Colleges deploy thin clients to save money, Boost security and streamline desktop management.
Sooner or later, colleges and universities have to address their aging PC fleets. And many are turning to thin clients for their computing needs because they offer many advantages over PCs.
Advances in thin-client computing offer users the power and look and feel of regular PCs — at a lower price — and that’s helping drive thin-client adoption in higher education. Besides cost savings, thin clients deliver colleges many benefits, including simpler IT management. IT departments can also troubleshoot and manage the computing infrastructure from a central location: the data center.
Thin clients also Boost security. Students using thin clients in a computer lab can’t change settings or install unauthorized software. If a student accidentally downloads a virus or spyware on a thin client, the infection can’t spread.
“Public computers are very much at risk, and thin clients reduce those risks,” says Gartner analyst Mark Margevicius.
For administrative users, data is better protected from thieves because thin clients lack hard drives and have no data stored locally. Thin clients also aid with continuity of operations planning and can ensure 24x7 uptime because servers can be configured to be redundant. The devices are also more eco-friendly and consume less power than regular computers.
Tech manufacturers have made several innovations in thin-client technology in latest years. They are no longer the dumb terminals of the past. Today’s thin clients have a processor, RAM and Flash memory, allowing applications to run locally and boosting the performance of web browsing, video and other multimedia applications.
Colleges also have numerous thin-client architectures from which to pick. In the traditional thin-client model, through software such as Microsoft’s Terminal Services or Citrix System’s XenApp, keystrokes and mouse clicks are sent back and forth between the thin client and the data center. The servers perform the processing and send a view of the screen to the user’s desktop.
Other thin-client alternatives include blade PCs, which are real PCs housed like servers in a data center. Users connect to the PCs through thin-client devices. Another thin-client option is desktop virtualization, or virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI). Desktop virtualization partitions servers into separate virtual machines, which gives users “virtual computers” with an operating system and applications.
Here’s a look at how thin clients have made three colleges more productive.
When server specialist Jeff Grigsby learned he could deliver students a PC-like experience with a full operating system and access to multimedia applications while reaping the numerous benefits of thin clients, he was sold.
Cleveland State University, which provides students with 350 computers in seven computer labs, began swapping out PCs with thin clients last fall to save money. Because students demand good multimedia performance, Grigsby deployed a thin-client architecture called OS streaming, which gives students access to a full operating system and applications on the thin clients.
When a student logs in, a server grabs a computer image — featuring Windows XP, Microsoft Office and other applications — from the college’s storage area network (SAN) and delivers it over the network to a high-end thin-client device.
The OS and applications run locally on the thin client, but all the data is stored on the SAN. When students log in, they are each given 2 gigabytes of cache storage on the SAN, which stores temporary files while the students are using applications.
“We needed the full XP operating system because our students want to use media,” Grigsby says. “Audio and video are big things that they use in the labs, and this provides a good experience for them.”
Worldwide thin-client sales are expected to grow from 2.9 million in 2008 to 3.4 million in 2009, an increase of 17.5 percent.
Cleveland State began the migration last summer. So far it has switched 220 of the 350 computers to thin clients and hopes to finish the migration by fall 2010. The IT department standardized on Wyse V00LE thin clients, which feature a 1.2 gigahertz processor and 1 gigabyte of RAM, and Citrix’s streaming OS software, called Citrix Provisioning Server for Desktops.
The IT department also purchased two Hewlett-Packard BladeSystem c-Class server blades, featuring Intel dual-core processors and 4GB of RAM. The two blades increase reliability: If one blade fails, the other can handle the workload and prevent downtime, Grigsby says.
Nearly one year into the deployment, Cleveland State has already seen a return on investment. Compared with the cost of PCs, an entire thin-client solution — including servers, software licenses and the thin clients themselves — saves the college about $200 per client. When the project is complete, Grigsby expects thin clients will save the university about $50,000 annually.
The thin clients are easy to manage, Grigsby says, because there is only one computer image. As for security, Grigsby likes that the image is in read-only mode, so students can’t change the computer settings.
Grigsby is making improvements to the system. The computer image with the OS and applications was initially 50GB. To speed the OS streaming, Grigsby is reducing the size of the image by moving large applications to a more traditional thin-client architecture. He’s already moved some applications to Citrix XenApp, which has reduced the computer image to 32GB. He hopes to speed the streaming OS even further this summer by moving more large applications to XenApp and reducing the image to 8 to 12GB.
A need to update the PC fleet led the University of Pittsburgh’s Paul Milazzo to opt for thin clients. “They use very little electricity, have no fans, generate no heat and they’re easy to manage.”
Photo Credit: Jeff Swensen
Last fall, as aging PCs in the student computer lab broke down every other day, network administrator Paul Milazzo knew his school could no longer hold off on purchasing new technology.
Students and staff in the University of Pittsburgh’s School of Dental Medicine rely on the lab to check e-mail and browse the web. Upper-level students who see patients also use the lab to access the school’s online patient management system. The lab’s 30 beat-up computers were nearly six years old. Every other day, Milazzo and his IT colleagues were called in to fix something: a crashed hard drive, failed CD-ROM, sticky keyboard or dead mouse.
All the breakdowns and troubleshooting helped make the case for Milazzo to purchase thin clients. This past January, the school switched to HP thin clients on an HP ProLiant DL380 dual-quad core server with 12GB of RAM running Microsoft Terminal Services.
“We looked for something small and simple with no moving parts,” says Milazzo, now a systems architect for the university. “We knew there would be energy and cost savings, so instead of buying all new desktops, we decided to centralize everything.”
The HP t5630 thin client, built with a 1GHz processor and 1GB of RAM, runs Windows XP embedded. Microsoft Terminal Services software on Windows Server 2003 uses Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP), a communications protocol that transfers a user’s mouse and keyboard clicks to the server, which in turn, sends the graphical output to the user’s thin-client device.
To speed multimedia performance, the IT staff installed some applications locally on each thin client’s Flash drive, including Adobe Flash and Apple QuickTime.
“It works great,” Milazzo says. “XP Embedded’s look is familiar to users. Software like Word and PowerPoint works like it does on any other machine, and they love that it boots up in six seconds. You can’t tell you’re on a thin client, and that’s what we were shooting for.”
Milazzo made the thin clients easy to use. When students log on, four icons pop up, giving students access to applications. The first icon is Internet Explorer for web surfing. The three other icons let students log on to terminal sessions.
Some thin clients can consume as little as 6.6 watts of energy, compared with desktops that can consume as much as 150 watts.
Source: Wyse Technology
The first session gives access to the live patient management system, while the second session connects to a test patient management system, set up to train students on how to use the application. The third session gives students access to Microsoft Office, Adobe Photoshop and other general applications.
The IT staff disabled the USB ports on the thin clients to prevent students from making copies of documents on removable media, such as thumb drives. The dental school must protect patient data because of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. To save documents, students have to visit the IT department, where staffers make sure the files being saved are not sensitive. “There’s no way around it because of HIPAA regulations,” Milazzo says.
While it’s too soon to determine cost savings, Milazzo says the school is taking advantage of central IT management. With Symantec’s Altiris management software, the IT department can manage the thin clients remotely — for instance, to power down devices or set a common screen saver.
Cost is the prime driver for Murray State University’s Tim McNeely. “Long term, our cost is lower. Instead of replacing PCs every five years, we just have to replace three servers every five to seven years, and that’s cheaper.”
Photo Credit: Tamara Reynolds
When Murray State’s College of Humanities and Fine Arts needed to replace 150 aging PCs in its classrooms and computer labs, the IT department switched to thin-client computing for one reason: It wouldn’t take a big, fat chunk out of the budget.
Tim McNeely, the college’s technology coordinator, first considered buying new PCs, but after doing some research he realized thin clients are more affordable. It would have cost $150,000 to replace all the PCs in five classrooms and two small computer labs. Buying an entire thin-client solution — three servers, software licensing and the less expensive thin-client devices — cost only $98,000, a $52,000 savings.
The Kentucky school expects to save even more money in the long run. Because thin clients have no moving parts, such as hard drives and fans, they last several years longer than PCs. When the servers need replacing or software needs upgrading, the college will need to spend only about $8,000 a year.
Microsoft’s Terminal Services will support between 25 and 40 users per processor with 3 to 4 GB of RAM. A virtual desktop infrastructure can typically support six to eight virtual machines per processor core.
Source: CDW, VMware
“Long term, our cost is lower,” McNeely says. “Instead of replacing PCs every five years, we just have to replace three servers every five to seven years, and that’s cheaper.”
McNeely says Murray State’s five classrooms with PCs in the College of Humanities and Fine Arts are packed all day with students who need computers to do research and write papers.
Over the past two years, McNeely has replaced the PCs with a Terminal Services thin-client system featuring three IBM System x3650 rack servers, Wyse S30 thin clients with 400 megahertz processors and 128 megabytes of RAM, and 19-inch LG flat-screen monitors.
Two servers run terminal sessions that deliver users access to Microsoft Office and the web. The workload is split evenly between the two servers, but if one server goes down, the other can handle the entire load without a major performance hit, McNeely says. The third server provides users access to a statistics application used by students in government, law, international affairs and psychology. The college also runs a virtual server for managing all the sessions, he says.
The ability to remotely and centrally manage the thin clients has saved the IT staff a lot of time, McNeely says. In the past, if professors wanted to add new software, the IT staff would have to schedule around class times to install the software in all 30 computers in a room. Now, with thin clients and remote tools, the IT staff can install the software on the servers immediately.
“It’s definitely decreased our workload. When we’re upgrading software, we do it on three servers without having to touch the 150 stations,” he says.
The college also expects to save significant dollars because the thin clients use very little power and generate very little heat, which saves on air-conditioning costs. Classrooms are also quieter because thin clients don’t have fans, he says.
McNeely is tapping his experience to help three other schools within the university with their thin-client implementations. Students have adapted to the new technology quickly, with no complaints or questions, he says.
“It was very important to us that the user experience be as easy and responsive as the desktop computers we were replacing,” he says.
IDC analyst Bob O’Donnell says iT departments should ask these questions to help them settle on a thin-client solution:
1. What are the computing needs of your users?Determine your priorities first, and that will help you determine what kind of architecture and thin-client devices you choose.
2. What kind of infrastructure do you already have? Your existing data center technology should drive your decision.
3. What kind of Microsoft software licenses do you have? Some licenses let iT departments share full operating systems in a virtual-client environment.
4. How good is your IT staff? Implementing the traditional thin-client architecture is easy, but other architectures (such as virtual desktop infrastructure and streaming OS, for which an organization may use a common computer image) can be complex. Make sure the IT department has the expertise to implement the technology you choose.
5. Who will manage the thin clients? The iT staff who manage the servers, or the iT staff who manage the clients? Work out the turf battles in advance.
Operating system choices for thin clients include Windows CE, Windows XP Embedded, Linux and custom OSes. Here’s a rundown:
Windows CE. This OS has a smaller footprint than XP embedded and is capable of internet browsing and multimedia applications. it supports Windows, mainframe and basic web applications, but it has limited support for peripherals.
XP Embedded. This OS features an interface similar to XP, is good for Windows 32-bit applications and supports multimedia applications, internet browsing and has extensive hardware peripheral support. it also supports connectivity to mainframe and feature-rich web applications. On the negative side, it has a large memory requirement.
Linux. An embedded linux operating system requires a small amount of memory. it’s customizable with open-source software and components and supports internet browsing and multimedia capabilities. it has limited peripheral support.
IT departments that use traditional thin-client architecture can ensure quality multimedia through Wyse TCX Multimedia technology. in the past, playing audio or video over independent Computing Architecture or Remote Display Protocol resulted in spotty performance. With Wyse TCX Multimedia 3.0, users can run multimedia applications locally on the thin client, delivering a smooth multimedia experience. The Wyse TCX software works with Citrix XenApp, Microsoft Terminal Server and VMware View.
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If you are a Linux user that has to use Windows — or even a Windows user that needs some Linux support — Cygwin has long been a great tool for getting things done. It provides a nearly complete Linux toolset. It also provides almost the entire Linux API, so that anything it doesn’t supply can probably be built from source. You can even write code on Windows, compile and test it and (usually) port it over to Linux painlessly.
However, Cygwin’s package management is a little clunky and setting up the GUI environment has always been tricky, especially for new users. A project called Swan aims to make a full-featured X11 Linux environment easy to install on Windows.
The project uses Cygwin along with Xfce for its desktop. Cygwin provides pretty good Windows integration, but Swan also includes extra features. For example, you can make your default browser the Windows browser with a single click. It also includes spm — a package manager for Cygwin that is somewhat easier to use, although it still launches the default package manager to do the work (this isn’t a new idea, by the way).
Here’s a screenshot of Windows 10 (you can see Word running native in the background) with top running in a Bash shell and Thunar (the default file manager for Swan). Notice the panel at the top with the swan icon. You can add things there and there are numerous settings you can access from the swan icon.
Swan is fairly new, so it still has some rough edges, but we like where it is going. The install process is in two parts which doesn’t make sense for something trying to be easier. Admittedly, it is already easier than doing an X11 install with normal Cygwin. However, on at least one test install, the virus scanner erroneously tripped on the wget executable and that caused the install to fail.
The project is hosted on GitHub if you want to examine the source or contribute. Of course, Windows has its own support for Linux now (sort of). Swan isn’t quite a finished product and, like Cygwin, it isn’t a total replacement for Linux. But it is still worth a look on any machine that you use that boots Windows.
A single e-mail can be enough to partially cripple a company, yet many Swiss firms are unaware of the dangers lurking on the web – as Solange Ghernaouti, an international expert on cybercrime, tells swissinfo.ch.This content was published on September 4, 2012 - 11:00
A new virus called Gauss, for example, has already infected hundreds of computers in the Middle East. It can spy on bank transactions and steal passwords. According to Kaspersky Lab, a company specialising in computer science security, Gauss was invented in the same laboratory that created Stuxnet – the virus that infiltrated Iran’s nuclear programme.
The discovery of Gauss has fuelled the discussion of how IT tools can be used for criminal purposes. This is a development that affects Swiss companies, too, as such protection is essential in order to remain innovative and competitive, points out Ghernaouti.
An economics professor at Lausanne University, Ghernaouti is a member of the Global Cybersecurity Agenda of the International Telecommunication Union. She is currently working on the development of an international agreement on cyberspace.
swissinfo.ch: Symantec, an antivirus software company, has reported that virus attacks have increased steadily in the first six months of 2012. One out of three attacks is aimed at small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Who are the perpetrators?
Solange Ghernaouti: The authors are very diverse and the viruses can come from every corner of the earth. But it turns out that most of these computer attacks originate in China – not to point the finger at the Chinese government.
That having been said, China would like to become a superpower, and to that end, a useful tool is industrial espionage – the acquisition of know-how and information. The Internet and cyberspace have become the new battlegrounds of the global economy.
But it’s not just the Chinese. There are also other state actors, or those that operate against governments. And let’s not forget regular criminals – operating individually or in gangs – who will do anything to get rich. Systems and operations are vulnerable. Those looking for the weak spots will usually find them.
swissinfo.ch: What are the most sophisticated methods?
S.G.: Social engineering, or the collecting of passwords and confidential information through interpersonal contact. This exploits human weakness rather than the vulnerability of the technology.
For example: A company will be contacted by someone posing as an administrator who says that there is a problem with the network and the computers need to be reconfigured, so he gets the passwords. This method always works.
Slightly more sophisticated is the technology of spear phishing, which seeks sensitive information. So a manager will be tricked into believing that he has been emailed by an employee or someone he trusts. They send him a document that he opens and downloads, which activates a Trojan horse that is installed on his computer without him realising it. Even RSA Security was pirated in this way – and it’s the world's largest provider of IT security instruments.
swissinfo.ch: What are the most vulnerable industries and sectors?
S.G.: All service-oriented businesses, like banks and insurance companies. In Switzerland a lot of pharmaceutical and chemical companies are affected, although I’ve never heard of a drug giant becoming a victim. But that doesn’t mean it has never happened – they often keep quiet for image reasons.
Personally, I’m more anxious about attacks on key infrastructure – such as hospitals, power stations or water supplies. At the start of the last decade, a disgruntled employee of an Australian water treatment plant took control of its IT system. He was able to divert contaminated water into a river.
Attacks on the food industry also worry me. This could mean production plant sensors being manipulated to insert harmful substances into coffee capsules, for example.
swissinfo.ch: A survey states that one out of five Swiss companies has suffered a digital attack. Are companies aware of their vulnerability?
S.G.: In Switzerland, the most feared attacks are those involving industrial espionage or the theft of data, trademarks and know-how. For this reason, all of the major banks and companies have their own IT protection service.
The medium-sized businesses, on the other hand, are rather defenceless. Moreover, not all of them are aware of the risks. And the moment when they become aware it is often too late; the damage has already been done.
IT-related risks are constantly on the rise. SMEs that want to minimise their vulnerability need to invest in protection. In addition to putting money into technical measures like fire walls and anti-virus software, they also need to implement operational processes to ensure constant IT security.
swissinfo.ch: Some companies mirror their data to external servers through so-called cloud computing. Is this wise?
S.G.: This outsourcing to an external service provider can reduce costs, but then you lose control of your intangible capital. You become totally dependent upon a third party.
These external data centres usually store the data of several companies. All of the information is therefore in a single cloud, which may attract the interest of criminals.
swissinfo.ch: What is your advice for these companies?
S.G.: I would suggest that they think about the data and the assets of their operation, as well as the location of these. They should consider what data could be lost without compromising the entire operation. Companies should be proactive and analyse their internal security measures.
It’s not enough to install a fire wall correctly. The entire organisation needs to be rethought – including the activities of the staff. For example, there are employees who use social media during working hours. In addition, contingency plans should be developed to allow work to continue after a cyber attack.
In an increasingly globalised and more competitive economy, IT security is becoming more important. SMEs that don’t know how to protect their innovative capacities properly are less competitive because cyber criminals start where it is easiest. The most competitive firms are those that can protect their IT assets better than the competition.
swissinfo.ch: Cybercriminals are often thousands of kilometres away from their targets. Would international cooperation be effective?
S.G.: Switzerland has signed and ratified the European Convention on Cybercrime, and is a global player in the battle against computer science criminals. International cooperation works, as demonstrated by the coordinated actions which have led to various arrests.
However, there is a lack of police, lawyers and judges specialising in IT crimes. But there are fewer holes in the existing system, than in countries that have shown no desire to cooperate.
So there are some real ‘digital havens’ from where cybercriminals can launch their attacks knowing with near certainty that they will not be prosecuted. I can’t name names, but I can say that some tax havens are also cyber and digital havens.
In the first half of 2012, 36% of all worldwide IT attacks targeted small and medium enterprises (SMEs) with fewer than 250 employees.
At the end of 2011 the figure was 18%, according to a report by Symantec, a software company specialising in virus protection.
In May and June 2012, an average of 151 targeted attacks were blocked per day.
Large companies with over 2,500 employees remain the most vulnerable to attacks (69 attacks blocked per day).
The most targeted sectors are defence, chemical/pharmaceutical and manufacturing.
Worldwide, companies invest some €877 billion (SFr842 billion) into the management of digital information, Symantec estimates.
The SMEs surveyed invest an average of €262,000 per year.
The loss of digital data can have serious consequences, according to the study published in June.
Some 49% of the companies lost customers to IT attacks, 47% lost their reputations and 41% lost profits.
(Source: Symantec)End of insertion
In 1987, the Franco-Swiss scientist became the first female professor on the economics faculty of Lausanne University.
As the director of the Swiss Cybersecurity Advisory & Research Group, she shares her expertise with the UN as well as governments and private institutions.
She has written about 30 books on courses such as cybercrime.
In 2011, the Bilanz business magazine described her as one of the 300 most influential people in Switzerland.End of insertion
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InfoQ today publishes a one-chapter excerpt from Frank Cohen's book "FastSOA". On this occasion, InfoQ had a chance to talk to Frank Cohen, creator of the FastSOA methodology, about the issues when trying to process XML messages, scalability, using XQuery in the middle tier, and document-object-relational-mapping.
InfoQ: Can you briefly explain the ideas behind "FastSOA"?
Frank Cohen: For the past 5-6 years I have been investigating the impact an average Java developer's choice of technology, protocols, and patterns for building services has on the scalability and performance of the resulting application. For example, Java developers today have a choice of 21 different XML parsers! Each one has its own scalability, performance, and developer productivity profile. So a developer's choice on technology makes a big impact at runtime.
I looked at distributed systems that used message oriented middleware to make remote procedure calls. Then I looked at SOAP-based Web Services. And most recently at REST and AJAX. These experiences led me to look at SOA scalability and performance built using application server, enterprise service bus (ESB,) business process execution (BPEL,) and business integration (BI) tools. Across all of these technologies I found a consistent theme: At the intersection of XML and SOA are significant scalability and performance problems.
FastSOA is a test methodology and set of architectural patterns to find and solve scalability and performance problems. The patterns teach Java developers that there are native XML technologies, such as XQuery and native XML persistence engines, that should be considered in addition to Java-only solutions.
InfoQ: What's "Fast" about it? ;-)
FC: First off, let me describe the extent of the problem. Java developers building Web enabled software today have a lot of choices. We've all heard about Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), Web Services, REST, and AJAX techniques. While there are a LOT of different and competing definitions for these, most Java developers I speak to expect that they will be working with objects that message to other objects - locally or on some remote server - using encoded data, and often the encoded data is in XML format.
The nature of these interconnected services we're building means our software needs to handle messages that can be small to large and simple to complex. Consider the performance penalty of using a SOAP interface and streams XML parser (StAX) to handle a simple message schema where the message size grows. A modern and expensive multi-processor server that easily serves 40 to 80 Web pages per second serves as little as 1.5 to 2 XML requests per second.
Without some sort of remediation Java software often slows to a crawl when handling XML data because of a mismatch between the XML schema and the XML parser. For instance, we checked one SOAP stack that instantiated 14,385 Java objects to handle a request message of 7000 bytes that contains 200 XML elements.
Of course, titling my work SlowSOA didn't sound as good. FastSOA offers a way to solve many of the scalability and performance problems. FastSOA uses native XML technology to provide service acceleration, transformation, and federation services in the mid-tier. For instance, an XQuery engine provides a SOAP interface for a service to handle decoding the request, transform the request data into something more useful, and routes the request to a Java object or another service.
InfoQ: One alternative to XML databinding in Java is the use of XML technologies, such as XPath or XQuery. Why muddy the water with XQuery? Why not just use Java technology?
FC:We're all after the same basic goals:
In SOA, Web Service, and XML domains I find the usual Java choices don't get me to all three goals.
Chris Richardson explains the Domain Model Pattern in his book POJOs in Action. The Domain Model is a popular pattern to build Web applications and is being used by many developers to build SOA composite applications and data services.
The Domain Model divides into three portions: A presentation tier, an application tier, and a data tier. The presentation tier uses a Web browser with AJAX and RSS capabilities to create a rich user interface. The browser makes a combination of HTML and XML requests to the application tier. Also at the presentation tier is a SOAP-based Web Service interface to allow a customer system to access functions directly, such as a parts ordering function for a manufacturer's service.
At the application tier, an Enterprise Java Bean (EJB) or plain-old Java object (Pojo) implements the business logic to respond to the request. The EJB uses a model, view, controller (MVC) framework - for instance, Spring MVC, Struts or Tapestry - to respond to the request by generating a response Web page. The MVC framework uses an object/relational (O/R) mapping framework - for instance Hibernate or Spring - to store and retrieve data in a relational database.
I see problem areas that cause scalability and performance problems when using the Domain Model in XML environments:
In no way am I advocating a move away from your existing Java tools and systems. There is a lot we can do to resolve these problems without throwing anything out. For instance, we could introduce a mid-tier service cache using XQuery and a native XML database to mitigate and accelerate many of the XML domain specific requests.
The advantage to using the FastSOA architecture as a mid-tier service cache is in its ability to store any general type of data, and its strength in quickly matching services with sets of complex parameters to efficiently determine when a service request can be serviced from the cache. The FastSOA mid-tier service cache architectures accomplishes this by maintaining two databases:
FastSOA uses the XQuery data model to implement policies. The XQuery data model supports any general type of document and any general dynamic parameter used to fetch and construct the document. Used to implement policies the XQuery engine allows FastSOA to efficiently assess common criteria of the data in the service cache and the flexibility of XQuery allows for user-driven fuzzy pattern matches to efficiently represent the cache.
FastSOA uses native XML database technology for the service and policy databases for performance and scalability reasons. Relational database technology delivers satisfactory performance to persist policy and service data in a mid-tier cache provided the XML message schemas being stored are consistent and the message sizes are small.
InfoQ: What kinds of performance advantages does this deliver?
FC: I implemented a scalability test to contrast native XML technology and Java technology to implement a service that receives SOAP requests.
The test varies the size of the request message among three levels: 68 K, 202 K, 403 K bytes. The test measures the roundtrip time to respond to the request at the consumer. The test results are from a server with dual CPU Intel Xeon 3.0 Ghz processors running on a gigabit switched Ethernet network. I implemented the code in two ways:
The results show a 2 to 2.5 times performance improvement when using the FastSOA technique to expose service interfaces. The FastSOA method is faster because it avoids many of the mappings and transformations that are performed in the Java binding approach to work with XML data. The greater the complexity and size of the XML data the greater will be the performance improvement.
InfoQ: Won't these problems get easier with newer Java tools?
FC: I remember hearing Tim Bray, co-inventor of XML, extolling a large group of software developers in 2005 to go out and write whatever XML formats they needed for their applications. Look at all of the different REST and AJAX related schemas that exist today. They are all different and many of them are moving targets over time. Consequently, when working with Java and XML the average application or service needs to contend with three facts of life:
What's needed is an easy way to consume any size and complexity of XML data and to easily maintain it over time as the XML changes. This kind of changing landscape is what XQuery was created to address.
InfoQ: Is FastSOA only about improving service interface performance?
FC: FastSOA addresses these problems:
FastSOA is an architecture that provides a mid-tier service binding, XQuery processor, and native XML database. The binding is a native and streams-based XML data processor. The XQuery processor is the real mid-tier that parses incoming documents, determines the transaction, communicates with the ?local? service to obtain the stored data, serializes the data to XML and stores the data into a cache while recording a time-to-live duration. While this is an XML oriented design XQuery and native XML databases handle non-XML data, including images, binary files, and attachments. An equally important benefit to the XQuery processor is the ability to define policies that operate on the data at runtime in the mid-tier.
FastSOA provides mid-tier transformation between a consumer that requires one schema and a service that only provides responses using a different and incompatible schema. The XQuery in the FastSOA tier transforms the requests and responses between incompatible schema types.
Lastly, when a service commonly needs to aggregate the responses from multiple services into one response, FastSOA provides service federation. For instance, many content publishers such as the New York Times provide new articles using the Rich Site Syndication (RSS) protocol. FastSOA may federate news analysis articles published on a Web site with late breaking news stories from several RSS feeds. This can be done in your application but is better done in FastSOA because the content (news stores and RSS feeds) usually include time-to-live values that are ideal for FastSOA's mid-tier caching.
InfoQ: Can you elaborate on the problems you see in combining XML with objects and relational databases?
FC: While I recommend using a native XML database for XML persistence it is possible to be successful using a relational database. Careful attention to the quality and nature of your application's XML is needed. For instance, XML is already widely used to express documents, document formats, interoperability standards, and service orchestrations. There are even arguments put forward in the software development community to represent service governance in XML form and operated upon with XQuery methods. In a world full of XML, we software developers have to ask if it makes sense to use relational persistence engines for XML data. Consider these common questions:
Your answers to these questions forms a criteria by which it will make sense to use a relational database, or perhaps not. The alternative to relational engines are native XML persistence engines such as eXist, Mark Logic, IBM DB2 V9, TigerLogic, and others.
InfoQ: What are the core ideas behind the PushToTest methodology, and what is its relation to SOA?
FC: It frequently surprises me how few enterprises, institutions, and organizations have a method to test services for scalability and performance. One fortune 50 company asked a summer intern they wound up hiring to run a few performance tests when he had time between other assignments to check and identify scalability problems in their SOA application. That was their entire approach to scalability and performance testing.
The business value of running scalability and performance tests comes once a business formalizes a test method that includes the following:
All of this requires much more than an ad-hoc approach to reach useful and actionable knowledge. So I built and published the PushToTest SOA test methodology to help software architects, developers, and testers. The method is described on the PushToTest.com Web site and I maintain an open-source test automation tool called PushToTest TestMaker to automate and operate SOA tests.
PushToTest provides Global Services to its customers to use our method and tools to deliver SOA scalability knowledge. Often we are successful convincing an enterprise or vendor that contracts with PushToTest for primary research to let us publish the research under an open source license. For example, the SOA Performance kit comes with the encoding style, XML parser, and use cases. The kit is available for free get at: http://www.pushtotest.com/Downloads/kits/soakit.html and older kits are at http://www.pushtotest.com/Downloads/kits.
InfoQ: Thanks a lot for your time.
Frank Cohen is the leading authority for testing and optimizing software developed with Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Web Service designs. Frank is CEO and Founder of PushToTest and inventor of TestMaker, the open-source SOA test automation tool, that helps software developers, QA technicians and IT managers understand and optimize the scalability, performance, and reliability of their systems. Frank is author of several books on optimizing information systems (Java Testing and Design from Prentice Hall in 2004 and FastSOA from Morgan Kaufmann in 2006.) For the past 25 years he led some of the software industry's most successful products, including Norton Utilities for the Macintosh, Stacker, and SoftWindows. He began by writing operating systems for microcomputers, helping establish video games as an industry, helping establish the Norton Utilities franchise, leading Apple's efforts into middleware and Internet technologies, and was principal architect for the Sun Community Server. He cofounded Inclusion.net (OTC: IINC), and TuneUp.com (now Symantec Web Services.) Contact Frank at firstname.lastname@example.org and http://www.pushtotest.com.
Latest added Enterprise Data Storage Market research study by AMA Research offers detailed outlook and elaborates market review till 2027. The market Study is segmented by key regions that are accelerating the marketization. At present, the market players are strategizing and overcoming challenges of current scenario; some of the key players in the study are Microsoft Corporation (United States), Dell (United States), Hewlett Packard (United States), Hitachi Vantara Corporation (Hong Kong), Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. (China), NetApp (United States), IBM Corporation (United States), SAS Institute Inc. (United States), Teradata Corporation (United States), Amazon Web Services, Inc. (United States), Oracle Corporation (United States), SAP SE (Germany), Talend (United States), Symantec (United States) etc.
The study explored is a perfect mix of qualitative and quantitative Market data collected and validated majorly through primary data and secondary sources.
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Enterprise Data Storage Market Definition:
Data storage hereby describes the technical means by which any form of digital data is collected and archived for the purpose of usage by a computer or any other device. The data memory comprises primary memory, which is often referred to as main memory, and secondary or auxiliary memory. In cloud data, the order of the level in which the data is stored on a memory card, hard drive, or SSD storage is generally adopted by consumers. Businesses prefer cloud storage. An enterprise storage system is a central repository in which business data and information are stored for a specific period of time depending on the needs of a company. The stored information can serve as a backup in the event of a disaster or system failure. In addition, enterprise storage is a highly scalable, fault-tolerant, and reliable storage option compared to traditional storage systems. Therefore, enterprise storage systems are better suited for companies that work with large amounts of data. Corporate storage includes hard disk drives (HDD) and solid-state drives (SSD), which are commonly used in SAN (Storage Area Networks), NAS, and DAS (Direct Attached Storage) environments. An enterprise storage system offers advantages such as data exchange, disaster recovery and high accessibility, recovery functions, and reliable and efficient backup as well as remote support and centralized administration.
The latest edition of this report you will be entitled to receive additional chapter / commentary on latest scenario, economic slowdown and COVID-19 impact on overall industry. Further it will also provide qualitative information about when industry could come back on track and what possible measures industry players are taking to deal with current situation. Each of the segment analysis table for forecast period also high % impact on growth.
This research is categorized differently considering the various aspects of this market. It also evaluates the upcoming situation by considering project pipelines of company, long term agreements to derive growth estimates. The forecast is analyzed based on the volume and revenue of this market. The tools used for analyzing the Global Enterprise Data Storage Market research report include SWOT analysis.
Market Growth Drivers:
The Global Enterprise Data Storage segments and Market Data Break Down are illuminated below:
by Type (Cloud Storage, Network Storage, Unified Storage, Direct Attached Storage, Storage Area Network, Software-Defined Storage, Others), Application (Industrial, Government, BFSI, Telecom, Education, Media and Entertainment, Others), Organization Size (Small And Medium-Sized Enterprises, Large Enterprises), Architecture (File Storage, Object Storage, Block Storage, Others), Deployment Type (Cloud-Based, On-Premises), Storage Type (Primary Storage (SRAM, DRAM), Secondary Storage (Magnetic Storage, Solid State Storage, Flash Drives and Optical Drives))
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The regional analysis of Global Enterprise Data Storage Market is considered for the key regions such as Asia Pacific, North America, Europe, Latin America and Rest of the World. North America is the leading region across the world. Whereas, owing to rising no. of research activities in countries such as China, India, and Japan, Asia Pacific region is also expected to exhibit higher growth rate the forecast period 2021-2027.
Highlights of the report:
Strategic Points Covered in Table of Content of Global Enterprise Data Storage Market:
Chapter 1: Introduction, market driving force product Objective of Study and Research Scope the Enterprise Data Storage market
Chapter 2: Exclusive Summary – the basic information of the Enterprise Data Storage Market.
Chapter 3: Displaying the Market Dynamics- Drivers, Trends and Challenges & Opportunities of the Enterprise Data Storage
Chapter 4: Presenting the Enterprise Data Storage Market Factor Analysis, Porters Five Forces, Supply/Value Chain, PESTEL analysis, Market Entropy, Patent/Trademark Analysis.
Chapter 5: Displaying the by Type, End User and Region/Country 2015-2020
Chapter 6: Evaluating the leading manufacturers of the Enterprise Data Storage market which consists of its Competitive Landscape, Peer Group Analysis, BCG Matrix & Company Profile
Chapter 7: To evaluate the market by segments, by countries and by Manufacturers/Company with revenue share and sales by key countries in these various regions (2021-2027)
Chapter 8 & 9: Displaying the Appendix, Methodology and Data Source
Finally, Enterprise Data Storage Market is a valuable source of guidance for individuals and companies.
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Aug 03, 2022 (The Expresswire) -- "Final Report will add the analysis of the impact of COVID-19 on this industry."
Global “Workload Scheduling Software Market” 2022 report presents a comprehensive study of the entire Global market including market size, share trends, market dynamics, and overview by segmentation by types, applications, manufactures and geographical regions. The report offers the most up-to-date industry data on the real market situation and future outlook for the Workload Scheduling Software market. The report also provides up-to-date historical market size data for the period and an illustrative forecast to 2028 covering key market aspects like market value and volume for Workload Scheduling Software industry.
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Market Analysis and Insights: Global Workload Scheduling Software Market
System management software is an application that manages all applications of an enterprise such as scheduling and automation, event management, workload scheduling, and performance management. Workload scheduling software is also known as batch scheduling software. It automates, monitors, and controls jobs or workflows in an organization. It allows the execution of background jobs that are unattended by the system administrator, aligning IT with business objectives to Boost an organization's performance and reduce the total cost of ownership. This process is known as batch processing. Workload scheduling software provides a centralized view of operations to the system administrator at various levels: project, organizational, and enterprise.
The global Workload Scheduling Software market size is projected to reach USD million by 2028, from USD million in 2021, at a CAGR of during 2022-2028.
According to the report, workload scheduling involves automation of jobs, in which tasks are executed without human intervention. Solutions like ERP and customer relationship management (CRM) are used in organizations across the globe. ERP, which is a business management software, is a suite of integrated applications that is being used by organizations in various sectors for data collection and interpretation related to business activities such as sales and inventory management. CRM software is used to manage customer data and access business information.
The major players covered in the Workload Scheduling Software market report are:● BMC Software ● Broadcom ● IBM ● VMWare ● Adaptive Computing ● ASG Technologies ● Cisco ● Microsoft ● Stonebranch ● Wrike ● ServiceNow ● Symantec ● Sanicon Services ● Cloudify
Global Workload Scheduling Software Market: Drivers and Restrains
The research report has incorporated the analysis of different factors that augment the market’s growth. It constitutes trends, restraints, and drivers that transform the market in either a positive or negative manner. This section also provides the scope of different segments and applications that can potentially influence the market in the future. The detailed information is based on current trends and historic milestones. This section also provides an analysis of the volume of production about the global market and about each type from 2017 to 2028. This section mentions the volume of production by region from 2017 to 2028. Pricing analysis is included in the report according to each type from the year 2017 to 2028, manufacturer from 2017 to 2022, region from 2017 to 2022, and global price from 2017 to 2028.
A thorough evaluation of the restrains included in the report portrays the contrast to drivers and gives room for strategic planning. Factors that overshadow the market growth are pivotal as they can be understood to devise different bends for getting hold of the lucrative opportunities that are present in the ever-growing market. Additionally, insights into market expert’s opinions have been taken to understand the market better.
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Global Workload Scheduling Software Market: Segment Analysis
The research report includes specific segments by region (country), by manufacturers, by Type and by Application. Each type provides information about the production during the forecast period of 2017 to 2028. By Application segment also provides consumption during the forecast period of 2017 to 2028. Understanding the segments helps in identifying the importance of different factors that aid the market growth.
Segment by Type● On-Premises ● Cloud-Based
Segment by Application● Large Enterprises ● Small And Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) ● Government Organizations
Workload Scheduling Software Market Key Points:● Characterize, portray and Forecast Workload Scheduling Software item market by product type, application, manufactures and geographical regions. ● deliver venture outside climate investigation. ● deliver systems to organization to manage the effect of COVID-19. ● deliver market dynamic examination, including market driving variables, market improvement requirements. ● deliver market passage system examination to new players or players who are prepared to enter the market, including market section definition, client investigation, conveyance model, item informing and situating, and cost procedure investigation. ● Stay aware of worldwide market drifts and deliver examination of the effect of the COVID-19 scourge on significant locales of the world. ● Break down the market chances of partners and furnish market pioneers with subtleties of the cutthroat scene.
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Geographically, this report is segmented into several key regions, with sales, revenue, market share, and Workload Scheduling Software market growth rate in these regions, from 2015 to 2028, covering● North America (United States, Canada and Mexico) ● Europe (Germany, UK, France, Italy, Russia and Turkey etc.) ● Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India, Australia, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, Malaysia, and Vietnam) ● South America (Brazil etc.) ● Middle East and Africa (Egypt and GCC Countries)
Some of the key questions answered in this report:● Who are the worldwide key Players of the Workload Scheduling Software Industry? ● How the opposition goes in what was in store connected with Workload Scheduling Software? ● Which is the most driving country in the Workload Scheduling Software industry? ● What are the Workload Scheduling Software market valuable open doors and dangers looked by the manufactures in the worldwide Workload Scheduling Software Industry? ● Which application/end-client or item type might look for gradual development possibilities? What is the portion of the overall industry of each kind and application? ● What centered approach and imperatives are holding the Workload Scheduling Software market? ● What are the various deals, promoting, and dissemination diverts in the worldwide business? ● What are the key market patterns influencing the development of the Workload Scheduling Software market? ● Financial effect on the Workload Scheduling Software business and improvement pattern of the Workload Scheduling Software business?
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Detailed TOC of Global Workload Scheduling Software Market Research Report 2022
1 Workload Scheduling Software Market Overview
1.1 Product Overview and Scope
1.2 Segment by Type
1.2.1 Global Market Size Growth Rate Analysis by Type 2022 VS 2028
1.3 Workload Scheduling Software Segment by Application
1.3.1 Global Consumption Comparison by Application: 2022 VS 2028
1.4 Global Market Growth Prospects
1.4.1 Global Revenue Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
1.4.2 Global Production Capacity Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
1.4.3 Global Production Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
1.5 Global Market Size by Region
1.5.1 Global Market Size Estimates and Forecasts by Region: 2017 VS 2021 VS 2028
1.5.2 North America Workload Scheduling Software Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
1.5.3 Europe Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
1.5.4 China Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
1.5.5 Japan Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
2 Workload Scheduling Software Market Competition by Manufacturers
2.1 Global Production Capacity Market Share by Manufacturers (2017-2022)
2.2 Global Revenue Market Share by Manufacturers (2017-2022)
2.3 Market Share by Company Type (Tier 1, Tier 2 and Tier 3)
2.4 Global Average Price by Manufacturers (2017-2022)
2.5 Manufacturers Production Sites, Area Served, Product Types
2.6 Market Competitive Situation and Trends
2.6.1 Market Concentration Rate
2.6.2 Global 5 and 10 Largest Workload Scheduling Software Players Market Share by Revenue
2.6.3 Mergers and Acquisitions, Expansion
3 Workload Scheduling Software Production Capacity by Region
3.1 Global Production Capacity of Workload Scheduling Software Market Share by Region (2017-2022)
3.2 Global Revenue Market Share by Region (2017-2022)
3.3 Global Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
3.4 North America Production
3.4.1 North America Production Growth Rate (2017-2022)
3.4.2 North America Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
3.5 Europe Production
3.5.1 Europe Production Growth Rate (2017-2022)
3.5.2 Europe Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
3.6 China Production
3.6.1 China Production Growth Rate (2017-2022)
3.6.2 China Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
3.7 Japan Production
3.7.1 Japan Production Growth Rate (2017-2022)
3.7.2 Japan Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
4 Global Workload Scheduling Software Market Consumption by Region
4.1 Global Consumption by Region
4.1.1 Global Consumption by Region
4.1.2 Global Consumption Market Share by Region
4.2 North America
4.2.1 North America Consumption by Country
4.2.2 United States
4.3.1 Europe Consumption by Country
4.4 Asia Pacific
4.4.1 Asia Pacific Consumption by Region
4.4.4 South Korea
4.4.5 China Taiwan
4.4.6 Southeast Asia
4.5 Latin America
4.5.1 Latin America Consumption by Country
5 Workload Scheduling Software Market Segment by Type
5.1 Global Production Market Share by Type (2017-2022)
5.2 Global Revenue Market Share by Type (2017-2022)
5.3 Global Price by Type (2017-2022)
6 Workload Scheduling Software Market Segment by Application
6.1 Global Production Market Share by Application (2017-2022)
6.2 Global Revenue Market Share by Application (2017-2022)
6.3 Global Price by Application (2017-2022)
7 Workload Scheduling Software Market Key Companies Profiled
7.1 Manufacture 1
7.1.1 Manufacture 1 Corporation Information
7.1.2 Manufacture 1 Product Portfolio
7.1.3 Manufacture 1 Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
7.1.4 Manufacture 1 Main Business and Markets Served
7.1.5 Manufacture 1 latest Developments/Updates
7.2 Manufacture 2
7.2.1 Manufacture 2 Corporation Information
7.2.2 Manufacture 2 Product Portfolio
7.2.3 Manufacture 2 Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
7.2.4 Manufacture 2 Main Business and Markets Served
7.2.5 Manufacture 2 latest Developments/Updates
7.3 Manufacture 3
7.3.1 Manufacture 3 Corporation Information
7.3.2 Manufacture 3 Product Portfolio
7.3.3 Manufacture 3 Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
7.3.4 Manufacture 3 Main Business and Markets Served
7.3.5 Manufacture 3 latest Developments/Updates
8 Workload Scheduling Software Manufacturing Cost Analysis
8.1 Key Raw Materials Analysis
8.1.1 Key Raw Materials
8.1.2 Key Suppliers of Raw Materials
8.2 Proportion of Manufacturing Cost Structure
8.3 Manufacturing Process Analysis of Workload Scheduling Software
8.4 Workload Scheduling Software Industrial Chain Analysis
9 Marketing Channel, Distributors and Customers
9.1 Marketing Channel
9.2 Workload Scheduling Software Distributors List
9.3 Workload Scheduling Software Customers
10 Market Dynamics
10.1 Workload Scheduling Software Industry Trends
10.2 Workload Scheduling Software Market Drivers
10.3 Workload Scheduling Software Market Challenges
10.4 Workload Scheduling Software Market Restraints
11 Production and Supply Forecast
11.1 Global Forecasted Production of Workload Scheduling Software by Region (2023-2028)
11.2 North America Workload Scheduling Software Production, Revenue Forecast (2023-2028)
11.3 Europe Workload Scheduling Software Production, Revenue Forecast (2023-2028)
11.4 China Workload Scheduling Software Production, Revenue Forecast (2023-2028)
11.5 Japan Workload Scheduling Software Production, Revenue Forecast (2023-2028)
12 Consumption and Demand Forecast
12.1 Global Forecasted Demand Analysis of Workload Scheduling Software
12.2 North America Forecasted Consumption of Workload Scheduling Software by Country
12.3 Europe Market Forecasted Consumption of Workload Scheduling Software by Country
12.4 Asia Pacific Market Forecasted Consumption of Workload Scheduling Software by Region
12.5 Latin America Forecasted Consumption of Workload Scheduling Software by Country
13 Forecast by Type and by Application (2023-2028)
13.1 Global Production, Revenue and Price Forecast by Type (2023-2028)
13.1.1 Global Forecasted Production of Workload Scheduling Software by Type (2023-2028)
13.1.2 Global Forecasted Revenue of Workload Scheduling Software by Type (2023-2028)
13.1.3 Global Forecasted Price of Workload Scheduling Software by Type (2023-2028)
13.2 Global Forecasted Consumption of Workload Scheduling Software by Application (2023-2028)
13.2.1 Global Forecasted Production of Workload Scheduling Software by Application (2023-2028)
13.2.2 Global Forecasted Revenue of Workload Scheduling Software by Application (2023-2028)
13.2.3 Global Forecasted Price of Workload Scheduling Software by Application (2023-2028)
14 Research Finding and Conclusion
15 Methodology and Data Source
15.1 Methodology/Research Approach
15.1.1 Research Programs/Design
15.1.2 Market Size Estimation
15.1.3 Market Breakdown and Data Triangulation
15.2 Data Source
15.2.1 Secondary Sources
15.2.2 Primary Sources
15.3 Author List
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