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Killexams : RES Wisdom study help - BingNews Search results Killexams : RES Wisdom study help - BingNews Killexams : Ways to relieve painful wisdom teeth

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People often decide to have their wisdom teeth removed, as they can cause painful, aching gums. How can wisdom teeth pain be relieved at home before their removal?

Wisdom teeth are the last teeth to break through the gums. They grow at the very back of a person’s mouth. There are four wisdom teeth in total, with one in each of the furthest corners of the top and bottom gums.

Pain in the wisdom teeth may resolve on its own, but in some cases, it will need either active home management or treatment in a hospital or dental surgery.

This article looks at options to relieve the pain as well as the causes.

Wisdom teeth can cause mild pain and discomfort as they emerge through the gums. They can also make it harder to floss, allow food to become trapped, or enable bacteria to enter the gums.

If the wisdom teeth come through in the wrong position or if there isn’t enough room for them to grow, it may also cause:

  • pain, swelling, or stiffness in the jaw
  • swollen, tender, or bleeding gums
  • difficulty opening the mouth or chewing
  • bad breath

Wisdom teeth normally push their way through the gums when a person is between the ages of 17-21. The sensation of a tooth pushing through the gums can be painful.

In addition, there is often no room for the wisdom teeth in a person’s mouth, as the adult teeth have already developed. This lack of space may cause wisdom teeth to come through at an angle or to get stuck and not come through fully.

This is called impacted wisdom teeth, and it leaves the gums vulnerable as the surface breaks, but the teeth do not fully come through. Food and bacteria can get trapped in the gums and lead to several issues, including:

Impacted wisdom teeth may cause pain, aches, and tenderness. Ultimately, removing the wisdom teeth can help resolve these problems.

In the meantime, there are several natural home remedies available.

1. Ice pack

Applying an ice pack to the jaw can help reduce inflammation, which in turn may relieve pain. Using ice can also have a numbing effect.

A person can try holding an ice pack with a tea towel around it against their jaw for up to 15 minutes.

The ice pack can be applied off and on with 15-minute breaks until the pain has subsided.

2. Saltwater rinse

Saltwater has natural disinfectant properties. A 2017 study showed that rinsing the mouth with salt water can help reduce bacteria.

Sometimes, a buildup of bacteria in the broken gums around wisdom teeth can be the cause of pain. As such, rinsing with salt water may help treat the infection and reduce the discomfort.

To make the saltwater rinse, a person can dissolve a few tablespoons of salt into a glass of freshly boiled water. When the water has cooled slightly, it can be swirled around the mouth for several minutes, then spat out.

A person may want to rinse their mouth with salt water two or three times a day or until the pain starts to reduce.

3. Cloves

Research into the effectiveness of cloves in relieving wisdom tooth pain is positive. Some research suggests that there is some promise in regard to using cloves as a topical pain reliever due to their numbing effect.

To try this home remedy, a person can use a whole clove or clove oil. If using a whole clove they should:

  • place the clove over the wisdom tooth that is causing pain
  • hold it in place by closing their jaw, but without chewing
  • leave it there until the pain reduces and then spit it out

To try this remedy using clove oil, a person can:

  • put a few drops of clove oil on a ball of cotton wool
  • put the cotton wool on the wisdom tooth that is causing pain
  • hold the cotton wool in place until the pain reduces and then remove it

Both clove oil and whole cloves are available to purchase online.

4. Onion

A 2021 study found that onions have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. These advantages of onions mean they can help reduce swelling and fight bacterial infections.

To use onions as a home remedy, a person should:

  • cut off a piece of onion
  • chew the onion on the side of the mouth that has the pain
  • keep chewing for a few minutes until the pain reduces and then spit out the onion

This process allows the juice from the onion to go into the gum so that it can reduce inflammation and bacteria.

5. Teabags

A 2016 study found that tannins contained in tea bags have antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. This means tea bags may help reduce swelling and fight bacterial infections.

To use tea bags as a home remedy, a person should make a cup of tea and put the cup in the fridge with the teabag left in it. Once the tea is cold, the tea bag can be taken out and placed inside the mouth where the pain is located.

No milk, cream, or sugar should be added to the tea. Suitable plain tea bags are available to buy online.

Several medical treatments can also be used to help relieve pain caused by an impacted wisdom tooth, including some over-the-counter options.

1. Acupuncture

Acupuncture is a form of alternative medicine that involves inserting thin needles into the body.

Some research suggests that acupuncture may be used to relieve dental pain, including pain caused by an impacted wisdom tooth.

In fact, according to one 2020 study, acupuncture was more effective at reducing the intensity of dental pain compared to a control group.

2. Numbing gel

A numbing dental gel may help reduce feeling in the gums and dull the pain. These gels are available over the counter or online and contain the active ingredient benzocaine.

Most dental gels can be applied directly to the affected gums throughout the day. However, it is important for a person to follow the instructions included in the product. Also, it is possible to be allergic to benzocaine.

3. Ibuprofen

Ibuprofen is an over-the-counter pain relief medication that helps reduce inflammation.

Taking the recommended dose on the packet may help relieve discomfort. It can also reduce inflammation of the gums associated with wisdom teeth development.

Ibuprofen or other NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), such as aspirin, may be effective pain management until a person can see a dentist for treatment.

In some cases, home remedies may not alleviate the pain of an impacted wisdom tooth.

A dentist or dental surgeon can remove a wisdom tooth in dental surgery. The doctor will inject a local anesthetic into the affected area to numb the pain of surgery. The practitioner will apply pressure to the tooth to loosen it from its socket.

The doctor makes small cuts around the tooth and may cut the wisdom tooth into smaller pieces before removing it. The procedure normally takes only a few minutes but can last up to 20 minutes and sometimes more.

The gum is normally only sore from the time until the anesthetic wears off until around three days later, but the pain sometimes lasts for up to two weeks.

Wisdom teeth are harder than other teeth, which makes them more likely to get cavities. When a person’s wisdom teeth are coming through, there are practical things they can do to make it less likely that their gums become infected. These actions include:

  • Practicing good oral hygiene: Brushing teeth twice a day, flossing, and using mouthwash can help reduce the bacteria in the mouth that cause infections.
  • Drinking plenty of water: This helps to flush food and bacteria away from the teeth and gums.
  • Avoid sugary foods: Sweet foods can get stuck inside the broken gums, encouraging bacteria to grow.

Here are a few common questions about wisdom tooth pain.

Why does wisdom tooth pain come and go?

As wisdom teeth emerge, it can put pressure on the gums and neighboring teeth, causing pain and discomfort that may come and go in cycles.

The flap of gum that covers the biting surface of the wisdom tooth can also become swollen and get trapped between the teeth, which can cause more pain.

Can wisdom tooth pain just go away (without treatment)?

In some cases, wisdom tooth pain may resolve on its own over time without any treatment. However, dental surgery may be recommended if the pain is severe or if the wisdom teeth cause any issues like infection, cysts, tooth decay, or damage to neighboring teeth.

Can the wisdom teeth cause pain in the jaw or gums?

Wisdom teeth can cause pain in the jaw or gums as they emerge. They can also increase the risk of infections by enabling bacteria to enter the gums, which can cause gum pain and swelling or stiffness in the jaw.

While the remedies in this article have been proven to reduce pain caused by wisdom teeth, they are only short-term solutions.

When wisdom teeth become impacted, a dentist will normally advise that they be removed to provide long-term relief.

Read the article in Spanish.

Fri, 22 Jul 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Study claims it’s a myth that women are more likely to survive longer than men No result found, try new keyword!The findings are based on mortality rates among 199 populations from every continent over a period of 200 years. The post Study claims it’s a myth that women are more likely to survive longer than men ... Wed, 03 Aug 2022 02:37:13 -0500 en-us text/html Killexams : Who Likes Violent Porn? New Research Upends Expectations

Feminist activists and social commentators alike have long decried the level of aggression portrayed in pornographic videos. The argument is that watching such videos teaches men that violent sexual behavior is acceptable. Furthermore, some maintain that men who watch violent porn may even develop a taste for aggressive sex that they didn't have before.

According to the received wisdom, porn is produced for and consumed by male audiences. In this view, pornography plays into the patriarchy, in which men seek to subjugate women, viewing them as little more than sex objects for the purpose of their own sexual gratification. Thus, the content of internet porn reflects the tastes of its male consumers.

Given the vast amount of porn now available online, it’s difficult to estimate the percentage of it that portrays violent content, especially considering that different sites cater to different tastes. Estimates range from as low as 10 percent to as high as 90 percent.

This wide range is largely due to the different ways in which researchers define aggression. Anti-porn writers tend to cite statistics at the high end of this range. This is because they count acts that may be considered playful, such as spanking, tickling, or pulling hair, and to which the woman appears to have consented.

Most Men Do Not Like Violent Porn

But even if estimates in the lower range are more accurate, the question still remains: What kind of people find violent porn arousing? Surely, these must be men, at least according to the received wisdom. After all, women viewers should empathize with the women performers who are the targets of abuse, and thus they should find such content to be repulsive rather than arousing.

Until fairly recently, the vast majority of porn users were men, and these arguments made sense, even if there was little empirical evidence to support them. In accurate years, however, more and more women have been consuming porn. So now the question becomes: What sort of porn do women want to watch?

So far, the general assumption has been that women would be interested in romantic scenes portraying loving couples who are attentive to each other’s sexual needs—and preferably with soft music playing in the background. With the rise of female porn viewership, a number of porn companies have started producing such “female-friendly” content. But is this really what women want?

Recent research has challenged the accepted opinion that men like violent porn and women like romantic porn. Surveys reveal that most men are turned off by violent porn, and furthermore, at least some women report finding depictions of aggression against women to be a turn-on. This suggests that interest in violent porn may not be so much a difference of gender as one of personality.

More Women Than Men Say Violent Porn Turns Them On

To further understand what kind of people like violent porn, McGill University (Montreal, Canada) psychologist Eran Shor conducted interviews with 122 people, roughly equally divided between men and women. Her findings challenge the received wisdom on porn preferences among men and women.

First, she found that many men and women don’t like violent porn, insisting that they’re turned off by depictions of aggression against women. While it was expected that women wouldn’t like violent porn, this finding does challenge the narrative that men just want to dominate women and use them as sex objects.

Second, among those who said they were turned on by violent porn, the majority of these were women. Overwhelmingly, women were more likely than men to state that they found aggression to be arousing and that they actively sought out aggressive displays in porn. The only exception was that very few men or women expressed an interest in watching videos that portrayed non-consensual aggression.

In fact, the concept of “consensual aggression” was key in understanding these women’s interest in violent porn. Many of the women in this study found acts such as biting, spanking, hair-pulling, and other kinds of rough handling to be playful and arousing as long as the female performer was giving verbal or facial cues of consent.

“Consensual Aggression” Is the Key

Shor notes that many of the female participants initially denied any interest in violent porn until further into the interview when they came to understand that the interviewer was also including consensual aggression. Overall, two-thirds of the women in this study confided that they found at least some aggression in porn to be arousing, and about half confessed that they sometimes sought out “harder” forms of aggression as well.

Importantly, these women insisted that had already been attracted to consensual aggression and dominance before they started viewing porn. In other words, they actively sought out what they were already interested in rather than developing a taste for it after having seen it first in porn. Such revelations challenge the narrative that watching violent porn creates a desire to act out this kind of aggression with sex partners.

Those women who did express an interest in violent porn also made it clear that they didn’t like it all the time. As one respondent put it: “It depends on the mood. Sometimes I like it; sometimes it grosses me out.” Rather than explaining an attraction to violent porn in terms of gender or personality differences, it seems even better to think of it as one type of porn that many viewers enjoy on occasion.

Many of the women who said they liked violent porn also confided that they often felt guilty about it afterward. Here we see the conflict between personal preferences and social expectations.

Finally, these women also insisted that even though they enjoyed viewing aggression in porn, they would not want to be treated that way by their sex partners. Comments such as these get at the fact that porn consumers understand porn is fantasy, not reality, and moreover that it is an aspect of their sexuality separate from their partnered sex life.

Human sexuality is complex and multifaceted. Relying on gender stereotypes about sexual preferences and proscribing particular acts as disgusting or decadent do little to help us understand the panoply of human sexual behavior. Overall, the respondents in this study express a healthy sexual attitude, namely that whatever consenting adults do in private is just fine—and nobody else’s business.


Shor, E. (2022). Who seeks aggression in pornography? Findings from interviews with viewers. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 51, 1237-1255.

Sun, 17 Jul 2022 03:54:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : What a new study on depression does – and does not – tell us about antidepressants and serotonin

A new umbrella review challenging long-held public beliefs about the cause of depression has caused a stir in the psychiatric community but it has not advised people to quit their antidepressant treatments.

The Serotonin Theory of Depression: A Systematic Umbrella Review of the Evidence was published in the journal Molecular Psychiatry, and found that after reviewing a collection of previously published studies examining the connection between serotonin levels and depression there was little evidence to support the established idea that chemical imbalances were the cause.

The study's underlying questions probe why the chemical imbalance theory of depression remains the default in both the medical community and the broader public despite the alleged lack of evidence, and how that theory became dominant in the first place.

Dr Joanna Moncrieff, a professor at University College London and a 30-year consultant psychiatrist for the National Health Service in the UK, is one of the paper's lead authors. She spoke with The Independent about the research, its implications, and the response the study has received from the medical community and the public.

What does the study actually say?

In the simplest terms, the study found there was insufficient evidence to support the prevailing belief in the public and some medical institutions that a chemical imbalance in the brain causes depression. As a result, the study questions the wisdom of doctors prescribing patients with antidepressant medicines without a more robust understanding of the drugs' long-term health effects.

"The chemical imbalance theory of depression is still put forward by professionals, and the serotonin theory, in particular, has formed the basis of a considerable research effort over the last few decades,” the study concluded. “The general public widely believes that depression has been convincingly demonstrated to be the result of serotonin or other chemical abnormalities, and this belief shapes how people understand their moods, leading to a pessimistic outlook on the outcome of depression and negative expectancies about the possibility of self-regulation of mood. The idea that depression is the result of a chemical imbalance also influences decisions about whether to take or continue antidepressant medication and may discourage people from discontinuing treatment, potentially leading to lifelong dependence on these drugs."

In a blog post following the study's release, and in her interview with The Independent, Dr Moncrieff stressed that individuals using antidepressant drugs like SSRIs who are contemplating whether or not to continue with their treatments should do so with the continual guidance of a doctor and to only come off them in a controlled, supported, and gradual process.

In other words, people should not react to this study by suspending their antidepressant treatments, but should continue to work with their doctors to address their mental health and any underlying causes that could be contributing to their depression.

Academic reaction to the research

Despite those warnings, the study has been met with some resistance within the medical community. A slew of doctors have circled their wagons around the use of antidepressant drugs, arguing that it is well understood in the medical community that depression is caused by a confluence of factors, not just a chemical imbalance, and that those treatments are still effective at managing those symptoms.

Dr David Curtis, Honorary Professor at the University College London Genetics Institute, told the Science Media Centre: “This paper does not present any new findings but just reports results which have been published elsewhere and it is certainly not news that depression is not caused by ‘low serotonin levels’. The notion of depression being due to a ‘chemical imbalance’ is outmoded, and the Royal College of Psychiatrists wrote that this was an over-simplification in a position statement published in 2019.

"Nor is it the case that SSRI antidepressants increase serotonin levels. Their immediate action is to alter the balance between serotonin concentrations inside and outside neurons but their antidepressant effect is likely due to more complex changes in neuronal functioning which occur later as a consequence of this. It is very clear that people suffering from depressive illness do have some abnormality of brain function, even if we do not yet know what this is, and that antidepressants are effective treatments for severe depression whereas interventions such as exercise and mindfulness are not. It is important that people with severe depression are not discouraged from receiving appropriate treatments, which can make a huge difference to them and those around them.”

Dr Moncrieff said she was not surprised by the reaction to the study, and agreed that the theory presented was likely not news to the academic world, but probably was to the general public.

"Some psychiatrists have said quite publicly that no, there hasn't really been evidence for [the serotonin theory of depression] for a while, but no one's wanted to highlight it or certainly highlight it to the public," she said.

Further, Dr Moncrieff agrees that antidepressant drugs can be beneficial for individuals who take them, whether that be by dulling intense emotional states caused by depression or through the placebo effect. However, she cautioned that the medical community should have a better understanding of what the drugs actually do if they are going to be used.

“It’s crucial for people to understand that we don’t really know what the effects – the mental and behavioral – effects of these drugs are," she said. "They do have mental and behavioral effects, one of which is likely emotional numbing, which may or may not be useful. I’d guess in the long term it’s probably not useful for most people, but there may be some people that feel in a crisis or an emergency that that would be something helpful.”

She also said that antidepressants are "definitely" having placebo effects, and that those effects have been confirmed in clinical trials.

"We know that the majority of the response that people show in antidepressant trials is the placebo response, " she said. "There's research that shows that people who guess they're taking an active drug do considerably better than those who guess they're taking the placebo, even if they're not actually taking the active drug."

How did antidepressants become the norm for treating depression?

The serotonin theory of depression was introduced in the 1960s, when doctors first theorised there was a link between serotonin levels and individuals who experienced depressive states. That remains the prevailing theory into the 1990s, when pharmaceutical companies began advertising SSRIs – which increase serotonin levels in the brain – directly to consumers, at least in the US. They also market the drugs directly to doctors, which Dr Moncrieff believes is a contributing factor to their dominance as a primary treatment for depression.

"In the 90s and the early naughties there was a huge marketing effort directed at doctors – you'd walk into a doctor's office and there were just Prozac mugs and pens all over the place," she said. "And I think that's another reason why doctors didn't really question it, they were just bombarded with this idea that this is the fact, this is the situation. If you repeat something enough, people are like to believe it. That's it really."

However, as the UK’s National Health Service notes in its guidelines, SSRIs are also used specifically because their short-term side effects are not as severe as other antidepressant drugs. As Dr Moncrieff has stated, the drugs are effective at helping individuals suffering from depression, but she argues it's clear based on the results of the study that they alone cannot be the foundation for combatting depression. While the medical community largely agrees with that sentiment, that message isn't as well known among the public.

Public reaction

Following the paper's publication a TikTok user named Liv Speakman – who graduated from Oxford with a focus on psychology and neuroscience – praised the research in a video that garnered more than 460,000 views. She argued it was a positive step toward combatting pessimism among individuals experiencing depression who believe they are doomed to forever suffer from their affliction.

Her comments section was filled with laypeople who expressed confusion and some trepidation about the news. They asked if it meant their antidepressants were ineffective and whether they should continue treatment. In a follow-up video, she explained that SSRIs and other antidepressants were still useful and that people should continue working with their doctors to treat their depression. Ms Speakman likened the drugs to painkillers, saying people do not take painkillers because they have an insufficient amount of painkiller in their bodies, but rather because the medicines numb the pain and allow them to live their lives.

Another content creator, Rebecca Watson, who runs a medical misinformation debunking YouTube channel and website called Skepchick, had a more critical take, but her focus was primarily directed at news websites running with headlines that suggested antidepressants were not effective at treating depression.

She cited a Daily Mail story that ran with a line stating "Have millions been taking antidepressants with harmful side-effects for decades – when there’s no scientific evidence they do what they claim? Some experts have suspected it for years. Now patients have been left reeling by a groundbreaking study.”

"To repeat, everything I just read to you is wrong. So incredibly, stupidly, infuriatingly wrong. 'There’s no scientific evidence (antidepressants) do what they claim?' Wrong," she said in a accurate YouTube video. "There are HUNDREDS of randomized controlled trials that show that antidepressants help people with depression at a higher rate compared to placebo. There is no 'new research' that rebuts this. None."

Reporting that covers complex health and science issues has frequently been derided by experts for misstating and misleading the public, either through misunderstanding the facts or by sensationalising them to draw in readers.

Indeed, Dr Moncrieff says she undertook the work specifically to highlight the fact that what the public knows and what experts know about depression are incongruent, and that rectifying that fact through further study should be a priority for communicators and researchers alike.

Mon, 01 Aug 2022 01:46:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Do we subconsciously eat what our body needs?

A study conducted in the 1930s by Dr Clara Davis went some way to support Mark’s view. It saw newly-weened infants, who didn’t have access to healthy food at home, given free rein to choose from more than 30 foods in a laboratory setting over a sustained period. Clara found the children instinctively chose a diet high in nutrients.

However, over time, this has become a hotly disputed study. “It's not really clear what was going on there,” says Jeff. “Maybe the children were just exposed to a whole load of really healthy foods, and that was sufficient.” But, says Jeff, “It did offer up tantalising evidence.”

Conducting a similar study now would not be possible. It would be immoral to intentionally make people lack in a type of micronutrient to see if they remedy it through their food choices, says Jeff.

Instead, Jeff and Mark used hypothetical choices instead. “We showed people pictures of fruits and vegetables in different combinations and then asked people to choose the combination [they’d opt for].”

Each pairing together offered up a range of micronutrients, some more complete than others. But the average person wouldn’t be aware which combination was better. Would the people in the study choose the pairings which offered the most micronutrients? “To my amazement, the first study we did showed just that. Now it's a small effect, but it was a reliable effect.”

Intrigued, the duo looked at the data provided by the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS). “This included thousands of people self-reporting a diet diary.” Jeff and Mark discovered that there was once again a link between preferred pairings of food and their nutritional value. Would common combinations provide a balance of micronutrients better than a random pairing? “Yes,” says Jeff, “there was a small but significant effect.

“The paper demonstrated that we humans have that capacity [to crave nutritionally dense food]. The size of the effect was kind of irrelevant. I saw it a bit like telepathy. If you can show that anybody has got telepathy, over and above it doesn't really matter about levels, that's an amazing finding.”

So, could our day-to-day cravings reflect the vitamins and minerals we’re lacking? For example, do you crave liver, spinach or pumpkin seeds when you need iron? That’s something different schools of thought can’t agree on, but with time Jeff thinks we will have the answer.

“We need to learn cause and effect relations about micronutrients, I suspect that we can under certain conditions,” says Jeff.

Likewise, another big question still remains, if we do have nutritional intelligence, why is it that groups in society have nutritional deficiencies?

In the paper both Mark and Jeff explain that questions such as these will require further research to be answered. “How can we reconcile nutritional wisdom with the long history of vitamin deficiencies in human populations, and can this be attributed solely to a lack of access to specific foods and/or poor nutritional guidance?” they ask in the paper. Hopefully, more research on the subject will follow.

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Sun, 17 Jul 2022 08:40:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Homicide offenders have lower levels of psychopathy and sadism compared to other convicts, study finds

New research casts doubt on the conventional wisdom linking psychopathy to murder. The findings, which appear in the scientific journal Personality and Individual Differences, provide evidence that homicide offenders tend to be less psychopathic on average compared to other criminal offenders.

“Exploring personality traits in criminal offenders is important for several reasons: these data can help investigative authorities to find the perpetrator, findings can elevate the success rate of psychological treatment of offenders and even facilitate prevention of criminal behavior,” explained study author Janko Međedović, a senior scientific associate at the Institute of Criminological and Sociological Research in Belgrade.

“The best candidates for explaining criminal behavior are the ‘dark’ personality traits: psychopathy, Machiavellianism, narcissism and sadism. Previous research showed that psychopathy is associated to the homicide offence; furthermore, the obtained associations were high in magnitude – this suggest that murderers are highly likely to have psychopathic traits.”

“We were intrigued by this finding, mostly because murder can be very heterogenous regarding the context of the offense and the motivation of perpetrator,” Međedović explained. “For example, an individual that murders a spouse and doesn’t have any previous history of criminal behavior, and a person who commits murder as a member of organized criminal group may have quite different personality profiles.”

For their new study, the researchers measured psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and sadism in a group of male convicts. The study examined 247 convicts from two of the largest penitentiary facilities in Serbia. The demo included 46 homicide offenders, 82 non-homicide violent offenders, and 119 non-violent offenders.

Criminal recidivism, including the number of criminal offences, the number of legal sentences, and the number of prison sentences served, was also assessed using the convicts’ prison dossiers.

“We found that the dark traits were positively associated with criminal recidivism (similarly to previous studies), but the homicide offenders had lower levels of psychopathy and sadism compared to other groups of offenders, especially to the non-homicide violent offenders,” Međedović told PsyPost.

“We believe that this can be partially explained by the fact that homicide offenders from our demo also had lower recidivism rates compared to other groups. Therefore, murderers may not be characterized by highly pronounced dark traits – homicide offences are heterogeneous in many criminologically-relevant aspects and the personality traits of homicide offenders can be different as well.”

“Thus, we need to explore personality dispositions of homicide offenders in more detail, by analyzing the characteristics of the offence as well,” Međedović said. “For example, it is probable, as found in previous studies, that murderers who were not close to their victims and who committed more premeditated and planned acts of murder may indeed be characterized by higher levels of psychopathic traits.”

The findings are in line with at least one other study, which examined 478 convicts from three prisons in the state of Pennsylvania. That study, published in 2017, found that homicide offenders tended to have lower levels of psychopathy compared to recidivistic offenders and similar levels of psychopathy compared to first-time offenders.

But as with any research, the new study includes some caveats.

“Our study has several limitations. For example, we did not have additional information about the characteristics of homicide offenses in our data; this is partially due to relatively low demo size of the participants who commit murder in our research,” Međedović explained. “Secondly, we used self-report inventories to measure the dark traits; it would be highly beneficial to combine these measures with the rating assessments (provided by skilled professionals) to analyze the data (rating measures exist only for psychopathy so far) because these two methods may provide different findings.”

“Various socio-economic conditions and their interactions with personality traits should be studied as well in order to provide a more detailed understanding of criminal behavior,” Međedović said. “So far, our research contributes to the psychology of criminal behavior by showing that the dark personality traits can advance our knowledge about the stability of criminal behavior and the type of criminal offence; hence, future studies can benefit by including them in the research designs.”

The study, “How dark is the personality of murderers? Psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and sadism in homicide offenders“, was authored by Janko Međedović and Nikola Vujičić.

Mon, 08 Aug 2022 05:00:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Males, especially those married with a degree, can outlive women, research claims

The probability of males living longer than females is higher in low/middle-income countries

The probability of males living longer than females is higher in low/middle-income countries (Image: Getty)

Males can be over 50 percent more likely to outlast females - especially those married with a degree. It contradicts ‘received wisdom’ of a natural longevity gap between the genders, say Danish scientists.

The findings are based on mortality rates among 199 populations from every continent over a period of 200 years.

Corresponding author Dr Marie-Pier Bergeron-Boucher, of Syddansk University, Odense, said: “Although male life expectancy is generally lower than female life expectancy, and male death rates are usually higher at all ages, males have a substantial chance of outliving females.

“These findings challenge the general impression that ‘men do not live as long as women’ and reveal a more nuanced inequality in lifespans between females and males.”

Sex differences in survival are often identified by comparing life expectancy, which summarises the average length of life, rather than years lived, she explained.

Instead, her team used a statistical technique called ‘outsurvival’. It measures the probability a person from an area with a high death rate will outlive a peer from a region with a low one.

Dr Bergeron-Boucher said the study, published in BMJ Open, has implications for public health interventions.

She explained: “We showed some sub-populations of males have a high probability - above 50 percent - of outliving females.

“Males who are married or have a university degree tend to outlive females who are unmarried or do not have a high school diploma.

“Inequalities in lifespan between sexes are attributable to some individuals within each population and not to the whole population.

“Being able to better identify the characteristics of the short- lived men could more efficiently help tackle male-female inequality.”

Being in a couple has been shown to benefit men’s health more than women’s, said Dr Dr Bergeron-Boucher.

She added: “The length of the lifespan of an individual results from a complex combination of biological, environmental and behavioural factors.

“Being male or female does impact lifespan, but it is not the only determinant contributing to inequalities.

“Lifespan has been shown to be influenced by marital status, income, education, race/ethnicity, urban/rural residence, etc.

“Males with a lower education level or who are unmarried have a particularly low chance of outliving a female.

“But males with a university degree or who are married have a higher chance of outliving females, in particular females with a lower education level and who are single.”

Overall, since 1850 between 25 and 50 percent of men have done so in all continents over the past two centuries.

It means between one and two men out of four have outlived a randomly paired woman in almost all points in time.

Dr Bergeron-Boucher said: “Not all females outlive males, even if a majority do. But the minority that do not is not small.

“For example, a sex difference in life expectancy at birth of 10 years can be associated with a probability of males outliving females as high as 40%, indicating that 40% of males have a longer lifespan than that of a randomly paired female.

“Not all males have a disadvantage of 10 years, which is overlooked by solely making comparisons of life expectancy.

“However, a small number of males will live very short lives to result in that difference.

For example, more baby boys die than baby girls in most countries.”

The researchers drew on life tables by sex and individual years for 41 countries from the Human Mortality Database, plus separate data for East and West Germany, and for the four countries of the UK.

They also used abridged life tables from the World Population Prospects 2019. It provides sex-specific information for 199 countries by five-year age groups and periods from 1950-54 to 2015-19.

Finally, they compared the probability of men outliving women by education level and marital status, using national US statistics on deaths and population counts.

In developed countries, the probability of males outliving females fell until the 1970s, after which it gradually increased in all populations.

The rise and fall in sex differences in life expectancy were mainly attributed to smoking and other behavioural differences.

The probability of males living longer than females is generally higher in low/middle-income countries.

But this doesn’t necessarily mean greater gender equality in survival, said the researchers.

They highlight South Asian countries, where values were above 50% for men in the 1950s and 1960s.

The death rate for under fives in India was higher for girls than for boys and has remained higher for girls in accurate years.

But fewer girls than boys above the age of 15 have died since the 1980s, ‘balancing out’ the disadvantage at younger ages.

And certain external factors seem to have a key role. For example, between 2015 and 2019, the probability of males outliving females was 40 percent across the entire US population.

But this statistic varied, depending on marital status and educational attainment. The probability of men outliving women was 39 and 37 percent for those who were wed and singletons, respectively.

And it was 43 percent for those with a university degree and 39 percent for those without a high school diploma.

What is more, married men with a degree have an advantage over unmarried women educated only to high school level.

The overall death rate has fallen faster for women than for men under the age of 50, especially in the first half of the 20th century, largely as a result of improvements in infant and child deaths.

And men have not only maintained their survival disadvantage at younger ages, but at older ages too.

They are more prone to accidents and homicides in their 20s and 30s, and they tend to smoke and drink more, leading to higher cancer prevalence and death in their 60s.

Dr Bergeron-Boucher added: “Efforts in reducing lifespan inequalities must thus target diverse factors, causes and ages.”

Tue, 02 Aug 2022 10:30:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Pearls of wisdom

By Karen Kier
Pharmacist on behalf of the ONU HealthWise team

The idiom “pearls of wisdom” means something sounds wise or helpful.  Amazingly, there is a website with a list of 86 songs giving life advice. The site recommends using this list to create a playlist for someone special especially for life events such as birthdays. The number one song on the list by The Rolling Stones is “You Can’t Always Get What You Want.” The author feels the lyrics touch on tempering optimism with a dose of reality.  

We are still fighting the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the impact the pandemic has had on our lives.  A report indicates about 70% of Americans have had a COVID-19 infection at least once. Ohio COVID-19 cases are trending up with an average of 23,304 cases over the last 3 weeks. Ohio is only reporting weekly numbers since March 14, 2022.  So, the 1969 song by The Rolling Stones is still relevant for life advice today.  

As recently as May 16, 2022, some websites continue to promote medical misinformation related to COVID-19 infections.  A common misconception is a previous COVID-19 infection will protect you from getting infected again and if you do, the symptoms are likely to be less severe.  The Omicron variant–especially the BA.5–has made these expectations false. The BA.5 variant is very evasive to antibodies either from infections or vaccinations.  

Both President Biden and Dr. Anthony Fauci have recently been infected with an Omicron variant. President Biden’s case was confirmed to be the BA.5 variant. Pfizer’s drug combination of nirmatrelvir and ritonavir (Paxlovid) was prescribed in both cases. Dr. Fauci responded to the 5-day course of therapy but suffered a rebound effect, which has been reported in the literature.  

A June 17, 2022 study in Research Square evaluated data from the Veterans Administration COVID-19 Shared Data Resource, asking the research question about multiple COVID-19 infections. The data bank contains information on 5.6 million lives. The observational study compared about 250,000 patients who had a COVID-19 infection once with 38,000 who had COVID-19 two times or more. Of the approximate 38,000 with two or more infections, 2200 had a COVID-19 infection three times and 246 had the infection four times. The control group in the study were patients who had never been diagnosed with COVID-19.  

The study results have an important message about repeated COVID-19 infections and a warning that a previous infection does not provide full protection against the Omicron variant.  The researchers determined a second COVID-19 infection increases your risk of hospitalization or death by a factor of two. In the study, this risk of a second infection was not altered by vaccination status. These data confirms the ability of the Omicron variant to evade the antibodies created by either infection and/or vaccination.  

In addition, researchers are curious as to why some individuals have never been infected with COVID-19 even though they had significant exposures. Take the case of a nurse treating COVID-19 patients who frequently treated patients and removed her mask while caring for them. She never got COVID-19.  Interestingly, her parents never got COVID-19 either nor did her twin sister. Stories like this have sparked investigations as to why some individuals seem to be resistant to COVID-19.

A study has enrolled participants to evaluate if there is a genetic explanation to why they are resistant to SARS-CoV-2. This research could provide insight into therapies and future vaccines.  A New York University study has found 2 genetic variants in the OAS1 gene that increase the severity of COVID-19 in some patients. The scientists wonder if others may have protection because of the same OAS1 gene but in a reverse direction.

Besides the potential for a genetic explanation, The Journal of Allergy & Clinical Immunology published a study on May 31, 2022 evaluating the impact of asthma and allergies on COVID-19 risk. Contrary to previous information released indicating asthma as a risk factor, the researchers found that asthma actually had a protective effect and was not a risk factor.  Likewise, the study found individuals with allergies had a lower risk of severe disease with COVID-19. In the study, those with food allergies had half the risk of severe COVID-19 compared to those who did not have food allergies. The inflammation caused by allergies including food may help the body fight off the virus. Additionally, these data were reported by the National Institutes of Health as part of the HEROS study. This study confirmed how young children are efficient transmitters of the SARS-CoV-2 virus because of their high rate of infections with no symptoms plus their close household contacts with the rest of the family.  

As much as we would like the pandemic to end, the BA.5 Omicron variant is writing a different story.  We can’t always get what we want.

ONU HealthWise is offering COVID-19 including boosters Monday through Friday from 10 AM to 5 PM. Call the pharmacy for an appointment for other time slots. The ONU HealthWise pharmacy offers Moderna and Pfizer COVID-19 vaccines. Call the pharmacy to get more information.  

ONU HealthWise Pharmacy

Thu, 28 Jul 2022 22:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Scientists reanimate dead cells in pigs, a potential breakthrough for organ transplants

New research is confounding conventional wisdom about life and death.

Researchers at Yale University used a new technology to restore cells in some organs of pigs that had just died, bringing the animals’ cells back to function. The findings, which were published Wednesday in the scientific journal Nature, raise profound ethical questions about how medicine defines death but also teases new possibilities for the collection of human organs for transplant.

“My eyes went wide,” Brendan Parent, an assistant professor of bioethics at the NYU Grossman School of Medicine, said about the moment he first read the new findings. “My brain went to all the crazy places we could go in 20 or 30 years.” Parent was not involved in the study, but was asked by Nature to write a commentary discussing the implications of the new technology.

The research is still in an early, experimental phase and many years from potential use in humans. It could ultimately help to extend the lives of people whose hearts have stopped beating or who have suffered a stroke. The technology also shows potential to dramatically shift how organs are collected for transplant and increase their availability to patients in need.

When the heart stops beating, blood flow is cut off from the body in a process called ischemia and a cascade of biochemical effects begins. Oxygen and nutrients are cut off from tissues. Cells begin to die. It’s a path toward death that causes damage that scientists have considered irreversible.

The new research challenges that idea.

Video: Multi-organ transplant provides cancer patient 2nd chance

“The demise of cells can be halted,” Dr. Nenad Sestan, a professor of neuroscience at the Yale School of Medicine and an author of the new research, said during a news conference. “We restored some functions of cells across multiple organs that should have been dead.”

The Yale researchers accomplished this feat by constructing a system of pumps, sensors and tubing that connects to pig arteries. They also developed a formula with 13 medical drugs that can be mixed with blood and then pumped into the animals’ cardiovascular systems. The research builds on previous work at Yale, which demonstrated that some damage to brain cells could be reversible after blood flow was cut off. Yale has filed a patent for the new technology, but is making its methods and protocols freely available for academic or nonprofit use, the study says.

To evaluate how well the new system, called OrganEx, works, the researchers caused heart attacks in pigs that had been anesthetized. The pigs were dead for an hour, and the researchers cooled their bodies and used neural inhibitors to ensure the animals did not regain consciousness during subsequent experiments.

Then, the researchers began to use the OrganEx system. They compared its performance against ECMO, a life-support technology used in hospitals today in which a machine oxygenates blood and circulates it throughout the body.

OrganEx restored circulation and prompted the repair of damaged cells. For example, the scientists saw heart cells contract and electrical activity return. Other organs, including kidneys, also showed improvements, the study says.

The pigs treated with OrganEx startled researchers. During experimentation, the dead pigs’ heads and necks moved under their own power. The animals remained under heavy anesthesia.

“We can say that animals were not conscious during these moments and we don’t have enough information to speculate why they moved,” Sestan said.

The researchers do view the neck jerk is an indication some muscle function was restored after death.

The OrganEx research is a single study in a laboratory setting in which researchers had total control over the circumstances of the pigs’ death and treatment. Even so, the early results open up possibilities that would have seemed like science fiction a few years ago.

“The assumption that loss of oxygen to the brain or organs within seconds to minutes means those organs are irretrievably damaged and loss — that’s not true,” said Nita Farahany, a neuroethicist and law professor at Duke University, who was not involved in the study.

The definition of death is a moving target that has shifted as new life-support technology like ventilators or ECMO were developed. Ethicists view OrganEx as ECMO on steroids and something that could change the definition of what medical death means.

“Death is a process. Technology has, at several critical moments in the course of the last several decades, shifted the goal posts for when that process begins and when we can say that the process of death has ended,” Parent, the NYU bioethicist, said. “All the iterations of machines that can sustain or restart lung function and or heart function have changed our perception, our experience, of when we can say it’s worth trying to save someone’s life.”

The Yale researchers don’t foresee the use of OrganEx to treat people anytime soon.

“Before you hook this up to a person to try to undo whole body ischemic damage in a human being, you’d need to do a lot more work. Not that it couldn’t be done, but that’s going to be a long ways away,” said Stephen Latham, director of the Yale Interdisciplinary Center for Bioethics. “There’s a great deal more experimentation that would be required.”

The implications of only partially reversing damage to a patient who suffered a deadly heart attack or who had drowned are immense, he said.

“You’d have to think about what is the state to which a human being would be restored, if they had been seriously damaged by the ischemia and you gave them kind of a perfusate that reversed some but not all of that damage. That could be a terrible thing, right?” Latham said.

Instead, the researchers see more immediate avenues for real-world use for the research. Today, transplant surgeons must scramble to stay ahead of ischemia and prevent organs from going too long without blood supply.

OrganEx could help transplant organs move longer distances and reach people who would otherwise be out of range for a transplant, Latham said. It could also prevent organs from being lost to ischemic damage, potentially expanding organ supply.

“From a transplant perspective, when every second is critical — what if it’s not? What if we have more time?” Farahany said.

The new technology’s potential opens new and compelling medical ethics questions — and adds a new twist to some that remain unresolved.

Ethicists have been debating whether it’s appropriate to use technology like ECMO to preserve organs in patients who are declared dead under cardiorespiratory criteria.

“If we decide someone is dead because their heart is stopped, but we use a technology to restart their heart — even for organ preservation — does that undermine the determination of death?” asked Parent, outlining the argument about what remains a rare practice.

There is no regulation for how long doctors must wait to determine death before restarting technology like ECMO to preserve organs for transplant, Farahany said. OrganEx could allow for more time between death and organ preservation.

It’s also possible OrganEx could change the threshold of when it’s ethical for doctors to let a patient die and then preserve their organs for donation.

“In the short run, it’s not a treatment. But if it is so effective it could be a treatment — you certainly couldn’t recover organs from somebody if you could continue to do things to save their life,” Farahany said.

It’s a technology that remains in its earliest stages, but could be impactful enough to redefine the line between life and death.

Wed, 03 Aug 2022 03:04:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : The Cosmic Wisdom of Michael Pollan