigration would be next.

“Immigration is one of the most contentious issues here in Congress, and we’ve shown ourselves completely incapable of dealing with it on a rational basis,” Cornyn said in July. The senator said he’d largely given up on persuading Grassley to abandon his opposition to new STEM immigration provisions. “I would love to have a conversation about merit-based immigration,” Cornyn said. “But I don’t think, under the current circumstances, that’s possible.”

Cornyn blamed that in part on the far right’s reflexive outrage to any easing of immigration restrictions. “Just about anything you say or do will get you in trouble around here these days,” he said.

Given that reality, few Republicans are willing to stick their necks out on the issue.

“If you look at the messaging coming out of [the National Republican Senatorial Committee] or [the Republican Attorneys General Association], it’s all ‘border, border, border,’” said Rebecca Shi, executive director of the American Business Immigration Coalition. Shi said even moderate Republicans hesitate to publicly advance arguments “championing these sensible visas for Ph.D. STEM talents for integrated circuits for semiconductors.”

“They’re like … ‘I can’t say those phrases until after the elections,’” Shi said.

That skittishness extends to state-level officials — Ohio’s Husted spent some time expounding on the benefits of “bringing talented people here to do the work in America, rather than having companies leave America to have it done somewhere else.” He suggested that boosting STEM immigration would be key to Intel’s success in his state. But when asked whether he’s taken that message to Ohio’s congressional delegation — after all, he said he’d been pestering them to pass the chip subsidies — Husted hedged.

“My job is to do all I can for the people of the state of Ohio. There are other people whose job it is to message those other things,” Husted said. “But if asked, you heard what my answer is.”

Of course, Republicans also pin some of the blame on Democrats. “The administration ignores the fire at the border and the chaos there, which makes it very hard to have a conversation about controlling immigration flows,” Cornyn said.

And while Democratic lawmakers reject that specific concern, some admit their side hasn’t prioritized STEM immigration as it should.

“Neither team has completely clean hands,” said Sen. Mark Warner, the chair of the Senate Intelligence Committee. Warner noted that Democrats have also sought to hold back STEM immigration fixes as “part of a sweetener” so that business-friendly Republicans would in turn back pathways to citizenship for undocumented immigrants. He also dinged the chip companies, claiming the issue is “not always as straightforward” as the industry would like to frame it and that tech companies sometimes hope to pay less for foreign-born talent.

But Warner still supports the effort to lift green card caps for STEM workers. “Without that high-skilled immigration, it’s not like those jobs are going to disappear,” he said. “They’re just gonna move to another country.”

And despite their rhetoric, it’s hard to deny that congressional Republicans are largely responsible for continued inaction on high-skilled immigration — even as their allies in the national security space become increasingly insistent.

Stuck on STEM immigration

Though they’ve had to shrink their ambitions, lawmakers working to lift green card caps for STEM immigrants haven’t given up. A jurisdictional squabble between committees in July prevented advocates from including in the House’s year-end defense bill a provision that would’ve nixed the caps for Ph.D.s in “critical” STEM fields. They’re now hoping to shoehorn the provision into the Senate’s defense bill instead, and have tapped Republican Sen. Thom Tillis of North Carolina as their champion in the upper chamber.

But Tillis is already facing pushback from the right. And despite widespread support, few truly believe there’s enough momentum to overcome Grassley and a handful of other lawmakers willing to block any action.

“Most members on both sides recognize that this is a problem they need to resolve,” said Intel’s Shahoulian. “They’re just not at a point yet where they’re willing to compromise and take the political hits that come with it.”

The global chip industry is moving in the meantime. While most companies are still planning to set up shop in the U.S. regardless of what happens with STEM immigration, Shahoulian said inaction on that front will inevitably limit the scale of investments by Intel and other firms.

“You’re already seeing that dynamic playing out,” he said. “You’re seeing companies set up offices in Canada, set up offices elsewhere, move R&D work elsewhere in the world, because it is easier to retain talent elsewhere than it is here.”

“This is an issue that will progressively get worse,” Shahoulian said. “It’s not like there will be some drop-dead deadline. But yeah, it’s getting difficult.”

Intel is still plowing ahead in Johnstown — backhoes are churning up dirt, farmers have been bought out of homes owned by their families for generations and the extensive water and electric infrastructure required for eight chip factories is being laid. Whether those bets will pay off in the long-term may rest on Congress’ ability to thread the needle on STEM immigration. And there’s little optimism at the moment.

Sen. Maria Cantwell, the chair of the Senate Commerce Committee, said she sometimes wishes she could “shake everybody and tell them to wake up.” But she believes economic and geopolitical realities will force Congress to open the door to high-skilled foreign workers — eventually.

“I think the question is whether you do that now or in 10 years,” Cantwell said. “And you’ll be damn sorry if you wait for 10 years.”

Sat, 30 Jul 2022 23:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.politico.com/news/2022/07/31/microchip-immigration-tech-00048242 Killexams : Image Recognition Market Growth Forecast At 15.3% CAGR By 2030 | IBM Corporation, Qualcomm, Honeywell, Etc

(MENAFN- EIN Presswire)

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Rising adoption of Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence in various applications and solutions are some key factors is driving growth

Image recognition Market Size – USD 25.67 Billion in 2020, Market Growth – at a CAGR of 15.3%, Market Trends – Advancements in technology” — Emergen Research

VANCOUVER, BC, CANADA, June 27, 2022 /EINPresswire.com / -- The global image recognition market size is expected to reach USD 80.29 Billion at a steady CAGR of 15.3% in 2028, according to latest analysis by Emergen Research. Increasing usage of smartphones globally and rising adoption of Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) are key factors driving growth of the global image recognition market.

Other factors include growing demand for face recognition in tablets, smartphones, and personal computers due to technological advancements. Increasing budgets for homeland security and defense spending by government in countries such as China, Russia, and India is also contributing to growth of the market to a significant extent. In February 2020, Department of Homeland Security officials detailed the use of facial recognition technologies by the administration across the U.S. To date, over 43.7 million individuals have been scanned at border crossings, outbound ships, and elsewhere by various systems. Facial recognition identified 252 persons attempting to use a combined 75 U.S. travel documents belonging to someone else, around 7% under the age of 18 and 20% of who had criminal records.

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Image recognition applications include targeted advertising, smart photo libraries, accessibility for the visually impaired, media interactivity, and enhanced research capabilities. Google, Microsoft, Facebook, Pinterest, and Apple are investing in resources and research into image recognition and related applications. Improper data storage, security breaches, and misuse of facial recognition data are some of the primary concerns related to image recognition technology, which could limit adoption in several areas.

The advent of cloud media services and increase in number of mobile devices is fueling market growth to a significant extent. Deployment and preference for cloud-based services has increased to a significant extent due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The major benefits of cloud as a platform in the market are its easy scalability and ease of sharing already collected images and data between all devices.

The key companies studied in the report are:

IBM Corporation

Qualcomm

Honeywell

Toshiba

Microsoft

Huawei

Oracle

NEC Corporation

Catchoom

Slyce

Others

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Some Key Highlights in the Report

The software segment accounted for largest revenue share in 2020 due to a sudden and rapid increase in adoption of image recognition software in computer graphics, medical imaging, and photo editing, among others. Rapidly growing trends of industry automation and Industry 4.0 are driving adoption of image recognition software, and the trend is expected to continue over the forecast period.

Image recognition or tracking is used in augmented reality to track, detect, and augment 2D images. Image tracking is dependent on advanced computer vision technology to track and augment images. Jack Daniels augmented reality app turns whisky bottles into pop-out storybooks. The free app uses a tablet or smartphone camera to recognize the sticker on the bottle and unfolds the whole manufacturing process of the drink in a matching black and white pop-up book.

Image recognition is an important tool in autonomous vehicles used by Uber and Google. The technology detects road signs and obstacles through sensors in front of a vehicle and identifies these with the help of this technology. Computer vision systems powered by deep learning are trained with thousands of images of humans, road signs, and obstacles on the road under different weather and lighting conditions. The intelligence of the system continues to increase as new information is fed in.

North America accounted for largest revenue share in 2020 due to high level of integration of AI in e-commerce and digital shopping. Companies in the region are quick to adopt advanced technologies such as AI, deep learning, and cloud-based technologies, which is propelling growth of the market.

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Emergen Research has segmented the global image recognition market on the basis of component, application, deployment mode, technique, industry vertical, and region:

Component Outlook (Revenue, USD Billion; 2018–2028)

Hardware

Software

Services

Application Outlook (Revenue, USD Billion; 2018–2028)

Security and Surveillance

Scanning and Imaging

Augmented Reality

Image Search

Marketing and Advertising

Deployment Mode Outlook (Revenue, USD Billion; 2018–2028)

On-premises

Cloud

Technique Outlook (Revenue, USD Billion; 2018–2028)

Object Recognition

QR/ Barcode Recognition

Pattern Recognition

Facial Recognition

Optical Character Recognition

Industry Vertical Outlook (Revenue, USD Billion; 2018–2028)

Media & Entertainment

Healthcare

Retail & E-commerce

BFSI

IT & Telecom

Automobile & Transportation

Government

Others

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Regional Outlook (Revenue, USD Billion; 2018–2028)

North America

U.S.

Canada

Mexico

Europe

Germany

U.K.

France

Spain

Benelux

Rest of Europe

Asia Pacific

China

India

Japan

South Korea

Rest of APAC

Latin America

Brazil

Rest of LATAM

Middle East & Africa

Saudi Arabia

UAE

Rest Of MEA

The report addresses the following key points:

The report estimates the expected market size from 2020-2028

The report provides a forecast of market drivers, restraints, and future opportunities for the Image Recognition market

The report further analyses the changing market dynamics

Regional analysis and segmentation of the market with analysis of the regions and segments expected to dominate the market growth

Extensive competitive landscape mapping with profiles of the key competitors

In-depth analysis of business strategies and collaborations such as mergers and acquisitions adopted by the key companies

Revenue forecast, country scope, application insights, and product insights

Thank you for memorizing our report. For any specific details on customization of this report, please get in touch with us. We will ensure the report you get is well-suited to your needs.

About Emergen Research

At Emergen Research, we believe in advancing with technology. We are a growing Marketresearch and strategy consulting company with an exhaustive knowledge base of cutting-edge and potentially market-disrupting technologies that are predicted to become more prevalent in the coming decade.

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Emergen Research
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Mon, 27 Jun 2022 02:42:00 -0500 Date text/html https://menafn.com/1104439499/Image-Recognition-Market-Growth-Forecast-At-153-CAGR-By-2030-IBM-Corporation-Qualcomm-Honeywell-Etc
Killexams : Managed Security Services Market - Growth, Trends...

New York, July 06, 2022 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Reportlinker.com announces the release of the report "Managed Security Services Market - Growth, Trends, COVID-19 Impact, and Forecasts (2022 - 2027)" - https://www.reportlinker.com/p06290930/?utm_source=GNW
This is because, with the arrival of COVID-19, the use of managed security services is believed to enable enterprises to address security issues and facilitate secure information access while remote working.

Key Highlights
Managed security services in computing are network security services outsourced to any service provider. Many organizations hire managed security service providers (MSSPs) to undertake security monitoring, as they do not have the necessary expertise or staff in-house. Maintaining any security monitoring infrastructure is complex and requires qualified staff to assess and respond continually.
Moreover, organizations requiring custom security deployments due to overly complex or expansive architecture or specific implementation needs with disparate systems can significantly benefit from such services. Additionally, organizations relying on dynamic resource allocation generally require better automation to monitor the dynamic environments in which they operate effectively. Such complex automation needs can be managed by the services offered by players like AT&T, Verizon, IBM, and SecureWorks.
According to the HIPAA, the top 3 data breaches in the healthcare sector in the US witnessed a combined loss of more than 5.2 million patient records, including organizations like AccudocSolutions, UnityPoint Health, and the Employees' Retirement System of Texas.
Today, the world is more digitally connected than ever before. Cybercriminals use this online transformation to target online systems, networks, and infrastructure weaknesses. There is a massive economic and social impact on governments, businesses, and individuals worldwide. Phishing, ransomware, and data breaches are just a few examples of current cyber threats, while new types of cybercrime are always emerging. Cybercriminals are increasingly agile and organized – exploiting new technologies, tailoring their attacks, and cooperating in new ways. According to the FBI's?Internet Crime Report 2021, 847,376 complaints of cyber-crime were reported to the FBI by the public in 2021, a 7% increase from 2020.
The increasing complexity of cyber threats has driven the trend toward outsourcing one or more of an organization's security operations. Many factors must be considered when deciding between an internal and an outsourced Security Operations Center (SOC), and the right choice may have critical consequences, as malicious code infiltrating a business system can now destroy an entire business.

Key Market Trends

Cloud Deployment to Dominate the Market

IT decision-makers are typically confronted with issues surrounding regulatory compliance, security, and risk reduction as businesses in the throes of digital transformation undertake the inevitable yet daunting task of upgrading their on-premises IT infrastructure and moving some of their operations to the cloud. The shortage of skilled IT professionals on staff and the inability to stay updated with the exact tools, technologies, and practices exacerbates these corporate concerns. At a time when threats to network and data security are on the rise, managed security service providers (MSSPs) can help overwhelmed enterprises confront cloud configuration, risk reduction, and regulatory compliance.
The cloud-deployed managed security services are flexible and scalable. Further, it enables the service provider to access, monitor, and even remotely repair any issues within the cloud environment. Continual monitoring ensures the quick and efficient resolution of problems. The shift to cloud-based managed security services is also aided by the increasing penetration of emerging technologies such as AI/ML, big data analytics, threat intelligence, and advanced automation platforms. To cater to the evolving requirements of the industry, several market players are launching comprehensive services by way of innovation and collaboration.
In August 2021, Amazon Web Services launched a new partner competency for managed security service providers (MSSPs) and made their cloud software solutions and services available in the AWS Marketplace. The AWS Level 1 MSSP Competency, which AWS has been piloting for a year, creates a new baseline standard for managed security services that protect, monitor, and respond to security events of essential AWS resources and are delivered to customers as a fully managed service. According to the company, the new competency is designed to help partners differentiate themselves in a crowded security market and make it easier for customers to procure their services.
Further, in July 2021, Tech Mahindra announced a managed security services provider (MSSP) partnership with cybersecurity company Palo Alto Networks. The agreement led to the expansion of Tech Mahindra's global partnership with the US-based multinational to provide a full suite of managed security services. As an MSSP, Tech Mahindra would offer complete visibility and control of the network, endpoint, and cloud security, including value-added services like risk assessment, posture management, workload protection, and orchestration to the company's customers.
Furthermore, in July 2021, Telus launched a new managed cloud security solution based on Palo Alto Networks' Prisma Access technology, which will allow Canadian businesses to access data and apps from anywhere securely. To assure network security and protection, the new managed cloud security solution offers firewall services, threat prevention, malware prevention, URL filtering, SSL decryption, and application-based policies. It also allows consumers to use SASE by connecting to Telus SD-WAN services.

Asia Pacific to Witness the Fastest Growth

Digital transformation has become a top priority in the region and is spreading rapidly, as a greater number of companies are implementing formal strategies to support their efforts, which is driving the market demand.
Engaging outsourced managed services for a company's IT resources can be a way to ensure substantial budget savings, more resilient computing capacity, and more secure network uptime and performance. China Telecom Americas Corporation gives complete turnkey professional ICT services in 72 countries globally, in partnership with major vendors, such as Juniper, Microsoft, Cisco, FSNetworks, IBM, VMware, and Huawei, among many more.
The increasing threats to cybersecurity in the region, including IT ransomware attacks, DDoS attacks, data exfiltration, and the increasing media coverage of high-profile cyberattacks, are compelling the organizations in the country to adopt managed security services. Moreover, conventional industries are supported by policies to embrace digital transformation and enhance their adoption of IT technologies. Hence, their demand for internet data center services is also rising, further driving the market growth.
With the rapid development of AI, 5G, IoT, virtual reality, and the commercial application of these new technologies, the demand for data processing and information interaction is increasing, which will speed up the construction of data centers in the region and lead to the explosive growth of the industry.??
Threats to the integrity, confidentiality, and obtainability of organization information are increasing exponentially in India, hence emphasizing the focus on providing a standardized model for information security based on a business risk approach to establish, implement, operate, monitor, review, maintain, and Improve overall information security for customers.
In addition, in February 2022, IBM announced an investment in its resources to help businesses in the Asia-Pacific (APAC) region prepare for and manage the growing danger of cyberattacks. The new IBM Security Command Center, the first of its type in the region, will be used to educate cybersecurity response strategies using extremely realistic, simulated cyberattacks to prepare everyone from the C-suite to technical personnel. The investment also includes a new Security Operation Center (SOC), which will be part of IBM's current global SOC network, which provides security response services to clients around the world 24/7.

Competitive Landscape

The Managed Security Services Market is fragmented due to existing giants and many upcoming vendors who provide security services to prevent companies from attacks like network attacks, Denial of services, or even performing a risk assessment. This market is anticipated to encounter a number of partnerships, mergers, service launches, and acquisitions as organizations continue to invest strategically.

April 2022 - Ace Cloud Hosting (ACE), the global cloud services provider of application hosting and virtual desktops, announced the launch of Managed Security Services (MSS). Further, Accenture acquired Symantec's cybersecurity services business to incorporate flexibility into security services. Additionally, Verizon integrated Blackberry Cylance's AI-based anti-virus solution into its security services portfolio. This integration is indicative of the increasing demand for AI-based cybersecurity solutions. Both these developments underscore the growth potential that the market offers.
November 2021 - IBM Security and Nozomi Networks announced that IBM Security had been certified as a Nozomi Networks MSSP Elite Partner, combining Nozomi Networks' solutions and expertise for OT and industrial IoT cybersecurity with IBM Security's managed security services offering.

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Tue, 05 Jul 2022 21:59:00 -0500 text/html https://www.benzinga.com/pressreleases/22/07/g27965324/managed-security-services-market-growth-trends-covid-19-impact-and-forecasts-2022-2027
Killexams : 2 new Black-owned breweries tap in, aim to change industry

CHARLOTTE, N.C. — As the craft beer industry expands in Charlotte, one untapped market is about to emerge.

It’s been three years since Charlotte — a city with than 30 craft breweries — has had a Black-owned brewery. Three Spirits Brewery was Charlotte’s only Black-owned brewery. It opened in 2016 but closed three years later without explanation.

But now, two Black-owned breweries are Getting ready to open over the next several months.

Weather Souls Brewing Co., out of San Antonio, Texas, will open its second location in October in South End. Charlotte is familiar with the brewery and owner Marcus Baskerville because two years ago, he started the Black is Beautiful project to raise awareness about injustice. Several local breweries participated.

“There’s an amazing craft beer scene there,” Baskerville said.

Following Weathered Souls’ opening, Hippin’ Hops Brewery will open its fourth location in NoDa. It’s Atlanta’s first Black-owned brewery with a permanent site, which opened in April 2021.

Owner Clarence Boston has long ties to Charlotte. He opened his first business in the Queen City 16 years ago. He has had ownership in several businesses since, including a funeral home and nightclubs.

Early next year, Hippin’ Hops Brewery will open its fourth location in Charlotte. Boston opened a second Atlanta brewery and distillery in the spring. And soon, a third location will open in Stone Mountain, Georgia, as a production brewery, offices and restaurant.

Hippin’ Hops Brewery will be the largest Black-owned brewery in the U.S., Boston said.

“Black-owned breweries are a so unique business because they don’t exist,” Boston said.

Less than 1% of the nearly 8,500 craft breweries in America are Black-owned, according to a 2019 Brewers Association survey.

Both Baskerville and Boston have plans to change that.

“Real change is made through ownership,” Baskerville said. “We know when you build a diverse business, you have a better chance of success.”

Boston was recently appointed as treasurer to the Georgia Craft Brewers Guild. He’s also the Guild’s first Black board member in its 12-year history.

“I never thought in a million years I’d be sitting on the guild,” Boston said. Boston said people call him “The Black Anheuser-Busch” and his goal is to distribute in all 50 states.

His hope is to help the craft industry tap into another market.

“There are a lot of Black beer drinkers but introducing them to craft beer is only going to help the industry as a whole,” he said.

Boston plans to create a diversity, equity and inclusion advisory board to help other Black brewers to open breweries in Georgia and eventually nationwide.

And as host of Blacktoberfest on Oct. 15 at the Stone Mountain site, he expects to draw not only Black breweries nationwide but collaborations from other breweries, such as SweetWater, Monday Night and Reformation in Atlanta.

“We could not make enough beer for all those people coming,” Boston said of the event. “We put Black brewers with different breweries to brew a beer for the festival.”

It also can be hard to get the products in front of consumers. That’s why Jamel Lynch started Harlem Beer Distributing, based in Durham, four years ago. He met Celeste Beatty, owner of Harlem Brewing Co. in New York City and the first Black woman to open a brewery in the U.S., who explained the challenges with distribution and cracking the white-male-dominated industry.

Lynch was an engineer for IBM at the time, but wanted to help get Beatty’s beers in North Carolina. He reached out to stores, bars and restaurants, selling 140 cases to show a distributor that Beatty’s beer was worth taking on. But even then, the distributor said no.

“I began to see some of the challenges of the small brewers, in particular African-American breweries, to try to penetrate a network. It’s not really made of people that look like us,” Lynch said. “I grew up here in the South. I know what it’s like to be shunned and I’ve certainly run up against some of those challenges in this industry.

“You don’t belong in this business. That was the vibration I felt when I began to speak to some of these white-owned bars and restaurants,” he said.

Lynch decided to start a distribution company to supply smaller breweries exposure to markets that they would not normally have access to.

“I’m trying to break down those barriers,” Lynch said. “It’s not that we want to work only with African-Americans. We want to work with people who have a like-minded approach to doing business, connecting with your community.

“Beer distribution is just a platform to do what I really want to do and that’s inspire and help other people,” he said.

For years, Boston wanted a Charlotte location for his Hippin’ Hops Brewery, even incorporating it in North Carolina in 2018.

“I tried my damn hardest to find a building through several of the big real estate companies in Charlotte and it was just like they didn’t want to lease to African-Americans,” Boston said. “That’s a big part of why I left. “It was a different time than what it is today,” he said.

Boston and his wife Donnica found a place for the brewery and restaurant within a week of moving to Atlanta.

But he still wanted to be in Charlotte. Boston said there were no problems finding a space for the brewery. In fact, the leasing company for the Winnifred Street location is owned by an Atlanta company familiar with Hippin’ Hops.

“But I do see things have changed due to COVID,” Boston said. “It’s amazing to see a lot of these different Black-owned businesses popping up in Dilworth and places that would generally rent to African-Americans.”

In the Black community, Boston said, the biggest challenges in breaking into the craft beer industry are securing capital and fear of investing in yourself.

Lynch said one batch of beer can cost $15,000. “Try to build up your own capital, self-invest as much as you can before you step out and supply yourself some time,” he said.

Boston was able to invest his own capital into the brewery from the sale of the Charlotte funeral home and interests in other ventures.

Baskerville said in the 1980s, the lack of resources and securing financial funding created a generational gap for minority-owned businesses.

“They would have laughed me out of the bank,” said Baskerville, 37.

He also points to industry advertising.

“It’s never been marketed to us like malt liquor and Hennessy,” Baskerville said. “It’s not culturally normal for Blacks to drink beer.”

Baskerville’s co-owner Mike Holt, who is white, is the majority owner and financier of Weather Souls.

Boston said it’s important to share information about schools and how to apply for loans and grants to open a brewery, as well as mentorship.

“Make those things available to Black folks to push the industry forward,” Boston said. “We have to get the word out more.”

Nationally, about half of craft beer consumers are white male, and for a long time this has caused many BIPOC, women and other minority people to feel the industry does not have a place for them, Lisa Parker, executive director of N.C. Craft Brewers Guild. The nonprofit started in 2008 and 72% of North Carolina’s 403 brewing facilities are members of the Guild.

“However, the face of craft beer is changing,” she said.

The industry is increasing opportunities that foster minority, women and BIPOC involvement.

“One such example is the Charlotte-based Many Faces Initiative, which provides paid internships that offer mentoring and immersive training experiences to people of color interested in pursuing careers within the craft brewing industry,” said Parker, who was a homebrewer and was hired as the guild’s second employee in 2015.

Last year, 1,300 breweries worldwide — including several in Charlotte — joined Weathered Souls’ Black is Beautiful Project. It raised $3 million.

Now Baskerville is using a portion of those proceeds, along with a $100,000 grant from Rahr Corp. and other backing to create the Harriet Baskerville Incubation Program in Charlotte. The program, named for Baskerville’s grandmother who brewed during the prohibition, will help aspiring brewers of color and women learn all about brewing and brewhouse operations.

The incubator is expected to start in November, following Weathered Souls opening on Clanton Road in late October. Twelve home brewers will be accepted.

“I never thought this would be a passion project but giving others a blueprint to open a brewery is my purpose,” Baskerville said.

Even if four minority-owned breweries open within the first year, Baskerville said that’s a 16% increase for the craft industry.

Baskerville’s advice is to speak with a local Small Business Administration officer, learn about grants or other funding available from the city and state, and seek mentorships from someone in the industry. “Ask tons of questions,” he said. “Surround yourself with people who know things to learn from.”

Another way to break down barriers is partnerships and supporting Black-owned and minority-owned businesses by asking retailers for the product, said Lynch, who now distributes six breweries in over 300 locations in Virginia, Georgia and North Carolina, including Charlotte.

Harlem Brewing Distribution also sets up scholarships and offers internships, Lynch said.

Just this summer, Parker said North Carolina crossed the threshold of 400 brewing facilities in production.

“Charlotte is now our state’s largest craft beer city, with a total 41 permitted brewing facilities currently in production,” she said. “Our breweries serve as all-inclusive community gathering spaces, and due to this, we play a significant role in the economic development and revitalization of our downtowns and neighborhoods.”

And Boston said maintaining diversity in any business is important. Hippin’ Hops’ staff of about over 50 is diverse, Boston said with about 50-50 Black and white. And, he expects the majority of customers to be white.

“We’re not a Black-owned brewery that is just for Black people,” he said. “We want diversity in our breweries.”

Thu, 04 Aug 2022 20:16:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.phillytrib.com/lifestyle/2-new-black-owned-breweries-tap-in-aim-to-change-industry/article_d01ef23a-7761-5508-910b-976c3f78f5fe.html
Killexams : Integrated Facility Management Market Hitting New Highs By 2028

New Jersey, United States – Integrated Facility Management Market 2022 – 2028, Size, Share, and Trends Analysis Research Report Segmented with Type, Component, Application, Growth Rate, Region, and Forecast | key companies profiled -IBM, Oracle, SAP, and others.

Integrated Facility Management efforts into a single, cohesive team is known as integrated facility management. Contracts, vendor alliances, space management, and real estate planning are all included. IFM isn’t a novel concept, despite what it might seem like. Consider the change to the thinking of facility management today. Data is now grouped and aggregated throughout the spectrum rather than being stored in isolated silos. The same holds true for facility management. The solution is not to divide management responsibilities, tasks, and resources. They get together through IFM. A dependable way to host facilities management software is through cloud-based solutions. As they Improve security and collaboration across teams and subsidiaries present in various locations, they also aid in lowering operating costs for firms.

According to our latest report, the Integrated Facility Management market, which was valued at US$ million in 2022, is expected to grow at a CAGR of approximate percent over the forecast period.

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Other benefits of cloud-based facilities management solutions include better security and secure hosting of sensitive data as well as scalability and prompt disaster recovery. Because the backups are kept on a shared or private cloud host platform, businesses may quickly retrieve crucial server data from them. Through secure logins, the data is readily accessible from any location with a reliable internet connection. The advantages of the Integrated Facility Management market are not fully appreciated by businesses. The issue is brought on by a failure to comprehend and implement necessary technologies. Many firms have not yet adopted an IoT ecosystem and are still implementing cloud computing technologies. Additionally, they are still in the early stages of switching from traditional workplace layouts to contemporary ones. Despite the fact that facility management is a crucial component of operations, businesses are ignorant of developing solutions.

Due to this, it has become challenging for businesses to supply their Integrated Facility Management market the same priority as their main business processes. Lack of consistency is another issue, especially in facilities with many buildings. Facilities management outsourcing is becoming more and more common. In order to enhance value creation, organizations are reviewing their operational models. However, they consider the ideal blend of insourcing and outsourcing based on cost, capability, and coverage before they outsource facility management to third parties. In exact years, outsourcing has considerably aided the expansion of the facilities management industry throughout a number of continents, including North America, the Middle East, and Europe. The increased demand for top-notch workplace experiences and falling operating expenses are the main trendsetters.

Division Segment:

By organization size, it is divided into small and medium-sized enterprises and large enterprises. The Integrated Facility Management market is divided into Small and Medium-sized Enterprises and Large Enterprises based on the size of the organization. For SMEs, facility management systems present substantial prospects as they certain cost savings for the expenses associated with the manual management of the facility infrastructure. By finding anomalies in the operational operations of facilities, these solutions also shorten the time spent resolving issues. SMEs still have relatively limited knowledge of facilities management systems.

By Vertical type, the Integrated Facility Management market is divided into Banking, Financial Services and Insurance (BFSI), IT and Telecom, Government and public administration, Healthcare, Education, Retail, Energy and Manufacturing, Utilities, Construction and real estate, Others, and other categories based on vertical. Businesses in the BFSI vertical are responsible for managing and maintaining a variety of real estate investments. Facility management teams may strategically manage a number of operational processes, including asset management, maintenance management, space management, and work order monitoring, with the aid of facility management solutions like IWMS and CMMS.

Access the Premium Integrated Facility Management market research report 2022 with a full index.

Regional Analysis:

According to estimates, North America will account for the greatest portion of the worldwide Integrated Facility Management market in 2022. Early adopters of facility management systems and services include businesses in this region. The region features strong, stable economies that are investing more money in research and development (R&D) projects to create new technologies like AI, ML, cloud computing, and big data.

Competitive Analysis:

Some of the key players in the market are:
• IBM
• Oracle
• SAP
• Trimble
• Accruent
• MRI Software
• Planon
• Service Channel
• Service Works Global
• Causeway Technologies
• FM: Systems

The following are some of the reasons why you should Buy a Integrated Facility Management market report:

  • The Report looks at how the Integrated Facility Management industry is likely to develop in the future.
  • Using Porter’s five forces analysis, it investigates several perspectives on the Integrated Facility Management market.
  • This Integrated Facility Management market study examines the product type that is expected to dominate the market, as well as the regions that are expected to grow the most rapidly throughout the projected period.
  • It identifies exact advancements, Integrated Facility Management market shares, and important market participants’ tactics.
  • It examines the competitive landscape, including significant firms’ Integrated Facility Management market share and accepted growth strategies over the last five years.
  • The research includes complete company profiles for the leading Integrated Facility Management market players, including product offers, important financial information, current developments, SWOT analysis, and strategies.

Click here to download the full index of the Integrated Facility Management market research report 2022

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Thu, 21 Jul 2022 00:25:00 -0500 Newsmantraa en-US text/html https://www.digitaljournal.com/pr/integrated-facility-management-market-hitting-new-highs-by-2028
Killexams : Companies add more than 500,000 jobs, jobless rate drops to 3.5%

America’s hiring boom continued last month as employers added a surprising 528,000 jobs despite raging inflation and rising anxiety about a recession.

July’s hiring was up from 398,000 in June. The unemployment rate slipped to 3.5%.

CNN graphic

The U.S. economy shrank in the first two quarters of 2022 — an informal definition of recession. But most economists believe the strong jobs market has kept the economy from slipping into a downturn.

The American job market has repeatedly defied skeptics this year. Economists had expected only 250,000 new jobs this month.

IBM is ‘continuing to hire,’ senior exec says despite economic turbulence

There are, of course, political implications in the numbers being released Friday: Rising prices and the risk of recession are likely to weigh on voters in November’s midterm elections as President Joe Biden’s Democrats seek to maintain control of Congress.

The economic backdrop is troubling: Gross domestic product — the broadest measure of economic output — fell in both the first and second quarters; consecutive GDP drops is one definition of a recession. And inflation is roaring at a 40-year high.

The resiliency of the current labor market, especially the low jobless rate — is the biggest reason most economists don’t believe a downturn has started yet, though they increasingly fear that one is on the way. History isn’t entirely reassuring: The unemployment rate was even lower — 3.5% — when an 11-month recession began in December 1969.

Recession is not an American problem alone.

In the United Kingdom, the Bank of England on Thursday projected that the world’s fifth-largest economy would slide into recession by the end of the year.

Job seekers: These 20 tech, life science firms are still recruiting across the Triangle

Russia’s war in Ukraine has darkened the outlook across Europe. The conflict has made energy supplies scarce and driven prices higher. European countries are bracing for the possibility that Moscow will keep reducing — and perhaps completely cut off — flows of natural gas, used to power factories, generate electricity and keep homes warm in winter.

If Europeans can’t store enough gas for the cold months, rationing may be required by industry.

Economies have been on a wild ride since COVID-19 hit in early 2020.

The pandemic brought economic life to a near standstill as companies shut down and consumers stayed home. In March and April 2020, American employers slashed a staggering 22 million jobs and the economy plunged into a deep, two-month recession.

But massive government aid — and the Federal Reserve’s decision to slash interest rates and pour money into financial markets — fueled a surprisingly quick recovery. Caught off guard by the strength of the rebound, factories, shops, ports and freight yards were overwhelmed with orders and scrambled to bring back the workers they furloughed when COVID hit.

The result has been shortages of workers and supplies, delayed shipments — and rising prices. In the United States, inflation has been rising steadily for more than a year. In June, consumer prices jumped 9.1% from a year earlier — the biggest increase since 1981.

The Fed underestimated inflation’s resurgence, thinking prices were rising because of temporary supply chain bottlenecks. It has since acknowledged that the current spate of inflation is not, as it was once referred to, “ transitory.”

Now the central bank is responding aggressively. It has raised its benchmark short-term interest rate four times this year, and more rate hikes are ahead.

Higher borrowing costs are taking a toll. Rising mortgage rates, for instance, have cooled a red-hot housing market. Sales of previously occupied homes dropped in June for the fifth straight month.

Real estate companies — including lending firm loanDepot and online housing broker Redfin — have begun laying off workers.

The labor market is showing other signs of wobbliness.

The Labor Department reported Tuesday that employers posted 10.7 million job openings in June — a healthy number but the lowest since September.

And the four-week average number of Americans signing up for unemployment benefits — a proxy for layoffs that smooths out week-to-week swings — rose last week to the highest level since November, though the numbers may have been exaggerated by seasonal factors.

Friday’s jobs report comes at a critical moment for President Biden, who has maintained that the economy is merely slowing down rather than heading into a recession. Inflation has dogged public support for Biden, yet the administration has stressed that the 3.6% unemployment rate and solid job gains are signs of a healthy economy.

Triangle’s once hot employment market is cooling at some major jobs boards

White House press secretary Karine Jean-Pierre said the administration expects the pace of hiring to fall further in the coming months because the unemployment rate is already near historic lows and fewer potential workers are available.

A slower pace of hiring and reduced levels of wage growth could also suggest that inflationary pressures are easing, but it has the White House attempting to convince the American public that less growth is a positive at a moment when Republican lawmakers are saying a recession has already started; they cite the drop in GDP over the first half of the year.

“We’re expecting it to be closer to 150,000 jobs per month,” Jean-Pierre said at Thursday’s briefing. “This kind of job growth is consistent with the lower level of unemployment numbers that we’ve been seeing.”

Economist House at Wells Fargo expects employers to keep adding jobs for a few months. But rising interest rates, she said, will gradually choke off economic growth.

“We are actually looking for outright declines in hiring come the first quarter, maybe second quarter of next year,’’ she said. “As monetary policy continues to tighten, that’s going to have an effect on overall business conditions and therefore demand for workers.

“Our expectation is that the U.S. economy will slip into recession, probably at the start of the year.’’

Fri, 05 Aug 2022 00:49:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://wraltechwire.com/2022/08/05/companies-add-more-than-500000-jobs-jobless-rate-drops-to-3-5/
Killexams : The missing piece in Biden's microchip ambitions: STEM immigration

JOHNSTOWN, Ohio — Just 15 minutes outside of downtown Columbus, the suburbs abruptly evaporate. Past a bizarre mix of soybean fields, sprawling office parks and lonely clapboard churches is a field where the Biden administration — with help from one of the world’s largest tech companies — hopes to turn the U.S. into a hub of microchip manufacturing.

In his State of the Union address in March, President Joe Biden called this 1,000-acre spread of corn stalks and farmhouses a “field of dreams.” Within three years, it will house two Intel-operated chip facilities together worth $20 billion — and Intel is promising to invest $80 billion more now that Washington has sweetened the deal with subsidies. It’s all part of a nationwide effort to head off another microchip shortage, shore up the free world’s advanced industrial base in the face of a rising China and claw back thousands of high-end manufacturing jobs from Asia.


But even as Biden signs into law more than $52 billion in “incentives” designed to lure chipmakers to the U.S., an unusual alliance of industry lobbyists, hard-core China hawks and science advocates says the president’s dream lacks a key ingredient — a small yet critical core of high-skilled workers. It’s a politically troubling irony: To achieve the long-sought goal of returning high-end manufacturing to the United States, the country must, paradoxically, attract more foreign workers.

“For high-tech industry in general — which of course, includes the chip industry — the workforce is a huge problem,” said Julia Phillips, a member of the National Science Board. “It's almost a perfect storm.”

From electrical engineering to computer science, the U.S. currently does not produce enough doctorates and master's degrees in the science, technology, engineering and math fields who can go on to work in U.S.-based microchip plants. Decades of declining investments in STEM education means the U.S. now produces fewer native-born recipients of advanced STEM degrees than most of its international rivals.

Foreign nationals, including many educated in the U.S., have traditionally filled that gap. But a bewildering and anachronistic immigration system, historic backlogs in visa processing and rising anti-immigrant sentiment have combined to choke off the flow of foreign STEM talent precisely when a fresh surge is needed.

Powerful members of both parties have diagnosed the problem and floated potential fixes. But they have so far been stymied by the politics of immigration, where a handful of lawmakers stand in the way of reforms few are willing to risk their careers to achieve. With a short window to attract global chip companies already starting to close, a growing chorus is warning Congress they’re running out of time.

“These semiconductor investments won't pay off if Congress doesn't fix the talent bottleneck,” said Jeremy Neufeld, a senior immigration fellow at the Institute for Progress think tank.

Given the hot-button nature of immigration fights, the chip industry has typically been hesitant to advocate directly for reform. But as they pump billions of dollars into U.S. projects and contemplate far more expensive plans, a sense of urgency is starting to outweigh that reluctance.

“We are seeing greater and greater numbers of our employees waiting longer and longer for green cards,” said David Shahoulian, Intel’s head of workforce policy. “At some point it will become even more difficult to attract and retain folks. That will be a problem for us; it will be a problem for the rest of the tech industry.”

“At some point, you’ll just see more offshoring of these types of positions,” Shahoulian said.

A Booming Technology

Microchips (often called “semiconductors” by wonkier types) aren’t anything new. Since the 1960s, scientists — working first for the U.S. government and later for private industry — have tacked transistors onto wafers of silicon or other semiconducting materials to produce computer circuits. What has changed is the power and ubiquity of these chips.

The number of transistors researchers can fit on a chip roughly doubles every two years, a phenomenon known as Moore’s Law. In exact years, that has led to absurdly powerful chips bristling with transistors — IBM’s latest chip packs them at two-nanometer intervals into a space roughly the size of a fingernail. Two nanometers is thinner than a strand of human DNA, or about how long a fingernail grows in two seconds.

A rapid boost in processing power stuffed into ever-smaller packages led to the information technology boom of the 1990s. And things have only accelerated since — microchips remain the primary driver of advances in smartphones and missiles, but they’re also increasingly integrated into household appliances like toaster ovens, thermostats and toilets. Even the most inexpensive cars on the market now contain hundreds of microchips, and electric or luxury vehicles are loaded with thousands.

It all adds up to a commodity widely viewed as the bedrock of the new digital economy. Like fossil fuels before them, any country that controls the production of chips possesses key advantages on the global stage.

Until fairly recently, the U.S. was one of those countries. But while chips are still largely designed in America, its capacity to produce them has declined precipitously. Only 12 percent of the world’s microchip production takes place in the U.S., down from 37 percent in 1990. That percentage declines further when you exclude “legacy” chips with wider spaces between transistors — the vast majority of bleeding-edge chips are manufactured in Taiwan, and most factories not found on that island reside in Asian nations like South Korea, China and Japan.

For a long time, few in Washington thinking about America’s flagging chip production. Manufacturing in the U.S. is expensive, and offshoring production to Asia while keeping R&D stateside was a good way to cut costs.

Two things changed that calculus: the Covid-19 pandemic and rising tensions between the U.S. and China.

Abrupt work stoppages sparked by viral spread in Asia sent shockwaves through finely tuned global supply chains. The flow of microchips ceased almost overnight, and then struggled to restart under new Covid surges and ill-timed extreme weather events. Combined with a spike in demand for microelectronics (sparked by generous government payouts to citizens stuck at home), the manufacturing stutter kicked off a chip shortage from which the world is still recovering.

Even before the pandemic, growing animosity between Washington and Beijing caused officials to question the wisdom of ceding chip production to Asia. China’s increasingly bellicose threats against Taiwan caused some to conjure up nightmare scenarios of an invasion or blockade that would sever the West from its supply of chips. The Chinese government was also pouring billions of dollars into a crash program to boost its own lackluster chip industry, prompting fears that America’s top foreign adversary could one day corner the market.

By 2020 the wheels had begun to turn on Capitol Hill. In January 2021, lawmakers passed as part of their annual defense bill the CHIPS for America Act, legislation authorizing federal payouts for chip manufacturers. But they then struggled to finance those subsidies. Although they quickly settled on more than $52 billion for chip manufacturing and research, lawmakers had trouble decoupling those sweeteners from sprawling anti-China “competitiveness” bills that stalled for over a year.

But those subsidies, as well as new tax credits for the chip industry, were finally sent to Biden’s desk in late July. Intel isn’t the only company that’s promised to supercharge U.S. projects once that money comes through — Samsung, for example, is suggesting it will expand its new $17 billion chip plant outside of Austin, Texas, to a nearly $200 billion investment. Lawmakers are already touting the subsidies as a key step toward an American renaissance in high-tech manufacturing.

Quietly, however, many of those same lawmakers — along with industry lobbyists and national security experts — fear all the chip subsidies in the world will fall flat without enough high-skilled STEM workers. And they accuse Congress of failing to seize multiple opportunities to address the problem.

STEM help wanted

In Columbus, just miles from the Johnstown field where Intel is breaking ground, most officials don’t mince words: The tech workers needed to staff two microchip factories, let alone eight, don’t exist in the region at the levels needed.

“We’re going to need a STEM workforce,” admitted Jon Husted, Ohio’s Republican lieutenant governor.

But Husted and others say they’re optimistic the network of higher ed institutions spread across Columbus — including Ohio State University and Columbus State Community College — can beef up the region’s workforce fast.

“I feel like we're built for this,” said David Harrison, president of Columbus State Community College. He highlighted the repeated refrain from Intel officials that 70 percent of the 3,000 jobs needed to fill the first two factories will be “technician-level” jobs requiring two-year associate degrees. “These are our jobs,” Harrison said.

Harrison is anxious, however, over how quickly he and other leaders in higher ed are expected to convince thousands of students to sign up for the required STEM courses and join Intel after graduation. The first two factories are slated to be fully operational within three years, and will need significant numbers of workers well before then. He said his university still lacks the requisite infrastructure for instruction on chip manufacturing — “we’re missing some wafer processing, clean rooms, those kinds of things” — and explained that funding recently provided by Intel and the National Science Foundation won’t be enough. Columbus State will need more support from Washington.

“I don't know that there's a great Plan B right now,” said Harrison, adding that the new facilities will run into “the tens of millions.”

A lack of native STEM talent isn’t unique to the Columbus area. Across the country, particularly in regions where the chip industry is planning to relocate, officials are fretting over a perceived lack of skilled technicians. In February, the Taiwanese Semiconductor Manufacturing Corporation cited a shortage of skilled workers when announcing a six-month delay in the move-in date for their new plant in Arizona.

“Whether it’s a licensure program, a two-year program or a Ph.D., at all levels, there is a shortfall in high-tech STEM talent,” said Phillips. The NSB member highlighted the “missing millions of people that are not going into STEM fields — that basically are shut out, even beginning in K-12, because they're not exposed in a way that attracts them to the field.”

Industry groups, like the National Association of Manufacturers, have long argued a two-pronged approach is necessary when it comes to staffing the high-tech sector: Reevaluating immigration policy while also investing heavily in workforce development

The abandoned House and Senate competitiveness bills both included provisions that would have enhanced federal support for STEM education and training. Among other things, the House bill would have expanded Pell Grant eligibility to students pursuing career-training programs.

“We have for decades incentivized degree attainment and not necessarily skills attainment,” said Robyn Boerstling, NAM’s vice president of infrastructure, innovation and human resources policy. “There are manufacturing jobs today that could be filled with six weeks of training, or six months, or six years; we need all of the above.”

But those provisions were scrapped, after Senate leadership decided a conference between the two chambers on the bills was too unwieldy to reach agreement before the August recess.

Katie Spiker, managing director of government affairs at National Skills Coalition, said the abandoned Pell Grant expansion shows Congress “has not responded to worker needs in the way that we need them to.” Amid criticisms that the existing workforce development system is unwieldy and ineffective, the decision to scrap new upgrades is a continuation of a trend of disinvesting in workers who hope to obtain the skills they need to meet employer demand.

“And it becomes an issue that only compounds itself over time,” Spiker said. “As technology changes, people need to change and evolve their skills.”

“If we're not getting people skilled up now, then we won't have people that are going to be able to evolve and skill up into the next generation of manufacturing that we’ll do five years from now.”

Congress finally sent the smaller Chips and Science Act — which includes the chip subsidies and tax credits, $200 million to develop a microchip workforce and a slate of R&D provisions — to the president’s desk in late July. The bill is expected to enhance the domestic STEM pool (at least on the margins). But it likely falls short of the generational investments many believe are needed.

“You could make some dent in it in six years,” said Phillips. “But if you really want to solve the problem, it's closer to a 20-year investment. And the ability of this country to invest in anything for 20 years is not phenomenal.”

Immigration Arms Race

The microchip industry is in the midst of a global reshuffling that’s expected to last a better part of the decade — and the U.S. isn’t the only country rolling out the red carpet. Europe, Canada, Japan and other regions are also thinking about their security, and preparing sweeteners for microchip firms to set up shop in their borders. Cobbling together an effective STEM workforce in a short time frame will be key to persuading companies to choose America instead.

That will be challenging at the technician level, which represents around 70 percent of workers in most microchip factories. But those jobs require only two-year degrees — and over a six-year period, it’s possible a sustained education and recruitment effort can produce enough STEM workers to at least keep the lights on.

It’s a different story entirely for Ph.D.s and master’s degrees, which take much longer to earn and which industry reps say make up a smaller but crucial component of a factory’s workforce.

Gabriela González, Intel’s head of global STEM research, policy and initiatives, said about 15 percent of factory workers must have doctorates or master’s degrees in fields such as material and electrical engineering, computer science, physics and chemistry. Students coming out of American universities with those degrees are largely foreign nationals — and increasingly, they’re graduating without an immigration status that lets them work in the U.S., and with no clear pathway to achieving that status.

A National Science Board estimate from earlier this year shows a steadily rising proportion of foreign-born students with advanced STEM skills. That’s especially true for degrees crucial to the chip industry — nearly 60 percent of computer science Ph.D.s are foreign born, as are more than 50 percent of engineering doctorates.

“We are absolutely reliant on being able to hire foreign nationals to fill those needs,” said Intel’s Shahoulian. Like many in the chip industry, Shaoulian contends there simply aren’t enough high-skilled STEM professionals with legal status to simultaneously serve America’s existing tech giants and an influx of microchip firms.

Some academics, such as Howard University’s Ron Hira, suggest the shortage of workers with STEM degrees is overblown, and industry simply seeks to import cheaper, foreign-born labor. But that view contrasts with those held by policymakers on Capitol Hill or people in the scientific and research communities. In a report published in late July by the Government Accountability Office, all 17 of the experts surveyed agreed the lack of a high-skilled STEM workforce was a barrier to new microchip projects in the U.S. — and most said some type of immigration reform would be needed.

Many, if not most, of the foreign nationals earning advanced STEM degrees from U.S. universities would prefer to stay and work in the country. But America’s immigration system is turning away these workers in record numbers — and at the worst possible time.

Ravi (not his real name, given his tenuous immigration status) is an Indian national. Nearly three years ago, he graduated from a STEM master’s program at a prestigious eastern university before moving to California to work as a design verification lead at an international chip company. He’s applied three times for an H-1B visa, a high-skilled immigration program used extensively by U.S. tech companies. But those visas are apportioned via a lottery, and Ravi lost each time. His current visa only allows him to work through the end of year — so Ravi is giving up and moving to Canada, where he’s agreed to take a job with another chip company. Given his skill set, he expects to quickly receive permanent legal status.

“The application process is incredibly simple there,” said Ravi, noting that Canadian officials were apologetic over their brief 12-week processing time (they’re swamped by refugee applications, he said).

If given the choice, Ravi said he would’ve probably stayed in California. But his story now serves as a cautionary tale for his younger brother back home. “Once he sort of completed his undergrad back in India, he did mention that he is looking at more immigration-friendly countries,” Ravi said. “He’s giving Canada more thought, at this point, than the United States.”

Ravi’s story is far from unique, particularly for Indian nationals. The U.S. imposes annual per-country caps on green cards — and between a yearly crush of applicants and a persistent processing backlog, Indians (regardless of their education or skill level) can expect to wait as long as 80 years for permanent legal status. A report released earlier this year by the libertarian Cato Institute found more than 1.4 million skilled immigrants are now stuck in green card backlogs, just a slight drop from 2020’s all-time high of more than 1.5 million.

The third rail of U.S. politics

The chip industry has shared its anxiety over America’s slipping STEM workforce with Washington, repeatedly asking Congress to make it easier for high-skilled talent to stay. But unlike their lobbying for subsidies and tax breaks — which has gotten downright pushy at times — they’ve done so very quietly. While chip lobbyists have spent months telling anyone who will listen why the $52 billion in financial incentives are a “strategic imperative,” they’ve only recently been willing to discuss their immigration concerns on the record.

In late July, nine major chip companies planned to send an open letter to congressional leadership warning that the shortage of high-skilled STEM workers “has truly never been more acute” and urging lawmakers to “enact much-needed green card reforms.” But the letter was pulled at the last minute, after some companies thinking about wading into a tense immigration debate at the wrong time.

Leaders in the national security community have been less shy. In May, more than four dozen former officials sent a leader to congressional leadership urging them to shore up America’s slipping immigration edge before Chinese technology leapfrogs ours. “With the world’s best STEM talent on its side, it will be very hard for America to lose,” they wrote. “Without it, it will be very hard for America to win.”

The former officials exhorted lawmakers to take up and pass provisions in the House competitiveness bill that would’ve lifted green card caps for foreign nationals with STEM Ph.D.s or master’s degrees. It’d be a relatively small number of people — a February study from Georgetown University’s Center for Security and Emerging Technology suggested the chip industry would only need around 3,500 foreign-born workers to effectively staff new U.S.-based factories.

“This is such a small pool of people that there's already an artificial cap on it,” said Klon Kitchen, a senior fellow focused on technology and national security at the conservative American Enterprise Institute.

Kitchen suggested the Republican Party’s wariness toward immigration shouldn’t apply to these high-skilled workers, and some elected Republicans agree. Sen. John Cornyn, whose state of Texas is poised to gain from the expansion of chip plants outside Austin, took up the torch — and almost immediately got burned.

Sen. Chuck Grassley, Iowa’s senior Republican senator, blocked repeated attempts by Cornyn, Democrats and others to include the green card provision in the final competitiveness package. Finding relief for a small slice of the immigrant community, Grassley reasoned, “weakens the possibility to get comprehensive immigration reform down the road.” He refused to budge even after Biden administration officials warned him of the national security consequences in a classified June 16 briefing, which was convened specifically for him. The effort has been left for dead (though a push to shoehorn a related provision into the year-end defense bill is ongoing).

Many of Grassley’s erstwhile allies are frustrated with his approach. “We’ve been talking about comprehensive immigration reform for how many decades?” asked Kitchen, who said he’s “not inclined” to let America’s security concerns “tread water in the background” while Congress does nothing to advance broader immigration bills.

Most Republicans in Congress agree with Kitchen. But so far it’s Cornyn, not Grassley, who’s paid a price. After helping broker a deal on gun control legislation in June, Cornyn was attacked by Breitbart and others on his party’s right flank for telling a Democratic colleague immigration would be next.

“Immigration is one of the most contentious issues here in Congress, and we've shown ourselves completely incapable of dealing with it on a rational basis,” Cornyn said in July. The senator said he’d largely given up on persuading Grassley to abandon his opposition to new STEM immigration provisions. “I would love to have a conversation about merit-based immigration,” Cornyn said. “But I don't think, under the current circumstances, that’s possible.”

Cornyn blamed that in part on the far right’s reflexive outrage to any easing of immigration restrictions. “Just about anything you say or do will get you in trouble around here these days,” he said.

Given that reality, few Republicans are willing to stick their necks out on the issue.

“If you look at the messaging coming out of [the National Republican Senatorial Committee] or [the Republican Attorneys General Association], it’s all ‘border, border, border,’” said Rebecca Shi, executive director of the American Business Immigration Coalition. Shi said even moderate Republicans hesitate to publicly advance arguments “championing these sensible visas for Ph.D. STEM talents for integrated circuits for semiconductors.”

“They’re like … ‘I can’t say those phrases until after the elections,’” Shi said.

That skittishness extends to state-level officials — Ohio’s Husted spent some time expounding on the benefits of “bringing talented people here to do the work in America, rather than having companies leave America to have it done somewhere else.” He suggested that boosting STEM immigration would be key to Intel’s success in his state. But when asked whether he’s taken that message to Ohio’s congressional delegation — after all, he said he’d been pestering them to pass the chip subsidies — Husted hedged.

“My job is to do all I can for the people of the state of Ohio. There are other people whose job it is to message those other things,” Husted said. “But if asked, you heard what my answer is.”

Of course, Republicans also pin some of the blame on Democrats. “The administration ignores the fire at the border and the chaos there, which makes it very hard to have a conversation about controlling immigration flows,” Cornyn said.

And while Democratic lawmakers reject that specific concern, some admit their side hasn’t prioritized STEM immigration as it should.

“Neither team has completely clean hands,” said Sen. Mark Warner, the chair of the Senate Intelligence Committee. Warner noted that Democrats have also sought to hold back STEM immigration fixes as “part of a sweetener” so that business-friendly Republicans would in turn back pathways to citizenship for undocumented immigrants. He also dinged the chip companies, claiming the issue is “not always as straightforward" as the industry would like to frame it and that tech companies sometimes hope to pay less for foreign-born talent.

But Warner still supports the effort to lift green card caps for STEM workers. “Without that high-skilled immigration, it’s not like those jobs are going to disappear,” he said. “They’re just gonna move to another country.”

And despite their rhetoric, it’s hard to deny that congressional Republicans are largely responsible for continued inaction on high-skilled immigration — even as their allies in the national security space become increasingly insistent.

Stuck on STEM immigration

Though they’ve had to shrink their ambitions, lawmakers working to lift green card caps for STEM immigrants haven’t given up. A jurisdictional squabble between committees in July prevented advocates from including in the House’s year-end defense bill a provision that would’ve nixed the caps for Ph.D.s in “critical” STEM fields. They’re now hoping to shoehorn the provision into the Senate’s defense bill instead, and have tapped Republican Sen. Thom Tillis of North Carolina as their champion in the upper chamber.

But Tillis is already facing pushback from the right. And despite widespread support, few truly believe there’s enough momentum to overcome Grassley and a handful of other lawmakers willing to block any action.

“Most members on both sides recognize that this is a problem they need to resolve,” said Intel’s Shahoulian. “They’re just not at a point yet where they’re willing to compromise and take the political hits that come with it.”

The global chip industry is moving in the meantime. While most companies are still planning to set up shop in the U.S. regardless of what happens with STEM immigration, Shahoulian said inaction on that front will inevitably limit the scale of investments by Intel and other firms.

“You’re already seeing that dynamic playing out,” he said. “You’re seeing companies set up offices in Canada, set up offices elsewhere, move R&D work elsewhere in the world, because it is easier to retain talent elsewhere than it is here.”

“This is an issue that will progressively get worse,” Shahoulian said. “It’s not like there will be some drop-dead deadline. But yeah, it’s getting difficult.”

Intel is still plowing ahead in Johnstown — backhoes are churning up dirt, farmers have been bought out of homes owned by their families for generations and the extensive water and electric infrastructure required for eight chip factories is being laid. Whether those bets will pay off in the long-term may rest on Congress’ ability to thread the needle on STEM immigration. And there’s little optimism at the moment.

Sen. Maria Cantwell, the chair of the Senate Commerce Committee, said she sometimes wishes she could “shake everybody and tell them to wake up.” But she believes economic and geopolitical realities will force Congress to open the door to high-skilled foreign workers — eventually.

“I think the question is whether you do that now or in 10 years,” Cantwell said. “And you'll be damn sorry if you wait for 10 years.”

Sat, 30 Jul 2022 23:00:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.yahoo.com/video/missing-piece-bidens-microchip-ambitions-110000217.html
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