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IBM WebSphere Portal 8.0 Deployment and Administration
IBM Administration exam Questions
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Savvy, talented and knowledgeable database professionals are always in demand. This article covers some of the best, most in-demand certifications for database administrators, database developers and anyone else who works with databases. 

During the past three decades, we’ve seen a lot of database platforms come and go, but there’s never been any question that database technology is a crucial component for all kinds of applications and computing tasks. 

Database certifications may not be as sexy or bleeding-edge as cloud computing, storage, or computer forensics. That said, there has been and always will be a need for knowledgeable database professionals at all levels and in a plethora of database-related job roles. 

To get a better grasp of the available database certifications, it’s useful to group these certs around job responsibilities. In part, this reflects the maturity of database technology and its integration into most aspects of commercial, scientific and academic computing. As you read about the various database certification programs, keep these job roles in mind: 

  • Database administrator (DBA): Responsible for installing, configuring and maintaining a database management system (DBMS). Often tied to a specific platform such as Oracle, MySQL, DB2 or SQL Server. 
  • Database developer: Works with generic and proprietary APIs to build applications that interact with a DBMS (also platform-specific, like DBA roles).
  • Database designer/database architect: Researches data requirements for specific applications or users, and designs database structures and application capabilities to match.
  • Data analyst/data scientist: Responsible for analyzing data from multiple disparate sources to discover previously hidden insight, determine meaning behind the data and make business-specific recommendations.
  • Data mining/business intelligence (BI) specialist: Specializes in dissecting, analyzing and reporting on important data streams, such as customer data, supply chain data, and transaction data and histories.
  • Data warehousing specialist: Specializes in assembling and analyzing data from multiple operational systems (orders, transactions, supply chain information, customer data, etc.) to establish data history, analyze trends, generate reports and forecasts, and support general ad hoc queries. 

Careful attention to these database job roles highlights two important technical issues for would-be database professionals to consider. 

First, a good general background in relational database management systems, including an understanding of Structured Query Language (SQL), is a basic prerequisite for database professionals of all stripes. 

Second, although various efforts to standardize database technology exist, much of the whiz-bang capability that databases and database applications deliver come from proprietary, vendor-specific technologies. Serious, heavy-duty database skills and knowledge are tied to specific platforms, including various Oracle products (such as the open-source MySQL environment and Oracle itself,) Microsoft SQL Server and IBM DB2. That’s why most of these certifications relate directly to those enormously popular platforms. 

It’s important to note that NoSQL databases – referred to as “not only SQL” and sometimes “non-relational” databases – handle many different types of data, such as structured, semi-structured, unstructured and polymorphic. NoSQL databases are increasingly used in big data applications, which tend to be associated with certifications for data scientists, data mining and warehousing, and business intelligence. Although there is some natural overlap, for the most part, we cover those certs in our annually updated “Best Big Data Certifications.” 

Before you look at our featured certifications in detail, consider their popularity with employers. The results of an informal search on several high-traffic job boards show which database certifications employers look for most when hiring. Though these results vary from day to day (and by job board), such numbers provide a useful perspective on database certification demand in current job listings.

Job board search results (in alphabetical order by certification)*

Certification

SimplyHired 

 Indeed 

 LinkedIn Jobs 

 LinkUp 

Total

IBM Certified Database Administrator – DB2

463

607

845

747

2,662

Microsoft SQL Server database certifications**

1,661

1,955

1,259

1,373

6,248

Oracle Certified Professional, MySQL Database Administrator

205

342

182

142

871

Oracle Database 12c Administrator

235

295

695

214

1,439

SAP HANA

101

150

84

80

415

*See our complete methodology for selecting top five certifications in the “Best Certifications” series.

**Combined totals for MCSA: SQL Database Administration (540), MCSA: SQL Database Development (569), MCSE: Data Management and Analytics (640) and MTA: Database (503).

If the sheer number of available database-related positions isn’t enough motivation to pursue a certification, consider average salaries for database administrators. SimplyHired reports $86,415 as the national average in the U.S., in a range from $60,960 to over $128,000. Glassdoor’s reported average is somewhat higher at $93,164, with a top rung for experienced, senior DBAs right around $135,000.

Top 5 database certifications

Now let’s look at the details of our top five database certification picks for 2020.

1. IBM Certified Database Administrator – DB2

IBM is one of the leaders in the worldwide database market by any objective measure. The company’s database portfolio includes industry standard DB2, as well as IBM Compose, Information Management System (IMS), lnformix, Cloudant and IBM Open Platform with Apache Hadoop. IBM also has a long-standing and well-populated IT certification program, which has been around for more than 30 years and encompasses hundreds of individual credentials. 

After redesigning its certification programs and categories, IBM’s major data-centric certification category is called IBM Data and AI, which includes a range of database credentials: Database Associate, Database Administrator, System Administrator, Application Developer and more. It’s a big and complex certification space, but one where particular platform allegiances are likely to guide readers straight to the handful of items that are relevant to their interests and needs. 

Database professionals who support DB2 (or aspire to) on Linux, Unix or Windows should check out the IBM Certified Database Administrator – DB2 certification. It’s an intermediate credential that addresses routine administration, basic SQL, and creation of databases and database objects, as well as server management, monitoring, availability and security. 

This certification requires candidates to pass two exams. Pre-exam training is recommended but not required.

IBM Certified Database Administrator – DB2 facts and figures

Certification name

IBM Certified Database Administrator – DB2 11.1 (Linux, UNIX and Windows)

Prerequisites and required courses

None required; recommended courses available

Number of exams

Two exams: IBM DB2 11.1 DBA for LUW (exam C2090-600) (60 questions, 90 minutes)

plus

DB2 11.1 Fundamentals for LUW (exam C2090-616) (63 questions, 90 minutes)

Cost per exam

$200 (or local currency equivalent) per exam ($400 total). Sign up for exams at Pearson VUE.

URL

https://www.ibm.com/certify/cert?id=08002109

Self-study materials

Each exam webpage provides exam objectives, suggested training courses and links to study guides for sale through MC Press. Click the exam Preparation tab for detailed information. You can also visit the Prepare for Your Certification Exam webpage.

2. Microsoft SQL Server database certifications 

SQL Server offers a broad range of tools and add-ons for business intelligence, data warehousing and data-driven applications of all kinds. That probably explains why Microsoft offers database-related credentials at every level of its certification program. 

Microsoft has taken significant steps over the last year to change its certification program from technology-focused to role-centric, centered on the skills one needs to be successful in specific technology jobs. With these changes in mind, Microsoft now identifies four job tracks in its certification program: Developers, Administrators, Solution Architects and Functional Consultants. You will find a wide variety of skills and technologies within each of those categories, but we’ll concentrate below on the company’s SQL Server certifications.

MTA: Database Fundamentals

The MTA program includes a single database-related exam: Database Fundamentals (98-364). This credential is ideal for students or as an entry-level cert for professionals looking to segue into database support.

MCSA

Microsoft offers several SQL-related credentials at the Microsoft Certified Solutions Associate (MCSA) level:

  • MCSA: SQL Server 2012/2014 (three exams)
  • MCSA: BI Reporting (two exams)
  • MCSA: SQL 2016 BI Development (two exams)
  • MCSA: SQL 2016 Database Administration (two exams)
  • MCSA: SQL 2016 Database Development (two exams)

MCSE

There is one SQL database credential at the Microsoft Certified Solutions Expert level: Data Management and Analytics. This certification has the MCSA as a prerequisite (a list of valid items follows in the table) and then requires passing one elective exam.

Microsoft SQL Server database certification facts and figures

Certification name

MTA: Database Fundamentals

MCSA: SQL Server 2012/2014

MCSA: BI Reporting 

MCSA: SQL 2016 BI Development

MCSA: SQL 2016 Database Administration

MCSA: SQL 2016 Database Development

MCSE: Data Management and Analytics

Prerequisites and required courses  

No prerequisites:

MTA: Database Fundamentals

MCSA: SQL Server 2012/2014

MCSA: BI Reporting

MCSA: SQL 2016 BI Development

MCSA: SQL 2016 Database Administration

MCSA: SQL 2016 Database Development

MCSE Data Management and Analytics prerequisites (only one required):

MCSA: SQL Server 2012/2014

MCSA: SQL 2016 BI Development

MCSA: SQL 2016 Database Administration

MCSA: SQL 2016 Database Development

MCSA: Machine Learning

MCSA: BI Reporting

MCSA: Data Engineering with Azure

Training courses are available and recommended for all certifications but not required.

Number of exams

MTA: Database Fundamentals: One exam

  • Database Fundamentals (98-364)

MCSA: BI Reporting: Two exams

  • Analyzing and Visualizing Data with Power BI (70-778)
  • Analyzing and Visualizing Data with Microsoft Excel (70-779)

MCSA: SQL Server: Three exams

  • Querying Microsoft SQL Server 2012/2014 (70-461)
  • Administering Microsoft SQL Server 2012/2014 Databases (70-462)  
  • Implementing a Data Warehouse with Microsoft SQL Server 2012/2014 (70-463

MCSA: SQL 2016 BI Development: Two exams

  • Implementing a SQL Data Warehouse (70-767)
  • Developing SQL Data Models (70-768) 

MCSA: SQL 2016 Database Administration: Two exams

  • Administering a SQL Database Infrastructure (70-764)
  • Provisioning SQL Databases (70-765) 

MCSA: SQL 2016 Database Development: Two exams

  • Querying Data with Transact-SQL (70-761)
  • Developing SQL Databases (70-762) 

MCSE: Data Management and Analytics: One exam (from the following)

  • Developing Microsoft SQL Server Databases (70-464)
  • Designing Database Solutions for Microsoft SQL Server (70-465)
  • Implementing Data Models and Reports with Microsoft SQL Server (70-466)
  • Designing Business Intelligence Solutions with Microsoft SQL Server (70-467)
  • Developing SQL Databases (70-762)
  • Implementing a Data Warehouse Using SQL (70-767)
  • Developing SQL Data Models (70-768)
  • Analyzing Big Data with Microsoft R (70-773)
  • Implementing Microsoft Azure Cosmos DB Solutions (70-777

All exams administered by Pearson VUE.

Cost per exam

MTA: $127 (or equivalent in local currency outside the U.S.)

MCSA/MCSE: $185 (or equivalent) per exam

URL

www.microsoft.com/learning/en-us/certification-overview.aspx

Self-study materials

Microsoft offers one of the world’s largest and best-known IT certification programs, so the MTA, MCSA and MCSE certs are well supported with books, study guides, study groups, practice questions and other materials.

3. Oracle Certified Professional, MySQL 5.7 Database Administrator 

Oracle runs its certifications under the auspices of Oracle University. The Oracle Database Certifications page lists separate tracks for Database Application Development (SQL and PL/SQL), MySQL (Database Administration and Developer) and Oracle Database (versions 12c, 12c R2, and 11g, and Oracle Spatial 11g). 

MySQL is perhaps the leading open-source relational database management system (RDBMS). Since acquiring Sun Microsystems in 2010 (which had previously acquired MySQL AB), Oracle has rolled out a paid version of MySQL and developed certifications to support the product. 

A candidate interested in pursuing an Oracle MySQL certification can choose between MySQL Database Administration and MySQL Developer. The Oracle Certified Professional, MySQL 5.7 Database Administrator (OCP) credential recognizes professionals who can install, optimize and monitor MySQL Server; configure replication; apply security; and schedule and validate database backups. 

The certification requires candidates to pass a single exam (the same exam can be taken to upgrade a prior certification). Oracle recommends training and on-the-job experience before taking the exam.

Oracle Certified Professional, MySQL 5.7 Database Administrator facts and figures

4. Oracle Database 12c Administrator

Most Oracle DBMS credentials require candidates to attend authorized training classes to qualify for the related exam, but MySQL (and Sun-derived) credentials often do not. Oracle certifications also represent a true ladder, in that it is generally necessary to earn the associate-level credentials first, professional-level credentials second and master-level credentials third, culminating with the expert level. 

Oracle Database 12c R2 is the latest version, which includes enhancements to Oracle Database 12c. Oracle 12c certifications are currently offered at the associate, professional and master levels. 

A Foundations Junior Associate certification (novice level) is also available for Oracle Database 12c, as are three specialist designations: the Implementation Specialist, the Oracle Database Performance and Tuning 2015 Certified Implementation Specialist, and the Oracle Real Application Clusters 12c Certified Implementation Specialist. 

Available expert-level credentials include the Oracle Certified Expert; Oracle Database 12c: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administrator; Oracle Database 12c Maximum Availability Certified Expert; Oracle Certified Expert; Oracle Database 12c: Data Guard Administrator; Oracle Certified Expert; and Oracle Database 12c: Performance Management and Tuning. Oracle still offers 11g certifications as well. 

NoteAlthough premium support for Oracle 11g Database ended on Dec. 31, 2014, extended support lasts until December 2020, so it’s probable that Oracle Database 11g will remain in use for the short term. 

We focused on requirements for Oracle Database 12c certifications. One important consideration is that Oracle 11g is forward-compatible with Oracle 12c, but Oracle 12c is not backward- compatible with the prior version. Because Oracle 12c is a newer version, IT professionals with Oracle 11g certifications should consider upgrading their 11g credentials.

Oracle Database 12c Administrator facts and figures

Certification name

Oracle Database 12c Administrator Certified Associate (OCA 12c)

Oracle Database 12c Administrator Certified Professional (OCP 12c)

Oracle Database 12c Administrator Certified Master (OCM 12c)

Oracle Database 12c Maximum Availability Certified Master

Prerequisites and required courses

OCA 12c: Training recommended but not required

OCP 12c: OCA 12c credential and one training course required; complete course submission form

OCM 12c: OCP 12c or 12c R2 credential and two advanced training courses (must be different from the course used to achieve the OCP); complete course submission form; submit fulfillment kit request

Oracle Database 12c Maximum Availability Certified Master: Three credentials

  • Oracle Database 12c Administrator Certified Master
  • Oracle Certified Expert, Oracle Database 12c: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration
  • Oracle Certified Expert, Oracle Database 12c: Data Guard Administration

Oracle training: Classes typically run 2-5 days; costs range from $1,360 to over $5,580.

Number of exams

 OCA 12c: Choose one exam from the following:

  • Oracle Database 12c SQL (1Z0-071) (73 questions, 100 minutes)
  • Oracle Database 12c: Installation and Administration (1Z0-062) (67 questions, 120 minutes)

OCP 12c: One exam: Oracle Database 12c: Advanced Administration (1Z0-063) (80 questions, 120 minutes)

OCM 12c: One exam: Oracle Database 12c Certified Master (12COCM), a two-day, performance-based exam

Oracle Database 12c Maximum Availability Certified Master: None

Cost per exam

OCA 12c: 1Z0-071and 1Z0-062 cost $245 each.

OCP 12c: 1Z0-063, 1Z0-082 and 1Z0-083 cost $245 each

OCM 12c: 12COCM costs $2,584; contact Oracle for pricing/availability of upgrade exam.

Oracle Database 12c Maximum Availability Certified Master: None

Note: Prices vary by geography.

URL

https://education.oracle.com/pls/web_prod-plq-dad/ou_product_category.getFamilyPage?p_family_id=32&p_mode=Certification

Self-study materials

Each Oracle certification exam webpage lists exam syllabus as well as recommended training courses, seminars and practice tests. A variety of self-study guides are available on Amazon. Oracle Database certification candidates benefit from student manuals, labs and software provided as part of class offerings.

5. SAP HANA: SAP Certified Technology Associate – SAP HANA (Edition 2016)

SAP SE has a large portfolio of business application and analytics software, including cloud infrastructure, applications, and storage. The foundation of the SAP HANA platform is an enterprise-grade relational database management system, which can be run as an appliance on premises or in the cloud. The cloud platform enables customers to build and run applications and services based on SAP HANA. 

SAP offers a comprehensive certification program, built to support its various platforms and products. We chose to feature the SAP Certified Technology Associate – SAP HANA cert because it aligns closely with other certifications in this article and is in high demand among employers, according to our job board surveys. This certification ensures that database professionals can install, manage, monitor, migrate and troubleshoot SAP HANA systems. It covers managing users and authorization, applying security, and ensuring high availability and effective disaster recovery techniques. 

SAP recommends that certification candidates get hands-on practice through formal training or on-the-job experience before attempting this exam. The SAP Learning Hub is a subscription service that gives certification candidates access to a library of learning materials, including e-learning courses and course handbooks. The annual subscription rate for individual users on the Professional certification track is $3,048. This online training program is designed for those who run, support or implement SAP software solutions. Though this may seem like a steep price for online training, you will likely be able to pass any SAP certification exams you put your mind to by leveraging all of the learning resources available to SAP Learning Hub Professional subscribers. 

Typically, SAP certifications achieved on one of the two most accurate SAP solutions are considered current and valid. SAP contacts professionals whose certifications are nearing end of life and provides information on maintaining their credentials.

SAP Certified Technology Associate facts and figures

Certification name

SAP Certified Technology Associate – SAP HANA (Edition 2016)

Prerequisites  and required courses        

 None required

 Recommended: SAP HANA Installation & Operations SPS12 (HA200) course ($3,750)

Number of exams

One exam: SAP Certified Application Associate – SAP HANA (Edition 2016), exam code C_HANATEC_12 (80 questions, 180 minutes)

Cost per exam

$552

URL

https://training.sap.com/certification/c_hanatec_12-sap-certified-technology-associate—sap-hana-edition-2016-g/

Self-study materials

The certification webpage includes a link to trial questions. SAP HANA trade books and certification guides are available on Amazon. The SAP Help Center offers product documentation and a training and certification FAQs page. The SAP Learning Hub (available on a subscription basis) provides access to online learning content.

Beyond the top 5: More database certifications

Besides the ones mentioned in this article, other database certification programs are available to further the careers and professional development of IT professionals who work with database management systems. 

While most colleges with computer science programs offer database tracks at the undergraduate, master and Ph.D. levels, there are few well-known vendor-neutral database certifications. The Institute for the Certification of Computing Professionals (ICCP) is part of this unique group, offering its Certified Data Professional and Certified Data Scientist credentials. Find out more about ICCP certifications here

EnterpriseDB administers a small but effective certification program, with two primary certs: the EDB Certified Associate and the EDB Certified Professional. PostgreSQL was the fourth-ranked relational database management system in October 2019, according to DB-Engines

Credentials from GoogleMarkLogicTeradata and SAS may also be worth considering. All of these credentials represent opportunities for database professionals to expand their skill sets – and salaries. However, such niches in the database certification arena are generally only worth pursuing if you already work with these platforms or plan to work for an organization that uses them. 

Ed Tittel

Ed is a 30-year-plus veteran of the computing industry, who has worked as a programmer, a technical manager, a classroom instructor, a network consultant, and a technical evangelist for companies that include Burroughs, Schlumberger, Novell, IBM/Tivoli and NetQoS. He has written for numerous publications, including Tom’s IT Pro and GoCertify, and is the author of more than 140 computing books on information security, web markup languages and development tools, and Windows operating systems. 

Earl Follis

Earl is also a 30-year veteran of the computer industry, who has worked in IT training, marketing, technical evangelism, and market analysis in the areas of networking and systems technology and management. Ed and Earl met in the late 1980s when Ed hired Earl as a trainer at an Austin-area networking company that’s now part of HP. The two of them have written numerous books together on NetWare, Windows Server and other topics. Earl is also a regular writer for the computer trade press, with many e-books, whitepapers and articles to his credit.

Mon, 10 Oct 2022 12:01:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.businessnewsdaily.com/10734-database-certifications.html
Killexams : Best Linux Certifications

More than 20 years after Linus Torvalds developed Linux, the operating system remains a force in the computing industry. While Linux is not widely used on desktops (making up just over 2.4% of the overall desktop operating system market share in January 2019, according to NetMarketShare), it is extraordinarily strong on the web server side, where it enjoys a market share of almost 54%.

IT professionals invest considerable time learning about server computing for everything from installation, configuration, maintenance and virtualization to application support and security. This also means that many IT professionals are working with and around Linux operating systems daily, often alongside Windows and various UNIX OS brands as well.

The best of the Linux certifications vie for considerable mindshare among IT professionals and present an interesting mix of distribution- or brand-agnostic credentials alongside some pretty formidable vendor-specific credentials. There are multiple well-elaborated certification ladders available to those interested in learning, using, and mastering the Linux operating system environment and all the many bells and whistles it supports.

The results of a job search we conducted on several popular job posting sites show which Linux certifications employers are looking for when hiring new employees. While results vary from day to day (and job board to job board), this table reflects those Linux-related certifications that employers were seeking in the U.S.

Job Board Survey Results (in alphabetical order, by certification)

Certification

SimplyHired

Indeed

LinkedIn Jobs

Linkup

Total

GCUX (SANS GIAC) 30 30 55 12 127
Linux+ (CompTIA) 1,045 1,339 779 547 3,710
LPIC (LPI) 38 41 247 44 370
Oracle Linux OCA 27 31 33 12 103
Oracle Linux OCP 61 69 69 25 224
RHCA (Red Hat) 89 102 190 38 419
RHCE (Red Hat) 467 553 754 267 2,041
RHCSA (Red Hat) 417 504 667 241 1,829

We found that for nearly every certification category listed above, the number of national jobs postings mentioning that certification has increased, in some cases substantially, since we surveyed the same job sites a year ago. Linux system administrators and engineers can expect average earnings in the low $70s and upward, depending on the job role. PayScale lists $70,194 as the average salary for Linux system administrators ($52,000/low and $101,000/high). Glassdoor reports earnings for Linux system administrators averaging $68,884, Linux system engineers at $99,348 and senior Linux system engineers at $122,071.

GCUX: GIAC Certified Unix Security Administrator

The Global Information Assurance Certification (GIAC) program is part of SANS, a highly regarded source of instruction and research in the information security field. SANS also provides breaking news, operates a security alert service and serves on all kinds of government, research and academic information security task forces, working groups and industry organizations.

The SANS GIAC program encompasses 37 information security certifications across several categories, such as cyber defense, penetration testing, incident response and forensics, management, audit, legal, developer and industrial control systems. The GIAC Certified UNIX Security Administrator (GCUX) falls under its Cyber Defense category, and aims at professionals who install, configure, monitor, secure and audit both Unix and Linux systems.

GIAC certifications must be renewed every four years by earning 36 continuing professional experience (CPE) credits. Also, credential holders must pay a certification maintenance fee of $429 every four years.

GCUX Facts & Figures

Certification Name

GIAC Certified Unix Security Administrator (GCUX)

Prerequisites & Required Courses

None; SEC506: Securing Linux/Unix training recommended (classroom, on demand, self-study or private; $6,610)

Number of Exams

One exam (75 questions, two hours, minimum passing score 68%)

Cost per Exam

$1,899 without training (called a GIAC certification attempt; includes two free practice exams) $769 as part of a training course $769 retake fee $429 certification renewal

Exams administered by Pearson VUE.

URL

https://www.giac.org/certification/certified-unix-security-administrator-gcux

Self-Study Materials

Practice tests available on the GIAC exam preparation page (two tests included in exam fee; additional practice questions are $159 each). No GCUX-specific study guides found; GIAC recommends searching for self-study materials based on the GCUX objectives’ knowledge areas and getting practical experience.

Linux+ (CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI)

CompTIA exercises extraordinary certification clout at the entry level in many IT niches. This nonprofit has shown itself as willing to team up with more focused IT organizations, associations and consortia to combine their own market reach and visibility with niche smarts and subject matter expertise on loan from various partners.

One great example is the organization’s partnership with the Linux Professional Institute (LPI), which resulted in the CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI credential. This unique certification replaced the original CompTIA Linux+ certification in 2010 and uses the same two exams required for LPIC-1 certification.

As a result of this partnership, IT professionals who are serious about Linux can earn both the Linux+ credential and the LPIC-1 at the same time. Candidates must first earn the Linux+ credential and then submit a request to CompTIA asking that their results be sent to LPI to obtain the LPIC-1 certification. CompTIA exam records are confidential, so candidates must request that their records be forwarded to LPI when taking the CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI exams.

Earning the CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI requires candidates to pass two exams. The first covers system architecture, installation and package management, GNU and Unix commands, devices, file systems and standard file system hierarchies. The second exam digs into command shells, scripting and data management, user interfaces and desktops, administrative tasks and activities, basic system services, networking fundamentals and security topics. The CompTIA Linux+ Beta exam (XK1-004) closed as of October 22, 2018, though candidates who took the exam prior to the end date can still access those scores and apply a passing grade to their Linux+ certification. The replacement Linux+ 104 exam based on this beta exam will become publicly available in April of 2019.

Note that the Linux+ credential is valid for life.

CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI Facts & Figures

Certification Name

CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI

Prerequisites & Required Courses

None required

Recommended: CompTIA A+, CompTIA Network+ and 12 months of Linux administration experience

Number of Exams

Two exams: LX0-103 and LX0-104 (60 multiple-choice questions each, 90 minutes, 500 required out of 200 to 800 scale to pass). Note that the LX0-104 Beta exam is no longer offered as of October 22, 2018; the replacement 104 exam becomes publicly available in April of 2019.

Cost per Exam

$200 per exam; prices vary by geography

URL

https://certification.comptia.org/certifications/linux

Self-Study Materials

CompTIA maintains a list of training materials and additional study options, including links to study guides, exam crams, practice tests, online and classroom training, CertMaster, and more. Additional third-party reference and review materials can be found on Amazon.

LPI (Linux Professional Institute) Certifications

The Linux Professional Institute (LPI) started up in October of 1999, almost one decade after Linus Torvalds began his pioneering efforts on the Linux kernel. Since then, LPI has become one of the leading certification providers on Linux syllabus and technologies. Given the organization’s distribution-agnostic approach to Linux, it offers excellent coverage of a platform that’s available in many forms and flavors in today’s marketplace.

The LPI Certification (LPIC) program is available in three distinct levels:

  • LPIC-1Linux Administrator: A  junior-level Linux certification with no prerequisites. Candidates must pass two exams that cover basic Linux skills, including installing and configuring Linux on a workstation, working at the command line, performing basic maintenance tasks, and making LAN or internet connections. While you can obtain the LPIC-1 credential directly from LPI, candidates should consider obtaining the CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI credential first, which qualifies you for both the Linux+ and LPIC-1 credentials.
  • LPIC-2Linux Engineer: An advanced-level Linux certification that requires an active LPIC-1 certification. Candidates must pass two exams that cover significant Linux skills and topics. The first exam covers the kernel, system startup, file system and devices, advanced storage administration, network configuration, system maintenance and capacity planning. The second exam covers web services, file sharing, network client management, email services, system security and troubleshooting, and domain name servers.
  • LPIC-3Linux Enterprise Professional Certification: A senior-level Linux certification that requires an active LPIC-2 and passing any single exam in the 300 series. Valid exam IDs currently include 300: Mixed Environment303: Security, and 304: Virtualization and High Availability. The Mixed Environment exam covers Samba (domain integration, user and group management, name services, share configuration and so forth), plus OpenLDAP, and working with Linux and Windows clients. The Security exam covers network, operations and application security, as well as cryptography and access controls. High availability cluster storage and management, along with virtualization, are covered in the Virtualization and High Availability exam.

In addition to the LPIC-1, 2 and 3 credentials, LPI also offers an entry-level credential, the Linux Essentials Professional Development Certificate (PDC). Linux Essentials focuses on foundational skills, such as creating and running simple scripts, restoring compressed backups and archives, working with the command line, Linux operating system basics, FOSS, and users/groups and file permissions for public and private directories. Linux Essentials is a great way to get started while gaining the skills and knowledge needed for the more challenging LPIC credentials.

LPI’s existing certification is the LPIC-OT DevOps Tools Engineer, which recognizes the effective use of tools for collaboration during system and software development. There are no prerequisites, and the single exam lasts for 90 minutes and has 60 questions.

LPIC credentials are worthwhile for IT pros whose chosen Linux distributions do not warrant their own certification programs, and for those seeking broad, vendor- and distribution-neutral coverage of Linux topics, tools and technologies. They are popular among IT pros and in demand among IT employers.

LPIC-1, LPIC-2 and LPIC-3 Facts & Figures

Certification Name

LPIC-1: Linux Administrator

LPIC-2: Linux Engineer

LPIC-3: Linux Enterprise Professional

Prerequisites & Required Courses

LPIC-1: None, Linux Essentials recommended

LPIC-2: Active LPIC-1 certification

LPIC-3: Active LPIC-2 certification plus completion of one of the 300 series specialty exams

Training is recommended but not required

Number of Exams

LPIC-1: Exam 101-500 and Exam 102-500

LPIC-2: Exam 201-450 and Exam 202-450

LPIC-3: One of the 300 series exams: Mixed Environment (Exam 300-100)

Security (Exam 303-200)

Virtualization and High Availability (Exam 304-200)

Cost per Exam

$200 per exam. Exams administered by Pearson VUE. Linux ID required to register.

URL

http://www.lpi.org/our-certifications/summary-of-certifications

Self-Study Materials

Study guides, courseware knowledge packs, eLearning courses, exam crams, practice tests, online and classroom training, Linux Academy subscriptions and more are available at LPI exam Preparation, LPI Marketplace and Amazon.

Oracle Linux OCA & OCP

When Oracle bought Sun Microsystems in 2010, it acquired a rich and deep UNIX tradition. Oracle started phasing out Solaris almost immediately after finalizing the Sun acquisition.

Today, Oracle offers associate- and professional-level certifications based on Linux rather than harking back to any kind of UNIX roots. These certifications retain enough of their Sun roots, however, so that courses are not mandatory prerequisites to taking the exams for the two Oracle Linux certifications currently available.

As with other vendor-specific Linux certifications, Oracle’s are most appealing to those who work with or around that distribution, or who wish to work for employers who use those distributions.

OCA and OCP Facts & Figures

Certification Name

Oracle Certified Associate (OCA), Oracle Linux 5 and 6 System Administrator

Oracle Certified Professional (OCP), Oracle Linux 6 System Administrator

Prerequisites & Required Courses

OCA: No prerequisites. Recommended training: Oracle Linux S­­ystem Administration OCP: OCA Linux 5 and 6 System Administrator or Linux Administrator Certified Associate (now retired). Recommended training: Oracle Linux System Administration

Number of Exams

OCA: One exam, 1Z0-100 Oracle Linux 5 and 6 System Administration (150 minutes, 80 questions, 61% to pass) OCP: One exam, 1Z0-105 Oracle Linux 6 Advanced System Administrator (150 minutes, 97 questions, 61% to pass)

Cost per Exam

OCA: $245

OCP: $245

URL

https://education.oracle.com/oracle-linux/oracle-linux-administration/product_295?certPage=true

Self-Study Materials

Oracle offers online and in-class training for its credentials, with hit-or-miss coverage for them on the aftermarket. Start with Amazon searches — check exam IDs 1Z0-100 and 1Z0-105 to get a sense for what’s available.

Note: Though there is now an OCA and OCP exam available for Oracle Linux 7 System Administrator, Oracle has yet to announce this new certification or release the details of new Linux 7-based certification tests for OCA and OCP candidates.

Oracle Linux 6 Certified Implementation Specialist Certification

The Oracle Linux 6 Certified Implementation Specialist Certification is a certification available for those who sell, design, configure and implement Oracle Linux 6 solutions. Though any candidate can complete this certification, it is most typically achieved by Oracle partner implementation personnel with strong foundational experience in Linux and previous field experience implementing Linux 6.

Red Hat RHCSA, RHCE & RHCA

If there’s one major star in the vendor-specific Linux certification firmament, it’s got to be Red Hat. The company has major market presence and serious duration as a commercial provider of Linux platforms and technologies.

Red Hat offers a typical administrator, engineer, architect certification ladder. Unlike many other such programs, however, it offers highly regarded and valued credentials at each rung, along with demanding and hands-on oriented exams and an excellent training curriculum to match. All exams for the following Red Hat certifications are performance based and last two hours or longer.

The giveaway for Red Hat certifications is that all come with acronyms that start with RH, as follows:

  • Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA): This foundation certification vets essential skills in handling files, working at the command line and using system documentation, along with managing systems (boot up, identifying processes, start/stop virtual machines, controlling services), configuring storage partitions and logical volumes, and more.
  • Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE): This cornerstone certification is designed to test and validate the skills and knowledge necessary to work as a senior-level Linux system administrator. syllabus covered include advanced IP routing and services, managing runtime kernel behavior, working with iSCSI, automating maintenance tasks with shell scripts and working with networking services for Web, FTP, NFS, SMB, SMTP, SSH and more. An RHSCA is a prerequisite for the RHCE.
  • Red Hat Certified Architect (RHCA): Red Hat’s pinnacle certification offers two paths to certification, depending on which prerequisite advanced Red Hat certification credentials you have already completed: Red Hat Certified Enterprise Microservices Developers (RHCEMDs) and Red Hat Certified JBoss Developers (RHCJDs) can earn an RHCA in Enterprise Applications, and Red Hat Certified Engineers (RHCEs) can earn an RHCA in Infrastructure. In general, the five additional exams that must be passed to achieve the RCHA in either Infrastructure or in Enterprise Applications are specific to each area of specialization, though a few of the tests can be used to satisfy the five exam requirement in both RHCA tracks. A number of previously available certification exams have been discontinued for new RHCA candidates and renewals, though those exams can still be applied to the RHCA certification if you’ve already passed them. Find out more about discontinued exams that can be counted towards the RHCA credential on the RHCA page under the Candidate Guidance tab.

Because Red Hat Linux is widely used in the business world, the RHCA certification is an excellent choice for those interested in a more platform-focused path into the Linux world. Of course, for those who already work with or around Red Hat, it is a natural certification choice as well.

RHCSA, RHCE and RHCA Facts & Figures

Certification Name:

Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA)

Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE)

Red Hat Certified Architect (RHCA)

Prerequisites & Required Courses

RHCSA: No prerequisites Recommended training:

Windows system administrators: Red Hat System Administration I (RH124) (5 days, $3,400) and II (RH134) (4 days, $3,400)Linux/Unix Administrators, RHCSA Rapid Track Course (RH199) (4 days, $3,700)

RHCE: RHCSA credential Recommended training:

Same as for RHCSA, plus

Red Hat System Administration III (RH254) ($3,400)

RHCA:

RHCE-certified (Infrastructure track) – Candidates currently holding an RHCE certification must pass five additional exams from the Infrastructure track below.

RHCJD/RHCEMD-certified (Enterprise Applications track) – Candidates currently holding an RHCJD or an RHCEMD certification must pass five additional exams from the Enterprise Applications track below.

Number of Exams

RHCSA: One exam, EX200 Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA) exam (2.5 hours) RHCE: One exam, EX300 Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE) exam (3.5 hours) RHCA: Five exams total depending on whether you have already completed an RHCE certification (for the RHCA Infrastructure track), or an RHCEMD/RHCJD (for the RHCA Enterprise Applications track): An RHCE must pass five exams from the following list to achieve the RHCA in Infrastructure:

EX125 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Ceph Storage Administration exam

EX210 – Red Hat Certified System Administrator in Red Hat OpenStack exam

EX220 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Hybrid Cloud Management exam

EX236 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Gluster Storage Administration exam

EX248 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Enterprise Application Server Administration exam

EX270 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Container Management (Retired)

EX276 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Containerized Application Development (Retired)

EX280 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in OpenShift Administration exam

EX310 – Red Hat Certified Engineer in Red Hat OpenStack

EX318 – Red Hat Certified Virtualization Administrator exam

EX333 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Security: Network Services exam (Retired)

EX342 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Linux Diagnostics and Troubleshooting

EX401 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Deployment and Systems Management exam (Retired)

EX403 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Deployment and Systems Management exam

EX405 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Configuration Management

EX407 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Ansible Automation exam

EX413 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Server Security and Hardening exam

EX415 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Security: Linux exam

EX423 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Directory Services and Authentication exam (Retired)

EX429 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in SELinux Policy Administration exam (Retired)

EX436 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in High Availability Clustering exam

EX440 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Messaging Administration exam

EX442 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Linux Performance Tuning exam

RHCSA: One exam, EX200 Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA) exam (2.5 hours) RHCE: One exam, EX300 Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE) exam (3.5 hours) RHCA: Five exams total depending on whether you have already completed an RHCE certification (for the RHCA Infrastructure track), or an RHCEMD/RHCJD (for the RHCA Enterprise Applications track): An RHCE must pass five exams from the following list to achieve the RHCA in Infrastructure:

EX125 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Ceph Storage Administration exam

EX210 – Red Hat Certified System Administrator in Red Hat OpenStack exam

EX220 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Hybrid Cloud Management exam

EX236 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Gluster Storage Administration exam

EX248 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Enterprise Application Server Administration exam

EX270 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Container Management (Retired)

EX276 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Containerized Application Development (Retired)

EX280 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in OpenShift Administration exam

EX310 – Red Hat Certified Engineer in Red Hat OpenStack

EX318 – Red Hat Certified Virtualization Administrator exam

EX333 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Security: Network Services exam (Retired)

EX342 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Linux Diagnostics and Troubleshooting

EX401 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Deployment and Systems Management exam (Retired)

EX403 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Deployment and Systems Management exam

EX405 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Configuration Management

EX407 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Ansible Automation exam

EX413 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Server Security and Hardening exam

EX415 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Security: Linux exam

EX423 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Directory Services and Authentication exam (Retired)

EX429 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in SELinux Policy Administration exam (Retired)

EX436 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in High Availability Clustering exam

EX440 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Messaging Administration exam

EX442 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Linux Performance Tuning exam

EX450 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Data Virtualization exam

RHCEMDs and RHCJD must pass five exams from the following list to achieve the RHCA certification in Enterprise Applications:

EX288 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in OpenShift Application Development exam

EX248 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Enterprise Application Server Administration exam

EX276 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Containerized Application Development exam (Retired)

EX280 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in OpenShift Administration exam

EX405 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Configuration Management

EX407 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Ansible Automation exam

EX421 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Camel Development exam

EX427 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Business Process Design exam

EX440 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Messaging Administration exam

EX450 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Data Virtualization exam

EX453 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Fast-Cache Application Development exam

EX465 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Business Rules exam

Cost per Exam

$400 each ($2,000 total RHCA exam costs)

URL

www.redhat.com/training/certifications/#certifications

Self-Study Materials

Red Hat skills assessments and other materials can be located on the training page. Red Hat Training includes multiple training options (online, classroom, self-paced, virtual, video and more). Red Hat Learning Subscription includes all online courses in one package; prices vary by geography, candidates can expect to pay $5,500 for a Basic Subscription and $7,000 for a Standard Subscription. Study guides are on Amazon.

Beyond the Top 5: More Linux certifications

Outside the top five Linux credentials and programs covered in this article, other Linux certifications may be worthy of your time and attention.

The Linux Foundation, a membership-based organization, promotes the development of the Linux kernel through collaboration, conferences and education. The organization’s small but respected certification program includes the Linux Foundation Certified System Administrator (LFCS) and the Linux Foundation Certified Engineer (LFCE).

IBM continues to offer a handful of Linux-related certifications. One certification of interest is the Certified Database Administrator, which continues to be in demand for those running DB2 on Linux, Unix and Windows systems.

Many industry experts, including Steven J. Vaughn-Nichols, a long-time user and expert on Linux and Unix operating systems, say that certifications can be an important ingredient in a job candidate’s qualifications. But interviewers should also pay close attention to how many Linux systems candidates have set up, managed or used to get a sense of the scale and scope of their experience.

In other words, when you see a web hosting service advertising for Linux jobs, they’re not looking for people who’ve installed and used Linux at home or in a small business setting; they’re looking for professionals who’ve set up and managed Linux in a highly distributed and virtualized data center environment, with lots of complex networking and services coming into the mix.

Tue, 11 Oct 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.businessnewsdaily.com/10750-best-linux-certifications.html
Killexams : HR Core Administration Software Market Trends, Size, Share, Top Players, Opportunities, Revenue, Regional Analysis, Future Growth by 2022-2028

The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content.

Oct 14, 2022 (The Expresswire) -- Global “HR Core Administration Software Market” (2022-2028) research report offers inside and out examination on market size, share, drivers, limitations, etc. Besides, this report remembers the inexact investigation of various portions for terms of general development, advancement, opportunity, business methodologies, and so on for the gauge time of 2028. The report contains the essentials delivered and headways by various applications Share and The most accurate pattern acquiring momentum in the market that builds mindfulness about the HR Core Administration Software market. The report supplies a complete investigation of business angles like worldwide HR Core Administration Software market size, ongoing technological advances, and developments. The examination report comprises of the presentation of the market, vital participants, amazing open doors, restrictions, product and type classification, and large market investigation.

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Market Analysis: Global HR Core Administration Software Market

The global HR Core Administration Software market is projected to reach USD million by 2028 from an estimated USD million in 2022, at a CAGR of % during 2023 and 2028.

Global HR Core Administration Software manufacturers include Automatic Data Processing, LLC, SAP SE, Ultimate Software Group, Inc., Linkedin (Microsoft), Oracle Corporation, Workday, Ceridian HCM, Inc., Kronos, Inc., Infor, IBM Corporation, Cornerstone OnDemand, Paycom Software, Inc., Intuit, SumTotal Systems, LLC (SkillSoft), Sage, Epicor Software, Accenture, Workforce Software, Zenefits, Ramco Systems, EPAY Systems, PeopleStrategy, Inc., etc. The top 2 companies hold a share about 80%. Europe and China are the largest market, with a share both about 40%. In terms of product, synthetic PBO is the largest segment, with a share over %. And in terms of application, the largest application is home pest care, followed by agricultural.

Report Scope

This report aims to provide a comprehensive presentation of the global market for HR Core Administration Software, with both quantitative and qualitative analysis, to help readers develop business/growth strategies, assess the market competitive situation, analyze their position in the current marketplace, and make informed business decisions regarding HR Core Administration Software. The HR Core Administration Software market size, estimations, and forecasts are provided in terms of output/shipments and revenue (millions), considering 2021 as the base year, with history and forecast data for the period from 2017 to 2028. This report segments the global HR Core Administration Software market comprehensively. Regional market sizes, concerning products by types, by application, and by players, are also provided. The influence of COVID-19 and the Russia-Ukraine War were considered while estimating market sizes.

For a more in-depth understanding of the market, the report provides profiles of the competitive landscape, key competitors, and their respective market ranks. The report also discusses technological trends and new product developments.

The report will help the HR Core Administration Software manufacturers, new entrants, and industry chain related companies in this market with information on the revenues, production, and average price for the overall market and the sub-segments across the different segments, by company, product type, application, and regions.

The Global HR Core Administration Software market is anticipated to rise at a considerable rate during the forecast period, between 2022 and 2028. In 2021, the market is growing at a constant rate and with the rising acquisition of strategies by leading players, the market is expected to rise over the projected horizon.

Get a trial Copy of the HR Core Administration Software Market Report 2022

Final Report will add the analysis of the impact of COVID-19 on this industry.

According to our latest study, due to COVID-19 pandemic, the global HR Core Administration Software market size is estimated to be worth in 2021 and is forecast to a readjusted size by 2028 during review period. Online Sales accounting the HR Core Administration Software global market in 2021, is projected to value by 2028, growing in next six years. While HR Core Administration Software segment is altered between 2022 and 2028.

Moreover, it helps new businesses perform a positive assessment of their business plans because it covers a range of syllabus market participants must be aware of to remain competitive. The readers in the section will understand how the HR Core Administration Software market scenario changed across the globe during the pandemic, post-pandemic and Russia-Ukraine War. The study is done keeping in view the changes in aspects such as demand, consumption, transportation, consumer behavior, supply chain management, export and import, and production. The industry experts have also highlighted the key factors that will help create opportunities for players and stabilize the overall industry in the years to come.

COVID-19 and Russia-Ukraine War Influence Analysis

The readers in the section will understand how the HR Core Administration Software market scenario changed across the globe during the pandemic, post-pandemic and Russia-Ukraine War. The study is done keeping in view the changes in aspects such as demand, consumption, transportation, consumer behavior, supply chain management, export and import, and production. The industry experts have also highlighted the key factors that will help create opportunities for players and stabilize the overall industry in the years to come.

To know How COVID-19 Pandemic Will Impact This Market/Industry-Request a trial copy of the report -https://www.researchreportsworld.com/enquiry/request-covid19/21051482

Key Indicators Analyzed

Market Players and Competitor Analysis: The report covers the key players of the industry including Company Profile, Product Specifications, Production Capacity/Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin 2017-2028 and Sales with a thorough analysis of the market's competitive landscape and detailed information on vendors and comprehensive details of factors that will challenge the growth of major market vendors. ● Global and Regional Market Analysis: The report includes Global and Regional market status and outlook 2017-2028. Further the report provides break down details about each region and countries covered in the report. Identifying its sales, sales volume and revenue forecast. With detailed analysis by types and applications. ● Market Trends: Market key trends which include Increased Competition and Continuous Innovations. ● Opportunities and Drivers: Identifying the Growing Demands and New Technology ● Porters Five Force Analysis: The report provides with the state of competition in industry depending on five basic forces: threat of new entrants, bargaining power of suppliers, bargaining power of buyers, threat of substitute products or services, and existing industry rivalry.

Key Companies and Market Share Insights

In this section, the readers will gain an understanding of the key players competing. This report has studied the key growth strategies, such as innovative trends and developments, intensification of product portfolio, mergers and acquisitions, collaborations, new product innovation, and geographical expansion, undertaken by these participants to maintain their presence. Apart from business strategies, the study includes current developments and key financials. The readers will also get access to the data related to global revenue, price, and sales by manufacturers for the period 2017-2022. This all-inclusive report will certainly serve the clients to stay updated and make effective decisions in their businesses. Some of the prominent players reviewed in the research report include:

List of TOP KEY PLAYERS in HR Core Administration Software Market Report are -

● Automatic Data Processing, LLC
● SAP SE
● Ultimate Software Group, Inc.
● Linkedin (Microsoft)
● Oracle Corporation
● Workday
● Ceridian HCM, Inc.
● Kronos, Inc.
● Infor
● IBM Corporation
● Cornerstone OnDemand
● Paycom Software, Inc.
● Intuit
● SumTotal Systems, LLC (SkillSoft)
● Sage
● Epicor Software
● Accenture
● Workforce Software
● Zenefits
● Ramco Systems
● EPAY Systems
● PeopleStrategy, Inc.

Get a trial Copy of the HR Core Administration Software Market Report 2022

The HR Core Administration Software Market is Segmented by Types:

● Core HR and Personnel Management
● Payroll Administration
● Benefits Administration
● Time and Attendance
● Employee Engagement
● Workforce Planning and Analytics

The HR Core Administration Software Market is Segmented by Applications:

● Healthcare
● Financial Services
● Government/Non-Profit
● Retail/Wholesale
● Professional/Technical Services
● Manufacturing

HR Core Administration Software Market Technology Analysis:

In the global coronavirus pandemic, remote working had been introduced as a trend. But with the various virus variants and waves hitting the global locations, remote working has become a necessity to keep up with the trends and maintain a proper flow of the supply chain and production mechanism. With the rising investment in the research and development department and activities, the HR Core Administration Software solutions are acting as an efficient resource that goes easy on formatting. To collaborate motivation with efficiency and personal goals with the organizational HR Core Administration Software industry objectives, the HR Core Administration Software market size is implementing strategies so that there is a feeling of belongingness and recognition integrated with the push and need to come up with comprehensive ideas for the global growth of the market during the forecast period that ends in the year 2028.

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Geographically, this report is segmented into several key regions, with sales, revenue, market share and growth Rate of HR Core Administration Software in these regions, from 2021 to 2027, covering

● North America (United States, Canada and Mexico) ● Europe (Germany, UK, France, Italy, Russia and Turkey etc.) ● Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India, Australia, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, Malaysia and Vietnam) ● South America (Brazil, Argentina, Columbia etc.) ● Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa)

Global HR Core Administration Software Market Regional Analysis

Geographically, the global HR Core Administration Software Market is segmented into North America, Europe, South America, Europe, Asia Pacific and the Middle East and Africa. Research has a leading market share of in 2019. The market volume of HR Core Administration Software in Southeast Asia is largely connected to downstream demand.

The objective of the report is to present a comprehensive analysis of the Global HR Core Administration Software Market including all the stakeholders of the HR Core Administration Software industry. The past and current status of the industry with forecasted market share, size and accurate and future trends are presented in the report with the analysis of complicated data in simple language. The report covers all the aspects of the marketing 4.0 industry with a dedicated study of key players that includes industry top leading players, new consumers, shareholders.

Reasons to Buy This Report

● This report will help the readers to understand the competition within the industries and strategies for the competitive environment to enhance the potential profit. The report also focuses on the competitive landscape of the global HR Core Administration Software market, and introduces in detail the market share, industry ranking, competitor ecosystem, market performance, new product development, operation situation, expansion, and acquisition. etc. of the main players, which helps the readers to identify the main competitors and deeply understand the competition pattern of the market. ● This report will help stakeholders to understand the global industry status and trends of HR Core Administration Software and provides them with information on key market drivers, restraints, challenges, and opportunities. ● This report will help stakeholders to understand competitors better and gain more insights to strengthen their position in their businesses. The competitive landscape section includes the market share and rank (in volume and value), competitor ecosystem, new product development, expansion, and acquisition. ● This report stays updated with novel technology integration, features, and the latest developments in the market ● This report helps stakeholders to understand the COVID-19 and Russia-Ukraine War Influence on the HR Core Administration Software industry. ● This report helps stakeholders to gain insights into which regions to target globally ● This report helps stakeholders to gain insights into the end-user perception concerning the adoption of HR Core Administration Software. ● This report helps stakeholders to identify some of the key players in the market and understand their valuable contribution.

This HR Core Administration Software Market Research/Analysis Report Contains Answers to your following Questions

● Which Manufacturing Technology is used for HR Core Administration Software? What Developments Are Going On in That Technology? Which Trends Are Causing These Developments? ● Who Are the Global Key Players in This HR Core Administration Software Market? What are Their Company Profile, Their Product Information, and Contact Information? ● What Was Global Market Status of HR Core Administration Software Market? What Was Capacity, Production Value, Cost and PROFIT of HR Core Administration Software Market? ● What Is Current Market Status of HR Core Administration Software Industry? What’s Market Competition in This Industry, Both Company, and Country Wise? What’s Market Analysis of HR Core Administration Software Market by Taking Applications and Types in Consideration? ● What Are Projections of Global HR Core Administration Software Industry Considering Capacity, Production and Production Value? What Will Be the Estimation of Cost and Profit? What Will Be Market Share, Supply and Consumption? What about Import and Export? ● What Is HR Core Administration Software Market Chain Analysis by Upstream Raw Materials and Downstream Industry?

An exhaustive and professional study of the global HR Core Administration Software market report has been completed by industry professionals and presented in the most particular manner to present only the details that matter the most. The report mainly focuses on the most dynamic information of the global market.

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Major Points from Table of Contents:

1 HR Core Administration Software Market Overview

1.1 HR Core Administration Software Product Scope

1.2 HR Core Administration Software Segment by Type

1.3 HR Core Administration Software Segment by Application

1.4 HR Core Administration Software Market Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)

2 HR Core Administration Software Estimates and Forecasts by Region

2.1 Global HR Core Administration Software Market Size by Region: 2017 VS 2021 VS 2028

2.2 Global HR Core Administration Software Market Scenario by Region (2017-2021)

2.3 Global Market Estimates and Forecasts by Region (2022-2028)

2.4 Geographic Market Analysis: Market Facts and Figures

3 Global HR Core Administration Software Competition Landscape by Players

3.1 Global Top HR Core Administration Software Players by Sales (2017-2021)

3.2 Global Top HR Core Administration Software Players by Revenue (2017-2021)

3.3 Global HR Core Administration Software Market Share by Company Type (Tier 1, Tier 2 and Tier 3) and (based on the Revenue in HR Core Administration Software as of 2020)

3.4 Global HR Core Administration Software Average Price by Company (2017-2021)

3.5 Manufacturers HR Core Administration Software Manufacturing Sites, Area Served, Product Type

3.6 Manufacturers Mergers and Acquisitions, Expansion Plans

4 Global HR Core Administration Software Market Size by Type

4.1 Global HR Core Administration Software Historic Market Review by Type (2017-2021)

4.2 Global Market Estimates and Forecasts by Type (2022-2028)

4.2.3 Global Price Forecast by Type (2022-2028)

Get a trial Copy of the HR Core Administration Software Market Report 2022

5 Global HR Core Administration Software Market Size by Application

5.1 Global HR Core Administration Software Historic Market Review by Application (2017-2021)

5.2 Global Market Estimates and Forecasts by Application (2022-2028)

6 North America HR Core Administration Software Market Facts and Figures

6.1 North America HR Core Administration Software by Company

6.2 North America HR Core Administration Software Breakdown by Type

6.3 North America HR Core Administration Software Breakdown by Application

7 Europe HR Core Administration Software Market Facts and Figures

8 China HR Core Administration Software Market Facts and Figures

9 Japan HR Core Administration Software Market Facts and Figures

10 Southeast Asia HR Core Administration Software Market Facts and Figures

11 India HR Core Administration Software Market Facts and Figures

12 Company Profiles and Key Figures in HR Core Administration Software Business

13 HR Core Administration Software Manufacturing Cost Analysis

13.1 HR Core Administration Software Key Raw Materials Analysis

13.1.1 Key Raw Materials

13.1.2 Key Raw Materials Price Trend

13.1.3 Key Suppliers of Raw Materials

13.2 Proportion of Manufacturing Cost Structure

13.3 Manufacturing Process Analysis of HR Core Administration Software

13.4 HR Core Administration Software Industrial Chain Analysis

14 Marketing Channel, Distributors and Customers

14.1 Marketing Channel

14.2 HR Core Administration Software Distributors List

14.3 HR Core Administration Software Customers

15 Market Dynamics

15.1 HR Core Administration Software Market Trends

15.2 HR Core Administration Software Drivers

15.3 HR Core Administration Software Market Challenges

15.4 HR Core Administration Software Market Restraints

Continued…

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Thu, 13 Oct 2022 23:22:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.marketwatch.com/press-release/hr-core-administration-software-market-trends-size-share-top-players-opportunities-revenue-regional-analysis-future-growth-by-2022-2028-2022-10-14
Killexams : What the GRE Test Is and How to Prepare No result found, try new keyword!It focuses on three aspects of biology, each of which provides the basis for roughly a third of the questions on the ... to avoid being noisy during the test administration. Pierre Huguet, CEO ... Mon, 25 Jun 2018 03:17:00 -0500 text/html https://www.usnews.com/education/best-graduate-schools/articles/what-the-gre-test-is-and-how-to-prepare Killexams : IBM to announce $20B investment during Biden trip to New York

IBM on Thursday will announce plans to invest $20 billion over the next 10 years on research and development initiatives and semiconductor manufacturing as President Biden visits the company’s campus in New York.

Biden will travel to Poughkeepsie to speak about his economic plan and meet with workers, a White House official said. The president will highlight IBM’s announcement, which comes on the heels of another investment from chip manufacturer Micron in upstate New York.

IBM said its vision for the Poughkeepsie campus is to become “a global hub of the company’s quantum computing development.”

Biden will be joined during the visit by Reps. Sean Patrick Maloney (D-N.Y.), Paul Tonko (D-N.Y.) and Pat Ryan (D-N.Y.).

Biden will also attend fundraisers in New York City and Red Bank, N.J., during Thursday’s trip.

The IBM announcement is the latest economic win for the White House since the passage of the CHIPS and Science Act, which passed with bipartisan support and included more than $50 billion in incentives for manufacturers to build domestic semiconductor plants. It also included more than $80 billion for the National Science Foundation authorized over five years to support innovation and research.

Biden administration officials had for months warned of supply chain and national security risks if Congress did not invest in domestic manufacturing of chips that are used to power computers, cars and major home appliances, arguing the U.S. would become too reliant on China and others for the semiconductors.

Thu, 06 Oct 2022 09:26:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://thehill.com/homenews/administration/3675515-ibm-to-announce-20b-investment-during-biden-trip-to-new-york/
Killexams : Are you smarter than a Year 12 student? Try these HSC exam questions </head> <body id="readabilityBody" readability="27.954545454545"> <h3>Newscorp Australia are trialling new security software on our mastheads. If you receive "Potential automated action detected!" please try these steps first:</h3> <ol type="1"> <li>Temporarily disable any AdBlockers / pop-up blockers / script blockers you have enabled</li> <li>Add this site in to the allowed list for any AdBlockers / pop-up blockers / script blockers you have enabled</li> <li>Ensure your browser supports JavaScript (this can be done via accessing <a href="https://www.whatismybrowser.com/detect/is-javascript-enabled" target="_blank">https://www.whatismybrowser.com/detect/is-javascript-enabled</a> in your browser)</li> <li>Ensure you are using the latest version of your web browser</li> </ol> <p>If you need to be unblocked please e-mail us at accessissues@news.com.au and provide the IP address and reference number shown here along with why you require access. News Corp Australia.</p><p>Your IP address is: 108.167.164.204 | Your reference number is: 0.87382f17.1666013710.464d13</p> </body> </description> <pubDate>Mon, 10 Oct 2022 15:44:00 -0500</pubDate> <dc:format>text/html</dc:format> <dc:identifier>https://www.news.com.au/lifestyle/parenting/school-life/are-you-smarter-than-a-year-12-student-try-these-hsc-exam-questions/news-story/165c426d4278f5e2abce91389fdec082</dc:identifier> </item> <item> <title>Killexams : Biden touts accurate IBM, Micron investments amid broader economic concerns

President Biden traveled to New York on Thursday to tout another major manufacturing investment, this time from IBM, as a sign of confidence among business leaders in the U.S. economy.

Amid concerns about gas prices, broader inflation and rising interest rates, Biden on Thursday sought to focus on a particular bright spot for the administration: accurate investments by major tech companies spurred by federal legislation to support semiconductor manufacturing and shore up the domestic supply chain.

Biden was in Poughkeepsie, N.Y., on Thursday to celebrate a planned $20 billion investment from IBM over the next decade to boost research and development initiatives and semiconductor manufacturing.

The IBM announcement came on the heels of Micron, another semiconductor manufacturer, unveiling plans to spend $100 billion on a new facility near Syracuse, N.Y. Micron previously announced a major investment in its Boise, Idaho, campus.

And Biden visited Ohio last month to highlight a groundbreaking for a new Intel facility.

“As we saw during the pandemic, when factories that make these chips shut down around the world, the global economy literally comes to a screeching halt,” Biden said Thursday.&amp;nbsp;

“More Americans have learned the phrase ‘supply chain,’” he added. “Well guess what. The supply chain is going to start here and end here, in the United States.”

Those investments aim to restore microchip manufacturing to the U.S. over the next decade after companies outsourced production to Asian countries. Biden noted that car prices skyrocketed in accurate years due to a shortage of chips, which are also used in smartphones, appliances and weapon systems.&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;

The IBM announcement is the latest economic win for the White House since the passage of the CHIPS and Science Act, which passed with bipartisan support and included more than $50 billion in incentives for manufacturers to build domestic semiconductor plants. It also included more than $80 billion for the National Science Foundation to support innovation and research.

Still, the White House is grappling with shorter-term economic headwinds and policy decisions that are largely out of its control.

The Federal Reserve, an independent body, is sticking with its plan to raise interest rates in an effort to bring prices down, despite warnings from Biden administration officials and lawmakers that continued fiscal tightening could ravage the economy.&amp;nbsp;

In her first public remarks since being confirmed to the board, Federal Reserve Governor Lisa Cook said Thursday that getting inflation under control “will require ongoing rate hikes and then keeping policy restrictive for some time.”

Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen said Thursday that interest rate hikes are taking a toll on the global economy, particularly among poorer nations that may now struggle to pay their debts.

“Policymakers in the major economies must continue implementing policies to rein in high inflation while remaining attentive to global repercussions,” Yellen said at a Center for Global Development event.

Her comments came after the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development this week urged the Federal Reserve and other central banks to reverse course on aggressive rate hikes, warning that they could cause a global recession. 

The International Monetary Fund said Thursday that the global economy will lose out on roughly $4 trillion in growth through 2026 and predicted that “things are more likely to get worse before it gets better.” The World Trade Organization on Wednesday estimated that global trade will only grow by 1 percent next year, down from its 3.4 percent prediction in April.  

Higher interest rates are already beginning to slow hiring in the U.S. The number of job openings fell by 1.1 million from July to August, according to Labor Department data released Tuesday, giving economists some hope that the nation’s labor shortage will ease but prompting concerns about a larger slowdown.

Meanwhile, OPEC+ this week announced that it would cut global oil production by 2 million barrels a day in anticipation of lower demand, a move that will likely increase prices at the pump soon.&amp;nbsp;

Before departing for New York, Biden told reporters he was disappointed in the decision by the oil-exporting coalition, which includes Saudi Arabia and Russia, and indicated the White House was exploring alternatives to try and stabilize gas prices.

“There’s a lot of alternatives. We haven&amp;#8217;t made up our mind yet,” Biden said.

Brian Deese, head of the National Economic Council, said one focus would be on pushing oil refiners to bring down the retail price of gasoline to more in line with historical trends when compared with the wholesale cost.

The administration will be closely eyeing a few key economic indicators in the coming weeks. Unemployment numbers from September will be released on Friday, with last month&amp;#8217;s inflation data coming the week after.

When asked about the broader economic trajectory of the country, Deese told reporters the White House is trying to balance both short-term concerns about the U.S. economy and long-term efforts to transition the economy after the peak of the coronavirus pandemic into a sustainable, stable place.

“Even as we focus on the important near-term issues, like dealing with refineries to try to keep the progress in gas prices coming down to sustain it, we are very focused on the long-term economic strategy that this president has had since taking office,” Deese told reporters. “And one of the key hallmarks of that is how do we build a more resilient economy.”

Thu, 06 Oct 2022 03:22:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://thehill.com/homenews/administration/3676893-biden-touts-recent-ibm-micron-investments-amid-broader-economic-concerns/
Killexams : NTA UGC NET 2022 exam Important Topics: Questions have come from these Subjects!

NTA UGC NET 2022 exam Important Topics: Get an idea of the questions and topic-wise weightage of the UGC NET phase 2 exam. Know about the subject-wise good attempts and questions asked in UGC NET paper 1.

UGC NET 2022 exam Important Topics

NTA UGC NET 2022 exam Important Topics: The National Testing Agency has concluded the UGC NET 2022 paper 1 examination today. The paper 1 exam was conducted in the first shift from 9 am to 12 pm. The UGC NET paper 1 exam was compulsory for all the candidates who have filled the application form.

Whereas, paper 2 is going to be an optional paper and shall be held in the second shift from 3 pm to 6 pm. Paper 2 is going to be having around 12 subjects and candidates have the right to choose the same at the time of filling out the application form. 

Talking about the UGC NET examination held today, the level of the examination was easy to moderate. The written test had 100 questions from different subjects. The questions asked were objective in nature. Candidates have to simply mark the correct answer among the available option. As per the student’s review, the overall good attempt for today’s exam can lie anywhere between 60 to 65 questions. 

The NTA shall be conducting the third phase of the UGC NET 2022 examination from 29-Sep-2022 to 14-Oct-2022. Candidates going to appear in phase 3 can check out this article till the end for more insights. 

UGC NET Important Dates

The candidates can check out the UGC NET 2022 important dates for the different events in the table below. 

UGC NET Events

Exam Dates

Notification

30-Apr-2022

Application process

30-Apr-2022 to 30-May-2022 (

UGC NET Application correction window

21-May-2022 to 01-Jun-2022 

UGC NET Phase 1 Admit card

07-Jul-2022 - 08-Jul-2022

UGC NET Phase 2 Admit card

16-Sep-2022

Phase 3 Admit card

To be Announced soon

UGC NET exam date for Phase 1

09-Jul-2022

11-Jul-2022

12-Jul-2022

UGC NET exam date for Phase 2

12-Aug-2022 to 14-Aug-2022

20-Sep-2022 to 23-Sep-2022

UGC NET exam date for Phase 3

29-Sep-2022 to 14-Oct-2022

UGC NET Provisional answer key

To be announced

UGC NET Submission of challenges against answer key

To be announced

UGC NET Final answer key and cut off

To be announced

UGC NET Result

To be announced

UGC NET 2022 exam Pattern 

  • The examination is being conducted in CBT mode. 
  • The questions asked in the examination are objective in nature.
  • The maximum marks for paper 1 are going to be 100 marks and the second paper will account for 200 marks. 
  • Each question asked in today’s examination is going to account for 2 marks. There is no mention of negative marking for questions that are marked wrongly. 
  • Paper 1 was compulsory for all the students whereas paper 2 is going to be based on the subject chosen by the candidates. 

Sections

Maximum questions

Maximum marks

Duration

Teaching Aptitude

5

10

1 hour

Research Aptitude

5

10

Reading Comprehension

5

10

Communication

5

10

Reasoning (including Maths)

5

10

Logical Reasoning

5

10

Data Interpretation

5

10

Information &amp; Communication Technology (ICT)

5

10

People &amp; Environment

5

10

Higher Education System: Governance, Polity &amp; Administration

5

10

Total

50

100

Paper II

100

200

2 hours

UGC NET 2022 Phase-2 Important Topics

As per the experts, the UGC NET examination held today was of easy to moderate level. The subject-wise syllabus and questions asked in today’s exam were at par with the ones asked in all the shifts asked earlier. Go through the table below to know about the subject-wise difficulty level and good attempts; 

Subject Name

Difficulty Level

Good Attempts

Teaching Aptitude

Moderate to Difficult

6-7

-Environment

Moderate

6-7

Higher Education

Moderate to Difficult

2-3

Research Aptitude

Easy to Moderate

4-5

Data Interpretation

Moderate

3-4

Maths/Reasoning

Moderate

2-3

Communication

Moderate

3-4

Information Technology

Moderate

1-2

Comprehension

Easy to Moderate

1-2

Logical Reasoning

Moderate

2-3

UGC NET 2022 Questions Asked

UGC NET paper 1 examination today was conducted in the first shift from 9 am to 12 am. The following section consists of the basic highlights related to the same. The UGC NET exam was conducted in the computer-based test format. The questions asked were from the syllabus prescribed by the UGC earlier. All of the questions asked in the paper were compulsory in nature. Candidates have to attempt the same on their own likings. 

Subject Name

UGC NET Question Asked

Teaching Aptitude

MOOC

Swayam

CBCS

Bloom

Taxanomy

Learner Characteristics

Environment

Protocols

SDGs and MDGs

Niti Aayog

Protocols

CITES

Earthquake

Solar Energy

Higher Education

Swayam

Credits

NEP 2020

Establishment Years

E-governance

Ranking

Research Aptitude

Collective Communication

Barriers of Communication

Mass media

Data Interpretation

Easy Ratio

Ratio &amp; Average Related

Maths/Reasoning

Percentage 

Profit and Loss

Communication

Scales

Sampling

Information Technology

Search Engine

Odd one out on

Conceptual 

Memory related questions

ROM

EPROM

Full forms

Types of Extension

Comprehension

Question based on reading Comprehension

Passages

Precise Writing

Logical Reasoning

Pramana

Structure

Logic

Sushrut

Samhita

Astra

Creative Knowledge

Fallacies

Square of Opposition

The UGC NET (National Eligibility Test) is conducted annually for those who wish to work as a JRF (Junior Research Fellow) and Assistant Professors in different universities. Based on the marks secured in the examination, the candidates get an appointment as an Assistant Professor in any of the public or private universities of India.

Thu, 22 Sep 2022 08:00:00 -0500 text/html https://www.jagranjosh.com/articles/nta-ugc-net-2022-exam-important-topics-questions-have-come-from-these-subjects-1663852363-1
Killexams : Biden hails IBM's $20 billion New York manufacturing deal

POUGHKEEPSIE, N.Y., Oct 6 (Reuters) - President Joe Biden on Thursday championed his administration's push to subsidize U.S. semiconductor chip manufacturing and boost blue-collar jobs at a visit to an IBM Corp (IBM.N) facility in New York.

IBM plans to invest $20 billion in New York's Hudson Valley region, once a manufacturing powerhouse, over the next decade to make and develop semiconductors, mainframe technology, artificial intelligence and quantum computing.

"Where is it written that we can’t lead manufacturing in the world?” Biden said. "The supply chain is going to start here and end here, in the United States."

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Government funding is essential to boost manufacturing and ensure U.S. national security by producing critical goods now made abroad, Biden said. His administration and fellow Democrats have directed billions in federal funding to encourage private- sector spending and create jobs.

IBM's announcement is the latest in a string of investments unveiled since Biden signed the Chips and Science bill in August which funded $52 billion to subsidize semiconductor chips manufacturing and research.

"America invented these chips," Biden said.

Hefty subsidies for private businesses are necessary because China and the European Union had been awarding billions in incentives to chip companies, the White House says.

U.S. President Joe Biden tours areas damaged by Hurricane Ian during a visit to Florida, in Fort Myers Beach, Florida, U.S., October 5, 2022. REUTERS/Evelyn Hockstein

Biden has sought to capitalize on the investment announcements ahead of next month's midterm congressional elections. Last month, he traveled to Ohio to speak at the site of Intel Corp's (INTC.O) planned $20 billion semiconductor manufacturing facility.

The Hudson Valley, home of IBM's Poughkeepsie site, was an economic powerhouse during America's Industrial Revolution, but regional jobs dried up during the second half of the last century, as companies fled to lower-cost locations.

IBM, which laid off thousands of people in the region in the 1990s when it moved chip and other manufacturing, said it now plans to make the site "a global hub of the company's quantum computing development, just as it is today for mainframes."

IBM did not provide a detailed breakdown of its $20 billion investment plans.

The White House said it was sparked by Biden's economic policies.

"The industrial strategy is really helping to drive a renaissance in American manufacturing, and domestic investment ... that we haven’t seen in generations," White House National Economic Director Brian Deese told reporters en route to the IBM site.

On Tuesday, Micron Technology (MU.O) said it would invest up to $100 billion over the next 20-plus years to build a semiconductor fabrication facility in New York that is expected to create nearly 50,000 jobs, with the first phase investment of $20 billion planned this decade.

Biden was joined by IBM Chief Executive Arvind Krishna.

Register now for FREE unlimited access to Reuters.com

Reporting by Nandita Bose in Poughkeepsie, N.Y., and David Shepardson in Washington Editing by Heather Timmons and Matthew Lewis

Our Standards: The Thomson Reuters Trust Principles.

Thu, 06 Oct 2022 12:16:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.reuters.com/technology/biden-tout-ibms-20-bln-investment-new-york-over-next-decade-2022-10-06/
Killexams : Supreme Court's embrace of 'major questions' could rein in administrative state The Supreme Court is visible as a boy sits across the street in Washington on July 1, 2022. © Provided by Washington Examiner The Supreme Court is visible as a boy sits across the street in Washington on July 1, 2022.

In deciding West Virginia v. EPA last term, the Supreme Court invoked a rarely used concept called the “major questions doctrine.” This holds that when an administrative agency claims authority to issue a far-reaching or unprecedented new rule, it must be able to show that Congress specifically authorized what the agency is proposing. At this time, with this court, we are likely to see many more cases in which this agency-restricting doctrine is invoked.

The underlying policy of the major questions doctrine is as clear as the Constitution itself: Under the Constitution’s separation of powers, Congress must make the laws, not an administrative agency. Administrative agencies cannot use a generally stated authority from Congress, such as the EPA’s authority to address air pollution or climate change, to create rules that the agency cannot show were intended or even contemplated by Congress. If the conservative majority of the court stays with this position — and there is every indication that it will — the result will be a narrowing of the powers of administrative agencies.

The facts of the case provide some guidance for how far agencies can stray from the authority they receive from Congress. Over time, the EPA has been authorized to limit air pollution as well as the release of carbon dioxide and other so-called greenhouse gases that some scientists believe can create unwanted climate change. However, the EPA used this authority to issue regulations that would completely change the structure of the private power industry.

Under existing EPA rules, electricity-generating power plants must use the “best system of emission reduction” consistent with their means of power production, whether they burn coal or gas. Coal, even under this standard, will always emit more greenhouse gases than natural gas emits per unit of energy. But as long as coal plants use the best technology available, the law says they can continue to operate.

Also — and this is a unique element of the interrelated electric power industry — when one power generator reduces its production, the others can automatically increase theirs.

So in the EPA’s “Clean Power Plan” rule, as the Supreme Court’s decision described it, the operator of a coal plant could choose one of two options: either to reduce its own production and sell a credit to others whose production has increased as a result or to “build a new natural gas plant, wind farm, or solar installation, or invest in someone else’s existing facility, and then increase generation there.”

According to the EPA, this change in industry structure, called “generation-shifting,” would reduce greenhouse emissions by reducing the production of existing coal plants. But in effect, it completely changed the coal-fired generating industry, forcing it to reduce its production and invest “outside the fence” in non-coal generating sources. Whether or not this is good climate policy, it was a major change in the way the power industry had previously been regulated. It probably threatened the viability and profitability of generating power from coal.

But did Congress authorize (or would it authorize) such a major change in the way power generation from coal was regulated? This question put the issue front and center. How far can a regulatory agency go, beyond the words Congress used to establish the agency’s authority, before it has begun to make laws instead of merely implementing them? This is one of the most fundamental questions that the Supreme Court has faced in the past and will confront in the future.

As the world and the U.S. economy become increasingly complex, can Congress be expected to anticipate these changes? On the other hand, if we are going to have a system in which administrative agencies (and not Congress) are making all the rules, aren’t we then really governed by a faceless and unelected bureaucracy, instead of the people we elect to represent us?

Political scientists and other observers have noted that, over many years, Congress has been able to avoid tough decisions by sending ambiguous authority to administrative agencies. Then, when constituents complain about the breadth of regulations, members of Congress blame the agencies rather than their own failure to use clear and precise statutory language. Indeed, one of the principal reasons the Supreme Court has probably used the major questions doctrine in this case is to force Congress to authorize rules that would reduce emissions of greenhouse gases if it is serious about the issue.

Finally, one other important element in this case deserves notice. The word Chevron appears nowhere in the court’s decision — only in the dissent. This is significant. In 1984, the Supreme Court unanimously held in Chevron v. Natural Resources Defense Council that lower courts should defer to administrative agencies' views about their regulatory authority when those views are “reasonable.” The decision became one of the most cited and important in administrative law and clearly added significant heft to agency powers.

West Virginia v. EPA could have been a classic Chevron case, with the EPA arguing that its decision on the elements of the Clean Power Plan deserved what was called Chevron deference. The fact that Chevron appears nowhere in the majority’s decision (written by Chief Justice John Roberts) suggests that the court will no longer employ the Chevron doctrine — another blow to the administrative state.

Peter J. Wallison is a senior fellow emeritus at the American Enterprise Institute. His most accurate book is Judicial Fortitude: The Last Chance to Rein in the Administrative State (Encounter, 2018).

 

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Tags: Opinion, Op-Eds, EPA, Supreme Court, Climate Change, Law

Original Author: Peter Wallison

Original Location: Supreme Court's embrace of 'major questions' could rein in administrative state

Sun, 18 Sep 2022 16:47:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.msn.com/en-us/money/markets/supreme-court-s-embrace-of-major-questions-could-rein-in-administrative-state/ar-AA11Z1Ca
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