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Exam Code: C2150-575 Practice exam 2022 by Killexams.com team
IBM Tivoli Federated Identity Manager V6.2.2 Implementation
IBM Implementation test
Killexams : IBM Implementation test - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/C2150-575 Search results Killexams : IBM Implementation test - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/C2150-575 https://killexams.com/exam_list/IBM Killexams : Amazon, IBM Move Swiftly on Post-Quantum Cryptographic Algorithms Selected by NIST

A month after the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) revealed the first quantum-safe algorithms, Amazon Web Services (AWS) and IBM have swiftly moved forward. Google was also quick to outline an aggressive implementation plan for its cloud service that it started a decade ago.

It helps that IBM researchers contributed to three of the four algorithms, while AWS had a hand in two. Google contributed to one of the submitted algorithms, SPHINCS+.

A long process that started in 2016 with 69 original candidates ends with the selection of four algorithms that will become NIST standards, which will play a critical role in protecting encrypted data from the vast power of quantum computers.

NIST's four choices include CRYSTALS-Kyber, a public-private key-encapsulation mechanism (KEM) for general asymmetric encryption, such as when connecting websites. For digital signatures, NIST selected CRYSTALS-Dilithium, FALCON, and SPHINCS+. NIST will add a few more algorithms to the mix in two years.

Vadim Lyubashevsky, a cryptographer who works in IBM's Zurich Research Laboratories, contributed to the development of CRYSTALS-Kyber, CRYSTALS-Dilithium, and Falcon. Lyubashevsky was predictably pleased by the algorithms selected, but he had only anticipated NIST would pick two digital signature candidates rather than three.

Ideally, NIST would have chosen a second key establishment algorithm, according to Lyubashevsky. "They could have chosen one more right away just to be safe," he told Dark Reading. "I think some people expected McEliece to be chosen, but maybe NIST decided to hold off for two years to see what the backup should be to Kyber."

IBM's New Mainframe Supports NIST-Selected Algorithms

After NIST identified the algorithms, IBM moved forward by specifying them into its recently launched z16 mainframe. IBM introduced the z16 in April, calling it the "first quantum-safe system," enabled by its new Crypto Express 8S card and APIs that provide access to the NIST APIs.

IBM was championing three of the algorithms that NIST selected, so IBM had already included them in the z16. Since IBM had unveiled the z16 before the NIST decision, the company implemented the algorithms into the new system. IBM last week made it official that the z16 supports the algorithms.

Anne Dames, an IBM distinguished engineer who works on the company's z Systems team, explained that the Crypto Express 8S card could implement various cryptographic algorithms. Nevertheless, IBM was betting on CRYSTAL-Kyber and Dilithium, according to Dames.

"We are very fortunate in that it went in the direction we hoped it would go," she told Dark Reading. "And because we chose to implement CRYSTALS-Kyber and CRYSTALS-Dilithium in the hardware security module, which allows clients to get access to it, the firmware in that hardware security module can be updated. So, if other algorithms were selected, then we would add them to our roadmap for inclusion of those algorithms for the future."

A software library on the system allows application and infrastructure developers to incorporate APIs so that clients can generate quantum-safe digital signatures for both classic computing systems and quantum computers.

"We also have a CRYSTALS-Kyber interface in place so that we can generate a key and provide it wrapped by a Kyber key so that could be used in a potential key exchange scheme," Dames said. "And we've also incorporated some APIs that allow clients to have a key exchange scheme between two parties."

Dames noted that clients might use Kyber to generate digital signatures on documents. "Think about code signing servers, things like that, or documents signing services, where people would like to actually use the digital signature capability to ensure the authenticity of the document or of the code that's being used," she said.

AWS Engineers Algorithms Into Services

During Amazon's AWS re:Inforce security conference last week in Boston, the cloud provider emphasized its post-quantum cryptography (PQC) efforts. According to Margaret Salter, director of applied cryptography at AWS, Amazon is already engineering the NIST standards into its services.

During a breakout session on AWS' cryptography efforts at the conference, Salter said AWS had implemented an open source, hybrid post-quantum key exchange based on a specification called s2n-tls, which implements the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol across different AWS services. AWS has contributed it as a draft standard to the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).

Salter explained that the hybrid key exchange brings together its traditional key exchanges while enabling post-quantum security. "We have regular key exchanges that we've been using for years and years to protect data," she said. "We don't want to get rid of those; we're just going to enhance them by adding a public key exchange on top of it. And using both of those, you have traditional security, plus post quantum security."

Last week, Amazon announced that it deployed s2n-tls, the hybrid post-quantum TLS with CRYSTALS-Kyber, which connects to the AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS) and AWS Certificate Manager (ACM). In an update this week, Amazon documented its stated support for AWS Secrets Manager, a service for managing, rotating, and retrieving database credentials and API keys.

Google's Decade-Long PQC Migration

While Google didn't make implementation announcements like AWS in the immediate aftermath of NIST's selection, VP and CISO Phil Venables said Google has been focused on PQC algorithms "beyond theoretical implementations" for over a decade. Venables was among several prominent researchers who co-authored a technical paper outlining the urgency of adopting PQC strategies. The peer-reviewed paper was published in May by Nature, a respected journal for the science and technology communities.

"At Google, we're well into a multi-year effort to migrate to post-quantum cryptography that is designed to address both immediate and long-term risks to protect sensitive information," Venables wrote in a blog post published following the NIST announcement. "We have one goal: ensure that Google is PQC ready."

Venables recalled an experiment in 2016 with Chrome where a minimal number of connections from the Web browser to Google servers used a post-quantum key-exchange algorithm alongside the existing elliptic-curve key-exchange algorithm. "By adding a post-quantum algorithm in a hybrid mode with the existing key exchange, we were able to test its implementation without affecting user security," Venables noted.

Google and Cloudflare announced a "wide-scale post-quantum experiment" in 2019 implementing two post-quantum key exchanges, "integrated into Cloudflare's TLS stack, and deployed the implementation on edge servers and in Chrome Canary clients." The experiment helped Google understand the implications of deploying two post-quantum key agreements with TLS.

Venables noted that last year Google tested post-quantum confidentiality in TLS and found that various network products were not compatible with post-quantum TLS. "We were able to work with the vendor so that the issue was fixed in future firmware updates," he said. "By experimenting early, we resolved this issue for future deployments."

Other Standards Efforts

The four algorithms NIST announced are an important milestone in advancing PQC, but there's other work to be done besides quantum-safe encryption. The AWS TLS submission to the IETF is one example; others include such efforts as Hybrid PQ VPN.

"What you will see happening is those organizations that work on TLS protocols, or SSH, or VPN type protocols, will now come together and put together proposals which they will evaluate in their communities to determine what's best and which protocols should be updated, how the certificates should be defined, and things like things like that," IBM's Dames said.

Dustin Moody, a mathematician at NIST who leads its PQC project, shared a similar view during a panel discussion at the RSA Conference in June. "There's been a lot of global cooperation with our NIST process, rather than fracturing of the effort and coming up with a lot of different algorithms," Moody said. "We've seen most countries and standards organizations waiting to see what comes out of our nice progress on this process, as well as participating in that. And we see that as a very good sign."

Thu, 04 Aug 2022 09:03:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.darkreading.com/dr-tech/amazon-ibm-move-swiftly-on-post-quantum-cryptographic-algorithms-selected-by-nist
Killexams : The IBM 1401’s Unique Qui-Binary Arithmetic

Old mainframe computers are interesting, especially to those of us who weren’t around to see them in action. We sit with old-timers and listen to their stories of the good ol’ days. They tell us about loading paper tape or giving instructions one at a time with toggle switches and LED output indicators. We hang on every word because its interesting to know how we got to this point in the tech-timeline and we appreciate the patience and insanity it must have taken to soldier on through the “good ol’ days”.

[Ken Shirriff] is making those good ol’ days come alive with a series of articles relating to his work with hardware at the Computer History Museum. His latest installment is an article describing the strange implementation of the IBM 1401’s qui-binary arithmetic. Full disclosure: It has not been confirmed that [Ken] is an “old-timer” however his article doesn’t help the argument that he isn’t.

Ken describes in thorough detail how the IBM 1401 — which was first introduced in 1959 — takes a decimal number as an input and operates on it one BCD digit at a time. Before performing the instruction the BCD number is converted to qui-binary. Qui-binary is represented by 7 bits, 5 qui bits and 2 binary bits: 0000000. The qui portion represents the largest even number contained in the BCD value and the binary portion represents a 1 if the BCD value is odd or a 0 for even. For example if the BCD number is 9 then the Q8 bit and the B1 bit are set resulting in: 1000010.

The qui-binary representation makes for easy error checking since only one qui bit should be set and only one binary bit should be set. [Ken] goes on to explain more complex arithmetic and circuitry within the IBM 1401 in his post.

If you aren’t familiar with [Ken], we covered his reverse engineering of the Sinclair Scientific Calculator, his explanation of the TL431, and of course the core memory repair that is part of his Computer History Museum work.

Thanks for the tip [bobomb].

Fri, 05 Aug 2022 12:00:00 -0500 Brandon Dunson en-US text/html https://hackaday.com/2015/11/05/the-ibm-1401s-unique-qui-binary-arithmetic/
Killexams : 7 Basic Tools That Can Boost Quality

Hitoshi Kume, a recipient of the 1989 Deming Prize for use of quality principles, defines problems as "undesirable results of a job." Quality improvement efforts work best when problems are addressed systematically using a consistent and analytic approach; the methodology shouldn't change just because the problem changes. Keeping the steps to problem-solving simple allows workers to learn the process and how to use the tools effectively.

Easy to implement and follow up, the most commonly used and well-known quality process is the plan/do/check/act (PDCA) cycle (Figure 1). Other processes are a takeoff of this method, much in the way that computers today are takeoffs of the original IBM system. The PDCA cycle promotes continuous improvement and should thus be visualized as a spiral instead of a closed circle.

Another popular quality improvement process is the six-step PROFIT model in which the acronym stands for:

P = Problem definition.

R = Root cause identification and analysis.

O = Optimal solution based on root cause(s).

F = Finalize how the corrective action will be implemented.

I = Implement the plan.

T = Track the effectiveness of the implementation and verify that the desired results are met.

If the desired results are not met, the cycle is repeated. Both the PDCA and the PROFIT models can be used for problem solving as well as for continuous quality improvement. In companies that follow total quality principles, whichever model is chosen should be used consistently in every department or function in which quality improvement teams are working.

Quality Improvement

Figure 1. The most common process for quality improvement is the plan/do/check/act cycle outlined above. The cycle promotes continuous improvement and should be thought of as a spiral, not a circle.
 

7 Basic Quality Improvement Tools

Once the basic problem-solving or quality improvement process is understood, the addition of quality tools can make the process proceed more quickly and systematically. Seven simple tools can be used by any professional to ease the quality improvement process: flowcharts, check sheets, Pareto diagrams, cause and effect diagrams, histograms, scatter diagrams, and control charts. (Some books describe a graph instead of a flowchart as one of the seven tools.)

The concept behind the seven basic tools came from Kaoru Ishikawa, a renowned quality expert from Japan. According to Ishikawa, 95% of quality-related problems can be resolved with these basic tools. The key to successful problem resolution is the ability to identify the problem, use the appropriate tools based on the nature of the problem, and communicate the solution quickly to others. Inexperienced personnel might do best by starting with the Pareto chart and the cause and effect diagram before tackling the use of the other tools. Those two tools are used most widely by quality improvement teams.

Flowcharts

Flowcharts describe a process in as much detail as possible by graphically displaying the steps in proper sequence. A good flowchart should show all process steps under analysis by the quality improvement team, identify critical process points for control, suggest areas for further improvement, and help explain and solve a problem.

The flowchart in Figure 2 illustrates a simple production process in which parts are received, inspected, and sent to subassembly operations and painting. After completing this loop, the parts can be shipped as subassemblies after passing a final test or they can complete a second cycle consisting of final assembly, inspection and testing, painting, final testing, and shipping.

Quality Improvement Tools

Figure 2. A basic production process flowchart displays several paths a part can travel from the time it hits the receiving dock to final shipping.
 

Flowcharts can be simple, such as the one featured in Figure 2, or they can be made up of numerous boxes, symbols, and if/then directional steps. In more complex versions, flowcharts indicate the process steps in the appropriate sequence, the conditions in those steps, and the related constraints by using elements such as arrows, yes/no choices, or if/then statements.

Check sheets

Check sheets help organize data by category. They show how many times each particular value occurs, and their information is increasingly helpful as more data are collected. More than 50 observations should be available to be charted for this tool to be really useful. Check sheets minimize clerical work since the operator merely adds a mark to the tally on the prepared sheet rather than writing out a figure (Figure 3). By showing the frequency of a particular defect (e.g., in a molded part) and how often it occurs in a specific location, check sheets help operators spot problems. The check sheet example shows a list of molded part defects on a production line covering a week's time. One can easily see where to set priorities based on results shown on this check sheet. Assuming the production flow is the same on each day, the part with the largest number of defects carries the highest priority for correction.

Quality Improvement Tools

Figure 3. Because it clearly organizes data, a check sheet is the easiest way to track information.
 

Pareto diagrams

The Pareto diagram is named after Vilfredo Pareto, a 19th-century Italian economist who postulated that a large share of wealth is owned by a small percentage of the population. This basic principle translates well into quality problems—most quality problems result from a small number of causes. Quality experts often refer to the principle as the 80-20 rule; that is, 80% of problems are caused by 20% of the potential sources.

A Pareto diagram puts data in a hierarchical order (Figure 4), which allows the most significant problems to be corrected first. The Pareto analysis technique is used primarily to identify and evaluate nonconformities, although it can summarize all types of data. It is perhaps the diagram most often used in management presentations.

Quality Improvement Tools

Figure 4. By rearranging random data, a Pareto diagram identifies and ranks nonconformities in the quality process in descending order.
 

To create a Pareto diagram, the operator collects random data, regroups the categories in order of frequency, and creates a bar graph based on the results.

Cause and effect diagrams

The cause and effect diagram is sometimes called an Ishikawa diagram after its inventor. It is also known as a fish bone diagram because of its shape. A cause and effect diagram describes a relationship between variables. The undesirable outcome is shown as effect, and related causes are shown as leading to, or potentially leading to, the said effect. This popular tool has one severe limitation, however, in that users can overlook important, complex interactions between causes. Thus, if a problem is caused by a combination of factors, it is difficult to use this tool to depict and solve it.

A fish bone diagram displays all contributing factors and their relationships to the outcome to identify areas where data should be collected and analyzed. The major areas of potential causes are shown as the main bones, e.g., materials, methods, people, measurement, machines, and design (Figure 5). Later, the subareas are depicted. Thorough analysis of each cause can eliminate causes one by one, and the most probable root cause can be selected for corrective action. Quantitative information can also be used to prioritize means for improvement, whether it be to machine, design, or operator.

Quality Improvement Tools

Figure 5. Fish bone diagrams display the various possible causes of the final effect. Further analysis can prioritize them.
 

Histograms

The histogram plots data in a frequency distribution table. What distinguishes the histogram from a check sheet is that its data are grouped into rows so that the identity of individual values is lost. Commonly used to present quality improvement data, histograms work best with small amounts of data that vary considerably. When used in process capability studies, histograms can display specification limits to show what portion of the data does not meet the specifications.

After the raw data are collected, they are grouped in value and frequency and plotted in a graphical form (Figure 6). A histogram's shape shows the nature of the distribution of the data, as well as central tendency (average) and variability. Specification limits can be used to display the capability of the process.

Quality Improvement Tools

Figure 6. A histogram is an easy way to see the distribution of the data, its average, and variability.
 

Scatter diagrams

A scatter diagram shows how two variables are related and is thus used to test for cause and effect relationships. It cannot prove that one variable causes the change in the other, only that a relationship exists and how strong it is. In a scatter diagram, the horizontal (x) axis represents the measurement values of one variable, and the vertical (y) axis represents the measurements of the second variable. Figure 7 shows part clearance values on the x-axis and the corresponding quantitative measurement values on the y-axis.

Quality Improvement Tool

Figure 7. The plotted data points in a scatter diagram show the relationship between two variables.
 

Control charts

A control chart displays statistically determined upper and lower limits drawn on either side of a process average. This chart shows if the collected data are within upper and lower limits previously determined through statistical calculations of raw data from earlier trials.

The construction of a control chart is based on statistical principles and statistical distributions, particularly the normal distribution. When used in conjunction with a manufacturing process, such charts can indicate trends and signal when a process is out of control. The center line of a control chart represents an estimate of the process mean; the upper and lower critical limits are also indicated. The process results are monitored over time and should remain within the control limits; if they do not, an investigation is conducted for the causes and corrective action taken. A control chart helps determine variability so it can be reduced as much as is economically justifiable.

In preparing a control chart, the mean upper control limit (UCL) and lower control limit (LCL) of an approved process and its data are calculated. A blank control chart with mean UCL and LCL with no data points is created; data points are added as they are statistically calculated from the raw data.

Figure 8. Data points that fall outside the upper and lower control limits lead to investigation and correction of the process.
 

Figure 8 is based on 25 samples or subgroups. For each sample, which in this case consisted of five rods, measurements are taken of a quality characteristic (in this example, length). These data are then grouped in table form (as shown in the figure) and the average and range from each subgroup are calculated, as are the grand average and average of all ranges. These figures are used to calculate UCL and LCL. For the control chart in the example, the formula is ± A2R, where A2 is a constant determined by the table of constants for variable control charts. The constant is based on the subgroup sample size, which is five in this example.

Conclusion

Many people in the medical device manufacturing industry are undoubtedly familiar with many of these tools and know their application, advantages, and limitations. However, manufacturers must ensure that these tools are in place and being used to their full advantage as part of their quality system procedures. Flowcharts and check sheets are most valuable in identifying problems, whereas cause and effect diagrams, histograms, scatter diagrams, and control charts are used for problem analysis. Pareto diagrams are effective for both areas. By properly using these tools, the problem-solving process can be more efficient and more effective.

Those manufacturers who have mastered the seven basic tools described here may wish to further refine their quality improvement processes. A future article will discuss seven new tools: relations diagrams, affinity diagrams (K-J method), systematic diagrams, matrix diagrams, matrix data diagrams, process decision programs, and arrow diagrams. These seven tools are used less frequently and are more complicated.

Ashweni Sahni is director of quality and regulatory affairs at Minnetronix, Inc. (St. Paul, MN), and a member of MD&DI's editorial advisory board.


Tue, 02 Aug 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.mddionline.com/design-engineering/7-basic-tools-can-improve-quality
Killexams : Design and implementation Security Testing consultant

The PACCAR IT Europe Delivery Center is responsible for application development, maintenance and support on both IBM Mainframe and Microsoft based systems. The applications cover all major business areas of DAF Trucks: Purchasing, Product Development, Truck Sales, Production, Logistics, Parts, After Sales and Finance. Examples of applications are:

• 3D DAF Truck Configurator

• The ITS (International Truck Service) application supporting the 24/7 call center of DAF ITS by the handling of road side assistance requests throughout Europa.

• The European Parts System supports all PACCAR Parts dealers with ordering, invoices and return programs and the Parts Distribution Centers with order handling and delivery.

• The custom DAF application that securely transfers software and calibration settings into the embedded controllers in our trucks.

• The back-end systems that enable our Diagnostic Tools to perform diagnosis and software updates on trucks in both the manufacturing and aftermarket environment.

Assignment

For implementing secure software testing in our development teams we need a software engineer who is able to:

• Design an implement the secure testing process:

o How and when to test

o Make use of CI/CD pipelines or manually in case of no pipelines available

o How to handle test findings from test tool

o How to handle change documentation (test evidence)

• And has experience with software development (.NET environment)

Main Activities

• Design and implement secure test process

Functie-eisen

Education

• Bachelor IT level and approximately 5 years experience.

Primary technologies

• C# (pre)

• CheckMarx

• Azure DevOps (VSTS)

• CI/CD pipelines (YAML)

NOTES

• We're not looking specifically for a Developer but for someone who is going to design and implement Security Testing in the teams

• Level: medior/senior


Arbeidsvoorwaarden

• Job is full time

• Working on site at DAF ITD Eindhoven. Working from home possible for maximal 2 days a week

Bedrijfsprofiel

PACCAR IT Europe is responsible for the development, support and management of information systems in Europe for both internal and external users of DAF Trucks, PACCAR Parts, PACCAR Financial and PacLease. Within IT Europe, more than 250 IT professionals are employed.


Meld Misbruik

Thu, 28 Jul 2022 05:43:00 -0500 NL text/html https://tweakers.net/carriere/it-banen/479458/design-and-implementation-security-testing-consultant-eindhoven-yacht
Killexams : Comprehensive Change Management for SoC Design By Sunita Chulani1, Stanley M. Sutton Jr.1, Gary Bachelor2, and P. Santhanam1
1 IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, 19 Skyline Drive, Hawthorne, NY 10532 USA
2 IBM Global Business Services, PO BOX 31, Birmingham Road, Warwick CV34 5JL UK

Abstract

Systems-on-a-Chip (SoC) are becoming increasingly complex, leading to corresponding increases in the complexity and cost of SoC design and development.  We propose to address this problem by introducing comprehensive change management.  Change management, which is widely used in the software industry, involves controlling when and where changes can be introduced into components so that changes can be propagated quickly, completely, and correctly.
In this paper we address two main topics:   One is typical scenarios in electronic design where change management can be supported and leveraged. The other is the specification of a comprehensive schema to illustrate the varieties of data and relationships that are important for change management in SoC design.

1.    INTRODUCTION

SoC designs are becoming increasingly complex.  Pressures on design teams and project managers are rising because of shorter times to market, more complex technology, more complex organizations, and geographically dispersed multi-partner teams with varied “business models” and higher “cost of failure.”

Current methodology and tools for designing SoC need to evolve with market demands in key areas:  First, multiple streams of inconsistent hardware (HW) and software (SW) processes are often integrated only in the late stages of a project, leading to unrecognized divergence of requirements, platforms, and IP, resulting in unacceptable risk in cost, schedule, and quality.  Second, even within a stream of HW or SW, there is inadequate data integration, configuration management, and change control across life cycle artifacts.  Techniques used for these are often ad hoc or manual, and the cost of failure is high.  This makes it difficult for a distributed group team     to be productive and inhibits the early, controlled reuse of design products and IP.  Finally, the costs of deploying and managing separate dedicated systems and infrastructures are becoming prohibitive.

We propose to address these shortcomings through comprehensive change management, which is the integrated application of configuration management, version control, and change control across software and hardware design.  Change management is widely practiced in the software development industry.  There are commercial change-management systems available for use in electronic design, such as MatrixOne DesignSync [4], ClioSoft SOS [2], IC Manage Design Management [3], and Rational ClearCase/ClearQuest [1], as well as numerous proprietary, “home-grown” systems.  But to date change management remains an under-utilized technology in electronic design.

In SoC design, change management can help with many problems.  For instance, when IP is modified, change management can help in identifying blocks in which the IP is used, in evaluating other affected design elements, and in determining which tests must be rerun and which rules must be re-verified. Or, when a new release is proposed, change management can help in assessing whether the elements of the release are mutually consistent and in specifying IP or other resources on which the new release depends.

More generally, change management gives the ability to analyze the potential impact of changes by tracing to affected entities and the ability to propagate changes completely, correctly, and efficiently.  For design managers, this supports decision-making as to whether, when, and how to make or accept changes.  For design engineers, it helps in assessing when a set of design entities is complete and consistent and in deciding when it is safe to make (or adopt) a new release.

In this paper we focus on two elements of this approach for SoC design.  One is the specification of representative use cases in which change management plays a critical role.  These show places in the SoC development process where information important for managing change can be gathered.  They also show places where appropriate information can be used to manage the impact of change.  The second element is the specification of a generic schema for modeling design entities and their interrelationships.  This supports traceability among design elements, allows designers to analyze the impact of changes, and facilitates the efficient and comprehensive propagation of changes to affected elements.

The following section provides some background on a survey of subject-matter experts that we performed to refine the problem definition.     

2.    BACKGROUND

We surveyed some 30 IBM subject-matter experts (SMEs) in electronic design, change management, and design data modeling.  They identified 26 problem areas for change management in electronic design.  We categorized these as follows:

  • visibility into project status
  • day-to-day control of project activities
  • organizational or structural changes
  • design method consistency
  • design data consistency

Major themes that crosscut these included:

  • visibility and status of data
  • comprehensive change management
  • method definition, tracking, and enforcement
  • design physical quality
  • common approach to problem identification and handling

We held a workshop with the SMEs to prioritize these problems, and two emerged     as the most significant:  First, the need for basic management of the configuration of all the design data and resources of concern within a project or work package (libraries, designs, code, tools, test suites, etc.); second, the need for designer visibility into the status of data and configurations in a work package.

To realize these goals, two basic kinds of information are necessary:  1) An understanding of how change management may occur in SoC design processes; 2) An understanding of the kinds of information and relationships needed to manage change in SoC design.  We addressed the former by specifying change-management use cases; we addressed the latter by specifying a change-management schema.

3.    USE CASES

This section describes typical use cases in the SoC design process.  Change is a pervasive concern in these use cases—they cause changes, respond to changes, or depend on data and other resources that are subject to change.  Thus, change management is integral to the effective execution of each of these use cases. We identified nine representative use cases in the SoC design process, which are shown in Figure 1.


Figure 1.  Use cases in SoC design

In general there are four ways of initiating a project: New Project, Derive, Merge and Retarget.  New Project is the case in which a new project is created from the beginning.  The Derive case is initiated when a new business opportunity arises to base a new project on an existing design. The Merge case is initiated when an actor wants to merge configuration items during implementation of a new change management scheme or while working with teams/organizations outside of the current scheme. The Retarget case is initiated when a project is restructured due to resource or other constraints.  In all of these use cases it is important to institute proper change controls from the outset.  New Project starts with a clean slate; the other scenarios require changes from (or to) existing projects.    

Once the project is initiated, the next phase is to update the design. There are two use cases in the Update Design composite state.  New Design Elements addresses the original creation of new design elements.  These become new entries in the change-management system.  The Implement Change use case entails the modification of an existing design element (such as fixing a bug).  It is triggered in response to a change request and is supported and governed by change-management data and protocols.

The next phase is the Resolve Project and consists of 3 use cases. Backout is the use case by which changes that were made in the previous phase can be reversed.  Release is the use case by which a project is released for cross functional use. The Archive use case protects design asset by secure copy of design and environment.

4.    CHANGE-MANAGEMENT SCHEMA

The main goal of the change-management schema is to enable the capture of all information that might contribute to change management

4.1     Overview

The schema, which is defined in the Unified Modeling Language (UML) [5], consists of several high-level packages (Figure 2).


Click to enlarge

Figure 2.  Packages in the change-management schema

Package Data represents types for design data and metadata.  Package Objects and Data defines types for objects and data.  Objects are containers for information, data represent the information.  The main types of object include artifacts (such as files), features, and attributes.  The types of objects and data defined are important for change management because they represent the principle work products of electronic design: IP, VHDL and RTL specifications, floor plans, formal verification rules, timing rules, and so on.  It is changes to these things for which management is most needed.

The package Types defines types to represent the types of objects and data.  This enables some types in the schema (such as those for attributes, collections, and relationships) to be defined parametrically in terms of other types, which promotes generality, consistency, and reusability of schema elements.

Package Attributes defines specific types of attribute.  The basic attribute is just a name-value pair that is associated to an object.  (More strongly-typed subtypes of attribute have fixed names, value types, attributed-object types, or combinations of these.)  Attributes are one of the main types of design data, and they are important for change management because they can represent the status or state of design elements (such as version number, verification level, or timing characteristics).

Package Collections defines types of collections, including collections with varying degrees of structure, typing, and constraints.  Collections are important for change management in that changes must often be coordinated for collections of design elements as a group (e.g., for a work package, verification suite, or IP release).  Collections are also used in defining other elements in the schema (for example, baselines and change sets).

The package Relationships defines types of relationships.  The basic relationship type is an ordered collection of a fixed number of elements.  Subtypes provide directionality, element typing, and additional semantics.  Relationships are important for change management because they can define various types of dependencies among design data and resources.  Examples include the use of macros in cores, the dependence of timing reports on floor plans and timing contracts, and the dependence of test results on tested designs, test cases, and test tools.  Explicit dependency relationships support the analysis of change impact and the efficient and precise propagation of changes,

The package Specifications defines types of data specification and definition.  Specifications specify an informational entity; definitions denote a meaning and are used in specifications.

Package Resources represents things (other than design data) that are used in design processes, for example, design tools, IP, design methods, and design engineers.  Resources are important for change management in that resources are used in the actions that cause changes and in the actions that respond to changes.  Indeed, minimizing the resources needed to handle changes is one of the goals of change management.

Resources are also important in that changes to a resource may require changes to design elements that were created using that resource (for example, when changes to a simulator may require reproduction of simulation results).

Package Events defines types and instances of events.  Events are important in change management because changes are a kind of event, and signals of change events can trigger processes to handle the change.

The package Actions provides a representation for things that are done, that is, for the behaviors or executions of tools, scripts, tasks, method steps, etc.  Actions are important for change in that actions cause change.  Actions can also be triggered in response to changes and can handle changes (such as by propagating changes to dependent artifacts).

Subpackage Action Definitions defines the type Action Execution, which contains information about a particular execution of a particular action.  It refers to the definition of the action and to the specific artifacts and attributes read and written, resources used, and events generated and handled.  Thus an action execution indicates particular artifacts and attributes that are changed, and it links those to the particular process or activity by which they were changed, the particular artifacts and attributes on which the changes were based, and the particular resources by which the changes were effected.  Through this, particular dependency relationships can be established between the objects, data, and resources.  This is the specific information needed to analyze and propagate concrete changes to artifacts, processes, resources.


Package Baselines defines types for defining mutually consistent set of design artifacts. Baselines are important for change management in several respects.  The elements in a baseline must be protected from arbitrary changes that might disrupt their mutual consistency, and the elements in a baseline must be changed in mutually consistent ways in order to evolve a baseline from one version to another.

The final package in Figure 2 is the Change package.  It defines types that for representing change explicitly.  These include managed objects, which are objects with an associated change log, change logs and change sets, which are types of collection that contain change records, and change records, which record specific changes to specific objects.  They can include a reference to an action execution that caused the change

The subpackage Change Requests includes types for modeling change requests and responses.  A change request has a type, description, state, priority, and owner.  It can have an associated action definition, which may be the definition of the action to be taken in processing the change request.  A change request also has a change-request history log.

4.2    Example

An example of the schema is shown in Figure 3.  The clear boxes (upper part of diagram) show general types from the schema and the shaded boxes (lower part of the diagram) show types (and a few instances) defined for a specific high-level design process project at IBM.


Click to enlarge

Figure 3.  Example of change-management data

The figure shows a dependency relationship between two types of design artifact, VHDLArtifact and FloorPlannableObjects.  The relationship is defined in terms of a compiler that derives instances of FloorPlannableObjects from instances of VHDLArtifact.  Execution of the compiler constitutes an action that defines the relationship.  The specific schema elements are defined based on the general schema using a variety of object-oriented modeling techniques, including subtyping (e.g., VHDLArtifact), instantiation (e.g., Compile1) and parameterization (e.g. VHDLFloorplannable ObjectsDependency).

5.    USE CASE IMPLEMENT CHANGE

Here we present an example use case, Implement Change, with details on its activities and how the activities use the schema presented in Section 4.  This use case is illustrated in Figure 4.


Click to enlarge

Figure 4.  State diagram for use case Implement Change

The Implement Change use case addresses the modification of an existing design element (such as fixing a bug).  It is triggered by a change request.  The first steps of this use case are to identify and evaluate the change request to be handled.  Then the relevant baseline is located, loaded into the engineer’s workspace, and verified.  At this point the change can be implemented.  This begins with the identification of the artifacts that are immediately affected.  Then dependent artifacts are identified and changes propagated according to dependency relationships.  (This may entail several iterations.)  Once a stable state is achieved, the modified artifacts are Tested and regression tested.  Depending on test results, more changes may be required.  Once the change is considered acceptable, any learning and metrics from the process are captured and the new artifacts and relationships are promoted to the public configuration space.

6.    CONCLUSIONS

This paper explores the role of comprehensive change management in SoC design, development, and delivery.  Based on the comments of over thirty experienced electronic design engineers from across IBM, we have captured the essential problems and motivations for change management in SoC projects. We have described design scenarios, highlighting places where change management applies, and presented a preliminary schema to show the range of data and relationships change management may incorporate.  Change management can benefit both design managers and engineers.  It is increasingly essential for improving productivity and reducing time and cost in SoC projects.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Contributions to this work were also made by Nadav Golbandi and Yoav Rubin of IBM’s Haifa Research Lab.  Much information and guidance were provided by Jeff Staten and Bernd-josef Huettl of IBM’s Systems and Technology Group. We especially thank Richard Bell, John Coiner, Mark Firstenberg, Andrew Mirsky, Gary Nusbaum, and Harry Reindel of IBM’s Systems and Technology Group for sharing design data and experiences.  We are also grateful to the many other people across IBM who contributed their time and expertise.

REFERENCES

1.    http://www306.ibm.com/software/awdtools/changemgmt/enterprise/index.html

2.    http://www.cliosoft.com/products/index.html

3.    http://www.icmanage.com/products/index.html

4.    http://www.ins.clrc.ac.uk/europractice/software/matrixone.html

5.    http://www.uml.org/

Mon, 18 Jul 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.design-reuse.com/articles/15745/comprehensive-change-management-for-soc-design.html
Killexams : Innov8: BPM/SOA video game simulator in the works at IBM IBM has been working on Innov8, a 3D video game SOA/BPM simulator. At the moment only a demo and screen shots are available, and the game is set to be available in September.  InfoQ spoke to IBM to find out more. According to IBM, "we're creating the game to deliver an introductory level understanding of BPM enabled by SOA. This includes the basic vocabulary of business process management, the typical steps of a BPM project, and role and value that IBM's BPM software can deliver. And, since the game's narrative is derived from real world experiences of IBM's expert BPM practitioners, it includes many helpful tips and perils to avoid."   A demo was posted on youtube:

The game puts the player into the world of After, Inc., a fictitious company that just acquired a rival firm. According to IBM: After's Board of Directors has called an emergency meeting to discuss the progress with After's CEO. Your character is tasked with the mission to help the CEO rapidly create an innovative new process that leverages the strengths of both companies "

More screenshots:
   
Player's don't actually write code or draw models in the game, but it does take users through many of the same thought processes that one would take in creating business process models.   Unofortunately, there is no combat in the game, nor can you "hijack people's cube and take their PCs for joyrides. Oh, and kick the crap out the guys walking the halls on their cell phone" as one youtuber commented. :)

Wed, 27 Jul 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.infoq.com/news/2007/06/innov8/
Killexams : EdTech and Smart Classrooms Market Analysis by Size, Share, Key Players, Growth, Trends & Forecast 2027

"Apple (US), Cisco (US), Blackboard (US), IBM (US), Dell EMC (US),Google (US), Microsoft (US), Oracle(US),SAP (Germany), Instructure(US)."

EdTech and Smart Classrooms Market by Hardware (Interactive Displays, Interactive Projectors), Education System Solution (LMS, TMS, DMS, SRS, Test Preparation, Learning & Gamification), Deployment Type, End User and Region - Global Forecast to 2027

MarketsandMarkets forecasts the global EdTech and Smart Classrooms Market to grow from USD 125.3 billion in 2022 to USD 232.9  billion by 2027, at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 13.2% during the forecast period. The major factors driving the growth of the EdTech and smart classrooms market include increasing penetration of mobile devices and easy availability of internet, and growing demand for online teaching-learning models, impact of COVID-19 pandemic and growing need for EdTech solutions to keep education system running.

Download PDF Brochure: https://www.marketsandmarkets.com/pdfdownloadNew.asp?id=1066

Interactive Displays segment to hold the highest market size during the forecast period

Interactive displays helps to collaborate teaching with tech boost social learning. As per a study it has been discovered that frequent group activity in classrooms, often aided by technology, can result in 20% higher levels of social-emotional skill development. Students in these classes are also 13% more likely to feel confident contributing to class discussions. Interactive display encourages the real time collaboration. SMART Boards facilitate the necessary collaboration for students to develop these skills. Creating an audience response system on the interactive display allows students to use devices to participate in class surveys, quizzes, and games, and then analyse the results in real time. A large interactive whiteboard (IWB), also known as an interactive board or a smart board, is a large interactive display board in the shape of a whiteboard. It can be a standalone touchscreen computer used to perform tasks and operations on its own, or it can be a connectable apparatus used as a touchpad to control computers from a projector. They are used in a variety of settings, such as classrooms at all levels of education, corporate board rooms and work groups, professional sports coaching training rooms, broadcasting studios, and others.

Cloud deployment type to record the fastest growth rate during the forecast period

Technology innovation has provided numerous alternative solutions for businesses of all sizes to operate more efficiently. Cloud has emerged as a new trend in data centre administration. The cloud eliminates the costs of purchasing software and hardware, setting up and running data centres, such as electricity expenses for power and cooling of servers, and high-skilled IT resources for infrastructure management. Cloud services are available on demand and can be configured by a single person in a matter of minutes. Cloud provides dependability by storing multiple copies of data on different servers. The cloud is a potential technological creation that fosters change for its users. Cloud computing is an information technology paradigm that delivers computing services via the Internet by utilizing remote servers, database systems, networking, analytics, storage systems, software, and other digital facilities. Cloud computing has significant benefits for higher education, particularly for students transitioning from K-12 to university. Teachers can easily deliver online classes and engage their students in various programs and online projects by utilizing cloud technology in education. Cloud-based deployment refers to the hosted-type deployment of the game-based learning solution. There has been an upward trend in the deployment of the EdTech solution via cloud or dedicated data center infrastructure. The advantages of hosted deployment include reduced physical infrastructure, lower maintenance costs, 24×7 accessibility, and effective analysis of electronic business content. The cloud-based deployment of EdTech solution is crucial as it offers a flexible and scalable infrastructure to handle multiple devices and analyze ideas from employees, customers, and partners.

Request sample Pages: https://www.marketsandmarkets.com/requestsampleNew.asp?id=1066

Major EdTech and smart classrooms vendors include Apple (US), Cisco (US),  Blackboard (US), IBM (US), Dell EMC (US), Google (US), Microsoft (US), Oracle(US), SAP (Germany), Instructure(US). These market players have adopted various growth strategies, such as partnerships, agreements, and collaborations, and new product enhancements to expand their presence in the EdTech and smart classrooms market. Product enhancements and collaborations have been the most adopted strategies by major players from 2018 to 2020, which helped companies innovate their offerings and broaden their customer base.

A prominent player in the EdTech and smart classrooms market, Apple focuses on inorganic growth strategies such as partnerships, collaborations, and acquisitions. For instance, in August 2021 Apple launched Mobile Student ID through which students will be able to navigate campus and make purchases using mobile student IDs on the iPhone and Apple Watch. In July 2020 Apple partnered with HBCUs to offer innovative opportunities for coding to communities across the US. Apple deepened the partnership with an additional 10 HBCUs regional coding centers under its Community Education Initiative. The main objective of this partnership is to bring coding, creativity, and workforce development opportunities to learners of all ages. Apple offers software as well as hardware to empower educators with powerful products and tools. Apple offers several applications for K-12 education, including Schoolwork and Classroom. The company also offers AR in education to provide a better learning experience. Teaching tools helps to simplify teaching tasks with apps that make the classroom more flexible, collaborative, and personalized for each student. Apple has interactive guide that makes it easy to stay on task and organized while teaching remotely with iPad. The learning apps helps to manage schedules and screen time to minimize the distractions and also helps to create productive learning environments and make device set up easy for teachers and parents. Apple has various products, such as Macintosh, iPhone, iPad, wearables, and services. It has an intelligent software assistant named Siri, which has cloud-synchronized data with iCloud.

Blackboard has a vast product portfolio with diverse offerings across four divisions: K-12, higher education, government, and business. Under the K-12 division, the company offers products such as LMS, Synchronous Collaborative Learning, Learning Object Repository, Web Community Manager, Mass Notifications, Mobile Communications Application, Teacher Communication, Social Media Manager, and Blackboard Ally. Its solutions include Blackboard Classroom, Collaborate Starter, and Personalized Learning. Blackboard’s higher education division products include Blackboard Learn, Blackboard Collaborate, Analytics for Learn, Blackboard Intelligence, Blackboard Predict, Outcomes and Assessments, X-ray for Learning Analytics, Blackboard Connect, Blackboard Instructor, Moodlerooms, Blackboard Transact, Blackboard Ally, and Blackboard Open Content. The company also provides services, such as student pathway services, marketing, and recruiting, help desk services, enrollment management, financial aid and student services, engagement campaigns, student retention, training and implementation services, strategic consulting, and analytics consulting services. Its teaching and learning solutions include LMS, education analytics, web conferencing, mobile learning, open-source learning, training and implementation, virtual classroom, and competency-based education. Blackboard also offers campus enablement solutions such as payment solutions, security solutions, campus store solutions, and transaction solutions. Under the government division, it offers solutions such as LMS, registration and reporting, accessibility, collaboration and web conferencing, mass notifications and implementation, and strategic consulting. The company has launched Blackboard Unite on April 2020 for K-12. This solution compromises a virtual classroom, learning management system, accessibility tool, mobile app, and services and implementation kit to help emote learning efforts.

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Fri, 22 Jul 2022 12:57:00 -0500 text/html https://www.benzinga.com/pressreleases/22/07/ab28176563/edtech-and-smart-classrooms-market-analysis-by-size-share-key-players-growth-trends-forecast-2027
Killexams : IBM Report: Consumers Pay the Price as Data Breach Costs Reach All-Time High

IBM Report: Consumers Pay the Price as Data Breach Costs Reach All-Time High

60% of breached businesses raised product prices post-breach; vast majority of critical infrastructure lagging in zero trust adoption; $550,000 in extra costs for insufficiently staffed businesses

CAMBRIDGE, Mass., July 27, 2022 /PRNewswire/ -- IBM (NYSE: IBM) Security today released the annual Cost of a Data Breach Report,1  revealing costlier and higher-impact data breaches than ever before, with the global average cost of a data breach reaching an all-time high of $4.35 million for studied organizations. With breach costs increasing nearly 13% over the last two years of the report, the findings suggest these incidents may also be contributing to rising costs of goods and services. In fact, 60% of studied organizations raised their product or services prices due to the breach, when the cost of goods is already soaring worldwide amid inflation and supply chain issues.

The perpetuality of cyberattacks is also shedding light on the "haunting effect" data breaches are having on businesses, with the IBM report finding 83% of studied organizations have experienced more than one data breach in their lifetime. Another factor rising over time is the after-effects of breaches on these organizations, which linger long after they occur, as nearly 50% of breach costs are incurred more than a year after the breach.

The 2022 Cost of a Data Breach Report is based on in-depth analysis of real-world data breaches experienced by 550 organizations globally between March 2021 and March 2022. The research, which was sponsored and analyzed by IBM Security, was conducted by the Ponemon Institute.

Some of the key findings in the 2022 IBM report include:

  • Critical Infrastructure Lags in Zero Trust – Almost 80% of critical infrastructure organizations studied don't adopt zero trust strategies, seeing average breach costs rise to $5.4 million – a $1.17 million increase compared to those that do. All while 28% of breaches amongst these organizations were ransomware or destructive attacks.
  • It Doesn't Pay to Pay – Ransomware victims in the study that opted to pay threat actors' ransom demands saw only $610,000 less in average breach costs compared to those that chose not to pay – not including the cost of the ransom. Factoring in the high cost of ransom payments, the financial toll may rise even higher, suggesting that simply paying the ransom may not be an effective strategy.
  • Security Immaturity in Clouds – Forty-three percent of studied organizations are in the early stages or have not started applying security practices across their cloud environments, observing over $660,000 on average in higher breach costs than studied organizations with mature security across their cloud environments.
  • Security AI and Automation Leads as Multi-Million Dollar Cost Saver – Participating organizations fully deploying security AI and automation incurred $3.05 million less on average in breach costs compared to studied organizations that have not deployed the technology – the biggest cost saver observed in the study.

"Businesses need to put their security defenses on the offense and beat attackers to the punch. It's time to stop the adversary from achieving their objectives and start to minimize the impact of attacks. The more businesses try to perfect their perimeter instead of investing in detection and response, the more breaches can fuel cost of living increases." said Charles Henderson, Global Head of IBM Security X-Force. "This report shows that the right strategies coupled with the right technologies can help make all the difference when businesses are attacked."

Over-trusting Critical Infrastructure Organizations
Concerns over critical infrastructure targeting appear to be increasing globally over the past year, with many governments' cybersecurity agencies  urging vigilance against disruptive attacks. In fact, IBM's report reveals that ransomware  and destructive attacks represented 28% of breaches amongst critical infrastructure organizations studied, highlighting how threat actors are seeking to fracture the global supply chains that rely on these organizations. This includes financial services, industrial, transportation and healthcare companies amongst others.

Despite the call for caution, and a year after the Biden Administration issued a cybersecurity executive order that centers around the importance of adopting a zero trust approach to strengthen the nation's cybersecurity, only 21% of critical infrastructure organizations studied adopt a zero trust security model, according to the report. Add to that, 17% of breaches at critical infrastructure organizations were caused due to a business partner being initially compromised, highlighting the security risks that over-trusting environments pose.

Businesses that Pay the Ransom Aren't Getting a "Bargain"
According to the 2022 IBM report, businesses that paid threat actors' ransom demands saw $610,000 less in average breach costs compared to those that chose not to pay – not including the ransom amount paid. However, when accounting for the average ransom payment, which according to Sophos reached $812,000 in 2021, businesses that opt to pay the ransom could net higher total costs - all while inadvertently funding future ransomware attacks with capital that could be allocated to remediation and recovery efforts and looking at potential federal offenses.

The persistence of ransomware, despite significant global efforts to impede it, is fueled by the industrialization of cybercrime. IBM Security X-Force discovered the duration of studied enterprise ransomware attacks shows a drop of 94% over the past three years – from over two months to just under four days. These exponentially shorter attack lifecycles can prompt higher impact attacks, as cybersecurity incident responders are left with very short windows of opportunity to detect and contain attacks. With "time to ransom" dropping to a matter of hours, it's essential that businesses prioritize rigorous testing of incident response (IR) playbooks ahead of time. But the report states that as many as 37% of organizations studied that have incident response plans don't test them regularly.

Hybrid Cloud Advantage
The report also showcased hybrid cloud environments as the most prevalent (45%) infrastructure amongst organizations studied. Averaging $3.8 million in breach costs, businesses that adopted a hybrid cloud model observed lower breach costs compared to businesses with a solely public or private cloud model, which experienced $5.02 million and $4.24 million on average respectively. In fact, hybrid cloud adopters studied were able to identify and contain data breaches 15 days faster on average than the global average of 277 days for participants.

The report highlights that 45% of studied breaches occurred in the cloud, emphasizing the importance of cloud security. However, a significant 43% of reporting organizations stated they are just in the early stages or have not started implementing security practices to protect their cloud environments, observing higher breach costs2. Businesses studied that did not implement security practices across their cloud environments required an average 108 more days to identify and contain a data breach than those consistently applying security practices across all their domains.

Additional findings in the 2022 IBM report include:

  • Phishing Becomes Costliest Breach Cause – While compromised credentials continued to reign as the most common cause of a breach (19%), phishing was the second (16%) and the costliest cause, leading to $4.91 million in average breach costs for responding organizations.
  • Healthcare Breach Costs Hit Double Digits for First Time Ever– For the 12th year in a row, healthcare participants saw the costliest breaches amongst industries with average breach costs in healthcare increasing by nearly $1 million to reach a record high of $10.1 million.
  • Insufficient Security Staffing – Sixty-two percent of studied organizations stated they are not sufficiently staffed to meet their security needs, averaging $550,000 more in breach costs than those that state they are sufficiently staffed.

Additional Sources

  • To get a copy of the 2022 Cost of a Data Breach Report, please visit: https://www.ibm.com/security/data-breach.
  • Read more about the report's top findings in this IBM Security Intelligence blog.
  • Sign up for the 2022 IBM Security Cost of a Data Breach webinar on Wednesday, August 3, 2022, at 11:00 a.m. ET here.
  • Connect with the IBM Security X-Force team for a personalized review of the findings: https://ibm.biz/book-a-consult.

About IBM Security
IBM Security offers one of the most advanced and integrated portfolios of enterprise security products and services. The portfolio, supported by world-renowned IBM Security X-Force ®  research, enables organizations to effectively manage risk and defend against emerging threats.  IBM operates one of the world's broadest security research, development, and delivery organizations, monitors  150 billion+ security events per day in more than 130 countries, and has been granted more than 10,000 security patents worldwide. For more information, please check www.ibm.com/security, follow @IBMSecurity on  Twitter or visit the IBM Security Intelligence blog.

Press Contact:

IBM Security Communications
Georgia Prassinos
gprassinos@ibm.com

1 Cost of a Data Breach Report 2022, conducted by Ponemon Institute, sponsored, and analyzed by IBM
2  Average cost of $4.53M, compared to average cost $3.87 million at participating organizations with mature-stage cloud security practices

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Killexams : Blockchain’s use in healthcare ‘essential’ to protect sensitive data: Zelis CTO

Kali Durgampudi, the chief technology officer of healthcare payments company Zelis, believes that the implementation of blockchain tech is vital for protecting patients’ sensitive data from cybercriminals.

Speaking with Health IT News on Wednesday, Durgampudi noted that some of the biggest issues in healthcare are privacy and data security as the industry works to digitize its “archaic paper-based processes.”

“Blockchain technology has the potential to alleviate many of these concerns,” he said, as he highlighted the importance of utilizing a digital ledger that is “impenetrable” to protect sensitive patient and financial data amid the growing rate of cyberattacks across the globe:

“Since the information cannot be modified or copied, blockchain technology vastly reduces security risks, giving hospital and healthcare IT organizations a much stronger line of defense against cybercriminals.”

Durgampudi went on to note that blockchain tech can also play a key role in healthcare payments, as it can help provide greater transparency and efficiency over current payment models in healthcare. He said the many payers and providers were hesitant to share information via email as emails could go awry and there was no proof of delivery.

“Blockchain provides both payers and providers with complete visibility into the entire lifecycle of a claim, from the patient registering at the front desk to disputing a cost to sending an explanation of benefits,” he added.

Real world use

One of the major companies that has worked on blockchain-based healthcare solutions is multinational tech giant IBM.

The blockchain arm of the company has rolled out several solutions for healthcare such as health credential verification, the “Trust Your Supplier” service to find Tested suppliers and “Blockchain Transparent Supply,” which provides supply chain tracking on temperature-controlled pharmaceuticals.

In March 2021, Cointelegraph reported that IBM was working on a trial of a COVID-19 vaccination passport dubbed the “Excelsior Pass” in partnership with former New York Governor Andrew Cuomo. The passport was designed to be able to verify an individual's vaccination or test results by IBM’s blockchain.

Related: Blockchain without crypto: Adoption of decentralized tech

Another key player in the blockchain-based healthcare space is enterprise blockchain VeChain. In June last year, the project teamed up with Shanghai’s Renji Hospital to launch blockchain-based in-vitro fertilization (IVF) service application.

VeChain also partnered with San Marino in July 2021 to launch a nonfungible token- (NFT)-based vaccination passport that was said to be verifiable worldwide by scanning QR codes tied to the certificate.

David Jia, a blockchain investor with a Ph.D. in neuroscience from Oxford University, echoed similar sentiments to Durgampudi this week.

In a Thursday blog post on Medium, Jia emphasized that blockchain tech could significantly Boost drug traceability and verification, along with the data management of clinical trials, patient info and claiming/billing.

“Accuracy in medical records over the long term as well as accessibility is essential, as it is necessary for an individual’s record to be able to be transferred between providers, insurance companies, and specialists with relative ease. If medical records are stored on a blockchain, they may be updated safely in almost real-time,” he wrote.