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Exam Code: RE18 Practice exam 2023 by team
RE18 BCS Practitioner Certificate in Requirements Engineering 2023

Type : Multiple choice

Duration : 60 minutes

Supervised : Yes

Open Book : No

Pass : Mark 25/40

Calculators : Calculators cannot be used during this examination

Delivery : Digital or Paper based, depending on exam provider


This certificate covers the range of concepts, approaches and techniques that are applicable
to the Practitioner Certificate in Requirements Engineering. It is relevant to anyone working
within a business or information systems domain, who requires an understanding of the
nature, definition and use of good quality requirements.

Candidates should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding and application of
Requirements Engineering principles and techniques in the following areas:

1. The Requirements Engineering framework; the issues and rationale in a business
context; the application of the framework.

2. The hierarchy of requirements.

3. Roles and responsibilities of key stakeholders in the Requirements Engineering

4. Requirements elicitation.

5. Requirements modelling.

6. Requirements documentation.

7. Requirements analysis.

8. Requirements validation.

9. Requirements management.

Exam Outline

1. Introduction to Requirements Engineering 5%

Candidates will be able to:

1.1 Define the term ‘requirements and the characteristics of a requirement.

1.2 Explain the rationale for Requirements Engineering and the application of the
Requirements Engineering framework.

1.3 Explain the rationale of requirements planning and estimating.

1.4 Describe the elements that should be considered as the contents of a project
initiation document, terms of reference or project charter:

1.4.1 Business objectives.

1.4.2 Project objectives.

1.4.3 Scope.

1.4.4 Constraints (budget, timescale, standards).

1.4.5 Authority or sponsor.

1.4.6 Resources.

1.4.7 Assumptions.

2 Hierarchy of Requirements 10%

Candidates will be able to:

2.1 Show understanding of the rationale for the requirements hierarchy and describe how
it is applied in Requirements Engineering.

2.2 Explain the categories within the hierarchy:

2.2.1 Business policy (general) requirements.

2.2.2 Technical policy requirements.

2.2.3 Functional requirements.

2.2.4 Non-functional requirements.

3 Stakeholders in the Requirements Process 5%

Candidates will be able to:

3.1 Define the term stakeholder.

3.2 Explain the key roles of the following project stakeholders during Requirements

3.2.1 Project Manager.

3.2.2 Developer.

3.2.3 Tester.

3.2.4 Solution Architect.

3.3 Explain the key roles of the following business stakeholders during Requirements

3.3.1 Project Sponsor.

3.3.2 Subject Matter Expert.

3.3.3 End User.

3.3.4 Business Manager.

3.4 Interpret a given scenario, identify stakeholders and describe their contribution to
Requirements Engineering.

4 Requirements Elicitation 20%

Candidates will be able to:

4.1 Explain different knowledge types:

4.1.1 Tacit / Non-tacit (explicit).

4.1.2 Individual / Corporate.

4.2 Interpret a given scenario to identify different knowledge types.

4.3 Interpret a given scenario to identify relevant elicitation techniques from the following

4.3.1 Interviews.

4.3.2 Workshops.

4.3.3 Observation.

4.3.4 Focus groups.

4.3.5 Prototyping.

4.3.6 Scenario analysis.

4.3.7 Document analysis.

4.3.8 Surveys.

4.3.9 Record searching.

4.3.10 Special purpose records.

4.3.11 Activity sampling.

4.4 Describe the principles and application of the elicitation techniques (listed in 4.3).

4.5 List the advantages and disadvantages of the elicitation techniques (listed in 4.3).

4.6 Discuss the suitability of the elicitation techniques (listed in 4.3) for Agile and linear
development approaches.

5 Use of Models in Requirements Engineering 10%

Candidates will be able to:

5.1 Explain the rationale for modelling the functional requirements (processing and data)
of an information system and describe how models help the analyst to:

5.1.1 Generate questions in order to clarify a requirement and remove ambiguity.

5.1.2 Define business rules.

5.1.3 Cross-check requirements for consistency and completeness.

5.2 Interpret a given scenario to develop a context diagram.

5.3 Interpret a given scenario to identify the different types of event that can initiate
processing (external, time based, internal).

5.4 Understand how to construct a UML use case diagram for a given scenario to
represent the functional requirements for an information system, including the
following notational elements:

5.4.1 System boundary.

5.4.2 Actors (user role, another system and time).

5.4.3 Use cases.

5.4.4 Communication relationships (associations) between actors and use cases.

- It should be noted that there is no requirement to understand include and extend

5.5 Interpret a UML Class diagram (comprising of classes, attributes, associations and
multiplicities) that represents the data requirements for a given scenario, and
describe the business rules that are represented.

- It should be noted that there is no requirement to understand operations,
association classes, generalisation (and associated concepts of inheritance and
polymorphism), aggregation and composition.

5.6 Explain the benefits to be derived from cross-referencing models and illustrate how
this can be achieved by using a CRUD matrix (of function or event against data).

6 Requirements Documentation 15%

Candidates will be able to:

6.1 Explain the rationale for creating a requirements document and for documenting
requirements at different levels of definition, relating to:

6.1.1 The nature of the solution.

6.1.2 The level of priority.

6.1.3 The delivery approach.

6.2 Understand how to construct requirements documentation for a given scenario, using
the following specified styles:

6.2.1 User story.

6.2.2 Use case.

6.2.3 Requirements list.

6.2.4 Requirements catalogue.

6.3 Describe a requirement in terms of its characteristics or attributes and explain why
each of the following may be needed:

6.3.1 Identifier.

6.3.2 Name.

6.3.3 Description.

6.3.4 Source.

6.3.5 Owner.

6.3.6 Author.

6.3.7 Type (general, technical, functional, non-functional).

6.3.8 Priority.

6.3.9 Business area.

6.3.10 Stakeholders.

6.3.11 Associated non-functional requirements.

6.3.12 Acceptance criteria.

6.3.13 Related requirements.

6.3.14 Related documents.


6.3.16 Rationale.

6.3.17 Resolution.

6.3.18 Version history.

6.4 Describe the structure and contents of the requirements document:

6.4.1 Introduction and background.

6.4.2 Business process models.

6.4.3 Function model (use case diagram) of defined requirements.

6.4.4 Data model (class model) of defined requirements.

6.4.5 Requirements (defined using the selected documentation style).

6.4.6 Glossary.

7 Requirements Analysis 20%

Candidates will be able to:

7.1 Explain the rationale for prioritising requirements, using the MoSCoW prioritisation

7.2 Interpret a given scenario and apply the MoSCoW prioritisation technique.

7.3 Examine individual requirements; apply filters and quality criteria to assess that they
are well defined.

7.4 Use requirements for a given scenario to check for technical, business and financial

7.5 Assign a requirement type to an individual requirement.

7.6 Organise the requirements for a given scenario by requirement type and functional

7.7 Within a given requirement set:

7.7.1 Identify and resolve duplicate requirements.

7.7.2 Identify and reconcile overlapping requirements.

7.7.3 Identify conflicting requirements and explain how requirements negotiation
could be applied to resolve these conflicts.

7.7.4 Identify ambiguous requirements and aspects to be defined to remove

7.8 Explain the use of prototyping to elaborate requirements.

8 Requirements Validation 5%

Candidates will be able to:

8.1 Describe the rationale for the following approaches to requirements validation:

8.1.1 Informal reviews.

8.1.2 Formal reviews: Structured walkthrough. Prototype reviews.

8.2 Explain the steps to be followed in the validation process for requirements artefacts:

8.2.1 Plan review.

8.2.2 Conduct review of artefacts.

8.2.3 Collect comments.

8.2.4 Undertake actions.

8.2.5 Revise artefacts.

8.2.6 Obtain approval.

9 Requirements Management 10%

Candidates will be able to:

9.1 Explain the rationale for requirements management.

9.2 Define the elements of requirements management and the links between them.

9.3 Explain the structure and elements of a change control process.

9.4 Explain the structure and elements of version control.

9.5 Define two forms of traceability and how projects benefit from each of them:

9.5.1 Horizontal (forwards from origin to delivery and backwards from delivery to

9.5.2 Vertical (to business objectives).

9.6 Explain the rationale and the approach to achieving requirements traceability.

BCS Practitioner Certificate in Requirements Engineering 2023
ISEB Practitioner test
Killexams : ISEB Practitioner test - BingNews Search results Killexams : ISEB Practitioner test - BingNews Killexams : Test Anxiety

An animated video about test anxiety that highlights the importance of mindfulness and writing practices to loosen worries from your mind to help boost your grade!

Meditation Music by Anatolie Antoniu & Marin Nicoarã | Graphic Animation by Koyote Sundance Meiners-Rios | Video & Audio by Thomas Molash

Practices to Decrease Test Anxiety

Write it Out!

  • Write it Out Audio (7:38)
  • Get rid of worries before the exam - A guided practice that clears out worries from the mind; research shows it has increased test performance by at least 5 points.

Walk Off Your Stress

  • Walk Off your Stress Audio (11:50)
  • Mindful walking helps to distract you from worrying and increase well-being as you are more present in the world around you rather than up in your head worrying about stuff that usually doesn’t happen.

Catch Your Breath

  • Catch Your Breath Audio (9:34)
  • This practice helps decrease the stress response so you can think more clearly and do better on your exam.

5 Minute Meditation

  • 5 Minute Meditation (7:20)
  • Research says 5 minutes of deep breathing will boost your exam scores, so chill out for a few minutes using this practice.

Find a Comfortable Rhythm

  • Find a Comfortable Rhythm Audio (6:10)
  • Paced breathing helps to distract the mind from worries, freeing up space in the brain to think about more important stuff.
Sat, 14 Apr 2018 12:05:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Happiness Test

Is your glass half-full or half-empty? On those days when nothing in your life seems to be going right, it can be really tough to see the silver lining among all those clouds. However, it's during these times when the ability to see the good in even the worst situations is so important. An optimistic attitude benefits not only your mental health, but your physical well-being as well. Take this test to see where you fall on the optimism/pessimism continuum.

This test is made up of two types of questions: scenarios and self-assessment. For each scenario, answer according to how you would most likely behave in a similar situation. For the self-assessment questions, indicate the extent to which you agree with the given statements. In order to receive the most accurate results, please answer each question as honestly as possible.

After finishing this test you will receive a FREE snapshot report with a summary evaluation and graph. You will then have the option to purchase the full results for $4.95

This test is intended for informational and entertainment purposes only. It is not a substitute for professional diagnosis or for the treatment of any health condition. If you would like to seek the advice of a licensed mental health professional you can search Psychology Today's directory here.

Sat, 17 Jun 2023 22:56:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Measuring Nurse Practitioner Productivity

Provider Measures of Productivity?

Because NPs work is typically paid as that of a health care provider, the productivity measures that are the basis of health care provider payment (physician productivity payment) influence NP reimbursement for services. Traditionally, physician productivity measures are based on a variety of factors including total gross charges, total net medical revenue, total cost, patient panel size, growth rate of patient base, hospital admissions, visits and consults, office hours, practice coverage, and CPT or procedural volume or number of cases (Cascardo, 2003). As for nurse practitioners, productivity comprises additional factors which for the most part can be a challenge to measure: time devoted to productive activities, efficiency of that time (patients seen and dollars made each day), procedures per encounter, appropriateness of that procedure or charge, motivation of the provider to see additional patients such as walk-in, etc. (Cascardo, 2003).

Cascardo (2003) describes a method to measure these challenges in terms of relative value per unit of service or relative value units (RVUs). RVUs were developed by the Center for Medicaid and Medicare Services (CMS) and used to determine compensation for services provided by the physician. In 1986, the Physician Payment Review Commission mandated the creation of a new resource-based physician fee schedule, with a goal of establishing a system that improved reimbursement for primary care services, was less procedure oriented, and controlled health care costs (Johnson & Newton, 2002). They outlined factors that determine providers' activities and include three components: RVUs, time the provider takes to do the work; RVUpe, practice expense to do the work; and RVUm, malpractice risk to do the work (Johnson & Newton, 2002). RVUs are updated annually by CMS and can be obtained from the CMS Web site. Cascardo (2003) compares three office visit CPT codes to show differences in their values as an effort to determine physician effort, efficiency, and compensation. These measures can translate to NP providers.

Table 2 shows how much time a health care provider is expected to spend with each office encounter/ each office CPT code. For example, the physician provider doesn't need to be present for an outpatient CPT code 99211, whereas the physician provider time spent is expanded for the outpatient CPT code 99215 because the activity or procedure requires more activity. Table 3 displays how RVUs are compiled for each CPT code based on amount of provider time spent. In this case, CPT code 99212 receives a total RVU of 0.06 and a 99215 receives a total RVU of 2.21.

As expected, low provider activities result in lower RVUs whereas moderate provider activity to high provider presence results in higher RVU value. The higher the RVU value the higher the reimbursement. But it is unclear whether provider generation of high RVUs is a sufficient measure of value to the organization. Because NPs practice in a wide array of settings, some non-reimbursable services may be essential to the maintenance of the practice (for example, staff management).

Tue, 22 Aug 2023 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Test Optional

Choosing Test-Optional at SCU

Santa Clara University is extending its “test-optional” policy for first-year and transfer students until 2024. Scores on the SAT or ACT are not required for students applying to Santa Clara University for the 2024 term. As a test-optional university, students still have the option to submit any standardized test score results they’ve received. A student who chooses not to submit standardized test scores will be at no disadvantage in our admission or merit scholarship review processes.

For the 2023 application cycle:

  • 36% of SCU applicants submitted a test
  • 41% of admitted students submitted a test

Where does an applicant select having ACT/SAT scores reviewed or not?

On the Common Application Supplement Questions for SCU, the following question will be required of all first-year applicants: Do you want your test scores considered?

Are other test scores like SAT II Subject Tests, AP exam scores, IB exam scores, A-levels exam scores, etc. required in the admission review process?

Santa Clara does not require submission of these scores for admission application evaluation. If students would like to report scores, they have the option to share scores through their Common Application.

How do we evaluate applications?

At Santa Clara University, we review applications holistically, meaning that we will review your application individually, taking into account your academic credentials as well as your personal qualities. Important required pieces of your application include your transcript, course rigor, unweighted GPA, extracurricular activities, Common App essay, supplemental questions, and demonstrated interest. Test scores are treated as optional information, similar to a resume or an additional letter of recommendation.

What if I’m applying for Fall 2025 or later?

Santa Clara University is still reviewing the test-optional policy for future years.

Can an applicant who is deferred or waitlisted change their testing choice?

An applicant with a deferred or Wait List decision will have the opportunity to submit supplemental information, including test scores, an updated transcript, letter of interest, or additional letters of recommendations. It will not be required or expected to submit test scores.

What should I know as an international student?

You still have the test-optional choice. All international applicants are required to demonstrate a minimum level of English language. You can view our Undergraduate English Proficiency website to see the several ways to demonstrate English proficiency in the application for admission, which include proficiency exams like IELTS, TOEFL, Duolingo or standardized tests like SAT or ACT.

Does Santa Clara Superscore?

Yes. Students who choose to submit their test scores have the option to submit multiple scores. SCU is interested in your best achievement, so sending us multiple tests, if available, allows us to see subsections regardless of test date or test type (ACT/SAT).

How does this affect merit scholarships and institutional financial aid awards?

It doesn’t! All students are reviewed for merit scholarships, whether they applied with or without a test score. About the top 15% of our applicants receive merit scholarships on the basis of a holistic review process. A student who chooses not to submit standardized test scores will be at no disadvantage in our merit scholarship review processes. It’s up to you.

Testing Deadlines

Students who choose to have their scores considered must take the exam by the appropriate application deadline:

  Early Action & Early Decision I Regular Decision & Early Decision II
Common Application & Supplement Deadline November 1 January 7
Last Accepted SAT Test Date October December
Last Accepted ACT Test Date September* December

 *We cannot ensure October ACT test results will reach our office in time for Early Action and Early Decision I review.

Reporting Test Scores

We accept the following options to complete the test scores requirement by the application deadline:

  • Self-report your scores in the Self-Reported Test Score form in the Application Status Portal
  • Send your official test scores from the testing agency

If you receive updated test results after submitting the Self-Reported Test Scores form, you can self-report these newer scores by filling out the form again.

Enrolling at SCU

If you are offered admission to Santa Clara University and choose to enroll, official test scores that match your self-reported scores will need to be received by your deposit deadline. In order for test scores to be considered official, they must be sent directly from College Board or ACT. Santa Clara University reserves the right to revoke admission if an applicant’s self-reported scores do not match their official score report.

For enrolling students who did not select to have test scores considered in the admission review process, SCU will ask for official scores after matriculation if scores are available. The scores will be used for assessment of the test optional program.

Fri, 17 Mar 2023 14:46:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : How to Test Air Quality in Your Home
how to test air quality in your home


Household pollutants can come from a variety of sources including the materials used in your home’s construction, and mold and mildew caused by poor ventilation. Clean air in the home can protect you from carcinogens, allergens, and harmful particulates. Even if you don’t suspect a problem, it’s a good idea to have some type of air quality monitor in the home. Threats like radon and carbon monoxide are colorless, odorless, and tasteless, and you’ll have no clue that there’s trouble until you’re already in the danger zone. The good news is that it’s fairly easy to conduct indoor air quality testing and monitoring yourself: All you need is a few key tools.

Signs of Poor Indoor Air Quality

The wide range of pollutants, particulates, and allergens that can affect indoor air make it difficult to create an all-inclusive list of poor indoor air quality indicators. However, there are circumstances and signs that could indicate poor air quality in your home, including:

  • Poor ventilation: Condensation on walls or windows, musty-smelling air, or areas where mold collects on walls suggests a ventilation issue.
  • Health problems: Respiratory or other health problems that develop after moving into a home and that subside after time spent away from home point toward an environmental issue in the home.
  • Unusual odors: If you notice unusual odors after a period of absence from home, pollutants or mold could be permeating the indoor air.
  • Older homes: Materials and construction methods used in older homes sometimes include materials known to emit harmful VOCs or pollutants. Outdated construction methods may also contribute to ventilation problems. That doesn’t mean that new homes can’t have issues with indoor air quality—it just means that poor indoor air quality is less likely in newer builds because they have to conform to modern building codes.

RELATED: Mold vs. Mildew: What’s the Difference?

Tools & Materials

Before You Begin

Not every home requires air quality testing for every potential particulate or pollutant. Often, the types of symptoms you experience and the age and location of the home can help you narrow down potential pollutants. Be sure to consult a doctor if you are experiencing health problems that you suspect are related to your home environment. A doctor can help identify and treat health issues related to exposure to mold, radon, and carbon monoxide.

STEP 1: Set up an indoor air quality monitor.

How is air quality measured? Some monitors use electrochemical sensors that detect toxins while others estimate particulate matter (PM) based on the particulates that pass in front of a laser. It depends on the type of monitor you have and what it’s designed to detect.

Air quality testing can detect harmful odorless gasses like carbon monoxide and radon. Depending on the model, they may also detect volatile organic compounds (VOCs) or pollutants such as airborne particulate matter. More advanced indoor air quality monitors may also measure the room’s humidity and temperature.

Choose a monitor that detects the specific pollutants that concern you. For example, if you live in an area with high air pollution, you’re more likely to need a model that detects particulate matter. Those who live in older homes may want to get a model that detects radon and carbon monoxide (though either can be present in newer homes, too).

Our Recommendation: Temptop M10 Air Quality Monitor – Get it at Amazon for $92.99
This portable air quality monitor’s sensors track airborne particulate matter, VOCs, and formaldehyde with a simple display and interface.

STEP 2: Test for mold.

Mold tests come in various formats, including swabs, tape strips, air pumps, and petri dish tests. Swabs and tape strip tests collect potential contaminants from a surface like a counter or tabletop. The results from a swab test come within a few minutes, though you may not know the exact type of mold.

Tape strips, air pumps, and petri dish tests require the collected trial be sent to a lab for analysis. While these tests are more accurate than a simple swab test, it can take anywhere from a few days to a few weeks to get the results. Additionally, petri dish tests can get contaminated from other particles in the air. Tape strips and swabs can also get contaminated by other particles on the tested surface.

Air pumps offer a closed system that’s less likely to get contaminated, though they tend to cost more. Set the mold test up near the home’s ventilation or in the area where you suspect mold or a contaminant. However, always follow the directions on the test kit for the best results.

Our Recommendation: Seeml Labs DIY Mold 3 Test Kit – Get it at Amazon for $32.99 
This kit comes with three tests (one swab and two tape strips), which offer same-day (that the results arrive) results from a lab.

RELATED: How to Test for Mold

STEP 3: Perform a radon test at home.

Radon gas naturally occurs as a byproduct of the breakdown of the uranium found in certain rocks and soil. The gas can seep its way into a home through the foundation until it reaches harmful levels.

Radon tests detect levels of the gas over time. Short-term tests take 90 days or less, while long-term tests can take several months. The results from these tests are usually interpreted by a lab. Continuous tests monitor radon levels at all times and alert you if high levels of radon are detected.

Depending on the type of radon test you use, the testing process may require installing detection sheets or other materials in an area suggested by the manufacturer. The key is to follow the instructions on the test.

Our Recommendation: Airthings 2989 View Radon – Get it at Amazon for $199.99
This continuous, battery- or USB-operated radon monitor measures indoor radon levels, temperature, and humidity and integrates with the Airthings mobile app to provide the user remote alerts.

STEP 4: Install carbon monoxide detectors on every level of your home.

Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, poisonous gas that causes confusion, dizziness, and headaches before it causes a loss of consciousness and death. Many smoke detectors these days are combination smoke and carbon monoxide detectors. It’s critically important to have both types of detectors in your home, so you’ll want to make sure that your home safety plan monitors both smoke and carbon monoxide.

Carbon monoxide detectors should be placed outside bedrooms, and anywhere in the house you’d place a smoke detectors. There should be a carbon monoxide detector on each level of the home and near sleeping areas. Carbon monoxide rises with air, so the detector should be placed about 5 feet off the floor on a wall or on the ceiling. Do not put them near a fireplace or open flame.

Our Recommendation: Kidde Nighthawk Carbon Monoxide Detector – Get it at Amazon for $34.99
Kidde’s Nighthawk is a reliable, affordable carbon monoxide detector that sounds when CO levels reach unhealthy levels. We like that it has a digital display and multiple power sources, including battery backup, so it will continue functioning during a power outage.

RELATED: 8 Myths About Indoor Air Quality and the Facts You Need to Breathe Easy

Tips for Improving Indoor Air Quality

Home air quality monitoring devices will alert you if pollutants reach dangerous levels. However, there are many things you can do to prevent levels from reaching dangerous levels in the first place.

• Check your HVAC system to make sure it’s functioning at peak efficiency.

• Increase the airflow in your home by periodically opening the windows and using fans to circulate the air.

• Stay on top of mold removal and prevention around the home. If you find mold, try scrubbing it with a mold-killing cleaner like bleach or borax. For delicate surfaces, you can use dish soap or diluted white vinegar. Unfortunately, you may not be able to remove mold from porous surfaces, and they may need to be replaced.

Carbon monoxide is incredibly dangerous. If you suspect that there’s carbon monoxide in your home in high or low doses, leave at once. Open windows and doors, and get outside into the fresh air. Contact the proper authorities to get you and the home checked for carbon monoxide poisoning.

Prices in this article are accurate as of August 3, 2023.

Sun, 20 Aug 2023 11:50:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : How We Test Everything We Review

PCMag’s core mission has been to help you make better buying decisions and get more from technology by delivering independent reviews of the latest products and services. We've been testing, rating, and recommending technology products based on lab testing for more than 40 years. The rigorous, repeatable testing of more than 1,500 products each year is what gives us the best handle on the full range of the market, and has always set us apart from our competitors.

Shortly after PC Magazine was born in 1982, PC Labs, a mammoth testing lab in New York City, was built. It has taken a variety of forms over the decades, including a 1990s stint associated with Ziff Davis Benchmark Operations (ZDBOp), a division of PCMag’s then-privately held mother company Ziff Davis. In its time, ZDBOp was a key player in the computing industry, devoted to advances in the art of benchmarking and creating tools for the industry to use in assessing PC performance. This was at a time when the early waves of PC clones had come roaring through the market, and the templates for personal computing as we know it today were being cut.

How We Test Displays

(Photo: Tony Hoffman)

PC Labs has housed, at times, more than 30 technology testers sitting together in that giant temperature-controlled room complete with anti-static flooring, dozens of benches with test beds, running benchmarks on desktops, laptops, PC peripherals and components, so that writers and editors could craft reviews to print in a twice-monthly magazine.

As the technology landscape has evolved, so has our testing. Now, in addition to all forms of PC hardware and software, we cover the full range of consumer technology including categories like smart home devices, digital health and fitness gear, and electric vehicles, all of which require out-of-lab testing. The core of PC Labs still remains in our New York offices, but our testing expertise is far more diffuse, spread across a team of more than 50 analysts, editors, reporters, and contributors across the United States and overseas.

Combined, PC Labs’ on-staff analysts and key contributors can claim, conservatively, more than 600 years of combined experience in their fields. (Add them all together, and you're contemporary with the Middle Ages, the Byzantine empire, and the Incas.) How much genuine testing is that? To take just a simple example: We rate and review about 200 laptops and desktops each year, and each gets a dozen or more benchmark tests, that translates to around 2,500 annual tests run on PCs alone. Data for analysis and product comparisons is not in short supply.

How We Test Robot Vacuums

(Photo: Angela Moscaritolo)

Benchmarks & Beyond: Our Process

When evaluating products, repeatable, defensible benchmark and experiential testing is at the core of what we do. Wherever feasible, these processes are based on step-by-step scripts, exhaustively vetted for meaningful, consistent results. Sometimes, such as in cases of display testing, we use advanced, industry-standard measuring equipment to supplement our findings. In addition, some testing categories are anchored by testbed computers that we use over and over for consistency of results. (They are refreshed, and key products are retested on the new testbeds, when industry changes demand it.)

How We Test SSDs

(Photo: Molly Flores)

Likewise, our scripts are often revised to match current trends in consumer/business PCs and related gear, and follow changes in core technology. When a script changes, products are only directly compared with other products tested on the same script, under the same conditions, for comparability of results.

How We Test Fitness Trackers

(Photo: Angela Moscaritolo)

Some of our benchmarking tools are industry standards. For PC testing, for example, the core of our benchmark suite is based on highly regarded tools from Underwriters’ Lab (UL, formerly Futuremark), supplemented heavily by repeatable, usage-representative tests from a host of other sources. In some cases, these tests are internally derived and designed.

Testing in the Real World

Benchmarks and performance numbers only take you so far in finding the right technology. It's important to evaluate factors like value, features, and what it's actually like to use that camera phone in a dim restaurant, wire that video doorbell, or configure that VPN. Luckily, our reviewers rate more products than anyone else, so they're uniquely positioned to provide you the full scoop, along with a close look at the competition so you can easily compare all the products you're considering.

How We Test Displays

(Photo: Zlata Ivleva)

A Note About Ethics

We believe it's essential for our audience to understand how our company earns money. The following statement is at the top of every story on our site:

PCMag reviews products independently, but we may earn affiliate commissions from buying links on this page.

The editorial team, however, does not handle affiliate commissions in any way. Our reviewers do not know how a particular story is monetized and do not receive any of the commission earned. Reviewers are paid for their work and do not earn bonuses. Sponsored articles exist on this website, but are disclosed as such.

Companies, even those with affiliate relationships with PCMag, or are owned by our parent company do not have any input into review scores or outcomes, and our writers have a collective bargaining agreement that disallows pay-for-play writing. For more, read our editorial mission statement.

The variety of lab and real world testing processes requires an article for each major category we cover, just to scratch the surface of what we do, day in and day out. Scan below for more detailed dives by category into how we test everything we review.

PCs & Core Components

How We Test Laptops

(Photo: Molly Flores)

How We Test Laptops

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Tue, 31 May 2022 18:15:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : At-home COVID test kits: Where to buy and how to use them in 2023

The COVID-19 pandemic is like a roller coaster. One minute we see the light at the end of the tunnel and the next thing we know, more cases are on the rise.

The good news? It’s not 2020 anymore. Instead of waiting on testing center lines for hours on end, people have turned primarily to at-home COVID tests that they can use in the comfort of their own homes.

According to the CDC, COVID-19 self-tests — also known as at-home tests or over-the-counter (OTC) tests — are one of many risk-reduction measures, along with vaccinationmasking and physical distancing, that protects you and others from the spread of COVID-19, even though it’s no longer mandated in most regions.

While at-home covid tests were nearly impossible to find online or in stores at many points in time over the last few years, many brands have replenished their stock. Ahead, get all the info on how to use at-home COVID-19 tests, how accurate they are and where you can buy them online.

How to use at-home COVID-19 tests

Of course, read the complete manufacturer’s instructions for use before starting the test and make sure you talk to a healthcare provider if you have questions about the test or your results. Here are general steps to take a self-test, according to the CDC.

  • Wash your hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds.
  • Open the box and follow the instructions included with the self-test to collect your own nasal or saliva specimen. (If you don’t collect the specimens as directed, your test results may be incorrect.)
  • Perform the steps in the order that they are listed. Some manufacturers may also provide quick reference guides or instructional videos.
  • Collect either a nasal specimen or saliva specimen, depending on the self-test being used.
  • Next, wait to see what result comes back. Generally, this takes 15 minutes.

Accuracy of at-home COVID tests

Invalid test results are rare but can occur. Chief Infection Control Officer Roy Chemaly, M.D. at the University of Texas MD Cancer Center said that “the tests are only accurate 80% of the time, and sometimes less.”

Sometimes invalid results or an error can show on the test device. Invalid results or an error can occur for many reasons — your specimen may not have been collected correctly, or the test may have malfunctioned.

Due to the current infection rate of the coronavirus being so high, many professionals suggest retesting with a PCR test if you have symptoms and test negative using an at-home antigen test as it could be a false negative.

A few things to note:

  • Select at-home covid tests are FSA and HSA-approved.
  • The tests listed in this article go in and out of stock often so make sure to check back regularly if some aren’t available at this given time.

BinaxNOW COVID‐19 Antigen Self Test (2 Count)

Get your test results in 15 minutes or less with a simple nasal swab in the comfort and convenience of your home. BinaxNOW COVID-19 Antigen Self Test is available under FDA Emergency Use Authorization.

QuickVue At-Home COVID-19 Test

This simple at-home test is authorized for non-prescriptive home use with self-collected direct anterior nasal (NS) swab specimens from individuals aged 14 and older, and with adult-collected anterior NS samples from those 2 years or older.

It’s most effective within six days of symptoms or 24 to 48 hours after suspected exposure.


The FlowFlex Covid-19 Antigen Home Test is selling for as low as $6, an accurate, easy to use and quick-result option to buy online.

This FDA-authorized Antigen test requires only one test to get results in 15 minutes using a nasal swab.

On/Go At-Home COVID-19 Rapid Antigen Self-Test

If you work best with technology, On/Go is the COVID-19 self-test for you. This kit gives you 95% accurate results in just 10 minutes using the companion mobile app, which guides you through each step of the process — from trial collection to results.

Image of COVID test in orange box.

This product comes with two rapid antigen tests that are simple to use.

Prepare the testing materials, collect and process the sample, then receive your results in just 15 minutes.

InteliSwab™ COVID-19 Rapid Antigen Test

This test requires less than one minute of hands-on time. InteliSwab has received FDA Emergency Use Authorization for self-testing. You do not need to ship samples to a lab or get a prescription from your healthcare provider. Get your result in 30 minutes.

Image of covid test in blue box.

The Ellume COVID-19 test requires you to download the Ellume COVID Test App to your smartphone. Next, answer a few questions and watch the informational video. After that, you’ll be all set to perform the easy-to-use test and receive results in 15 minutes.

Celltrion DiaTrust COVID-19 Ag Home Test

Celltrion DiaTrust COVID-19 Ag Home Test is an FDA EUA-authorized COVID-19 rapid antigen at-home testing kit. Self-test in the comfort of your own home, and get the relief you need in just 15 minutes.

Each kit contains supplies for two tests: swabs, test devices, test tubes (extraction buffer), filter caps, and an Instructions for Use manual. Test tubes and filter caps for two tests are enclosed in one inner package.

Pixel by LabCorp COVID-19 Test

If you want a test that’s even more reliable but you don’t want to leave the comfort of your home, an at-home PCR test is the way to go. The Pixel by LabCorp kit is a great option that gets you results within 1-2 business days (on average) after receiving your nasal swap trial via FedEx.

BOSON Rapid SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Test (2 Test-Pack)

The BOSON Rapid SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Test (2-Test Pack) is an easy-to-use at-home test where you’ll receive results in 15 minutes. Each kit contains two tests and is recommended for ages 14 and up. More, you’ll enjoy its convenience and ability to skip the lab.

Check out the New York Post Shopping section for more content.

Wed, 12 Jan 2022 03:40:00 -0600 en-US text/html
Killexams : Test-Optional Policy 2023-24

Learn more about our test-optional policy:

Can I switch my testing plan after submitting my Common Application?

Students who submit standardized test results to Boston College and indicate on their applications that they wish to have scores considered will be unable to switch their application to test-optional at a later point in time. Once scores become part of a student's file, they cannot be removed.

Students who apply as test-optional candidates and later wish to have the Admission Committee consider their standardized test results may request to do so in writing at For full consideration, students should contact us directly as close to our deadlines as possible.

Does this policy apply to international students?

Yes. International students are still required to demonstrate English language proficiency via TOEFL, IELTS, or Duoligo English Test results. This English language proficiency requirement may be waived for students who speak English as their native language, have attended a US high school for at least three years in a non-ESOL curriculum, or submit standardized test results including scores of 650 or greater on the SAT EBRW or 29 or greater on the ACT English section. Learn more here.

Does this policy apply to home-schooled students?

Yes. However, because the Admission Committee has little context in which to evaluate home-schooled students’ academic results, standardized test results are extremely helpful to the Admission Committee. Home-schooled applicants are strongly encouraged to submit standardized test scores that allow us to put their applications in context with others in our pool. Other quantitative measures that students may also benefit from submitting include AP exam scores and/or college coursework. Official college transcripts should be submitted for all college courses completed.

Does this policy apply to athletic recruits?

Yes. The NCAA has removed the test score requirement for athletic eligibility in Division I sports. Recruited athletes are responsible for ensuring their NCAA eligibility.

Thu, 30 Jul 2020 14:45:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : MSN Nurse Practitioner Pathway

Graduates of the MSN Pediatric Acute Care Nurse Practitioner (PNP-AC) Specialty are prepared for advanced nursing practice across the continuum of care settings with populations of infants, children and adolescents. As advanced acute care specialists, Pediatric Acute Care Nurse Practitioners assess, diagnose and manage acute and chronic complex health problems.

To best accommodate the needs of the nursing workforce, the curriculum is offered via a part-time program of study delivered through a distance accessible format that combines synchronous online classes with on-campus intensives, where students participate in planned laboratory and simulation experiences designed to promote mastery of essential skill sets.

The curriculum consists of 45 credit hours of course work, with 35 credit hours of didactic coursework and 10 credit hours of clinical practica under the supervision of pediatric acute care advanced practice providers, that is completed in six or seven successive semesters depending on semester of entry.

Students applying to the Pediatric Acute Care Nurse Practitioner specialty track are encouraged to have at least two of the required reference letters from supervisors or providers in the pediatric unit that can attest to the individual's experience as an RN and the applicant's knowledge, judgment, and skills specific to pediatric patient care.

For those interested in applying to the Pediatric Acute Care Nurse Practitioner track, you will be required to have at least one year of full-time RN experience engaged in the direct care of a pediatric population at the start of the first semester of the program (The pediatric population is generally cared for in pediatric urgent cares, pediatric emergency departments, pediatric specialty clinics, pediatric inpatient floors, pediatric intermediate care units, and/or pediatric critical care units).

For more information, contact:

Sample Program of Study1,2

Year 1
Semester Course Title Credit Hours
1 NUR 737 Interprofessional Leadership and Role Development for Practice Excellence 3
NUR 612 Advanced Pathophysiology 3
2 NUR 735 Population Health in Advanced Practice Nursing 3
NUR 613 Pharmacology and Therapeutics 3
3 NUR 729 Evidence-Based Practice Design and Translation 3
NUR 614 Assessment and Diagnostic Reasoning for Advanced Nursing Practice 3
NCC 618 Focus on Advanced Nursing Practice Specialization 3
Year 2
Semester Course Title Credit Hours
4 NCC 621 Advanced Pediatric Nursing I - Acute Care 5
NCC 685 Practicum I: Pediatric Nurse Practitioner - Acute Care 3
5 NCC 622 Advanced Pediatric Nursing II - Acute Care 4
NCC 686 Practicum II: Pediatric Nurse Practitioner - Acute Care 3
6 NCC 623 Advanced Pediatric Nursing III - Acute Care 5
NCC 692 Practicum III: Pediatric Nurse Practitioner - Acute Care 4
Total Credit Hours 45

1Program of Study is subject to change.
2Program of Study varies depending on semester of admission. Students admitted in a summer semester complete coursework over 7 semesters and fall semester over 6 semesters.

Sun, 16 Aug 2020 21:45:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Anxiety Test

Everybody worries or gets the odd case of butterflies in the stomach. But are you missing out on opportunities and happiness because of fears and worries? Is anxiety interfering with your life? While moderate anxiety can be limiting, severe anxiety can be crippling. Anxiety currently afflicts more than 20 million Americans, making it the most common mental illness in the US. Find out if you're too anxious with this anxiety test. It will determine whether you should consider seeking help, and to what degree. For each statement in the questionnaire, please indicate how often you feel that way.

After finishing this test you will receive a FREE snapshot report with a summary evaluation and graph. You will then have the option to purchase the full results for $6.95

This test is intended for informational and entertainment purposes only. It is not a substitute for professional diagnosis or for the treatment of any health condition. If you would like to seek the advice of a licensed mental health professional you can search Psychology Today's directory here.

Sun, 18 Jun 2023 00:31:00 -0500 en-US text/html
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