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Novell eDirectory Design and Implementation : eDirectory 8.8
Novell Implementation learner
Killexams : Novell Implementation learner - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/050-895 Search results Killexams : Novell Implementation learner - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/050-895 https://killexams.com/exam_list/Novell Killexams : Was Novell’s NE2000 Really That Bad?

If you used almost any form of networked PC in the late 1980s or the 1990s, the chances are that you will at some point have encountered the Novell NE2000 network card. This 16-bit ISA card became a de facto standard for 16-bit network cards, such that very few “NE2000” cards were the real thing. A host of clones filled the market, some of which followed the spec of the original rather loosely. It’s something [Michal Necasek] examines as he takes the reader through the history of the NE2000 and why it gained something of a bad reputation. An interesting read for ’90s PC veterans who battled with dodgy Windows 3.1 network drivers.

The Novell line of network cards were not a primary product of the network server OS company but an attempt to spur the uptake of networked computers in an age when few machines were supplied from the factory with a network card installed. They were largely an implementation of the reference design for the National Semiconductor DP3890 Ethernet interface chipset, and for simplicity of interfacing and drivers they used an I/O mapped interface rather than DMA. The problem with the NE2000 wasn’t the card itself which would work with any NE2000 driver, but the host of “NE2000 compatible” cards that appeared over the decade as that magic phrase became a key selling point at the bottom end of the market. Sure they might contain a DP3890 or its clones, but even minor differences in behaviour would cause them not to work with all drivers, and thus they gained a bad name. The piece reveals the original card as one that might have been slow and outdated towards the end of its reign as a standard card, but maybe one not deserving of the ire directed at it.

If ancient networking kit is your thing, we’ve got some far more obscure stuff to show you.

Tue, 02 Aug 2022 12:00:00 -0500 Jenny List en-US text/html https://hackaday.com/2021/04/24/was-novells-ne2000-really-that-bad/
Killexams : Tutoring or Remediation: Which Learning Recovery Strategy Is Most Popular?

New federal data provide a glimpse into what strategies schools have used to support learning recovery, and which ones school leaders think are most effective.

The results show that while some research-tested models—such as intensive tutoring—have become popular, other strategies touted by prominent education groups haven’t gained as much traction. And schools report that the learning recovery methods they have been using have had mixed effects. That may partly be because both student and staff quarantines and absences continued to disrupt time in classrooms this past year, and schools reported high levels of teacher burnout.

The data are the latest results from the National Center for Education Statistics’ School Pulse Panel, a monthly survey on the effects of the pandemic on K-12 schools. Responses were collected in June from a nationally representative demo of public schools, with 859 respondents.

“It feels like there’s a bit of a story here that schools are working to catch students up, but a lot of that’s happening on the margins, and there’s still a lot of opportunity lost during the actual school day. And that makes sense when you … look at those data about student quarantines and absences,” said Bree Dusseault, principal and managing director at the Center on Reinventing Public Education, which was not involved with the study.

About three-quarters of schools said that student quarantines or chronic absences disrupted learning during the 2021-22 school year. (For more on the extent of absenteeism , see Education Week’s coverage of last month’s School Pulse Panel.)

And teacher vacancies portend a bumpy beginning to the next school year. As of June, public schools anticipated having 3.4 teacher vacancies, on average, for the 2022-23 school year.

These data suggest that even as schools have been open for in-person learning for a year or more, and as more districts are removing COVID precautions like masking, the ripple effects of the pandemic still have a real-time effect on student learning, Dusseault said.

“If [principals are] spending every day trying to get substitutes in the building and make new policies because new challenges are arising, they’re unlikely to be able to create the system that prevents learning loss from happening in the first place,” she said.

Even so, these data show that schools are trying to enact academic recovery plans.

Remedial instruction—in which teachers go back to prior grades’ content to teach skills or concepts that students have missed—and sustained tutoring stood out as some of the most popular strategies.

High-dosage tutoring—one-on-one or small group instruction offered three or more times a week—is one of the most research-tested strategies for raising student achievement. The evidence base shows some of the highest effect sizes in education.

Consequently, high-dosage tutoring has become an oft-promoted solution to pandemic-related learning disruptions, with many states launching tutoring initiatives and philanthropic organizations funding tutoring projects . Last month, the Biden administration also announced an initiative to bring 250,000 tutors and mentors to U.S. schools .

Given these policy developments and advocacy, it’s not surprising to see that many schools say they’re using the strategy, said Bailey Cato Czupryk, vice president for practices, diagnostics, and impact at TNTP, which consults with districts on teacher training, instructional strategy, and other education issues.

But it’s less clear how well these tutoring programs are being implemented, said Cato Czupryk, who was not involved with the NCES study.

Among academic interventions that schools reported using, they reported high-dosage tutoring moved the needle the most: 43 percent said that the strategy was either “extremely” or “very” effective. Still, that means that more than half of schools using tutoring found it only “moderately” or “slightly” effective, or not effective at all.

For tutoring to have the highest impact, it needs to be aligned with the rest of the instruction that students are getting throughout the day—and that’s not always the case in practice, Cato Czupryk said. For example, a 3rd grade student might be working on arrays in math class but a 1st grade skill related to fluency in tutoring.

“If I don’t see the connection between those two things, then they’re not going to be as effective as they could,” she said.

More popular among schools was remedial learning: going back to past years’ content. Seventy-two percent of schools said they used this strategy. This is in contrast to the 39 percent that used accelerated learning , a strategy that attempts to keep moving students forward while shoring up skills and content that they might have missed in previous grades at the same time.

Some states, districts, and many education advocacy organizations have promoted accelerated learning as a pandemic recovery strategy. The goal is to make sure that every student still has access to grade-level content, even if they need additional support.

Schools are working to catch students up, but a lot of that’s happening on the margins, and there’s still a lot of opportunity lost during the actual school day.

Advocates of this approach say that it’s a way to drive equity in instruction. When students are in remedial lessons, their peers move on, widening the gap between the two groups. Studies have also found that teachers are less likely to supply students of color, and particularly Black students, rigorous, grade-level work. Acceleration, its proponents say, can address both of these issues.

But these NCES data show that remedial instruction is more popular—and that schools rate acceleration and remediation as similarly effective.

Part of the reason might have to do, again, with bandwidth, said Dusseault, of CRPE. Schools are likely more familiar with a remediation approach, so supporting teachers to make the switch to acceleration would require time and resources—both in short supply right now, she said. (About half of schools in the survey said they provided teachers with professional development focused on learning recovery.)

“If I were in a classroom, and had heard about [acceleration] but hadn’t gotten resources, it might just sound like another buzzword,” said Cato Czupryk.

Depending on district policies this fall, quarantines may continue to disrupt class time for students in the 2022-23 school year, Dusseault said.

That underscores the need for districts to maintain (or develop) systems that account for that disruption—even as, she said, “we keep hoping the next school year is the next ‘normal’ school year.”

The full survey results can be found here . A few other highlights include:

  • About half of all schools—52 percent—said that student trauma and experiences related to the pandemic were a cause of learning disruptions this past school year. Seventy-two percent of schools said they had provided students with mental health and trauma support.
  • Three quarters of schools offered school- or district-run learning and enrichment programs this summer, and 70 percent offered summer school.
  • From March to June, the percentage of schools requiring students to wear masks dropped again, from 22 percent to 15 percent.
Wed, 03 Aug 2022 14:02:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.edweek.org/teaching-learning/tutoring-or-remediation-which-learning-recovery-strategy-is-most-popular/2022/08
Killexams : What Teachers Say Is the Biggest Barrier to Learning Recovery

Dealing with student behavioral and mental health issues has been many teachers’ biggest barrier to addressing unfinished learning, according to a Khan Academy survey published July 26.

Nearly 7 in 10 teachers who participated in the survey chose “student behavioral issues” as a barrier to addressing unfinished learning, and 57 percent of teachers chose “student mental health.”

The nationally representative survey of 639 teachers, conducted last month by market research and data analytics firm YouGov for Khan Academy, explores teachers’ views on addressing unfinished learning, the use of mastery learning, providing feedback to students, and the grading system. It comes as schools prepare to continue the work of helping students catch up on unfinished learning that developed during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Another theme on the list of barriers to addressing unfinished learning is teachers’ finite time. Sixty-one percent of teachers said there are “too many demands on my time,” 53 percent said there’s “not enough flexibility or time in the school year to pause and address issues,” 41 percent said “lack of time in the school day,” and 38 percent said “lack of planning time.”

But even with all these hindrances, the survey found that during the 2021-22 school year, more than 9 in 10 teachers said they were able to identify the learning gaps that need to be addressed among their students. And 59 percent of teachers said their students mastered the content they needed to during the 2021-22 school year.

The method that is most helpful in identifying learning gaps is “working individually with students during class,” according to 78 percent of surveyed teachers. That strategy is followed closely by “classroom assessment” (74 percent), “asking students questions in class” (70 percent), and “student classwork/homework” (70 percent).

Teachers also said that the most important changes in school needed to help students catch up don’t directly deal with academics: Sixty percent said there needs to be more emotional and behavioral support and 56 percent said there needs to be more family engagement. The third most popular option is tied between having “less rigid district pacing guidelines” and “consistent small group instruction,” both supported by 52 percent of respondents.

The importance of mastery learning

The survey also found that an overwhelming majority (84 percent) of teachers agree that mastery learning can help address unfinished learning, but only a small majority (53 percent) use mastery learning in their classrooms. Mastery learning means knowing which skills a student has mastered and not mastered, providing feedback on what students got wrong and why, offering as many opportunities as needed for students to demonstrate mastery, and continuing to provide instruction until a skill is mastered.

More than 90 percent of respondents said it was “very” or “extremely” important to do that.

The same issues that are barriers to addressing unfinished learning are also obstacles to implementing mastery learning, according to the survey. Sixty-five percent of teachers said “lack of time” and 55 percent said “student behavioral issues.” But 49 percent of teachers also said having large class sizes is a barrier to implementing mastery learning.

Teachers want more time to supply feedback to students

More than 6 in 10 teachers said they feel like they don’t spend enough time providing feedback to students. On average, teachers spend 8.6 hours providing feedback, but the survey found that teachers would like to spend 12.2 hours on average on providing feedback.

The survey found that 84 percent of teachers use the traditional grading system, but 66 percent of teachers agree that a standards-based grading system would be better than traditional letter grades. A standards-based grading system breaks down the subject into smaller learning targets and grades students based on their mastery of those targets, instead of having an overall letter grade for the subject based on many assignments. More than 6 in 10 teachers said Ds and Fs cause students to lose motivation, and half of the respondents said that Ds and Fs discourage students from working to catch up.

Despite liking the concept of standards-based grading, 71 percent of teachers said letter grades provide an incentive for students to succeed. But students shouldn’t be receiving only letter grades, they said. About 3 in 4 teachers agreed that it’s important to provide behavioral feedback in letter grades, and 71 percent said including behavioral feedback in letter grades teaches important life skills.

Tue, 26 Jul 2022 04:51:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.edweek.org/leadership/what-teachers-say-is-the-biggest-barrier-to-learning-recovery/2022/07
Killexams : JNDI (Java Naming and Directory Interface)

JNDI (Java Naming and Directory Interface) enables Java platform-based applications to access multiple naming and directory services. Part of the Java Enterprise application programming interface (API) set, JNDI makes it possible for developers to create portable applications that are enabled for a number of different naming and directory services, including: file systems; directory services such as Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), Novell Directory Services, and Network Information System (NIS); and distributed object systems such as the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA), Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI), and Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB).

As an illustration of what JNDI does, Todd Sundsted (in a JavaWorld article, JNDI overview, Part 1: An introduction to naming services) uses the analogy of a library's file system. Sundsted says that JNDI organizes and locates components within a distributed computing environment similarly to the way that card catalogs (and increasingly computer applications) organize and represent the locations of books within a library. A distributed application needs a means of locating components in the same way that the library patron needs a means of locating the book: just rummaging around inside a library - or an application - is not an efficient way to find a particular object. JNDI makes it possible for application components to find each other. Because different naming and directory service providers can be seamlessly connected through the API, Java applications using it can be easily integrated into various environments and coexist with legacy applications. The current version, JNDI 1.2, was specified with input from Netscape, Novell, Tarantella, Sun, and BEA. JNDI is considered an industry standard.

This was last updated in September 2005

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Fri, 06 May 2022 20:07:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.theserverside.com/definition/JNDI-Java-Naming-and-Directory-Interface
Killexams : Raspberry Pi Pico Used As A Transputer

You can’t fake that feeling when a $4 microcontroller dev board can stand in as cutting-edge 1980s technology. Such is the case with the working transputer that [Amen] has built using a Raspberry Pi Pico.

For a thorough overview of the transputer you should check out [Jenny List’s] longer article on the topic but boiled down we’re talking about a chip architecture mostly forgotten in time. Targetting parallel computing, each transputer chip has four serial communication links for connecting to other transputers. [Amen] has wanted to play with the architecture since its inception. It was expensive back then and today, finding multiple transputers is both difficult and costly. However, the RP2040 chip found on the Raspberry Pi Pico struck him as the perfect way to emulate the transputer design.

The RP2040 chip on the Pico board has two programmable input/output blocks (PIOs), each with four state machines in them. That matches up perfectly with the four transputer links (each is bi-directional so you need eight state machines). Furthermore, the link speed is spec’d at 10 MHz which is well within the Pico’s capabilities, and since the RP2040 runs at 133 MHz, it’s conceivable that an emulated core can get close to the 20 MHz top speed of the original transputers.

Bringing up the hardware has been a success. To see what’s actually going on, [Amen] sourced some link adapter chips (IMSC011), interfacing them through an Arduino Mega to a computer to use the keyboard and display. The transputer architecture allows code to be loaded via a ROM, or through the links. The latter is what’s running now. Future plans are to figure out a better system to compile code, as right now the only way is by running the original INMOS compiler on DOS in a VM.

Listen to [Amen] explain the project in the first of a (so far) six video series. You can find the links to the rest of those videos on his YouTube channel.

Wed, 03 Aug 2022 11:59:00 -0500 Mike Szczys en-US text/html https://hackaday.com/2021/08/05/raspberry-pi-pico-used-as-a-transputer/
Killexams : computerworld
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iPhone 14: What's the buzz?

Join Macworld executive editor Michael Simon and Computerworld executive editor Ken Mingis as they talk about the latest iPhone 14 rumors – everything from anticipated release date to price to design changes. Plus, they'll talk about...


Wed, 27 Jul 2022 04:41:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.computerworld.com/
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