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Exam Code: NE-BC Practice test 2022 by Killexams.com team
NE-BC ANCC Nurse Executive Certification

Exam : NE-BC
Exam Name : ANCC Nurse Executive Certification
Number of Questions : 175
Scored Questions : 150
Unscored Questions : 25

Category Domains of Practice No. of Questions Percent
I Structures and Processes 27 18%
II Professional Practice 55 37%
III Leadership 33 22%
IV Knowledge Management 35 23%
Total 150 100%

There are 175 questions on this examination. Of these, 150 are scored questions and 25 are pretest questions that are not scored. Pretest questions are used to determine how well these questions will perform before they are used on the scored portion of the examination. The pretest questions cannot be distinguished from those that will be scored, so it is important for a candidate to answer all questions. A candidate's score, however, is based solely on the 150 scored questions. Performance on pretest questions does not affect a candidate's score.

I. Structures and Processes (18%)
A. Human Capital Management
Knowledge of:
1. Federal and state laws (e.g., Family and Medical Leave Act [FMLA], American with Disabilities Act [ADA], Fair Labor Standards Act [FLSA], wage and hour laws, equal employment opportunities, Occupational Safety and Health Administration [OSHA],
workers compensation)
2. Labor relations (e.g., collective bargaining, contract negotiations, grievances and arbitrations, National Labor Relations Board [NLRB])
3. Resource utilization (e.g., cross training, job descriptions )
4. Principles associated with human resources (e.g., employee assistance and counseling, compensation, benefits, coaching, performance management)
5. Organizational culture (e.g., just culture, transparency)
6. Organizational structure (e.g., chain of command, organizational chart, span of control)
Skills in:
7. Participating in developing and modifying administrative policies and procedures
8. Implementing and enforcing administrative policies and procedures (e.g., monitoring compliance)
9. Providing feedback on effectiveness of administrative policies and procedures
10. Evaluating the effectiveness of roles based on changing needs in the health care environment (e.g., new or expanded job descriptions, professional development)
B. Financial Management
Knowledge of:
1. Basic financial and budgeting principles (e.g., revenue cycle, supply and labor expenses, productivity, depreciation, return on investment [ROI], cost-benefit analysis)
2. Reimbursement methods (e.g., payor systems, pay for performance, payment bundling, value-based purchasing)
3. Contractual agreements (e.g., vendors, materials, staffing)
4. Principles of staffing workload (e.g., full-time equivalents [FTE], hours per patient day, skill mix)
Skills in:
5. Developing a budget (e.g., operational, capital)
6. Analyzing variances and managing a budget (e.g., operational, capital)
7. Efficient resource utilization (e.g., contractual agreements, outsourcing)
8. Determining appropriate staffing workload
C. Health and Public Policy
Knowledge of:
1. Legal issues (e.g., fraud, whistle-blowing, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act [HIPAA], corporate compliance, electronic access and security, harassment, malpractice, negligence)
2. Consumer-driven health care (e.g., public reporting, Community Health Needs Assessment [CHNA], Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems [HCAHPS], Healthgrades)
3. Emergency planning and response
4. Planning and responding to internal and external disasters
5. Planning and responding to health and public policy issues
6. Assessing, addressing, and preventing legal issues (e.g., violations, fraud, whistleblowing, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act [HIPAA], corporate compliance, electronic access and security, harassment)

II. Professional Practice (37%)
A. Care Management/Delivery
Knowledge of:
1. Health care delivery models and settings (e.g., accountable care organization [ACO], patient-centered medical home [PCMH], nurse-led clinic, telehealth, e-health, inpatient, ambulatory care, home health, rehabilitation, etc.)
2. Laws, regulations, and accrediting bodies (e.g., The Joint Commission, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Nurse Practice Act)
3. Standards of nursing practice (e.g., clinical practice guidelines, clinical pathways, ANA Scope and Standards of Practice, Nurse Practice Act)
Skills in:
4. Establishing staffing models (e.g., primary care nursing, team nursing, nurse-patient ratios, skill mix, acuity)
5. Designing workflows based on care delivery model and population served (e.g., patient centered medical home [PCMH], interdisciplinary team, case management, disease management, throughput, staffing assignment and scheduling)
6. Developing policies and procedures that ensure regulatory compliance with professional standards and organizational integrity
B. Professional Practice Environment and Models
Knowledge of:
1. Professional practice models
2. Role delineation (e.g., credentialing, privileging, certification)
3. Professional practice standards (e.g., ANA Scope and Standards of Practice, Nurses Bill of Rights, Nurse Practice Act)
4. Employee performance feedback (e.g., coaching, performance appraisal, Just Culture)
Skills in:
5. Developing clinical staff (e.g., orientation, continuing education, competency validation, performance appraisal, peer review, mentoring, planning, lifelong learning)
6. Creating a professional environment for empowered decision making (e.g., shared governance, staff accountability, critical thinking, civility)
7. Recruiting, recognizing, and retaining staff
8. Providing internal and external customer service (including service recovery)
9. Creating a vision for professional nursing practice that promotes patient and family centered care
C. Communication
Knowledge of:
1. Communication principles (e.g., active listening, reflective communication, two-way communication, interviewing)
2. Communication styles (e.g., persuasive, assertive, passive, aggressive, passiveaggressive)
3. Negotiation concepts and strategies (e.g., compromising, collaborating, win-win)
4. Communication processes that support safe patient care (e.g., documentation, handoffs or hand-overs, bedside reporting, incident reporting, reporting sentinel events)
Skills in:
5. Communicating using verbal (e.g., oral and written) and nonverbal methods (e.g., body language, eye contact, active listening)
6. Facilitating collaboration to achieve optimal outcomes (e.g., team building, group dynamics, leveraging diversity)
7. Selecting the appropriate communication method for the audience and situation (e.g., email, role playing, presentation, reports, staff meeting, board meeting, one-on-one conversation, patient/family council, consumer feedback)
8. Conflict management

III. Leadership (22%)
A. Leadership Effectiveness
Knowledge of:
1. Key elements of a healthy work environment
2. Leadership concepts, principles, and styles (e.g., pervasive leadership, servant leadership, situational leadership, appreciative inquiry, culture of transparency, change management theories)
3. Coaching, mentoring, and precepting
4. Emotional intelligence
5. Sources of influence and power
Skills in:
6. Self reflection and personal leadership evaluation
7. Integrating diversity and sensitivity into the work environment
8. Change management
9. Building effective relationships through listening, reflecting, presence, communication, and networking
10. Succession planning
11. Creating an environment to engage and empower employees
B. Strategic Visioning and Planning
Knowledge of:
1. Strategic planning principles (e.g., alignment of nursings strategic plan with the organizational plan, SWOT analysis, components of strategic planning)
2. New program development (e.g., proposals, pro forma, business plans, marketing)
3. Trends that effect nursing practice and the healthcare environment
4. Communicating and building consensus and support for the strategic plan
5. Establishing baselines for processes (i.e., measuring current performance)
6. Evaluating processes and outcome measures over time
7. Project management to support/achieve the strategic plan (e.g., planning, implementing, and monitoring action plans)
C. Ethics and Advocacy
Knowledge of:
1. Ethical principles
2. Business ethics (e.g., corporate compliance, privacy)
3. ANAs Code of Ethics
4. Patients Bill of Rights
Skills in:
5. Advocating for patients (e.g., patient rights, access, and safety)
6. Advocating for staff (e.g., healthy work environment, equipment, staffing)
7. Advocating for the nursing profession (e.g., professional organizations, promoting education, certification, legislative influence)

IV. Knowledge Management (23%)
A. Quality Monitoring and Improvement
Knowledge of:
1. Systems theory
2. Continuous performance improvement (The Plan-Do-Study-Act [PDSA] Cycle, Lean, root cause analysis, tracer methodology)
3. Process and outcome measures (e.g., clinical, financial, safety, patient satisfaction, employee satisfaction)
4. Culture of safety (e.g., risk management, employee engagement, employee safety technologies [patient lifts], patient safety technologies [bar coding])
Skills in:
5. Creating a culture of continuous performance improvement
6. Translating data into information (including use of internal and external benchmarks), and disseminating it at various levels within the organization
7. Evaluating and prioritizing outcomes of care delivery (e.g., nurse sensitive indicators, ORYX indicators, National Patient Safety Goals, core measures)
8. Selecting the appropriate continuous performance improvement technique
9. Action planning to address identified quality issues
B. Evidence-based Practice and Research
Knowledge of:
1. Institutional Review Board (IRB) requirements (e.g., protection of human research subjects)
2. Research and evidence-based practice techniques (e.g., literature review, developing research questions, study methods and design, data management, levels of evidence)
3. Distinguish between performance improvement, evidence-based practice, and research
4. Creating a culture and advocating for resources that support research and scholarly inquiry (e.g., journal club, grant writing, research councils, research participation)
5. Communicating research and evidence-based findings to internal and external stakeholders
6. Incorporating evidence into policies, standards, procedures and guidelines
7. Evaluating and incorporating new knowledge and published research findings into practice
C. Innovation
Knowledge of:
1. Clinical practice innovation
2. Leadership practice innovation
Skills in:
3. Creating a culture that values, encourages, and recognizes new and innovative ideas that benefit the patient, family, organization, or community
4. Developing a framework for implementing innovations (e.g., small tests of change, pilot studies)
5. Leveraging diversity to encourage new and innovative ideas or new patterns of thinking
6. Evaluating and applying technology to support innovation

ANCC Nurse Executive Certification
Medical Certification approach
Killexams : Medical Certification approach - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/NE-BC Search results Killexams : Medical Certification approach - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/NE-BC https://killexams.com/exam_list/Medical Killexams : ISSA LAUNCHES HEALTH COACH CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS

Effectively Escalating its Education Portfolio to Encompass the $4.7 Billion Health and Wellness Industry

PHOENIX, Oct. 10, 2022 /PRNewswire/ -- The International Sports Sciences Association (ISSA), a world leader in the personal training certification industry, greatly expands its offering to encompass the health and wellness sector with the launch of the ISSA Health Coach Certification.

The certification is comprised of three custom Health Coaching Programs –  with specific focuses on Nutrition, Transformation, or Online Coaching. Each program offers distinctive health and wellness specifications. The programs offer an efficient and comprehensive pathway toward a rewarding career in an industry projected to reach $7 trillion by 2025.

"COVID taught us all: Health is Wealth," said ISSA's CEO, Andrew Wyant. "The increased risks of obesity and controllable diseases have never been clearer. Unfortunately, there's no single approach that works for everyone. That's why Health Coaches are emerging as an important part of promoting healthier living. Health Coaches can fill the gaps between the exercise, nutrition and medical professionals to change behaviors and get lasting results."

ISSA's Health Coach Programs provide thorough training in cognitive behavior approaches, goal setting, psychology skills, and chronic health conditions. Students acquire the skills necessary to assess client needs and develop individualized wellness plans that meet their unique goals.

Further, ISSA Health Coach Programs eradicate common challenges for those interested in getting into the field. The certification offers three very clear career paths to eliminate the guesswork, and students can move through the courses at their own pace.

"It took a pandemic to fully understand the importance of wellness. Historically, health clubs and fitness professionals were more focused on traditional exercise," said Dan Duran, Vice President of Content and Partnerships. "The miss was incorporating overall lifestyle changes. Being prepared to holistically help clients achieve better health and wellness with the added value of nutrition, behavior change, recovery and lifestyle change is the future of coaching. Certified health coaches and clubs now have the ability to grow their businesses with these offerings. If they don't, clients will be looking elsewhere for those services. Be the one-stop solution!"

Each program includes the core Health Coaching basics course and adds three health & wellness specializations. This format allows students to choose their area of passion and is a comprehensive approach to addressing the various areas of wellness that clients require today.

This certification is ideal for coaches seeking to enhance their offering and evolve their career in a highly growth-centric industry, or for anyone looking to embark on a lucrative and fulfilling occupation helping to create holistic, healthy lifestyles for others.

About the International Sports Sciences Association

The International Sports Sciences Association (ISSA) is a global leader in the personal training certification industry. For more than 30 years, ISSA has been committed to providing innovative and science-based fitness education that creates a pathway for people to pursue their passion. In addition to their Personal Training Certification, ISSA offers 24 fitness specializations, including senior fitness, exercise therapy, and corrective exercise. To date, ISSA has educated more than 400,000 students across 174 countries, all while creating additional opportunities to promote a healthier world: www.ISSAonline.com.

Media Contact:
Colleen Reddington 
creddington@issaonline.com

Cision

View original content:https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/issa-launches-health-coach-certification-programs-301645048.html

SOURCE ISSA

Mon, 10 Oct 2022 06:17:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.yahoo.com/now/issa-launches-health-coach-certification-181700634.html
Killexams : New CPT Code Empowers Medical Professionals to Apply Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF) to Treat Cavities

This is a major milestone in advancing an integrated approach to oral health equity and expanding access to person-centered care.

Last month, the American Medical Association (AMA) approved a new category III CPT code for the application of silver diamine fluoride (SDF) by medical teams to arrest dental decay without a dental filling. The addition of this code is a milestone in improving access to dental care and, ultimately, helping more people achieve better oral health.

Previously only dental care providers could apply SDF, but now primary care team members will be able to apply SDF to treat cavities and be reimbursed for it. The CPT code approval for SDF will benefit patients by providing many new points of access for treating tooth decay.

"To achieve oral health equity, we need the participation of the entire health system," said Myechia Minter-Jordan, MD, MBA, president and CEO of CareQuest Institute for Oral Health. "The inclusion of a new CPT code for medical professionals to offer critical non-invasive therapeutic oral health care to their patients is a key step toward a more accessible, equitable, and integrated health system that meets the needs of everyone."

SDF is a brush-on liquid that stops cavities by strengthening affected tooth structures and keeping bacteria from growing on them. It prevents dental decay from progressing and spreading to other teeth. Unlike traditional treatments such as drilling and filling a cavity, SDF is quick, painless, and does not require local anesthesia or sedation.

"Accompanied by a bolstering of Medicaid medical program benefits and coverage by commercial carriers, physicians and other qualified health professionals can finally help tame the scourge of tooth decay using a simple, inexpensive clinical strategy," said Peter Milgrom, DDS, Member of Advantage Silver Dental Arrest, LLC and advocate for the approval of the SDF code. "This change should also serve as a guidepost along the road to the long sought, and badly needed, Medicare dental benefit that could help countless more millions of people in the US."

Tooth decay is the most common noncommunicable disease worldwide and can lead to serious health problems, including brain or heart infections, if left untreated. Now, medical teams are empowered to administer SDF as a tool to impact the overall health of their patients, especially those at higher risk of dental disease and lower access to regular dental care including those living in poverty, minority populations, and those living in dental "deserts" or health professional shortage areas.

The code proposal was supported by a diverse group of dental and medical care professionals and advocates including The American Dental Association (ADA), American Dental Hygienists Association (ADHA), National Dental Association (NDA), Society of American Indian Dentists, Children's Health Alliance of Wisconsin, National Coalition of Dentists for Health Equity, NorthWest Health Law Advocates, Community Catalyst, and the Center for Medicare Advocacy.

"Medical and public health professionals care for children and adults with tooth decay who cannot get care from a dentist," said Karen Sokal-Gutierrez, MD, MPH, clinical professor at UC Berkeley and fellow of the American Academy of Pediatrics. "This initiative offers us a pathway to get training and support to join the oral health care team and provide effective, safe, and fear-free treatment to stop tooth decay. It's a critical opportunity to expand access to care and Improve health, well-being and equity."

The newly approved CPT code is expected to be inputted into code sets by Electronic Health Records (EHR) vendors in July 2023. CareQuest Institute will partner with Smiles for Life Oral Health to develop training and educational materials on dental cavities identification and SDF application for medical professionals.

About CareQuest Institute for Oral Health®
CareQuest Institute for Oral Health® is a national nonprofit championing a more equitable future where every person can reach their full potential through excellent health. We do this through our work in grantmaking, research, health improvement programs, policy and advocacy, and education as well as our leadership in dental benefits and innovation advancements. We collaborate with thought leaders, health care providers, patients, and local, state, and federal stakeholders, to accelerate oral health care transformation and create a system designed for everyone. To learn more, visit carequest.org and follow us on Twitter, LinkedIn, Facebook, and Instagram.

© 2022 Benzinga.com. Benzinga does not provide investment advice. All rights reserved.

Mon, 17 Oct 2022 04:12:00 -0500 text/html https://www.benzinga.com/pressreleases/22/10/b29292346/new-cpt-code-empowers-medical-professionals-to-apply-silver-diamine-fluoride-sdf-to-treat-cavities
Killexams : Hazelden Betty Ford ‘evolves,’ encouraging skills-based approach to family support

Joseph Lee, president and CEO of Hazelden Betty Ford Foundation, knows better than anyone how addiction tears families apart. Because of that, he’s decided to shift his organization’s focus to a different way of supporting the loved ones of people with substance use disorder, one that’s focused on knitting families back together.

Starting this fall, the Center City-based addiction treatment giant will begin to emphasize a program called Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) that helps family members build skills that move beyond terms like “enabling” and “tough love,” instead helping them learn to help their loved one without confrontation, detachment or having to choose between impossible extremes.

“We want to help more people and we want to help them have better outcomes,” Lee said. “One thing we know is when family members become engaged in the solution, people do better in treatment and beyond.”

The CRAFT approach to family education and support is a shift from a more confrontational model, where families are encouraged to “detach with love,” so that the alcoholic in their lives can learn from their own mistakes. While this approach remains at the core of Hazelden Betty Ford’s history and much of its programming, Lee said that it is also important for the organization to grow and adapt to serve the needs of all families and individuals.

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“There has to be an evolution in the types of services we provide,” he said.

While he believes that healing can be found in peer-based groups, Lee said the CRAFT approach is evidence-based and backed by research studies that show a high rate of success in getting people to voluntarily enter addiction treatment while maintaining strong family ties.

Joseph Lee

Joseph Lee

“The science says that family members don’t have to stand on the sidelines,” Lee said. “Instead of just saying, ‘I didn’t cause it,’ dealing with the stigma or learning to say, ‘This is a medical condition,’ with CRAFT,  family members learn genuine skills that can influence a bunch of different outcomes for their loved ones.”

This is a significant shift for Hazelden Betty Ford, Lee said, and it is an important one in the continuing evolution of the nonprofit: “We want to move the conversation from boundaries to education and connection and skill-building so families can continue to be part of the solution.”

The CRAFT approach, Lee added, gives families tools so they can influence change with love. He’d like to use Hazelden Betty Ford’s influence to help people understand the benefits of both approaches.

“I want to use that platform,” Lee said. “I want to send a message out to people in the treatment community. They look to us. I want to use this as a podium to say, ‘This is the way we want to go.’ We’re really excited about using this approach as a staple of our family program moving forward. We want to help families. We think we can make a big impact this way.”

He hopes that this move will spur a collaborative evolution across the national addiction treatment community, one that creates a new standard for family support and education. “Historically there’s been a gap between grassroots groups like Al-Anon and people who are more in this CRAFT camp,” Lee said. “I want create a bridge so that more people can experience this option in a good way.”

As evidence of Hazelden Betty Ford’s heightened interest in CRAFT, the program’s creators, Robert Meyers and Jane Ellen Smith, psychology professors at the University of New Mexico, will come to the Twin Cities in late October to lead a two-day training for a group of Hazelden Betty Ford staff members from across a number of departments.

Sarah Schwalbach, a licensed marriage and family therapist and Hazelden Family Program professional, is the first of the organization’s staff members to be CRAFT certified. At this month’s training, she said, “We are gathering the troops to talk about how we can implement CRAFT and use the spirit of CRAFT across all or our iterations with patients and families. We’re really excited about this.”

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Respectful evolution

When he talks about Hazelden Betty Ford’s shift to CRAFT, Lee likes to emphasize that it has actually been going on for some time. “Over the past four years we’ve already adapted a number of CRAFT skills into our family programming,” he said. “We are already moving to a skills-based and experiential family experience, not just an education-based one.”

The new emphasis on family skill-building is a timely move, he said, one that melds the best parts of both approaches to create something that works for everyone.

“I think it’s an evolution,” Lee said. “It is a recognition that that Al-Anon is fantastic. A lot of people get help from them.” But, he added, Al-Anon has some limitations that CRAFT’s scientifically based approach does not. He’d like to show families that both approaches can work in concert: “We’ve had success with people doing both. When we use both skills, families have a community group through Al-Anon that they can go to for free. With CRAFT, they can use the skills they learn to navigate this experience.”

Sarah Schwalbach

Sarah Schwalbach

Schwalbach said CRAFT fills in some of the gaps created by the more commonly used approach to family support. “More traditional approaches can promote detachment or ultimatums,” she said. “CRAFT takes more of a, ‘Let’s lean into the relationship,’ approach. It encourages small, incremental growth and changes even if it is not fully what we’re hoping to see. How can we encourage our loved one to make small changes in a more healthy direction?”

This fall, Hazelden Betty Ford launched a virtual CRAFT-based family group called the Healthy Relationships Program. The intensive 10-week training, the organization’s first-ever CRAFT program for families, is, Schwalbach explained, “A very skills-based opportunity for families to learn more about CRAFT and how to implement it into their lives.”

Participants attend two hours of programming per week, and Schwalbach said one of the CRAFT skills is introduced at each session. The program has a cohort of 14 adults from around the country whose loved ones struggle with addiction. The cohort is intentionally kept small so that participants can support each other through the process. And one-on-one support is also included, Schwalbach said: “They have a weekly 30-minute coaching call with myself or one of my colleagues to talk about how they are applying what we are teaching in workshop into their own lives.”

While Hazelden Betty Ford’s family programming has always been focused on support, Schwalbach explained that this new CRAFT-based approach is different.  “We’re following a curriculum,” she said. “The Healthy Relationships Program is based on the CRAFT skills. It gives family members something tangible to come away with, some skills, some tangible pieces that they can use in their relationships. This feels like an important change, one that will really help support families and keep them together.”

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‘Crazy-good stuff’

Robert Meyers, CRAFT co-creator, knows from personal experience the pain of living in a family torn apart by addiction.  “I came from a home where my father was a heavy drinker,” he said. “He was not around a lot. My mother was histrionic and bipolar.”

Meyers left home when he was 17 to join the military. He ended up serving in the Vietnam War and experiencing his own struggles with addiction before studying psychology on the GI Bill. He created CRAFT in part as a response to what he saw as the more divisive approach to family support found in programs like Al-Anon or AA.

Robert Meyers

Robert Meyers

“The old Minnesota Model crap, that’s still what you see on TV with people yelling and screaming and calling each other names,” Meyers said. “Everything we do with CRAFT is with compassion, love and support. We can work with families and teach them how to approach someone who says, ‘Go to hell. I’m not going into treatment.’ We can get those same people to voluntarily go to treatment.”

The CRAFT program has been around since the late 1970s and has been used successfully around the world. But it took decades for it to take off in the United States, Meyers said. The Hazelden Betty Ford endorsement is a big vote of confidence that will boost CRAFT’s profile in this country.

The more confrontational intervention-based approach to family programming doesn’t work for everybody, Meyers said: “If people are confronted with all these people in a room who tell them all of the things they did that were horrible, do you think that is going to make them feel good?”

Schwalbach appreciates that CRAFT’s benefit has been backed up by research: “It has been found that family members who have been trained in these skills are consistently able to get their loved one to accept help more frequently than family members who are trained in a more traditional option.”

With its emphasis on keeping family bonds strong, CRAFT, Schwalbach said, is a “relationship-positive approach.” She’s added that she’s passionate about the program because, “It encourages family members to lean into the relationship, to leverage the influence they have as a family members, because they are the most influential people in their loved one’s life.”

Over the years, researchers have studied the gentler CRAFT approach and its success at getting people into treatment, Meyers added: “When they do studies with those people who’ve gone through a full-on intervention, they don’t even get 25% of them into treatment. With CRAFT, we get about 70% of the people who say, ‘I’m not going to treatment’ to go to treatment. That’s crazy-good stuff.”

Lee said that the central element of CRAFT’s “crazy-good stuff” is the education and skill-building it provides. That, combined with a more loving, family-based approach, has proven successful for many people.

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“CRAFT is a therapy that is designed to build skills for what is called concerned significant others, or CSOs,” Lee said. “It helps the loved one get help. The CSOs learn skills to help their loved one get help as opposed to relying solely on intervention or power struggles to get there. It is a positive reinforcement skill set. It helps people get help.”

Mon, 17 Oct 2022 03:36:00 -0500 Andy Steiner en-US text/html https://www.minnpost.com/mental-health-addiction/2022/10/hazelden-betty-ford-evolves-encouraging-skills-based-approach-to-family-support/
Killexams : When endings approach, people choose the familiar over the novel

When people believe that a door is closing—that they have a limited amount of time left to enjoy something, such as dining out or traveling—they gravitate to the comfort of something familiar rather than the excitement of something new, according to research published by the American Psychological Association.

In eight experiments with nearly 6,000 total participants, researchers explored whether people tend to prefer novel, exciting experiences, such as trying a new restaurant, or familiar ones, such as returning to an old favorite—and whether those preferences shift with the amount of time people believe that they have left to enjoy similar experiences.

The research was published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

Previous research has found that, on average, people tend to opt for novel and exciting experiences over familiar ones. They would rather enjoy a new movie than rewatch something they've already seen, for example, given equal access to both. However, study authors Ed O'Brien, Ph.D., and Yuji Katsumata Winet, of the University of Chicago Booth School of Business, suspected that "perceived endings" might affect those choices by nudging people to return to a meaningful old favorite.

In the first experiment, the researchers asked 500 online participants and 663 college and business school students to read hypothetical scenarios in which they were given the choice between a new experience or a familiar, beloved one—such as memorizing a new novel versus rereading an old favorite, or visiting a new city versus revisiting a city they loved.

Half the participants were simply asked to make the choice, while the other half were instructed to imagine that it was the last chance that they would have for a while to travel or read a novel. Overall, across all the situations, participants in the "endings" groups were more likely to choose familiar activities compared with participants in the control groups.

In the next set of experiments, the researchers moved beyond hypothetical questions to explore people's behavior in lab and real-life settings. In one, for example, participants were told they would be given a gift card to a restaurant and that the gift card needed to be used in the next month.

Then, half the participants were told to reflect on how few opportunities they would have for going to restaurants in the next month and specific things that might prevent them from going to restaurants. Finally, participants were asked whether they would prefer a to a restaurant they'd visited before or one that was new to them. Overall, 67% of the participants in the "endings" condition preferred a gift certificate to a familiar , compared with just 48% of those in the control condition.

Finally, the researchers explored why perceived endings seemed to push participants toward familiar things. They found evidence that it was not simply because the familiar experiences were a safe bet that participants knew they would enjoy, but also because they were more likely to find those familiar things personally meaningful.

"Our findings unveil nuance to what people really mean by ending on a high note," said Winet. "Endings tend to prompt people to think about what's personally meaningful to them. People like ending things on a meaningful note as it provides psychological closure, and in most cases old favorites tend to be more meaningful than exciting novelty."

"The research is especially interesting because, on the surface, it runs counter to the idea of the bucket list, whereby people tend to pursue novelty—things they've never done but have always wanted to do—as they approach the ," O'Brien said. "Here we find that, at least in these more everyday ending contexts, people actually do the opposite. They want to end on a high note by ending on a familiar note."

The researchers noted that the findings could help people better structure their time to maximize their enjoyment of experiences, for example by visiting an old favorite attraction on the last rather than the first day of a vacation. Retailers and marketers, too, could take advantage—a café slated to close for renovations might put more of its favorite dishes on the menu rather than try new items for sale.

And perhaps, according to the researchers, such psychological framings could be useful for addressing larger societal problems. "Nudging people toward repeat consumption by emphasizing endings and last chances could subtly encourage sustainable consumption by curbing the waste that necessarily accumulates from perpetual novelty-seeking," Winet said.



More information: Yuji K. Winet et al, Ending on a Familiar Note: Perceived Endings Motivate Repeat Consumption, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (2022). DOI: 10.1037/pspa0000321

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Thu, 06 Oct 2022 02:03:00 -0500 en text/html https://medicalxpress.com/news/2022-10-approach-people-familiar.html
Killexams : Medical History May Help Predict Autism in Young Children

Summary: New machine learning models assess the connection between hundreds of clinical variables, including doctor visits and health records for seemingly unconnected conditions, to predict the likelihood of ASD in young children.

Source: Penn State

Medical insurance claims might do more than help pay for health concerns; they could help predict them, according to new findings from an interdisciplinary Penn State research team published in BMJ Health & Care Informatics.

The researchers developed machine learning models that assess the connections among hundreds of clinical variables, including doctor visits and health care services for seemingly unrelated medical conditions, to predict the likelihood of autism spectrum disorder in young children. 

“Insurance claim data, which is de-identified and widely available in marketing scan datasets, provides thorough, longitudinal medical details about the patient,” said corresponding author Qiushi Chen, assistant professor of industrial and manufacturing engineering in the Penn State College of Engineering.

“The scientific literature in the field suggests that kids with autism spectrum disorder also often have higher rates of clinical symptoms, such as different types of infections, gastrointestinal problems, seizures, as well as behavior indications.

“Those symptoms are not a cause of autism but are often manifested among kids with autism especially at young ages, so we were inspired to synthesize the medical information to quantify and predict that associated likelihood.”

The researchers fed the data into machine learning models, training it to assess hundreds of variables to find correlations that are related to an increased likelihood for autism spectrum disorder. 

“Autism spectrum disorder is a developmental disability,” said co-author Guodong Liu, associate professor of public health sciences, of psychiatry and behavioral health and of pediatrics at Penn State College of Medicine.

“It takes observation and several screenings for a clinician to make a diagnosis. The process is usually lengthy, and many kids miss the window for early interventions — the most effective way to Improve outcomes.” 

One of the commonly used screening tools to help identify young children with an elevated likelihood of autism spectrum disorder is called the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT), which is normally given at routine well-child visits at 18 and 24 months old. It consists of 20 questions focused on behaviors related to eye contact, social interactions and some physical milestones such as walking.

Guardians answer based on their observations, but, according to Chen, development varies so significantly at these ages that the tool may misidentify children. As a result, children often are not officially diagnosed until they are four or five years old, meaning they miss years of potential early interventions. 

“Our new model, which quantifies the sum of identified risk factors together to inform the likelihood level, is already comparable to — and in some cases even slightly better than — the existing screening tool,” Chen said.

“When we combine the model with the screening tool, we have a very promising approach for clinicians.” 

According to Liu, it would be practically feasible to integrate the model with the screening tool for clinical use. 

“A unique strength of this work is that this clinical informatics approach can be easily incorporated into the clinical flow,” Liu said.

“The prediction model could be embedded in a hospital’s Electronic Health Record system, which is used to chart patient health, as a clinical decision support tool to flag the high-risk children so that both clinicians and the families could take actions sooner.” 

This work, funded by the National Institutes of Health, the Penn State Social Science Research Institute and the Penn State College of Engineering, is the basis of a new $460,000 grant awarded to Chen and Whitney Guthrie, clinical psychologist at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia Center for Autism Research and assistant professor of psychiatry and pediatrics at the University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, by the National Institute of Mental Health. 

They are using the new grant to analyze precisely how well the combined hospital record data and screen results predict autism diagnoses, as well as exploring other potential screening tools that could better equip clinicians to help their patients. 

“Not only is the current tool missing many children on the autism spectrum, but many children who are detected by our screening tools experience long waitlists because of our limited diagnosis capacity,” Guthrie said.

This shows a stethoscope
They are using the new grant to analyze precisely how well the combined hospital record data and screen results predict autism diagnoses, as well as exploring other potential screening tools that could better equip clinicians to help their patients. Image is in the public domain

“Although it does detect many children, the M-CHAT also has very high rates of false positives and false negatives, which means that many autistic children are missed, and other children are referred for an autism evaluation when they may not need one. Both problems contribute to the long wait — often many months or even years — for further evaluation.

“The consequences for children who are missed by our current screening tools are particularly important because delayed diagnosis often means that children miss the window for early intervention entirely. Pediatricians need better screening tools to accurately identify all children who need an autism evaluation as early as possible.”

Part of the problem is the limited number of psychologists, developmental pediatricians and other experts in pediatric development who can make an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. According to Chen, the solution may exist in industrial engineering. 

“The key idea is improving how we use resources,” Chen said. “With Dr. Guthrie’s clinical expertise and my group’s modeling capabilities, we aim to develop a tool that primary care physicians without specialized training can apply to make confident assessments to diagnose children as early as possible in order to get the care they need as soon as possible.” 

Additional paper contributors include first author Yu-Hsin Chen, a graduate student pursuing her doctorate in industrial and manufacturing engineering who will also write her dissertation on the grant work; and co-author Lan Kong, professor of public health sciences, Penn State College of Medicine.  

Author: Adrienne Berard
Source: Penn State
Contact: Adrienne Berard – Penn State
Image: The image is in the public domain

Original Research: Open access.
Early detection of autism spectrum disorder in young children with machine learning using medical claims data” by Qiushi Chen et al. BMJ Health & Care Informatics


Abstract

Early detection of autism spectrum disorder in young children with machine learning using medical claims data

Objectives 

Early diagnosis and intervention are keys for improving long-term outcomes of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, existing screening tools have shown insufficient accuracy. Our objective is to predict the risk of ASD in young children between 18 months and 30 months based on their medical histories using real-world health claims data.

Methods 

Using the MarketScan Health Claims Database 2005–2016, we identified 12 743 children with ASD and a random trial of 25 833 children without ASD as our study cohort. We developed logistic regression (LR) with least absolute shrinkage and selection operator and random forest (RF) models for predicting ASD diagnosis at ages of 18–30 months, using demographics, medical diagnoses and healthcare service procedures extracted from individual’s medical claims during early years postbirth as predictor variables.

Results 

For predicting ASD diagnosis at age of 24 months, the LR and RF models achieved the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.758 and 0.775, respectively. Prediction accuracy further increased with age. With predictor variables separated by outpatient and inpatient visits, the RF model for prediction at age of 24 months achieved an AUROC of 0.834, with 96.4% specificity and 20.5% positive predictive value at 40% sensitivity, representing a promising improvement over the existing screening tool in practice.

Conclusions 

Our study demonstrates the feasibility of using machine learning models and health claims data to identify children with ASD at a very young age. It is deemed a promising approach for monitoring ASD risk in the general children population and early detection of high-risk children for targeted screening.

Tue, 11 Oct 2022 06:48:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://neurosciencenews.com/medical-history-asd-21617/
Killexams : Google Cloud Introduces New AI-Powered Medical Imaging Suite

Applying artificial intelligence to medical images can be beneficial to physicians and patients, but developing the tools to do it can be challenging. Google on Tuesday announced it’s ready to meet that challenge with its new Medical Imaging Suite.

“Google pioneered the use of AI and computer vision in Google Photos, Google Image Search and Google Lens, and now we’re making our imaging expertise, tools and technologies available for health care and life sciences enterprises,” Alissa Hsu Lynch, global lead of Google Cloud MedTech Strategy and Solutions, said in a statement.

Gartner Vice President and Distinguished Analyst Jeff Cribbs explained that health care providers who are looking for AI for diagnostic imaging solutions have generally been forced into one of two choices.

“They can procure software from the device manufacturer, the image repository vendor or from a third-party, or they can build their own algorithms with industry agnostic image classification tools,” he told TechNewsWorld.

“With this release,” he continued, “Google is taking their low code AI development tooling and adding substantial health care-specific acceleration.”

“This Google product provides a platform for AI developers and also facilitates image exchange,” added Ginny Torno, administrative director of innovation and IT clinical, ancillary and research systems at Houston Methodist, in Houston.

“This is not unique to this market, but may provide interoperability opportunities that a smaller provider is not capable of,” she told TechNewsWorld.

Robust Components

According to Google, Medical Imaging Suite addresses some common pain points organizations face when developing AI and machine learning models. Components in the suite include:

  • Cloud Healthcare API, which allows for easy and secure data exchange using an international standard for imaging, DICOMweb. The API provides a fully managed, scalable, enterprise-grade development environment, with automated DICOM de-identification. Imaging technology partners include NetApp for seamless on-prem to cloud data management, and Change Healthcare, a cloud-native enterprise imaging PACS in clinical use by radiologists.
  • AI-assisted annotation tools from Nvidia and Monai to automate the highly manual and repetitive task of labeling medical images, as well as native integration with any DICOMweb viewer.
  • Access to BigQuery and Looker to view and search petabytes of imaging data to perform advanced analytics and create training datasets with zero operational overhead.
  • Use of Vertex AI to accelerate development of AI pipelines to build scalable machine learning models, with 80% fewer lines of code required for custom modeling.
  • Flexible options for cloud, on-prem, or edge deployment to allow organizations to meet diverse sovereignty, data security, and privacy requirements — while providing centralized management and policy enforcement with Google Distributed Cloud, enabled by Anthos.

Full Deck of Tech

“A key differentiator for Medical Imaging Suite is that we’re offering a comprehensive suite of technologies that support the process of delivering AI from beginning to end,” Lynch told TechNewsWorld.

The suite provides everything from imaging data ingestion and storage to AI-assisted annotation tools to flexible model deployment options at the edge or in the cloud, she explained.

“We are providing solutions that will make this process easier and more efficient for health care organizations,” she said.

Lynch added that the suite takes an open, standardized approach to medical imaging.

“Our integrated Google Cloud services work with a DICOM-standard approach, allowing customers to seamlessly leverage Vertex AI for machine learning and BigQuery for data discovery and analytics,” she said.

“By having everything built around this standardized approach, we are making it easier for organizations to manage their data and make it useful.”

Image Classification Solution

The growing use of medical imaging, coupled with manpower issues, has made the field ripe for solutions based on artificial intelligence and machine learning.

“As imaging systems become faster, offer higher resolution and capabilities such as functional MRI, it is tougher for the infrastructure supporting those systems to keep up and ideally, stay ahead of what is needed,” Torno said.

“In addition, there are shortages in the radiology workforce that complicate the personnel side of the workloads,” she added.

Google Cloud Medical Imaging Suite

Google Cloud aims to make health care imaging data more accessible, interoperable, and useful with its Medical Imaging Suite (Image Credit: Google)


She explained that AI can identify issues found in an image by comparing it to a learned set of images. “It can recommend a diagnosis that then just needs interpretation and confirmation,” she noted.

“It can also surface images to the top of a work queue if a potential life-threatening situation is detected in an image,” she continued. “AI can also organize workflows by memorizing images.”

Machine learning does for medical imaging what it did for facial recognition and image-based search. “Rather than identifying a dog, frisbee or chair in a photograph, the AI is identifying tumor boundary, bone fracture or lung lesion in a diagnostic image,” Cribbs explained.

Tool, Not Substitute

Michael Arrigo, managing partner at No World Borders, a national network of expert witnesses on health care issues, based in Newport Beach Calif., agreed that AI might help some over-worked radiologists, but only if it’s reliable.

“Data must be structured in ways that are usable and consumable by AI,” he told TechNewsWorld. “AI doesn’t work well with highly variable unstructured data in unpredictable formats.”

Torno added that many studies have been done around AI accuracy and will continue to be done.

“While there are examples of AI finding things that a human did not, or being ‘just as good’ as a human, there are also examples where AI misses something important, or isn’t quite sure what to interpret as there could be multiple issues with the patient,” she observed.

“AI should be seen as an efficiency tool to accelerate image interpretation and aid with emergent cases, but not completely replace the human element,” she said.

Big Splash Potential

With its resources, Google can make a significant impact on the medical imaging market. “Having a major player like Google in this space could facilitate synergies with other Google products already in place at health care organizations, potentially enabling more seamless connectivity to other systems,” Torno noted.

“If Google concentrates on this market segment, they have the resources to make a splash,” she continued. “There are many players in this space already. It will be interesting to see how this product can leverage other Google functionality and pipelines and be a differentiator.”

Lynch explained that with the launch of Medical Imaging Suite, Google hopes to help accelerate the development and adoption of AI for imaging by the health care industry.

“AI has the potential to help ease the burden for health care workers and significantly Improve and even save people’s lives,” she said.

“By offering our imaging tools, products and expertise to health care organizations, we believe the market and patients will benefit,” she added.

Wed, 05 Oct 2022 02:35:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.technewsworld.com/story/google-cloud-introduces-new-ai-powered-medical-imaging-suite-177173.html
Killexams : J&J’s Ethicon to Use Eastman’s Sustainable Co-Polyester for Medical Device Packaging

Medical device OEM Ethicon, a Johnson & Johnson company, has announced that it will use Eastman’s Renew co-polyester for its sterile barrier packaging. It’s the first medical device manufacturer to use the material and, thus, contribute to a more circular future, said Eastman in the announcement.

For the packaging, Ethicon will use medical-grade Eastar Renew 6763, which is powered by Eastman’s molecular recycling technology. The material reportedly is indistinguishable from Eastar 6763 co-polyester in terms of durability, safety, and performance. The only difference, according to Eastman, is that by sourcing Eastar Renew, companies can certify that plastic waste is being diverted from landfills to produce new packaging.

Through this agreement, the goal is to divert waste volume equal to 25% of the weight of total packaging produced, with the potential to increase up to 50% by the end of 2023 based on a mass balance approach. This commitment is backed by Ethicon’s ISCC PLUS certification, awarded by the International Sustainability & Carbon Certification (ISCC), which traces sustainable sourcing of feedstock.

“The companies worked closely to chart a path toward creating a more circular future for packaging of medical devices, driving landfill diversion and reducing carbon emissions,” said Scott Ballard, Eastman Plastics Division President. “With our molecular recycling technologies, we can Improve the sustainability of products that have been the hallmark of safety and performance in healthcare for decades.”

Molecular recycling technologies hold great promise for helping healthcare companies increase their sustainability profiles, said Eastman in the news release. Mechanically recycled materials cannot be used in healthcare applications because of stringent purity and transparency requirements. By contrast, Eastman’s advanced recycling technology breaks down waste to its molecular building blocks, which the company says are indistinguishable from virgin materials. Hence, they can be used to create high-performance polymers suitable for the medical industry. And because these technologies source plastic waste as feedstock, they leave fossil resources in the ground and result in lower greenhouse gas emissions.  

Wed, 12 Oct 2022 04:55:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.mddionline.com/packaging/jjs-ethicon-use-eastmans-sustainable-co-polyester-medical-device-packaging
Killexams : Holistic approach against influenza

TEHRAN - The World Health Organization says Iran has taken a holistic approach to develop its new national influenza pandemic preparedness plan.

The Islamic Republic of Iran’s new national influenza pandemic preparedness plan (IPPP) is comprehensive, multisectoral, and multidisciplinary, WHO said in a report published on October 14.

The national plan reflects lessons learned from the COVID-19 pandemic, which were integrated in real-time, and includes other respiratory viruses with pandemic potential for a holistic approach.

In early 2019, the Ministry of Health and Medical Education began drafting its national IPPP, using the three-phased approach defined by WHO’s essential steps in developing or updating a national pandemic influenza preparedness plan.

When the COVID-19 pandemic struck, the Ministry continued developing the IPPP and expanded the planning process by analyzing the gaps and challenges faced during the response and developing a real-time roadmap and implementation plan.

Ultimately, this will help secure the plan’s endorsement by stakeholders and policy-makers.

Phase 1. Preparation and situation analysis

The Ministry reviewed national guidelines and emergency preparedness plans for landscape analysis. It also did a thorough review of national capacities related to the pandemic response, including face-to-face interviews with 39 stakeholders and provincial counterparts of 15 ministries.

International guidelines and COVID-19 pandemic response experiences of other countries were also reviewed, and lessons learned were continuously documented.

The Ministry then established the following ten pillars, or building blocks, for the plan: 1) national laws and regulations; 2) planning, coordination, budget, and support; 3) surveillance, rapid response, and risk assessment; 4) clinical management system; 5) health system response; 6) points of entry; 7) risk communications and community engagement; 8) maintenance of essential services; 9) supply of medical countermeasures; and 10) monitoring and evaluation of the control measures.

By the end of phase 1, the first draft of the plan was created.

Phase 2. Developing the plan

The first step in Phase 2 was to hold three consultative workshops between 25 and 30 June 2022 for identified stakeholders and key organizations under each pillar.

These workshops were supported through WHO’s Pandemic Influenza Preparedness (PIP) Framework Partnership Contribution. During these two-day workshops, participants – who held both executive and technical positions in their organizations – discussed strategic actions for each pandemic phase (interpandemic, alert, pandemic, and recovery).

They also planned tangible activities with timelines, responsible agency, and budget. 

The Ministry is now starting the second step of Phase 2, which involves consolidating the outputs of the June workshops through a series of consultative meetings with strategic ministries and agencies, including the Ministry of Interior.

The Ministry then intends to share the consolidated plan with the national steering committee for COVID-19 and influential policy-makers to get their support for implementation.

Phase 3. Evaluating, finalizing, and disseminating the plan

During Phase 3, the plan will be tested through a national tabletop simulation exercise, during which participants will propose tangible recommendations to revise and edit the plan.

Finally, the plan will be endorsed by high-level policy-makers, then disseminated to all stakeholders and sectors that contributed to the process.

Overall, this multi-sectoral and multidisciplinary approach towards drafting and updating the Islamic Republic of Iran’s IPPP is an example of how a national plan can be devised through a well-coordinated and structured mechanism focusing on multi-level capacity strengthening.

HIGHLIGHT: The national plan reflects lessons learned from the COVID-19 pandemic, which were integrated in real-time, and includes other respiratory viruses.
 

Sat, 15 Oct 2022 06:39:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.tehrantimes.com/news/477613/Holistic-approach-against-influenza
Killexams : OH, OCTC partner for certified medical technician program

Oct. 4—Owensboro Health and Owensboro Community & Technical College will partner this fall to launch a new Certified Medical Technician program.

The program, funded by a $325,000 grant from the Kentucky Council on Postsecondary Education, aims to train 45 new CMTs before June 30, 2023.

Three groups of 15 students each will follow a "work and learn" model, which will give selected students the opportunity to work at OH while earning four OCTC healthcare career credentials.

Credentials include the State Registered Nursing Assistant, Phlebotomy Technician, Certified Medical Technician and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation certificates.

OH will select the student participants and hire them as patient care technicians prior to the start of classes.

Additionally, OH will pay educational release time for the students to attend classes during the program, which is to last about three months.

Students who successfully complete the program may pursue advanced career opportunities at OH as applicable.

Mark Marsh, president and CEO of Owensboro Health, and Dr. Scott Williams, president of OCTC, both praised the collaborative endeavor.

"Owensboro Health is proud to collaborate with OCTC on this innovative approach to developing the next generation of healthcare workers and providing them with new pathways to career success and fulfillment," Marsh said. "This outstanding program is another example of how our communities are meeting the region's most vital challenges through teamwork and creativity."

"OCTC is grateful to CPE for this opportunity, and we are excited to partner with Owensboro Health to help meet their current and future direct patient care hiring needs," Williams said. "We are proud to be a part of this novel, public-private collaborative approach to help address the healthcare workforce shortage."

LaTasha Shemwell, the program's designated success coach, will provide personalized services to help with enrollment, course registration and any other needs.

"It's an amazing opportunity," she said. "Within that three-month time span, these individuals are receiving free training (through) this work and learn program; they're applying to work through the hospital and (receive) free training from us, and they will also get paid for their training through the hospital."

Shemwell said she wants to make sure students can flourish by having what they need.

"My goal is just to make sure that they have the resources to succeed," she said. "We're going to give out loaner laptops, so that we can make sure that they have that access to do their work from home when needed."

Incentives will be offered at certain milestones, Shemwell said, which includes $250 gift cards after completing CNA coursework and passing the license exam, along with successfully completing phlebotomy coursework and phlebotomy clinical.

"I will be encouraging them every step of the way through all those milestones," Shemwell said. "Life happens and challenges happen, but (I) just (want) to be that positive voice of reasoning and encouraging them that they can do this."

The program is scheduled to begin Oct. 24 and conclude Jan. 28 for the first group of students.

Other groups will begin in January and April 2023, respectively.

For more information, contact Shemwell at latasha.shemwell@kctcs.edu or 270-686-4455.

Mon, 03 Oct 2022 21:24:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://news.yahoo.com/oh-octc-partner-certified-medical-092400955.html
Killexams : Common approach to demystify black box AI not ready for prime time

Artificial intelligence models that interpret medical images hold the promise to enhance clinicians' ability to make accurate and timely diagnoses, while also lessening workload by allowing busy physicians to focus on critical cases and delegate rote tasks to AI.

But AI models that lack transparency about how and why a diagnosis is made can be problematic. This opaque reasoning -- also known "black box" AI -- can diminish clinician trust in the reliability of the AI tool and thus discourage its use. This lack of transparency could also mislead clinicians into over-trusting the tool's interpretation.

In the realm of medical imaging, one way to create more understandable AI models and to demystify AI decision-making have been saliency assessments -- an approach that uses heat maps to pinpoint whether the tool is correctly focusing only on the relevant pieces of a given image or homing in on irrelevant parts of it.

Heat maps work by highlighting areas on an image that influenced the AI model's interpretation. This could help human physicians see whether the AI model focuses on the same areas as they do or is mistakenly focusing on irrelevant spots on an image.

But a new study, published in Nature Machine Intelligence on Oct. 10, shows that for all their promise, saliency heat maps may not be yet ready for prime time.

The analysis, led by Harvard Medical School investigator Pranav Rajpurkar, Matthew Lungren of Stanford, and Adriel Saporta of New York University, quantified the validity of seven widely used saliency methods to determine how reliably and accurately they could identify pathologies associated with 10 conditions commonly diagnosed on X-ray, such as lung lesions, pleural effusion, edema, or enlarged heart structures. To ascertain performance, the researchers compared the tools' performance against human expert judgment.

In the final analysis, tools using saliency-based heat maps consistently underperformed in image assessment and in their ability to spot pathological lesions, compared with human radiologists.

The work represents the first comparative analysis between saliency maps and human expert performance in the evaluation of multiple X-ray pathologies. The study also offers a granular understanding of whether and how certain pathological characteristics on an image might affect AI tool performance.

The saliency-map feature is already used as a quality assurance tool by clinical practices that employ AI to interpret computer-aided detection methods, such as memorizing chest X-rays. But in light of the new findings, this feature should be applied with caution and a healthy dose of skepticism, the researchers said.

"Our analysis shows that saliency maps are not yet reliable enough to validate individual clinical decisions made by an AI model," said Rajpurkar, who is an assistant professor of biomedical informatics at HMS. "We identified important limitations that raise serious safety concerns for use in current practice."

The researchers caution that because of the important limitations identified in the study, saliency-based heat maps should be further refined before they are widely adopted in clinical AI models.

The team's full codebase, data, and analysis are open and available to all interested in studying this important aspect of clinical machine learning in medical imaging applications.

Co-authors included Xiaotong Gui, Ashwin Agrawal, Anuj Pareek, Jayne Seekins, Francis Blankenberg, and Andrew Ng, all from Stanford University; Steven Truong and Chanh Nguyen, of VinBrain, Vietnam; and Van-Doan Ngo, of Vinmec International Hospital, Vietnam.

Story Source:

Materials provided by Harvard Medical School. Original written by Ekaterina Pesheva. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Mon, 10 Oct 2022 09:01:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2022/10/221010115417.htm
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