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Administration of Symantec eDiscovery Platform 8.0 for Users
Symantec Administration Questions and Answers
Killexams : Symantec Administration Dumps - BingNews Search results Killexams : Symantec Administration Dumps - BingNews Killexams : Questions to help validate your ‘deep pass’ strategy

During his first High Performing Boards Digital Series session in April, Seve Morrissette used setting football strategy as an analogy for setting strategy for a credit union.

“If we do an assessment and realize the best way to win in this conference is deep pass, but if we don’t have a quarterback that can throw the ball more than 25 yards, … it’s not the right strategy,” said Morrissette, visiting professor of strategy at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business.

In credit union strategic planning, boards need to ask questions that will illuminate whether the plan executives are proposing truly makes sense.

“The future is not certain,” Morrissette says. “How could this play out over the next three to five years? Will this strategy work if things don’t turn out as we expect? A strategy that doesn’t fit our people is doomed to failure.”

continue memorizing »
Mon, 08 Aug 2022 11:00:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Interview: Frank Cohen on FastSOA

InfoQ today publishes a one-chapter excerpt from Frank Cohen's book  "FastSOA". On this occasion, InfoQ had a chance to talk to Frank Cohen, creator of the FastSOA methodology, about the issues when trying to process XML messages, scalability, using XQuery in the middle tier, and document-object-relational-mapping.

Can you briefly explain the ideas behind "FastSOA"?

Frank Cohen: For the past 5-6 years I have been investigating the impact an average Java developer's choice of technology, protocols, and patterns for building services has on the scalability and performance of the resulting application. For example, Java developers today have a choice of 21 different XML parsers! Each one has its own scalability, performance, and developer productivity profile. So a developer's choice on technology makes a big impact at runtime.

I looked at distributed systems that used message oriented middleware to make remote procedure calls. Then I looked at SOAP-based Web Services. And most recently at REST and AJAX. These experiences led me to look at SOA scalability and performance built using application server, enterprise service bus (ESB,) business process execution (BPEL,) and business integration (BI) tools. Across all of these technologies I found a consistent theme: At the intersection of XML and SOA are significant scalability and performance problems.

FastSOA is a test methodology and set of architectural patterns to find and solve scalability and performance problems. The patterns teach Java developers that there are native XML technologies, such as XQuery and native XML persistence engines, that should be considered in addition to Java-only solutions.

InfoQ: What's "Fast" about it? ;-)

FC: First off, let me describe the extent of the problem. Java developers building Web enabled software today have a lot of choices. We've all heard about Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), Web Services, REST, and AJAX techniques. While there are a LOT of different and competing definitions for these, most Java developers I speak to expect that they will be working with objects that message to other objects - locally or on some remote server - using encoded data, and often the encoded data is in XML format.

The nature of these interconnected services we're building means our software needs to handle messages that can be small to large and simple to complex. Consider the performance penalty of using a SOAP interface and streams XML parser (StAX) to handle a simple message schema where the message size grows. A modern and expensive multi-processor server that easily serves 40 to 80 Web pages per second serves as little as 1.5 to 2 XML requests per second.

Scalability Index

Without some sort of remediation Java software often slows to a crawl when handling XML data because of a mismatch between the XML schema and the XML parser. For instance, we checked one SOAP stack that instantiated 14,385 Java objects to handle a request message of 7000 bytes that contains 200 XML elements.

Of course, titling my work SlowSOA didn't sound as good. FastSOA offers a way to solve many of the scalability and performance problems. FastSOA uses native XML technology to provide service acceleration, transformation, and federation services in the mid-tier. For instance, an XQuery engine provides a SOAP interface for a service to handle decoding the request, transform the request data into something more useful, and routes the request to a Java object or another service.

InfoQ: One alternative to XML databinding in Java is the use of XML technologies, such as XPath or XQuery. Why muddy the water with XQuery? Why not just use Java technology?

FC:We're all after the same basic goals:

  1. Good scalability and performance in SOA and XML environments.
  2. Rapid development of software code.
  3. Flexible and easy maintenance of software code as the environment and needs change.

In SOA, Web Service, and XML domains I find the usual Java choices don't get me to all three goals.

Chris Richardson explains the Domain Model Pattern in his book POJOs in Action. The Domain Model is a popular pattern to build Web applications and is being used by many developers to build SOA composite applications and data services.


The Domain Model divides into three portions: A presentation tier, an application tier, and a data tier. The presentation tier uses a Web browser with AJAX and RSS capabilities to create a rich user interface. The browser makes a combination of HTML and XML requests to the application tier. Also at the presentation tier is a SOAP-based Web Service interface to allow a customer system to access functions directly, such as a parts ordering function for a manufacturer's service.

At the application tier, an Enterprise Java Bean (EJB) or plain-old Java object (Pojo) implements the business logic to respond to the request. The EJB uses a model, view, controller (MVC) framework - for instance, Spring MVC, Struts or Tapestry - to respond to the request by generating a response Web page. The MVC framework uses an object/relational (O/R) mapping framework - for instance Hibernate or Spring - to store and retrieve data in a relational database.

I see problem areas that cause scalability and performance problems when using the Domain Model in XML environments:

  • XML-Java Mapping requires increasingly more processor time as XML message size and complexity grows.
  • Each request operates the entire service. For instance, many times the user will check order status sooner than any status change is realistic. If the system kept track of the most latest response's time-to-live duration then it would not have to operate all of the service to determine the most previously cached response.
  • The vendor application requires the request message to be in XML form. The data the EJB previously processed from XML into Java objects now needs to be transformed back into XML elements as part of the request message. Many Java to XML frameworks - for instance, JAXB, XMLBeans, and Xerces ? require processor intensive transformations. Also, I find these frameworks challenging me to write difficult and needlessly complex code to perform the transformation.
  • The service persists order information in a relational database using an object-relational mapping framework. The framework transforms Java objects into relational rowsets and performs joins among multiple tables. As object complexity and size grows my research shows many developers need to debug the O/R mapping to Improve speed and performance.

In no way am I advocating a move away from your existing Java tools and systems. There is a lot we can do to resolve these problems without throwing anything out. For instance, we could introduce a mid-tier service cache using XQuery and a native XML database to mitigate and accelerate many of the XML domain specific requests.


The advantage to using the FastSOA architecture as a mid-tier service cache is in its ability to store any general type of data, and its strength in quickly matching services with sets of complex parameters to efficiently determine when a service request can be serviced from the cache. The FastSOA mid-tier service cache architectures accomplishes this by maintaining two databases:

  • Service Database. Holds the cached message payloads. For instance, the service database holds a SOAP message in XML form, an HTML Web page, text from a short message, and binary from a JPEG or GIF image.
  • Policy Database. Holds units of business logic that look into the service database contents and make decisions on servicing requests with data from the service database or passing through the request to the application tier. For instance, a policy that receives a SOAP request validates security information in the SOAP header to validate that a user may receive previously cached response data. In another instance a policy checks the time-to-live value from a stock market price quote to see if it can respond to a request from the stock value stored in the service database.

FastSOA uses the XQuery data model to implement policies. The XQuery data model supports any general type of document and any general dynamic parameter used to fetch and construct the document. Used to implement policies the XQuery engine allows FastSOA to efficiently assess common criteria of the data in the service cache and the flexibility of XQuery allows for user-driven fuzzy pattern matches to efficiently represent the cache.

FastSOA uses native XML database technology for the service and policy databases for performance and scalability reasons. Relational database technology delivers satisfactory performance to persist policy and service data in a mid-tier cache provided the XML message schemas being stored are consistent and the message sizes are small.

InfoQ: What kinds of performance advantages does this deliver?

FC: I implemented a scalability test to contrast native XML technology and Java technology to implement a service that receives SOAP requests.

TPS for Service Interface

The test varies the size of the request message among three levels: 68 K, 202 K, 403 K bytes. The test measures the roundtrip time to respond to the request at the consumer. The test results are from a server with dual CPU Intel Xeon 3.0 Ghz processors running on a gigabit switched Ethernet network. I implemented the code in two ways:

  • FastSOA technique. Uses native XML technology to provide a SOAP service interface. I used a commercial XQuery engine to expose a socket interface that receives the SOAP message, parses its content, and assembles a response SOAP message.
  • Java technique. Uses the SOAP binding proxy interface generator from a popular commercial Java application server. A simple Java object receives the SOAP request from the binding, parses its content using JAXB created bindings, and assembles a response SOAP message using the binding.

The results show a 2 to 2.5 times performance improvement when using the FastSOA technique to expose service interfaces. The FastSOA method is faster because it avoids many of the mappings and transformations that are performed in the Java binding approach to work with XML data. The greater the complexity and size of the XML data the greater will be the performance improvement.

InfoQ: Won't these problems get easier with newer Java tools?

FC: I remember hearing Tim Bray, co-inventor of XML, extolling a large group of software developers in 2005 to go out and write whatever XML formats they needed for their applications. Look at all of the different REST and AJAX related schemas that exist today. They are all different and many of them are moving targets over time. Consequently, when working with Java and XML the average application or service needs to contend with three facts of life:

  1. There's no gatekeeper to the XML schemas. So a message in any schema can arrive at your object at any time.
  2. The messages may be of any size. For instance, some messages will be very short (less than 200 bytes) while some messages may be giant (greater than 10 Mbytes.)
  3. The messages use simple to complex schemas. For instance, the message schema may have very few levels of hierarchy (less than 5 children for each element) while other messages will have multiple levels of hierarchy (greater than 30 children.)

What's needed is an easy way to consume any size and complexity of XML data and to easily maintain it over time as the XML changes. This kind of changing landscape is what XQuery was created to address.

InfoQ: Is FastSOA only about improving service interface performance?

FC: FastSOA addresses these problems:

  • Solves SOAP binding performance problems by reducing the need for Java objects and increasing the use of native XML environments to provide SOAP bindings.
  • Introduces a mid-tier service cache to provide SOA service acceleration, transformation, and federation.
  • Uses native XML persistence to solve XML, object, and relational incompatibility.

FastSOA Pattern

FastSOA is an architecture that provides a mid-tier service binding, XQuery processor, and native XML database. The binding is a native and streams-based XML data processor. The XQuery processor is the real mid-tier that parses incoming documents, determines the transaction, communicates with the ?local? service to obtain the stored data, serializes the data to XML and stores the data into a cache while recording a time-to-live duration. While this is an XML oriented design XQuery and native XML databases handle non-XML data, including images, binary files, and attachments. An equally important benefit to the XQuery processor is the ability to define policies that operate on the data at runtime in the mid-tier.


FastSOA provides mid-tier transformation between a consumer that requires one schema and a service that only provides responses using a different and incompatible schema. The XQuery in the FastSOA tier transforms the requests and responses between incompatible schema types.


Lastly, when a service commonly needs to aggregate the responses from multiple services into one response, FastSOA provides service federation. For instance, many content publishers such as the New York Times provide new articles using the Rich Site Syndication (RSS) protocol. FastSOA may federate news analysis articles published on a Web site with late breaking news stories from several RSS feeds. This can be done in your application but is better done in FastSOA because the content (news stores and RSS feeds) usually include time-to-live values that are ideal for FastSOA's mid-tier caching.

InfoQ: Can you elaborate on the problems you see in combining XML with objects and relational databases?

FC: While I recommend using a native XML database for XML persistence it is possible to be successful using a relational database. Careful attention to the quality and nature of your application's XML is needed. For instance, XML is already widely used to express documents, document formats, interoperability standards, and service orchestrations. There are even arguments put forward in the software development community to represent service governance in XML form and operated upon with XQuery methods. In a world full of XML, we software developers have to ask if it makes sense to use relational persistence engines for XML data. Consider these common questions:

  • How difficult is it to get XML data into a relational database?
  • How difficult is it to get relational data to a service or object that needs XML data? Can my database retrieve the XML data with lossless fidelity to the original XML data? Will my database deliver acceptable performance and scalability for operations on XML data stored in the database? Which database operations (queries, changes, complex joins) are most costs in terms of performance and required resources (cpus, network, memory, storage)?

Your answers to these questions forms a criteria by which it will make sense to use a relational database, or perhaps not. The alternative to relational engines are native XML persistence engines such as eXist, Mark Logic, IBM DB2 V9, TigerLogic, and others.

InfoQ: What are the core ideas behind the PushToTest methodology, and what is its relation to SOA?

FC: It frequently surprises me how few enterprises, institutions, and organizations have a method to test services for scalability and performance. One fortune 50 company asked a summer intern they wound up hiring to run a few performance tests when he had time between other assignments to check and identify scalability problems in their SOA application. That was their entire approach to scalability and performance testing.

The business value of running scalability and performance tests comes once a business formalizes a test method that includes the following:

  1. Choose the right set of test cases. For instance, the test of a multiple-interface and high volume service will be different than a service that handles periodic requests with huge message sizes. The test needs to be oriented to address the end-user goals in using the service and deliver actionable knowledge.
  2. Accurate test runs. Understanding the scalability and performance of a service requires dozens to hundreds of test case runs. Ad-hoc recording of test results is unsatisfactory. Test automation tools are plentiful and often free.
  3. Make the right conclusions when analyzing the results. Understanding the scalability and performance of a service requires understanding how the throughput measured as Transactions Per Second (TPS) at the service consumer changes with increased message size and complexity and increased concurrent requests.

All of this requires much more than an ad-hoc approach to reach useful and actionable knowledge. So I built and published the PushToTest SOA test methodology to help software architects, developers, and testers. The method is described on the Web site and I maintain an open-source test automation tool called PushToTest TestMaker to automate and operate SOA tests.

PushToTest provides Global Services to its customers to use our method and tools to deliver SOA scalability knowledge. Often we are successful convincing an enterprise or vendor that contracts with PushToTest for primary research to let us publish the research under an open source license. For example, the SOA Performance kit comes with the encoding style, XML parser, and use cases. The kit is available for free download at: and older kits are at

InfoQ: Thanks a lot for your time.

Frank Cohen is the leading authority for testing and optimizing software developed with Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Web Service designs. Frank is CEO and Founder of PushToTest and inventor of TestMaker, the open-source SOA test automation tool, that helps software developers, QA technicians and IT managers understand and optimize the scalability, performance, and reliability of their systems. Frank is author of several books on optimizing information systems (Java Testing and Design from Prentice Hall in 2004 and FastSOA from Morgan Kaufmann in 2006.) For the past 25 years he led some of the software industry's most successful products, including Norton Utilities for the Macintosh, Stacker, and SoftWindows. He began by writing operating systems for microcomputers, helping establish video games as an industry, helping establish the Norton Utilities franchise, leading Apple's efforts into middleware and Internet technologies, and was principal architect for the Sun Community Server. He cofounded (OTC: IINC), and (now Symantec Web Services.) Contact Frank at and

Sun, 05 Jun 2022 15:49:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : 5 ways to unite security and compliance

As numerous data compliance laws proliferate across the globe, security professionals have become too focused on checking their requirements boxes when they should be focused on reducing risk. Can the two work harmoniously together?

The answer depends on how effectively IT security leaders can work with their auditors and speak to their boards, say experts. These are their top five recommendations:

1. Focus on data protection

It’s well-known that compliance is about protecting regulated data, while cybersecurity is focused on keeping bad guys out. From a data protection perspective, the key security measure then is to avoid processing or storing regulated data that isn’t needed. If regulated data must be stored, make sure you’re using stronger-than-recommended encryption, says James Morrison, national cybersecurity specialist for Intelisys, the infrastructure support division of payment systems company, ScanSource.

“In my career, I’ve seen small healthcare providers sending patient data in cleartext. So, to create compliant policies, ask how regulated data is handled from cradle to grave,” explains Morrison, formerly a computer scientist with the FBI. “You should be mindful of where your data exists, where it’s stored, how it’s stored, and for how long. That’s the right way to start the conversation around compliance and security.”

2. Make security auditors your friends

As important as learning the perspective of auditors is helping them understand the basics of cybersecurity.  As CISO at a previous company, Morrison held weekly meetings with his auditor to maintain a “two-way” conversation inclusive of compliance and security. By the time the company conducted its ISO 27001 infosec management update, the audit team was able to articulate clearly what they needed from the security team. Then Morrison himself gathered the information the auditors requested. “Auditors are more appreciative if you take a team approach like this. And so are the CEO’s and boards of directors,” he adds.

However, teaching cybersecurity basics to auditors is difficult, adds Ian Poynter, a virtual CISO based on the U.S. east coast. This is especially problematic among auditors that come from the big  consulting firms, who he likens to “people with clipboards who ask questions but don’t understand the security and risk context.” In case after case, Poynter describes past experiences in which his clients passed their “clipboard” audits while fundamentally failing at security.

Copyright © 2022 IDG Communications, Inc.

Sun, 31 Jul 2022 21:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : computerworld
tt22 029 iphone 14 thumb pod

Today in Tech

iPhone 14: What's the buzz?

Join Macworld executive editor Michael Simon and Computerworld executive editor Ken Mingis as they talk about the latest iPhone 14 rumors – everything from anticipated release date to price to design changes. Plus, they'll talk about...

Sun, 10 Jul 2022 22:25:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Encryption Software Market: Ready to Fly on high Growth Trends

Market Overview:

The Encryption Software Market has been flooding quickly from one side of the planet to the other lately and will keep on invigorating towards more prominent statures in the forthcoming years. The encryption software market forecast represents that the estimated market value of 13 billion at a CAGR 16.40% by the year 2030. The encryption programming market gauge addresses that the assessed market esteem constantly 2030

Encryption programming is characterized as program-based programming which uses cryptography procedures to shield advanced data from unapproved access. The course of encryption starts when the information goes through an arrangement of numerical activities and produces an alternate type of similar information. Such a succession of tasks is called calculations.

Encoded and decoded information varies a ton. Decoded information suggests a plain type of text, though scrambled information implies ciphertext. The primary object of the encryption programming market is to create ciphertext that can’t be handily changed again into plain text design. The anticipation of unapproved admittance to information and creating incoherent codes for information security is supporting the encryption programming industry development.

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Market Segmentation:

The encryption programming market is divided into a few portions based on arrangement, association size, application, administrations, and verticals. By sending, the market division remembers for reason and cloud. The encryption programming industry division based on association size comprises little endeavors, medium undertakings, and enormous ventures.

Based on application, the market fragment includes correspondence encryption, plate encryption, data set encryption, record or envelope encryption, and cloud encryption. Among every one of the applications, circle encryption is relied upon to show the most noteworthy development as it secures information by changing over them into ambiguous codes. 

The administrations fragment of the market incorporates oversaw administration and expert assistance. By verticals, the encryption programming industry size comprises the medical services area, retail, IT and media transmission, Government, BFSI, and others.

Key Players

  • CheckPoint Software Technologies Ltd. (Israel)
  • Microsoft Corporation (U.S.)
  • Sophos Ltd. (U.S.)
  • EMC Corporation (U.S.)
  • Trend Micro Inc. (Japan)
  • Intel Security Group (McAfee) (U.S.)
  • Symantec Corporation (U.S.)
  • SAS Institute Inc. (U.S.)
  • IBM Corporation (U.S.)

Regional Analysis:

The encryption programming market examination is considered in specific geological regions like North America, Asia-Pacific, Europe, and the excess regions of the planet. North America rules the encryption programming industry share as significant encryption programming players are accessible around there. In Asia-Pacific, little and medium endeavors are quickly carrying out encryption programming for forestalling cybercrimes and unapproved admittance to information which prompts the market development around there.

The market in North America is relied upon to hold the biggest offer in the worldwide market attributable to the expanding reception of encryption arrangements. The infiltration of the web is relied upon to additional guide the fast development of the market in North America. The significance of information assurance attributable to the extending portable remote organizations will additionally help the development of the market in the district.

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As per Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC), the assessed number of information breaks observers by endeavors in the United States has developed from 1473 breaks in 2019 to 614 breaks in 2013. Additionally, the severe guidelines combined with existing programming organizations are relied upon to add to the development of the market in North America.

Industry News:

July 2020: Thales Group, a main security arrangement supplier, presented a concentrated key administration stage Cipher Trust Manager. Figure Trust Manager empowers endeavors to oversee encryption lifecycle and arrangements free of information stores.

About us:

At Market Research Future (MRFR), we enable our customers to unravel the complexity of various industries through our Cooked Research Report (CRR), Half-Cooked Research Reports (HCRR), Raw Research Reports (3R), Continuous-Feed Research (CFR), and Market Research & Consulting Services.

MRFR team have supreme objective to provide the optimum quality market research and intelligence services to our clients. Our market research studies by products, services, technologies, applications, end users, and market players for global, regional, and country level market segments, enable our clients to see more, know more, and do more, which help to answer all their most important questions.


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Sun, 24 Jul 2022 23:35:00 -0500 Market Research Future en-US text/html
Killexams : Internet and Tech News

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Sun, 16 Aug 2020 15:12:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Weaving a New Web

In 1969 scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles, transmitted a couple of bits of data between two computers, and thus the Internet was born. Today about 2 billion people access the Web regularly, zipping untold exabytes of data (that’s 10^18 pieces of information) through copper and fiber lines around the world. In the United States alone, an estimated 70 percent of the population owns a networked computer. That number grows to 80 percent if you count smartphones, and more and more people jump online every day. But just how big can the information superhighway get before it starts to buckle? How much growth can the routers and pipes handle? The challenges seem daunting. The current Internet Protocol (IP) system that connects global networks has nearly exhausted its supply of 4.3 billion unique addresses. Video is projected to account for more than 90 percent of all Internet traffic by 2014, a sudden new demand that will require a major increase in bandwidth. Malicious software increasingly threatens national security. And consumers may face confusing new options as Internet service providers consider plans to create a “fast lane” that would prioritize some Web sites and traffic types while others are routed more slowly.

Fortunately, thousands of elite network researchers spend their days thinking about these thorny issues. Last September DISCOVER and the National Science Foundation convened four of them for a lively discussion, hosted by the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta, on the next stage of Internet evolution and how it will transform our lives. DISCOVER editor in chief Corey S. Powell joined Cisco’s Paul Connolly, who works with Internet service providers (ISPs); Georgia Tech computer scientist Nick Feamster, who specializes in network security; William Lehr of MIT, who studies wireless technology, Internet architecture, and the economic and policy implications of online access; and Georgia Tech’s Ellen Zegura, an expert on mobile networking (click here for video of the event).

Powell: Few people anticipated Google’s swift rise, the vast influence of social media, or the Web’s impact on the music, television, and publishing industries. How do we even begin to map out what will come next?

Lehr: One thing the Internet has taught us thus far is that we can’t predict it. That’s wonderful because it allows for the possibility of constantly reinventing it.

Zegura: Our response to not being able to predict the Internet is to try to make it as flexible as possible. We don’t know for sure what will happen, so if we can create a platform that can accommodate many possible futures, we can position ourselves for whatever may come. The current Internet has held up quite well, but it is ready for some changes to prepare it to serve us for the next 30, 40, or 100 years. By building the ability to innovate into the network, we don’t have to know exactly what’s coming down the line. That said, Nick and others have been working on a test bed called GENI, the Global Environment for Network Innovations project that will allow us to experiment with alternative futures.

Powell: Almost like using focus groups to redesign the Internet?

Zegura: That’s not a bad analogy, although some of the testing might be more long-term than a traditional focus group.

Powell: What are some major online trends, and what do they suggest about where we are headed?

Feamster: We know that paths are getting shorter: From point A to point B, your traffic is going through fewer and fewer Internet service providers. And more and more data are moving into the cloud. Between now and 2020, the number of people on the Internet is expected to double. For those who will come online in the next 10 years or so, we don’t know how they’re going to access the Internet, how they’re going to use it, or what kinds of applications they might use. One trend is the proliferation of mobile devices: There could be more than a billion cell phones in India alone by 2015.

Powell: So there’s a whole universe of wireless connectivity that could potentially become an Internet universe?

Feamster: Absolutely. We know things are going to look vastly different from people sitting at desktops or laptops and browsing the Web. Also, a lot of Internet innovation has come not from research but from the private sector, both large companies and start-ups. As networking researchers, we should be thinking about how best to design the network substrate to allow it to evolve, because all we know for sure is that it’s going to keep changing.

Powell: What kind of changes and challenges do you anticipate?

Lehr: We’re going to see many different kinds of networks. As the Internet pushes into the developing world, the emphasis will probably be on mobile networks. For now, the Internet community is still very U.S.-centric. Here, we have very strong First Amendment rights (see “The Five Worst Countries for Surfing the Web,” page 5), but that’s not always the case elsewhere in the world, so that’s something that could cause friction as access expands.

Powell: Nearly 200 million Americans have a broadband connection at home. The National Broadband Plan proposes that everyone here should have affordable broadband access by 2020. Is private industry prepared for this tremendous spike in traffic?

Connolly: Our stake in the ground is that global traffic will quadruple by 2014, and we believe 90 percent of consumer traffic will be video-based. The question is whether we can deal with all those bits at a cost that allows stakeholders to stay in business. The existing Internet is not really designed to handle high volumes of media. When we look at the growth rate of bandwidth, it has followed a consistent path, but you have to focus on technology at a cost. If we can’t hit a price target, it doesn’t go mainstream. When we hit the right price, all of a sudden people say, “I want to do that,” and away we go.

Powell: As networks connect to crucial systems—such as medical equipment, our homes, and the electrical grid—disruptions will become costly and even dangerous. How do we keep everything working reliably?

Lehr: We already use the cyber world to control the real world in our car engines and braking systems, but when we start using the Internet, distributed networks, and resources on some cloud to make decisions for us, that raises a lot of questions. One could imagine all kinds of scenarios. I might have an insulin pump that’s controlled over the Internet, and some guy halfway around the world can hack into it and change my drug dosage.

Feamster: The late Mark Weiser, chief technologist at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, said the most profound technologies are the ones that disappear. When we drive a car, we’re not even aware that there’s a huge network under the hood. We don’t have to know how it works to drive that car. But if we start networking appliances or medical devices and we want those networks to disappear in the same way, we need to rely on someone else to manage them for us, so privacy is a huge concern. How do I supply someone visibility and access so they can fix a problem without letting them see my personal files, or use my printer, or open my garage door? The issues that span usability and privacy are going to become increasingly important.

Zegura: I would not be willing to have surgery over the Internet today because it’s not secure or reliable enough. Many environments are even more challenging: disaster situations, remote areas, military settings. But many techniques have been developed to deal with places that lack robust communications infrastructure. For instance, my collaborators and I have been developing something called message ferries. These are mobile routers, nodes in the environment that enable communication. Message ferries could be on a bus, in a backpack, or on an airplane. Like a ferry picks up passengers, they pick up messages and deliver them to another region.

Powell: Any takers for surgery over the Internet? Show of hands?

Lehr: If I’m in the Congo and I need surgery immediately, and that’s the only way they can supply it to me, sure. Is it ready for prime time? Absolutely not.

Powell: Many Web sites now offer services based on “cloud computing.” What is the concept behind that?

Feamster: One of the central tenets of cloud computing is virtualization. What that means is that instead of having hardware that’s yours alone, you share it with other people, whom you might not trust. This is evident in Gmail and Google Docs. Your personal documents are sitting on the same machine with somebody else’s. In this kind of situation, it’s critical to be able to track where data go. Several of my students are working on this issue.

Powell: With more and more documents moving to the cloud, aren’t there some complications from never knowing exactly where your data are or what you’re connecting to?

Lehr: A disconnect between data and physical location puts providers in a difficult position—for example, Google deciding what to do with respect to filtering search results in China. It’s a global technology provider. It can potentially influence China’s rules, but how much should it try to do that? People are reexamining this issue at every level.

Powell: In one latest survey, 65 percent of adults in 14 countries reported that they had been the victim of some type of cyber crime. What do people need to know to protect themselves?

Feamster: How much do you rely on educating users versus shielding them from having to make sensitive decisions? In some instances you can prevent people from making mistakes or doing malicious things. Last year, for instance, Goldman Sachs was involved in a legal case in which the firm needed to show that no information had been exchanged between its trading and accounting departments. That’s the kind of thing that the network should just take care of automatically, so it can’t happen no matter what users do.

Zegura: I agree that in cases where it’s clear that there is something people should not do, and we can make it impossible to do it, that’s a good thing. But we can’t solve everything that way. There is an opportunity to help people understand more about what’s going on with networks so they can look out for themselves. A number of people don’t understand how you can get e-mail that looks like it came from your mother, even though it didn’t. The analogy is that someone can take an envelope and write your name on it, write your mother’s name on the return address, and stick it in your mailbox. Now you have a letter in your mailbox that looks like it came from your mother, but it didn’t. The same thing can happen with e-mail. It’s possible to write any address on an Internet packet so it looks like it came from somewhere else. That’s a very basic understanding that could help people be much smarter about how they use networks.

Audience: How is the Internet changing the way we learn?

Feamster: Google CEO Eric Schmidt once gave an interview in which he was talking about how kids are being quizzed on things like country capitals (video). He essentially said, “This is ridiculous. I can just go to Google and search for capitals. What we really should be teaching students is where to find answers.” That’s perhaps the viewpoint of someone who is trying to catalog all the world’s information and says, “Why don’t you use it?” But there’s something to be said for it—there’s a lot of data at our fingertips. Maybe education should shift to reflect that.

Audience: Do you think it will ever be possible to make the Internet totally secure?

Feamster: We’ll never have perfect security, but we can make it tougher. Take the problem of spam. You construct new spam filters, and then the spammers figure out that you’re looking for messages sent at a certain time or messages of a certain size, so they have to shuffle things up a bit. But the hope is that you’ve made it harder. It’s like putting up a higher fence around your house. You won’t stop problems completely, but you can make break-ins inconvenient or costly enough to mitigate them.

Audience: Should there be limits on how much personal information can be collected online?

Zegura: Most of my undergraduate students have a sensitivity to private information that’s very different from mine. But even if we’re savvy, we can still be unaware of the personal data that some companies collect. In general, it needs to be much easier for people to make informed choices.

Feamster: The thing that scares me the most is what happens when a company you thought you trusted gets bought or goes out of business and sells all of your data to the lowest bidder. There are too few regulations in place to protect us, even if we understand the current privacy policies.

Lehr: Technologically, Bill Joy [co-founder of Sun Microsystems] was right when he said, “Privacy is dead; just get over it.” Privacy today can no longer be about whether someone knows something, because we can’t regulate that effectively. What matters now is what they can do with what they know.

Audience: Wiring society creates the capacity to crash society. The banking system, utilities, and business administration are all vulnerable. How do we meaningfully weigh the benefits against the risks?

Lehr: How we decide to use networks is very important. For example, we might decide to have separate networks for certain systems. I cannot risk some kid turning on a generator in the Ukraine and blowing something up in Kentucky, so I might keep my electrical power grid network completely separate. This kind of question engages more than just technologists. A wider group of stakeholders needs to weigh in.

Connolly: You always have to balance the good versus the potential for evil. Occasionally big blackouts in the Northeast cause havoc, but if we decided not to have electricity because of that risk, that would be a bad decision, and I don’t think it’s any worse in the case of the Internet. We have to be careful, but there’s so much possibility for enormous good. The power of collaboration, with people working together through the Internet, gives us tremendous optimism for the kinds of issues we will be able to tackle.

The Conversation in Context: 12 Ideas That Will Reshape the Way We Live and Work Online

1. Change how the data flow
A good place to start is with the overburdened addressing system, known as IPv4. Every device connected to the Internet, including computers, smartphones, and servers, has a unique identifier, or Internet protocol (IP) address. “Whenever you type in the name of a Web site, the computer essentially looks at a phone book of IP addresses,” explains Craig Labovitz, chief scientist at Arbor Networks, a software and Internet company. “It needs a number to call to connect you.” Trouble is, IPv4 is running out of identifiers. In fact, the expanding Web is expected to outgrow IPv4’s 4.3 billion addresses within a couple of years. Anticipating this shortage, researchers began developing a new IP addressing system, known as IPv6, more than a decade ago. IPv6 is ready to roll, and the U.S. government and some big Internet companies, such as Google, have pledged to switch over by 2012. But not everyone is eager to follow. For one, the jump necessitates costly upgrades to hardware and software. Perhaps a bigger disincentive is the incompatibility of the two addressing systems, which means companies must support both versions throughout the transition to ensure that everyone will be able to access content. In the meantime, IPv4 addresses, which are typically free, may be bought and sold. For the average consumer, Labovitz says, that could translate to pricier Internet access.

2. Put the next internet to the test
In one GENI experiment, Stanford University researcher Kok-Kiong Yap is researching a futuristic Web that seamlessly transitions between various cellular and WiFi networks, allowing smartphones to look for an alternative connection whenever the current one gets overwhelmed. That’s music to the ears of everyone toting an iPhone.

3. Move data into the cloud
As Nick Feamster says, the cloud is an increasingly popular place to store data. So much so, in fact, that technology research company Gartner predicts the estimated value of the cloud market, including all software, advertising, and business transactions, will exceed $150 billion by 2013. Why the boom? Convenience. At its simplest, cloud computing is like a giant, low-cost, low-maintenance storage locker. Centralized servers, provided by large Internet companies like Microsoft, Google, and Amazon, plus scores of smaller ones worldwide, let people access data and applications over the Internet instead of storing them on personal hard drives. This reduces costs for software licensing and hardware.

4. Settle who owns the internet
While much of the data that zips around the Internet is free, the routers and pipes that enable this magical transmission are not. The question of who should pay for rising infrastructure costs, among other expenses, is at the heart of the long-standing net neutrality debate. On the one side, Internet service providers argue that charging Web sites more for bandwidth-hogging data such as video will allow them to expand capacity and deliver data faster and more reliably. Opponents counter that such a tiered or “pay as you go” Internet would unfairly favor wealthier content providers, allowing the richest players to indirectly censor their cash-strapped competition. So which side has the legal edge? Last December the Federal Communications Commission approved a compromise plan that would allow ISPs to prioritize traffic for a fee, but the FCC promises to police anticompetitive practices, such as an ISP’s mistreating, say, Netflix, if it wants to promote its own instant-streaming service. The extent of the FCC’s authority remains unclear, however, and the ruling could be challenged as early as this month.

5. Understand what can happen when networks make decisions for us
In November Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad confirmed that the Stuxnet computer worm had sabotaged national centrifuges used to enrich nuclear fuel. Experts have determined that the malicious code hunts for electrical components operating at particular frequencies and hijacks them, potentially causing them to spin centrifuges at wildly fluctuating rates. Labovitz of Arbor Networks says, “Stuxnet showed how skilled hackers can militarize technology.”

6. Get ready for virtual surgery
Surgeon Jacques Marescaux performed the first trans-Atlantic operation in 2001 when he sat in an office in New York and delicately removed the gall bladder of a woman in Strasbourg, France. Whenever he moved his hands, a robot more than 4,000 miles away received signals via a broadband Internet connection and, within 15-hundredths of a second, perfectly mimicked his movements. Since then more than 30 other patients have undergone surgery over the Internet. “The surgeon obviously needs a certain that the connection won’t be interrupted,” says surgeon Richard Satava of the University of Washington. “And you need a consistent time delay. You don’t want to see a robot continually change its response time to your hand motions.”

7. Bring on the message ferries
A message ferry is a mobile device or Internet node that could relay data in war zones, disaster sites, and other places lacking communications infrastructure.

8. Don’t share hardware with people whom you might not trust
Or who might not trust you. The tenuous nature of free speech on the Internet cropped up in December when Amazon Web Services booted WikiLeaks from its cloud servers. Amazon charged that the nonprofit violated its terms of service, although the U.S. government may have had more to do with the decision than Amazon admits. WikiLeaks, for its part, shot back on Twitter, “If Amazon are [sic] so uncomfortable with the First Amendment, they should get out of the business of selling books.”

Unfortunately for WikiLeaks, Amazon is not a government agency, so there is no First Amendment case against it, according to Internet scholar and lawyer Wendy Seltzer of Princeton University. You may be doing something perfectly legal on Amazon’s cloud, Seltzer explains, and Amazon could supply you the boot because of government pressure, protests, or even too many service calls. “Service providers supply end users very little recourse, if any,” she observes. That’s why people are starting to think about “distributed hosting,” in which no one company has total power, and thus no one company controls freedom of speech.

9. Make cloud computing secure Nick Feamster’s strategy is to tag sensitive information with irrevocable digital labels. For example, an employee who wants only his boss to read a message could create a label designating it as secret. That label would remain with the message as it passed through routers and servers to reach the recipient, preventing a snooping coworker from accessing it. “The file could be altered, chopped in two, whatever, and the label would remain with the data,” Feamster says. The label would also prohibit the boss from relaying the message to someone else. Feamster expects to unveil a version of his labeling system, called Pedigree, later this year.

10. Manage your junk mail A lot of it. Spam accounts for about 85 percent of all e-mail. That’s more than 50 billion junk messages a day, according to the online security company Symantec.

11. Privacy is dead? Don’t believe it As we cope with the cruel fact that the Internet never forgets, researchers are looking toward self-destructing data as a possible solution. Vanish, a program created at the University of Washington, encodes data with cryptographic tags that degrade over time like vanishing ink. A similar program, aptly called TigerText, allows users to program text messages with a “destroy by” date that activates once the message is opened. Another promising option, of course, is simply to exercise good judgment.

12. Network to make a better world Crowdsourcing science projects that harness the power of the wired masses have tremendous potential to quickly solve problems that would otherwise take years to resolve. Notable among these projects is Foldit (, an engaging online puzzle created by Seth Cooper of the University of Washington and others that tasks gamers with figuring out the shapes of hundreds of proteins, which in turn can lead to new medicines. Another is the UC Berkeley Space Sciences Lab’s Stardust@home project (, which has recruited about 30,000 volunteers to scour, via the Internet, microscope images of interstellar dust particles collected from the tail of a comet that may hold clues to how the solar system formed. And Cornell University’s NestWatch ( educates people about bird breeding and encourages them to submit nest records to an online database. To date, the program has collected nearly 400,000 nest records on more than 500 bird species.

Check out
citizenscience for more projects.

Andrew Grant and Andrew Moseman

The Five Worst Countries for Surfing the Web


Government control of the Internet makes using the Web in China particularly limiting and sometimes dangerous. Chinese officials, for instance, imprisoned human rights activist Liu Xiaobo in 2009 for posting his views on the Internet and then blocked news Web sites that covered the Nobel Peace Prize ceremony honoring him last December. Want to experience China’s censorship firsthand? Go to, the country’s most popular search engine, and type in “Tiananmen Square massacre.”

North Korea
It’s hard to surf the Web when there is no Web to surf. Very few North Koreans have access to the Internet; in fact, due to the country’s isolation and censorship, many of its citizens do not even know it exists.

Burma is the worst country in which to be a blogger, according to a 2009 report by the Committee to Protect Journalists. Blogger Maung Thura, popularly known in the country as Zarganar, was sentenced to 35 years in prison for posting content critical of the government’s aid efforts after a hurricane.


The Iranian government employs an extensive Web site filtering system, according to the press freedom group Reporters Without Borders, and limits Internet connection speeds to curb the sharing of photos and videos. Following the controversial 2009 reelection of president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, protesters flocked to Twitter to voice their displeasure after the government blocked various news and social media Web sites.


Only 14 percent of Cubans have access to the Internet, and the vast majority are limited to a government-controlled network made up of e-mail, an encyclopedia, government Web sites, and selected foreign sites supportive of the Cuban dictatorship. Last year Cuban officials accused the United States of encouraging subversion by allowing companies to offer Internet communication services there.

Andrew Grant

Sat, 07 Dec 2019 21:35:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : The Business-Critical Importance of Password And Authentication Security

It has often been said that, now we are all firmly ensconced in the digital age, data is the new oil.

That’s to say that the exploitation of the newly-discovered oil reserves of the 19th century fuelled huge technological advancement, as well as helped to build huge fortunes. Today, the possession and manipulation of the right kinds of information are having a similar effect.

Alongside this phenomenon, it has also made the illicit and unauthorised possession of data something of a growth industry with hackers aiming to make use of it for their own nefarious reasons.

So, with businesses of every kind drawn from virtually every sector under threat, it is more essential than ever that they have the appropriate level of security in place. 

The importance of having secure firewalls and other virus protection measures is well known. But often hackers can gain access to systems and information simply by obtaining users’ names and passwords.

Then, once they have gained access, they can find themselves at liberty to do everything from stealing data to holding organisations to ransom, sometimes for many millions of dollars.

This has led to a state of affairs in which simply having password authentication on its own is no longer a safe option. Hacking software is commonly available on the so-called “dark web” that is reckoned to be able to crack up to 90% of passwords.

It’s also meant that another very successful industry has emerged – one which includes high profile operators like Perimeter 81 who specialize in offering cloud-based security systems specifically dedicated to established and up and coming companies who are looking for cyber security. 

As well as providing a cloud-based security platform with features such as Secure Web Gateway, Firewall as a Service and Device Posture Check, Perimeter 81 provides all encompassing network security.  

Multi-factor authentication 

The frailty of single-factor authentication, i.e, a simple user name and password, has led to the emergence of its far more secure sibling –  two- or multiple-factor authentication.

By adding an extra stage, or stages, into the login process it has increased security hugely. Plus, whereas once it was simply a question of asking a question that was reasonably easy to answer from other sources like social media, these additional authentications are almost impossible to sidestep.

For example, instead of having to supply a place of birth or a favourite pet’s name the secondary form of authentication can take various different forms that include: 

Following an initial login, the employee of the company receives a code via their phone that they then need to enter for access to the network or system.

This works in the same way as the above, except that the code is sent to the email address of the particular user. This offers the additional advantage that it doesn’t rely on there being a phone signal to receive it.

Less commonly used, some systems create an automated voice call to a specified phone number with the code.

This a form of technology often used for online banking options and uses a random number generator in a handheld device that generates the code that must be used within a specified time limit.

Instead of having to provide a specific device, some authentication systems rely on an app being loaded onto a smartphone or other mobile device that randomly generates a code.

The use of fingerprints, face recognition and even iris-scanning is increasing due to its convenience and security.

A lesser-used method is the push notification, much like a calendar reminder, that simply sends a message to a smartphone needing a simple yes or no response.

Other advantages of multi-factor authentication

Over and above the obvious security benefits of 2FA and MFA, there are a number of other, perhaps less expected, ones that can have a very positive effect on an organisation’s profitability.

In line with the overall increase in remote working, secondary and muti-factor authorisation mean that devices can be secure wherever they are being used. This freedom to work away from the traditional office environment has an obvious knock-on effect in terms of overall productivity.

It’s also a fact of business today that every organisation needs an IT helpdesk. This may be an internal department or outsourced but, however it operates, it still represents a considerable overhead.


In numerous surveys it’s been found that up to 40% of the calls help desks receive are related to lost or forgotten passwords. Each one can take considerable time to resolve, time that could be spent on other more important tasks.

But the extra layer provided by MFA means that in most cases employees can be left to safely re-set their own passwords, leaving the IT Desk out of the loop entirely.

Last, but not least, the increasing use of cloud-based and app-based authentication like software tokens is making it ever cheaper to run totally safe and secure systems. It’s also why the sorts of businesses developing these are having no problem in raising funding for their development.

Staying one step ahead

That said, the challenges that they face going forward are likely to escalate. And, with more and more people working remotely and other practices set to change, it may well present the ever-inventive hackers with more chinks in the system to try to exploit.

It all adds up to the fact that this is a battle that is never going to end. But the more forms of authentication that are introduced, and the greater the security that they provide, will mean that business may be getting the upper hand at long last.

Thu, 28 Jul 2022 20:50:00 -0500 FinSMEs en-US text/html
Killexams : Konstellation Q2 New Product Upgrades Announced to Optimize Mainnet and User Interface

Seoul, South Korea--(Newsfile Corp. - August 3, 2022) - The blockchain protocol built on Cosmos SDK, Konstellation, has undergone a major UX, UI and Mainnet upgrade. The SDK upgrade and UX/UI upgrade are targeted to make the ecosystem more secure and stable.


To view an enhanced version of this graphic, please visit:

According to the Cosmos SDK v0.45 upgrade, Konstellation has increased the character limit from 5k to 10k for description when submitting a proposal about the Konstellation node. The update has reduced the RAM usage and CPU time usage by making improvements to the store structure. This will significantly speed up the iterator creator process after deleting heavy workloads while also improving IBC migration times. The SDK upgrade will now also support "migrate ordering" while upgrading Rosetta to v0.7.0. The Rosetta upgrade will make inter-blockchain integration faster, simple and more reliable.

In the user interface update, the programming is converted to Next.js from React.js. The landing page, explorer, bridge and the Hubble have also been improved to make them more user-friendly and optimized. The bugs and errors in the browser are also minimized using code optimization to ensure fast rendering and server-side rendering. The UI and UX have been made overall faster and Search Engine Optimized with a much faster loading speed. The network efficiency of the Konstellation network has also been improved after the upgrade.

All of these changes are applied to ensure a stable and secure network for the users to interact with all the services offered by Konstellation Network. This upgrade will transform the Konstellation Network to offer users a safer, faster and more comfortable experience. To see what Konstellation has implemented in the update, visit

About Konstellation

Konstellation is a decentralized cross-chain capital markets protocol built on the Cosmos network. The project is aimed to efficiently connect funds and the various components of the asset management industries with investors. Konstellation's mission is to become the financial services industry hub for Cosmos and other blockchain ecosystems using strategic inter-operable blockchain communications.

The Konstellation network is powered by DARC tokens, which are required for the Konstellation network's governance and transactions. Powered by features such as cross-chain infrastructure, a simplified interface, high composability, and effortless cross-chain DeFi usability, Konstellation is making headway in achieving its vision.

To learn more about Konstellation, visit their Website, Twitter, Telegram, Medium.

Contact details

Tarek Al Fakih

To view the source version of this press release, please visit

Tue, 02 Aug 2022 18:03:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Wikileaks Vault 7

'Wikileaks Vault 7' - 9 News Result(s)

  • Agence France-Presse | Tuesday July 19, 2022

    Mexican President Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador said he had sent a letter to US President Joe Biden, on behalf of Wikileaks founder Julian Assange. Mexico's leftist leader explained that “Assange did not commit any serious crime” as he did not cause the death of anyone, did not violate any human right and exercised his freedom, according to Obrad...

  • Agence France-Presse | Thursday July 14, 2022

    Former CIA coder Joshua Schulte was found guilty of the 2017 leak of ‘Vault 7’ hacking tools to WikiLeaks, by a New York federal court on Wednesday. Schulte, who worked for the CIA’s elite hacking unit, sent the agency’s most valuable hacking tools to the anti-secrecy group in 2017, including 8,761 documents, plus a collection of malware, v...

  • Reuters | Tuesday April 11, 2017

    Symantec said it had connected at least 40 attacks in 16 countries to the tools obtained by WikiLeaks, though it followed company policy by not formally blaming the CIA.

  • World News | Ellen Nakashima, The Washington Post | Saturday April 1, 2017

    The material includes the secret source code of an "obfuscation" technique used by the CIA so its malware can evade detection by antivirus systems.

  • Associated Press | Thursday March 9, 2017

    The CIA and the Trump administration have declined to comment on the authenticity of the files.

  • Reuters | Wednesday March 8, 2017

    Following the latest WikiLeaks dump, here are some Dumps users of consumer electronics may have.

  • Tasneem Akolawala | Wednesday March 8, 2017

    WikiLeaks has released over 8,000 documents alleging that the CIA has been using unethical practices to spy on users worldwide by hacking smartphones, tablets, PCs, and even smart TVs.

  • Gadgets 360 Staff | Wednesday March 8, 2017

    Smart TVs, mobiles, and all your other devices are spying on you, the latest WikiLeaks documents show.

  • World News | Craig Timberg, Ellen Nakashima, Elizabeth Dwoskin, The Washington Post | Wednesday March 8, 2017

    The latest revelations about the U.S. government's powerful hacking tools potentially take surveillance right into the homes and pockets of billions of users worldwide, showing how everyday devices can be turned to spy on their owners.

'Wikileaks Vault 7' - 1 Video Result(s)

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Mon, 18 Jul 2022 12:00:00 -0500 text/html
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