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Exam Code: NE-BC Practice exam 2023 by team
NE-BC ANCC Nurse Executive Certification

Exam : NE-BC

Exam Name : ANCC Nurse Executive Certification

Number of Questions : 175

Scored Questions : 150

Unscored Questions : 25

Category Domains of Practice No. of Questions Percent

I Structures and Processes 27 18%

II Professional Practice 55 37%

III Leadership 33 22%

IV Knowledge Management 35 23%

Total 150 100%

There are 175 questions on this examination. Of these, 150 are scored questions and 25 are pretest questions that are not scored. Pretest questions are used to determine how well these questions will perform before they are used on the scored portion of the examination. The pretest questions cannot be distinguished from those that will be scored, so it is important for a candidate to answer all questions. A candidate's score, however, is based solely on the 150 scored questions. Performance on pretest questions does not affect a candidate's score.

I. Structures and Processes (18%)

A. Human Capital Management

Knowledge of:

1. Federal and state laws (e.g., Family and Medical Leave Act [FMLA], American with Disabilities Act [ADA], Fair Labor Standards Act [FLSA], wage and hour laws, equal employment opportunities, Occupational Safety and Health Administration [OSHA],

workers compensation)

2. Labor relations (e.g., collective bargaining, contract negotiations, grievances and arbitrations, National Labor Relations Board [NLRB])

3. Resource utilization (e.g., cross training, job descriptions )

4. Principles associated with human resources (e.g., employee assistance and counseling, compensation, benefits, coaching, performance management)

5. Organizational culture (e.g., just culture, transparency)

6. Organizational structure (e.g., chain of command, organizational chart, span of control)

Skills in:

7. Participating in developing and modifying administrative policies and procedures

8. Implementing and enforcing administrative policies and procedures (e.g., monitoring compliance)

9. Providing feedback on effectiveness of administrative policies and procedures

10. Evaluating the effectiveness of roles based on changing needs in the health care environment (e.g., new or expanded job descriptions, professional development)

B. Financial Management

Knowledge of:

1. Basic financial and budgeting principles (e.g., revenue cycle, supply and labor expenses, productivity, depreciation, return on investment [ROI], cost-benefit analysis)

2. Reimbursement methods (e.g., payor systems, pay for performance, payment bundling, value-based purchasing)

3. Contractual agreements (e.g., vendors, materials, staffing)

4. Principles of staffing workload (e.g., full-time equivalents [FTE], hours per patient day, skill mix)

Skills in:

5. Developing a budget (e.g., operational, capital)

6. Analyzing variances and managing a budget (e.g., operational, capital)

7. Efficient resource utilization (e.g., contractual agreements, outsourcing)

8. Determining appropriate staffing workload

C. Health and Public Policy

Knowledge of:

1. Legal issues (e.g., fraud, whistle-blowing, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act [HIPAA], corporate compliance, electronic access and security, harassment, malpractice, negligence)

2. Consumer-driven health care (e.g., public reporting, Community Health Needs Assessment [CHNA], Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems [HCAHPS], Healthgrades)

3. Emergency planning and response

4. Planning and responding to internal and external disasters

5. Planning and responding to health and public policy issues

6. Assessing, addressing, and preventing legal issues (e.g., violations, fraud, whistleblowing, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act [HIPAA], corporate compliance, electronic access and security, harassment)

II. Professional Practice (37%)

A. Care Management/Delivery

Knowledge of:

1. Health care delivery models and settings (e.g., accountable care organization [ACO], patient-centered medical home [PCMH], nurse-led clinic, telehealth, e-health, inpatient, ambulatory care, home health, rehabilitation, etc.)

2. Laws, regulations, and accrediting bodies (e.g., The Joint Commission, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Nurse Practice Act)

3. Standards of nursing practice (e.g., clinical practice guidelines, clinical pathways, ANA Scope and Standards of Practice, Nurse Practice Act)

Skills in:

4. Establishing staffing models (e.g., primary care nursing, team nursing, nurse-patient ratios, skill mix, acuity)

5. Designing workflows based on care delivery model and population served (e.g., patient centered medical home [PCMH], interdisciplinary team, case management, disease management, throughput, staffing assignment and scheduling)

6. Developing policies and procedures that ensure regulatory compliance with professional standards and organizational integrity

B. Professional Practice Environment and Models

Knowledge of:

1. Professional practice models

2. Role delineation (e.g., credentialing, privileging, certification)

3. Professional practice standards (e.g., ANA Scope and Standards of Practice, Nurses Bill of Rights, Nurse Practice Act)

4. Employee performance feedback (e.g., coaching, performance appraisal, Just Culture)

Skills in:

5. Developing clinical staff (e.g., orientation, continuing education, competency validation, performance appraisal, peer review, mentoring, planning, lifelong learning)

6. Creating a professional environment for empowered decision making (e.g., shared governance, staff accountability, critical thinking, civility)

7. Recruiting, recognizing, and retaining staff

8. Providing internal and external customer service (including service recovery)

9. Creating a vision for professional nursing practice that promotes patient and family centered care

C. Communication

Knowledge of:

1. Communication principles (e.g., active listening, reflective communication, two-way communication, interviewing)

2. Communication styles (e.g., persuasive, assertive, passive, aggressive, passiveaggressive)

3. Negotiation concepts and strategies (e.g., compromising, collaborating, win-win)

4. Communication processes that support safe patient care (e.g., documentation, handoffs or hand-overs, bedside reporting, incident reporting, reporting sentinel events)

Skills in:

5. Communicating using verbal (e.g., oral and written) and nonverbal methods (e.g., body language, eye contact, active listening)

6. Facilitating collaboration to achieve optimal outcomes (e.g., team building, group dynamics, leveraging diversity)

7. Selecting the appropriate communication method for the audience and situation (e.g., email, role playing, presentation, reports, staff meeting, board meeting, one-on-one conversation, patient/family council, consumer feedback)

8. Conflict management

III. Leadership (22%)

A. Leadership Effectiveness

Knowledge of:

1. Key elements of a healthy work environment

2. Leadership concepts, principles, and styles (e.g., pervasive leadership, servant leadership, situational leadership, appreciative inquiry, culture of transparency, change management theories)

3. Coaching, mentoring, and precepting

4. Emotional intelligence

5. Sources of influence and power

Skills in:

6. Self reflection and personal leadership evaluation

7. Integrating diversity and sensitivity into the work environment

8. Change management

9. Building effective relationships through listening, reflecting, presence, communication, and networking

10. Succession planning

11. Creating an environment to engage and empower employees

B. Strategic Visioning and Planning

Knowledge of:

1. Strategic planning principles (e.g., alignment of nursings strategic plan with the organizational plan, SWOT analysis, components of strategic planning)

2. New program development (e.g., proposals, pro forma, business plans, marketing)

3. Trends that effect nursing practice and the healthcare environment

4. Communicating and building consensus and support for the strategic plan

5. Establishing baselines for processes (i.e., measuring current performance)

6. Evaluating processes and outcome measures over time

7. Project management to support/achieve the strategic plan (e.g., planning, implementing, and monitoring action plans)

C. Ethics and Advocacy

Knowledge of:

1. Ethical principles

2. Business ethics (e.g., corporate compliance, privacy)

3. ANAs Code of Ethics

4. Patients Bill of Rights

Skills in:

5. Advocating for patients (e.g., patient rights, access, and safety)

6. Advocating for staff (e.g., healthy work environment, equipment, staffing)

7. Advocating for the nursing profession (e.g., professional organizations, promoting education, certification, legislative influence)

IV. Knowledge Management (23%)

A. Quality Monitoring and Improvement

Knowledge of:

1. Systems theory

2. Continuous performance improvement (The Plan-Do-Study-Act [PDSA] Cycle, Lean, root cause analysis, tracer methodology)

3. Process and outcome measures (e.g., clinical, financial, safety, patient satisfaction, employee satisfaction)

4. Culture of safety (e.g., risk management, employee engagement, employee safety technologies [patient lifts], patient safety technologies [bar coding])

Skills in:

5. Creating a culture of continuous performance improvement

6. Translating data into information (including use of internal and external benchmarks), and disseminating it at various levels within the organization

7. Evaluating and prioritizing outcomes of care delivery (e.g., nurse sensitive indicators, ORYX indicators, National Patient Safety Goals, core measures)

8. Selecting the appropriate continuous performance improvement technique

9. Action planning to address identified quality issues

B. Evidence-based Practice and Research

Knowledge of:

1. Institutional Review Board (IRB) requirements (e.g., protection of human research subjects)

2. Research and evidence-based practice techniques (e.g., literature review, developing research questions, study methods and design, data management, levels of evidence)

3. Distinguish between performance improvement, evidence-based practice, and research

4. Creating a culture and advocating for resources that support research and scholarly inquiry (e.g., journal club, grant writing, research councils, research participation)

5. Communicating research and evidence-based findings to internal and external stakeholders

6. Incorporating evidence into policies, standards, procedures and guidelines

7. Evaluating and incorporating new knowledge and published research findings into practice

C. Innovation

Knowledge of:

1. Clinical practice innovation

2. Leadership practice innovation

Skills in:

3. Creating a culture that values, encourages, and recognizes new and innovative ideas that benefit the patient, family, organization, or community

4. Developing a framework for implementing innovations (e.g., small tests of change, pilot studies)

5. Leveraging diversity to encourage new and innovative ideas or new patterns of thinking

6. Evaluating and applying technology to support innovation

ANCC Nurse Executive Certification
Medical Certification history
Killexams : Medical Certification history - BingNews Search results Killexams : Medical Certification history - BingNews Killexams : Locked ER doors, lawsuits and an indicted leader: Inside Houston's UMMC hospital and its downfall No result found, try new keyword!He joined the paper in 2018 after two years at the Denton Record-Chronicle, where he covered police and county government. He graduated from the University of North Texas. A San Antonio native, he is ... Wed, 23 Aug 2023 06:59:00 -0500 en-us text/html Killexams : 15 Most Important Medical Discoveries in History

In this article, we take a look at the 15 most important medical discoveries in history. You can skip our detailed analysis of the global medicine industry and go directly to the 5 Most Important Medical Discoveries in History.

Medical discoveries have done wonders for civilizations and helped humans to thrive. Since the evolution of modern technology, it has become easier for physicians and medical scientists to research new medicines and vaccines. The demand for medical treatments and medicines continues to rise, considering the increase in different diseases such as HIV, cancer, diabetes, tuberculosis, Alzheimer, and chronic respiratory diseases. In that regard, medical discoveries are more than necessary for humanity and the success of these discoveries is a must. 

Global Pandemic Impact

There are many deadly diseases, but a global pandemic can devastate the healthcare sector and to say the least, entire economies. For instance, the COVID-19 pandemic killed millions of people around the world. The lockdowns kept the entire world on hold, affecting the global economy. We are still witnessing the aftershocks of the COVID-19 pandemic as the world gradually recovers. In addition, we have experienced how a pandemic can drive the demand for pharmaceutical firms and medical centers. On January 18, IQVIA Holdings Inc. (NYSE:IQV) shared a report on the global use of medicines in 2023. IQVIA Holdings Inc.’s (NYSE:IQV) report highlights that the COVID-19 pandemic continues to drive pharmaceutical markets, and the global pharmaceutical market is expected to expand by $500 billion from 2020 through 2027. The pharmaceutical industry is mainly influenced by the vaccines being manufactured for COVID-19 patients. The senior vice president and executive director of the IQVIA Institute for Human Data Science, Murray Aitken mentioned that in the coming years, the transition of COVID-19 will enter a new phase, and vaccines and therapeutics will be available but used occasionally. 

Global Medicine Market Outlook

As we mentioned earlier, medicine is a fast-growing field worldwide. Countries are working to upgrade their healthcare system and support the sector through huge budget allotments. Some of the most advanced countries in medicine include South Korea, Japan, Denmark, and the U.S.  

As per IQVIA Holdings Inc.’s (NYSE:IQV) report, the global demand for medicines will rise sharply in the next five years. The global medicine market is expected to reach $1.9 trillion by 2027. The spending on medicine will grow at a rate of 3-6%, powered by new drug launches and recently launched drugs. Over the past 10 years, the medicine usage in daily doses soared by 36%. However, the report suggests slow growth through 2027, with an estimated daily dose usage of around 3.4 trillion, up by nearly 8% from the 2022 level. The developed economies are continuing to research new products in medicines. The regions expected to have the highest growth and adoption of novel medicines through 2027 include Latin America, Eastern Europe, and parts of Asia. 

In addition, the specialty medicine market is estimated to account for 43% of global medicine market spending in 2027. The total spending in developed markets is expected to be around 56%. Cancer remains one of the deadliest diseases worldwide. According to the World Health Organization, cancer accounted for 10 million deaths in 2020. The report from IQVIA Holdings Inc. (NYSE:IQV) has reported global spending on cancer drugs to reach $370 billion by 2027. Whereas, rare diseases such as Alzheimer's and neurological disorders will speed spending growth in neurology driven by new therapies. 

Recent Medical Developments

The advancement in gene-editing is making an impact in the medical world. In accurate times, CRISPR has emerged as one of the prolific developments in medical science and through this technology, scientists can alter genetic codes in almost any organism. Moreover, it is a cheaper and more precise technique in gene-editing compared to previous gene-editing methods. However, CRISPR does have drawbacks; for instance, DNA editing cures one mutation at a time. This can cause ever-lasting genetic changes and endure perpetual safety risks. At this point, there is a San Francisco-based biotechnology company, Amber Bio, that is working on RNA using CRISPR technology. Amber Bio is taking the next step in biotech to explore RNA and use CRISPR to potentially rectify a wide range of genetic disorders with minimum safety risks. On August 3, Amber Bio announced that they secured $26 million in seed funding. Playground Global led the seed funding round for the biotech company along with other participants including Hummingbird Ventures, Eli Lilly, and Andreessen Horowitz, among other firms. The investment will help Amber Bio bring top-notch scientists to its development team and continue its research on its RNA editing platform. Amber Bio's co-founder Jacob Borrajo is motivated to innovate new genetic medicines. Borrajo says, “We want to innovate new genetic medicines that can extend broadly across diverse patient populations without the need to custom tailor to each specific mutation. That's what gets us at Amber really excited and that's what we're building today.”

Scribe Therapeutics is another emerging company that is making notable developments in CRISPR-based genetic medicine. On July 25, Forbes shared that Scribe Therapeutics has potentially secured deals worth $4 billion with big pharmaceutical companies including Sanofi (NASDAQ:SNY) and Biogen Inc. (NASDAQ:BIIB). In 2018, Benjamin Oakes co-founded Scribe Therapeutics along with Jennifer Doudna, Brett Staahl, and David Savage. Scribe is working on the development of specialized CRISPR proteins to fight against various diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), cancer, and sickle cell anemia, among others. In such a short time, the pharmaceutical firm has attracted huge partners and investors. 

After Scribe Therapeutics’ initial collaboration with Sanofi (NASDAQ:SNY) in September 2022, Scribe recently signed its second deal with Sanofi. On July 17, Scribe Therapeutics announced its new deal with Sanofi (NASDAQ:SNY), giving an exclusive license to Sanofi (NASDAQ:SNY) for the use of its CRISPR X-Editing (XE) genome editing technologies. With this deal, Sanofi (NASDAQ:SNY) will be able to make developments in vivo therapies such as sickle cell and other genetic diseases. Scribe has secured the deal with an upfront payment of $40 million and will potentially receive over $1.2 billion based on sale milestones. 

Biogen Inc. (NASDAQ:BIIB) and Sage Therapeutics, Inc. (NASDAQ:SAGE) are other renowned pharmaceutical firms working on major diseases including postpartum depression (PPD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) among women. Pregnant women are likely to face mental disorders due to PPD during and after pregnancy. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1 in 8 women experience symptoms of PPD in the U.S. On August 4, Biogen Inc. (NASDAQ:BIIB) and Sage Therapeutics, Inc. (NASDAQ:SAGE) received approval and a complete response letter from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for their PPD pill, Zurzuvae. This development is good news for both companies, which can possibly be the solution for millions of people affected by postpartum depression. Following the approval of Zurzuvae, Biogen Inc.’s (NASDAQ:BIIB) CEO Christopher A. Viehbacher made some comments:

“The approval of ZURZUVAE to treat postpartum depression is a major milestone for the hundreds of thousands of women who experience this underdiagnosed and undertreated condition. We appreciate the support of patients, patient advocates and researchers who helped to reach this milestone. We believe that ZURZUVAE will be an important option to treat PPD and we will thoroughly review the feedback from the FDA on the use of zuranolone in MDD to determine next steps.”

After the FDA approval of Zurzuvae, Reuters reported that analysts expect the stocks of both Biogen Inc. (NASDAQ:BIIB) and Sage Therapeutics, Inc. (NASDAQ:SAGE) to fall. Analysts believe that due to a smaller patient population of postpartum depression, there can be a negative sentiment among investors.

However, Biogen Inc. (NASDAQ:BIIB) has posted strong results. On July 25, the company reported earnings for the fiscal second quarter of 2023. The pharmaceutical firm posted revenue of $2.46 billion, beating estimates by $93.2 million. Biogen Inc. (NASDAQ:BIIB) reported earnings per share of $4.02, surpassing consensus by $0.26. During the Q2 2023 earnings call, Biogen Inc. (NASDAQ:BIIB) talked about the approval of Alzheimer’s treatment. The company believes its 100 mg/mL injection, LEQSEBI, is going to have a big impact on the practice of medicine. Here are some of the comments from the earnings call. 

“I’d like to start off with LEQSEBI. And I think before we really get into all the interesting details of commercialization and competitiveness, I just like to pause for a moment. This is an historic moment in healthcare history. We’re talking about the very first disease-modifying treatment that’s been approved fully — has received full approval from the FDA and reimbursement from CMS. And there have been literally dozens of medicines that have failed before this drug ever got to market. And that’s important for a couple of reasons, the first is that there is an awful lot we still don’t know. We are really at the beginning of a journey to really understand Alzheimer’s disease and how we can affect this disease.

But it’s also going to have a big impact on the practice of medicine. Physicians haven’t been able to really help patients very much beyond perhaps prescribing Donepezil or products like that. And the treatment that we are proposing here really is going to change an awful lot of how physicians practice and treat these patients. So as we start thinking about intent to prescribe and how physicians are looking at things, we’re actually not going to know that until we actually get out there on the marketplace and see how patients respond. ADUHELM did get approved. But as you all know, it never really got out of the blocks, and never really got launched. So this is really a first. And whenever you’re first, you’re going to discover an awful lot and a lot of this is just not that predictable.

So, I think the launch of the LEQSEBI is off to a very good start and we’ll, of course, keep you up to date as we get further patients. Now, move on to another slide here. One of the things that we’ve been doing an awful lot in the past months is really making sure that we are well-positioned for growth. And as we looked at the company, there’s where we were. As you know, today, we have a relatively mature product profile. Generally, when you have a mature product profile, you would expect the level of investment to go down. But we have actually relatively high operating expenses when we benchmark versus other companies. Part of that is an over-investment in legacy products. But we also have an extremely centralized governance. We’ve got many organizational levels.”

15 Most Important Medical Discoveries in History

Photo by National Cancer Institute on Unsplash

Biogen Inc. (NASDAQ:BIIB), Sage Therapeutics, Inc. (NASDAQ:SAGE), and Sanofi (NASDAQ:SNY) are among the top medical stocks in the industry, according to hedge funds. 

Our Methodology

To find data for the most important medical discoveries in history, we tracked the Nobel Prize winners in medicine. For the most important medical discoveries in history, we adopted a consensus approach. We choose the list of the most impactful Nobel Prize winners in medicine from Medscape, Regis College, and Nobel Prizes That Changed Medicine published by Imperial College Press. We then took the list of the 15 most important medical discoveries in history from each source, the top five, mid-five, and last five from the aforementioned sources, respectively. We took the list in the following pattern to supply equal weight to top Nobel Prize winners in medicine, so we can have the most important medical discoveries across different time periods. The latest Nobel Prize winner in medicine is ranked higher. Here is the list of the 15 most important medical discoveries in history.

15 Most Important Medical Discoveries in History

15. Work on Serum Therapy

Year of Medical Discovery: 1901

Nobel Prize Winner: Emil von Behring 

In 1901, Emil von Behring got the prestigious Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on diphtheria antitoxin and serum therapy. Behring was the first Nobel Prize winner in medicine and is also known as the father of serum therapy. In 1891, a child suffering from diphtheria received the first successful therapeutic serum treatment. Emil von Behring’s work on serum therapy ranks 15th on our list of the most important medical discoveries in history. 

Some of the leading pharmaceutical companies in the world include Biogen Inc. (NASDAQ:BIIB), Sage Therapeutics, Inc. (NASDAQ:SAGE), and Sanofi (NASDAQ:SNY).

14. Work on the Physiology of Digestion

Year of Medical Discovery: 1904

Nobel Prize Winner: Ivan Pavlov  

Ivan Pavlov made a breakthrough in the physiology of digestion which allowed him to find conditioned reflexes. In 1904, Pavlov was awarded the Nobel Prize after he successfully defended his work on the physiology of digestion. Ivan Pavlov’s discovery is ranked among the most important medical discoveries in history.

13. Work on the Structure of the Nervous System

Year of Medical Discovery: 1906

Nobel Prize Winner: Camillo Golgi and Santiago Ramón y Cajal 

Camillo Golgi and Santiago Ramón y Cajal leaped forward in the discovery of the microscopic structure of the nervous system. In 1906, Golgi and Cajal were awarded the Nobel Prize for their work on the structure of the nervous system, which later helped in many complex physiological studies through technological advancement. Camillo Golgi and Santiago Ramón y Cajal’s work is ranked 13th on our list of the most important medical discoveries in history.

12. Work on the Physiology, Pathology, and Surgery of the Thyroid Gland

Year of Medical Discovery: 1909

Nobel Prize Winner: Emil Theodor Kocher 

Emil Theodor Kocher’s work on the physiology, pathology, and surgery of the thyroid gland made a major development in medical science. In 1909, Kocher got the Nobel Prize for his pioneering work on the thyroid gland. By 1917, more than 7,000 thyroid operations took place and nearly three-quarters were done by Kocher. Kocher’s work helped the mortality decrease from 14% in 1884 and 0.18% in 1898. Emil Theodor Kocher’s work is a major development in medical science and is ranked on our list of the most important medical discoveries in history.

11. Discovery of the Mechanism of the Electrocardiogram

Year of Medical Discovery: 1924

Nobel Prize Winner: Willem Einthoven 

Willem Einthoven’s discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram, also known as ECG, was a breakthrough in medical history. Einthoven’s work in the field of heart physiology is ranked among the most important medical discoveries in history.

10. Discovery of Penicillin 

Year of Medical Discovery: 1945

Nobel Prize Winner: Sir Alexander Fleming, Ernst Boris Chain, and Sir Howard Walter Florey 

The discovery of penicillin is considered an evolution in medical science. In 1945, Sir Alexander Fleming, Ernst Boris Chain, and Sir Howard Walter Florey won the Nobel Prize in medicine for discovering penicillin and its therapeutic effect on various infectious diseases. The discovery of penicillin is ranked 10th on our list of the most important medical discoveries in history.

9. Deciphering the Genetic Code

Year of Medical Discovery: 1968

Nobel Prize Winner: Marshall Warren Nirenberg, Har Gobind Khorana, and Robert Holley

In 1968, Marshall Warren Nirenberg, Har Gobind Khorana, and Robert Holley’s work on deciphering the genetic code won the Nobel Prize in medicine. The discovery was based on a ribonucleic acid (RNA) consisting of a single nucleotide which led to a single amino acid. Through this, the scientists solved the first ever genetic code puzzle. Deciphering the genetic code makes our list of the most important medical discoveries in history.

8. Development of Radioimmunoassay 

Year of Medical Discovery: 1977

Nobel Prize Winner: Rosalyn Yalow

Rosalyn Yalow became the second woman to win the Nobel Prize in medicine in 1977. Yalow is known for her development of radioimmunoassay (RIA). This discovery introduced a groundbreaking method for the treatment of peptide hormones. Rosalyn Yalow’s development of radioimmunoassay is ranked eighth on our list of the most important medical discoveries in history.

7. Development of Computer Assisted Tomography

Year of Medical Discovery: 1979

Nobel Prize Winner: Allan MacLeod Cormack and Godfrey Hounsfield

Godfrey Hounsfield and Allan MacLeod Cormack contributed to the development of computer assisted tomography (CAT). For their discovery and work on the diagnosis of neurological disorders, Godfrey Hounsfield and Allan MacLeod Cormack were awarded the Nobel Prize in medicine in 1979. Hounsfield and Cormack’s invention is ranked seventh on our list of the most important medical discoveries in history.

6. Work on the Biochemistry and Physiology of Prostaglandins

Year of Medical Discovery: 1982

Nobel Prize Winner: John Robert Vane, Bengt Ingemar Samuelsson, and Sune Bergström 

In 1982, John Robert Vane, Bengt Ingemar Samuelsson, and Sune Bergström were awarded the Nobel Prize in medicine for their work on the biochemistry and physiology of prostaglandins. The use of prostaglandins in clinical medicine, particularly in obstetrics and gynecology has been really helpful. The work on the biochemistry and physiology of prostaglandins is ranked among the most important medical discoveries in history.

Pharmaceutical companies that are making major developments in medical science include Biogen Inc. (NASDAQ:BIIB), Sage Therapeutics, Inc. (NASDAQ:SAGE), and Sanofi (NASDAQ:SNY).

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Disclosure: none. 15 Most Important Medical Discoveries in History is originally published on Insider Monkey.

Fri, 11 Aug 2023 04:42:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : 3 sets of twins and 2 brothers make history for the University at Buffalo’s medical school

CNN  — 

Imagine your acceptance into medical school came with an automatic study partner you’ve known since birth, who lives with you – and who looks a lot like you. That’s reality for this group of future doctors.

The University at Buffalo admitted three sets of twins and two brothers to its Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences class of 2027.

It’s the first time in the program’s history that eight siblings are expected to graduate from the school together, Director of Admissions Dr. Dori Marshall said.

The school didn’t deliberately set out to accept the students because they were siblings, Marshall told CNN. “We do look carefully at local kids, and all four of the sibling sets have roots here in western New York,” she said.

That makes 4% of the 2027 class siblings, which might encourage a sense of unity for the entire medical school, Marshall told CNN. “Obviously, these eight students have that built-in, in a special way, but I hope that it just enhances the feeling of family for all of our students,” said Marshall.

Chidalu and Chidera Anameze, 21, are the only identical twins in the group and they are inseparable. The sisters never spent more than a day away from each other, they told CNN. “We do everything together,” Chidera and Chidalu said in sync.

“So, we’re basically best friends,” Chidalu added.

Not only do they share the same DNA sequence and practically the same face – but becoming doctors has always been a mutual goal for them, the sisters said.

Both of their parents work in the medical field, which inspired them to do the same. “We’ve been interested since we were children,” Chidera said.

“It’s just having someone go in with that’ll hold you accountable. We’ll always be on top of each other to be successful,” Chidalu said.

Twins Camryn and Marisa Warren, 21, are also starting the UB’s medical program. They recall receiving their acceptance into Jacobs School of Medicine at the “same exact minute.”

“Our mom was like over the moon and our dad was just really proud of us,” Marisa said.

“They knew that we really wanted to do this for a long time,” Camryn added.

Marisa has wanted to be a doctor for as long as she can remember, she told CNN. “I was kind of like your 3-year-old that was dressing up as a doctor. I was asking for anatomy kits for Christmas,” Marisa said.

And after two weeks in the program, having each other has already proved to be helpful in their coursework, the twins said.

“It’s like having a study partner that you’re able to vent to,” Marisa said. “Like how classes are going, or I can ask how this process in biochemistry works. It’s just kind of a whole package deal and it works out.”

Hannah and Josef Iqbal, 22, are the brother-and-sister duo of the twin pack.

Their parents instilled partnership in them at an early age. “Even though we’re both boy and girl, our mom would sign us up for the same activities when we were younger,” Hannah told CNN. “I liked tap dancing. Then my mom made my brother do it with me even though he didn’t like that. And then she made me do baseball with him, even though I was scared of getting hit by the baseball,” Hannah recalled.

While some consider the Iqbal twins “polar opposites”, it’s still helpful to experience medical school together, Josef said. “We complement each other.”

With all the pressures medical school can bring, the twins said, having each other lightens the load. “It’s really a calming factor for me,” Hannah said.

Eric and Stephen Dhillon are the two brothers in the program. Although they’re not twins, sharing the same birthday couldn’t make these brothers any closer, they said.

“We’ve always been very close,” Stephen, 24, said.

“I was two years ahead of Eric in school … and we played lots of sports together, especially ice hockey,” Stephen added.

Stephen played professional ice hockey for six years, and 23-year-old Eric played for a year. Eric completed his undergraduate studies in three years, which placed the brothers on the same track for medical school after Stephen left the league. “Now we have another thing in common. We have the same class, same schedule. It’s just amazing,” Eric said.

Although their medical school journey has just begun, becoming doctors in Buffalo is the ultimate goal, the brothers said. “Unfortunately, the Buffalo community does not have the greatest social determinants of health,” Stephen said.

“To be able to supply back to the community on a greater level with a medical education would be great.”

The admissions of the twins bring more than shared DNA to the medical school. They’re also bringing diversity.

The Anameze twins are Nigerian, the Iqbal twins are South Asian, and the Warren sisters are biracial. Half of the 2027 class are people of color, Marshall noted. Their arrival comes after the US Supreme Court’s accurate overturning of affirmative action in college admissions policy – which set new, “race-neutral” standards for universities in the US.

“I’m disappointed to see the overturn of affirmative action because I think that makes such a difference in people of color and women’s lives,” Camryn said.

The medical school hopes to continue to “have the classes mirror the diversity of our community,” Marshall said.

About 5.7% of physicians in the US identified as Black or African American, according to 2021 data from the Association of American Medical Colleges, while Black people made up an estimated 12% of the nation’s population, according to the US Census Bureau.

Chidera and Chidalu embrace their Nigerian heritage and say it’s important that they carry on their family’s legacy of working in the medical field. “We’ve always been interested in filling that gap and being a resource to Black women in the community,” Chidera said.

Sat, 19 Aug 2023 23:01:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Michigan teen’s death fueled anti-vaccine rhetoric. We got CDC’s investigative report. No result found, try new keyword!A 13-year-old Michigan boy who died three days after getting a COVID-19 vaccine had a massive bacterial infection, according to the CDC. Mon, 21 Aug 2023 02:34:06 -0500 en-us text/html Killexams : Why It’s Never Too Late to Start a New Career

Ingrid Fournier, 56, started teaching as a Peace Corps fellow shortly after college. She traveled abroad, met and married another volunteer, and together they began their teaching careers while serving in Latin America. Upon returning to the U.S., Fournier taught kindergarten through eighth grade for 26 years in school districts across Michigan, mostly in the Forest Hills community near Grand Rapids.  

“It was wonderful,” she says of her career, “but it wasn’t sustainable. What was being asked of teachers was too much.”

The COVID-19 pandemic’s impact on the profession left many educators feeling overworked, exhausted and undervalued. A little over a year ago, during spring break of 2022, Fournier, along with her husband, quit.

“I had five more years until I would have been completely vested in retirement, but it wasn’t good for me mentally,” she says. “We were lucky enough to be in a position that we could just say, 'We're done.'”

The couple decided to take a year off to figure out what was next. They cut back on leisure activities like traveling that they had enjoyed for years.

In January, Fournier found new passion as branch manager of a public library in Scottville, Michigan, a city just shy of 1,400 residents. She plans activities for schoolchildren and is involved in events like a highly anticipated beekeeping series that merges history, biology and culture. In some ways, she’s still a teacher but on a different level, with an easier pace and support from administration, colleagues and a close-knit community.

The Fourniers are not alone in their choice to change careers when retirement is not too far in their future. Some career switchers are escaping a frustrating work environment while others are searching for more flexibility, more money and fewer hours. 

“The desire to do work that matters is often the dominant motivator,” says Nancy Collamer, a retirement coach and author of Second-Act Careers: 50+ Ways to Profit From Your Passions During Semi-Retirement. “The other thing is that around retirement age, people are just ready for a change.” 

According to an AARP study, 62 percent of people age 50 and older say the pandemic made them reprioritize how a job fits into their life and 33 percent say that living through the pandemic made them want to Strengthen their work-life balance.

How going back to school can help

In general, 1 in 4 Americans are looking to change career paths and are willing to return to the classroom to make the switch, according to a accurate poll conducted on behalf of Globalization Partners.

American attorney Barbara Vargo at a serviced apartment in Bangkok on July 21, 2023.

Luke Duggleby/Redux

For example, Barbara Vargo left a 25-year career working in hospice to study law. She chose a two-year program at Creighton University in Omaha, more than 500 miles from her home in Rapid City, South Dakota.

“If I was going to do this,” she says, “I wanted to get through it as quickly as possible.”

Vargo financed her education through a combination of savings, scholarships and low-interest loans. She rented an apartment, buckled down and excelled in her studies, and formed lasting friendships with an intimate group who dubbed themselves the Fine Wine Club. At least once a month, she got to see her family in Rapid City. She earned a juris doctor degree in 2018 at 52.

Looking back, Vargo says, “I thoroughly enjoyed every moment of [working in hospice]. As a volunteer coordinator, I had some wonderful opportunities to meet the best people in the community who really looked at how they could help people. To be able to be a conduit for that was such a gift.”

She also saw families torn apart when a loved one died without a will, which led to her interest in law. Changes in her own family life made a return to school possible.

“I was not enjoying my job the same way that I had done before,” Vargo says. “At the same time, my kids had all left for college and my husband was perfectly able to take care of himself, and so it felt like an opportunity to go do something different but still be involved in helping people as they are making those plans for the end of life.”

Wed, 23 Aug 2023 06:43:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Community news: Westport EMS holds EMT training, looks to rebuild ranks No result found, try new keyword!Westport EMS looking to rebuild ranks and Justin Paul highlighting a star-studded Playhouse event are a few coming things in this week's community news. Wed, 23 Aug 2023 14:19:00 -0500 en text/html Killexams : City watchdog chief who backed Black Lives Matter said he only learned about ‘white history’ in school

A City watchdog chief recalled how he only learned about “white history” in schools as he backed Black Lives Matter protests and called for a “workplace revolution” on race.

Sheldon Mills, the executive director for consumers and competition at the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA), also urged companies to adopt diversity quotas for black, minority and ethnic employees.

Mr Mills assumed his current role in March 2020, a month before he became chairman of the controversial LGBT charity Stonewall.

It emerged this week that the FCA will be responsible for investigating the ‘debanking’ of customers by banks following the Nigel Farage row, which saw the former Ukip leader’s account closed because of his political beliefs.

In a blog post for the Media Leader website in June 2020, Mr Mills had told business leaders to “learn about black people and their history”.

“I learned about ‘white’ history throughout school,” he wrote. “Your industries can learn about the history of black representation in media, advertising and art. Context is critical to combat racism and prejudice.”

The article came at the height of the Black Lives Matter movement, as thousands of Britons defied Covid-19 restrictions to oppose the brutal killing of George Floyd by police in the United States.

The weekend before its publication, around 35 police officers were injured during violent demonstrations and the destruction of statues and monuments, including a statue of slave trader Edward Colston.

Glass ceiling

Calling for a “race revolution” in boardrooms, Mr Mills added: “Black talent can’t get in.  When we do get in, we cannot rise to the top.

“From [George Floyd’s] death, and the Black Lives Matter protests that have followed, has come an opportunity for change, especially in the workplace.

“You need a race audit, and a review of hiring, retention, promotion outcomes. You need to look at pay and remuneration gaps. Set targets for representation especially [at] the manager, executive and board level.”

He also appeared to plead with businesses to back Stonewall’s calls to allow transgender people to self-identify as their preferred gender without a medical certificate.

“In the UK, according to the media, our efforts to make trans people’s lives easier through legal reforms may stall. What can you do to help?” Mr Mills asked.

The self-ID proposals were drawn up under Theresa May’s government and were later scrapped by Liz Truss during her time as the women and equalities minister.

Nicola Sturgeon’s attempts to introduce similar legislation last year, which would have allowed anybody over the age of 16 to identify as their preferred gender, ended in disaster when they were blocked by Westminster, hastening the demise of her premiership.

Trans advocate

Speaking to Stonewall’s website on becoming its chairman, Mr Mills said his proudest moment at the charity was when it “moved to become trans-inclusive”, adding: “It was a huge moment, and I’m so grateful I was a part of making this happen.

“The more Stonewall can share our space with as many LGBT communities as possible, the more we can learn and start to find a collective spirit that achieves true equality for all of us.”

Stonewall has backed a suite of measures that would mean significant changes to existing Government policies on gender.

In addition to its self-ID demands, the charity wants the Equalities Act to “clearly include intersex people, asexual people and non-binary people”, and used a statement last month to oppose a crackdown on transgender women taking part in female-only competitions.

“We believe that trans people should be able to thrive and flourish in everything they do, and that includes sport,” it said. “There has been a huge amount of focus on a literal handful of trans women who are competing at an elite level.”

The Telegraph revealed last month that Mr Mills helped draw up gender identity guidelines for major companies which would have allowed companies to define a woman as anyone who identifies as female, including biological males.

An FCA spokesman said: “We are proud of the diversity of our senior leadership team and it is categorically wrong to suggest that supporting the black or LGBTQ+ community is incompatible with holding a senior position at the FCA.

“Our work to increase diversity in the financial services sector is consistent with initiatives taken by the Government, has received support from the broader industry and retains cross-party support.  

“It’s also in line with our obligations under the public sector equality duty. Any rules we propose demonstrably follow consultation with the firms we regulate and are approved by the FCA Board.”

Sat, 12 Aug 2023 08:30:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Missouri's First Cannabis Safety & Quality Certification Achieved For A Medical Cannabis Company

Proper Brands, a vertically integrated medical cannabis firm, has achieved the distinction of being the first in Missouri to receive Cannabis Safety & Quality (CSQ) certification.

Among its brand portfolio, Honeybee Edibles emerged as the recipient of this coveted certification.

The evaluation focused on Honeybee's adherence to the "Manufacturing and Infusion of Cannabis into Food & Beverage Products" standard, which involves incorporating cannabis derivatives into stable consumables.

Related Content: Canopy Growth Subsidiary's Medical Cannabis Vaporizers Certified Under New EU Device Regulations

CSQ's technical director, Matt Regusci, emphasized that this certification demonstrates a commitment to supplying safe products and instilling consumer confidence.

"Sites who achieve the CSQ certification are proving to their customers that they are willing to go above and beyond to supply only the safest possible products on the market," said Regusci.

Honeybee's chef-curated range of artisanal cannabis-infused edibles is led by Dave Owens, Proper's director of culinary. Owens' background as a chocolatier underscores the brand's dedication to high-quality, safe consumables; plus an "acute understanding of the imperative to transcend basic current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs)." 

Related Content: Bridging The Gap In The Cannabis Tech Industry: Meet The Woman VP Redefining Standards In The Vaping Industry

In Owens' words: "We produce ready-to-eat products for our consumers and patients, that's why we feel that the Cannabis Safety and Quality Certification is paramount to the success of our food safety program."

The CSQ initiative is dedicated to establishing industry standards that align with ISO requirements and regulatory mandates, fostering a safer and more reliable cannabis sector.

Dive deeper into cannabis industry policies at the upcoming Benzinga Cannabis Capital Conference. Join us in Chicago on September 27 and 28 at the forefront of policy evolution and connect with industry leaders. All information is available on

Image by Benzinga

© 2023 Benzinga does not provide investment advice. All rights reserved.

Fri, 18 Aug 2023 08:36:00 -0500 text/html
Killexams : ExThera Medical Receives Certification for Medical Device Single Audit Program (MDSAP) and Recertification for International Organization for Standardization for Medical ... No result found, try new keyword!MARTINEZ, Calif.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--ExThera Medical Corporation announces it has received simultaneous certification per Medical Device Single Audit Program (MDSAP) and International Organization ... Tue, 15 Aug 2023 00:01:00 -0500 Killexams : FryeCare network announces new medical weight loss clinic

HICKORY — Obesity is a chronic condition that can significantly affect overall health. The use of medications for weight loss has recently become a frontline treatment for obesity. When combined with lifestyle changes, these medications can result in significant weight loss for patients struggling with excess weight.

FryeCare Medical Weight Loss, based in the office of FryeCare Generations Family at 2810 16th St. NE in Hickory, now offers treatment plans that utilize lifestyle interventions, such as habit changing, dietary intake and physical activity, all with the support of a health care professional. Weight loss medications may also be utilized in the long-term management plan to assist during these lifestyle changes.

“We are extremely excited to bring this program to patients that are struggling with obesity,” said Ailisa Smith, MD, supervising physician of FryeCare Medical Weight Loss. “This is a comprehensive approach to weight loss, led by a medical professional. We take a deep dive into a patient’s medical history in order to create a treatment plan that will be effective and long-lasting.”

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The goal of medical weight loss programs such as this is to help patients get the weight off and keep it off. Treatment plans vary by patient, because each patient has a unique medical history, diet history, lifestyle, even family and social histories.

“Our program is well-rounded,” said Anita Gribble, PA-C, lead provider of FryeCare Medical Weight Loss. “Aside from our use of medications that are tested and approved for weight loss, we also are able to spend ample time with each patient to help us understand the full scope of a patient’s needs during this process.”

Gribble has received a Certificate of Advanced Education in Obesity Medicine and is a member of the Obesity Medicine Association. She brings 30 years of experience in family medicine and weight management to FryeCare Medical Weight Loss.

“Our team at FryeCare Medical Weight Loss provides patients with the tools they need to succeed on their weight loss journey, even after they have reached their weight loss goals,” Gribble said.

This program is open to patients 18 years and older with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or above, with one or more obesity-related disorders. Medication for weight loss can be prescribed at any time during treatment but should always be combined with lifestyle intervention for long-lasting effectiveness. Each patient is different, so treatment plans may vary.

To learn more about FryeCare Medical Weight Loss or to schedule an appointment, visit, or call 828-324-0359.

Fri, 11 Aug 2023 23:00:00 -0500 en text/html
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