M. H. Jabbar, D. Houzet
GIPSA Lab, Grenoble INP, France
Research in 3D integration has been attracted researchers from industries as well as academics due to its superior benefits over 2D architecture such as better performance, lower power consumption, small form factor and support for heterogeneous technology integration. Depth understanding about 2D and 3D architecture is very important before real 3D design is taking place. In this paper, we discuss the research works on 3D integration particularly its benefits when comparing with CMOS scaling going to sub-nanometer process technology. We also describe several 3D architecture implementation previously developed to justify the need of our 3D experimental implementation which is currently being developed based on a long collaboration between ENSTA and GIPSA-Lab on multimedia MPSoC design.
According to the International Technology Roadmap Semiconductor (ITRS) the number of processing elements is expected to increase more than 100 processors . Additionally, the memory size is also projected to increase dramatically in the future along with the increasing number of processing elements. New concept of electronic design has been introduced a few years back which is 3D integration. This technology enable building circuits in 3 dimensional (3D) structures by stacking the wafers or dies in several layers using TSV for inter tier connection, as oppose to traditional 3D stacking method using wire bonding. This new technology offers a few advantages which could increase the device density allowing complex design implementation and significantly improvement performance. The aim of this paper is to provide general introduction of 3D integration technology and discuss the choice between CMOS scaling and 3D stacking. We also present several implementations of 3D architecture reported previously and discuss their purposes.
II. TSV TECHNOLOGY
TSV is a method that uses via across different layers of active silicon. Material uses for TSV is Copper Tungsten (W)   , Copper (Cu)   and Poly-Silicon (Poly-Si) . Poly-Si material is stable and has less effect on device characteristic than other materials. However, Cu or W is more suitable for the TSV due to lower resistance. Cu is most commonly used because it has good thermal conductivity compared to W and Poly-Si. W has longer delay compared with Cu TSV for any diameter size .
TSV allows high interconnection density between stacked chips. For example 120,000 interconnections for 12.5 mm2 area of 3D chip containing processor and memory . Another reported work achieve 103 interconnections for W TSV with 10 μm TSV pitch in the area of 1 mm2 . Another important thing is TSV lining or TSV insulation to insulate from the Silicon substrate. Most commonly used material is Silicon Oxide which can be deposited using Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) or Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD).
III. CMOS SCALING VS 3D INTEGRATION
As for CMOS transistor scaling, several critical issues exists as follow:
In 3D integration, the long interconnect wire length is reduced to square root of the length in 3D integration due to the stacking. This improves the speed where it reduces the RC delay of the interconnect wire and also reduce the number of buffers along the interconnect wire. For example reduction on average in total wire length is more than 28% when stacking two to five wafers and from 31% reduction for the longest wire for International Symposium of Physical Design (ISPD’98) circuit benchmarks . As the interconnect wire length is reduced, its capacitance is reduced, the number of repeaters along the interconnect wire is hence reduced and eventually power consumption is decreased as well. 3D integration also supports integration of heterogeneous technology such as digital, analog, RF and MEMS technology where they can be process according to their process and then stack with other technology. Finally 3D integration introduces small form factor which is very suitable for mobile devices.
IV. 3D INTEGRATION ISSUES AND CHALLENGES
The importance effect of stacking in 3D structure is increased peak temperature   . The temperature in the chip can reach more than 100ºC. Temperature variation between dies can be around 10ºC for two stacked dies . Hotspot in the 3D chip can be up to more than 100ºC while temperature difference between stacks can be 1-20 ºC . Two things are very important as a result from this high temperature which is temperature variation and hotspot which affect the reliability of the chip are mean time to failure ratio (MTTR) and time to breakdown (TTBD).
Several methods have been proposed for thermal management techniques to solve thermal problem in 3D integration such as thermal herding which place the most frequently switch blocks near to the heat sink , using thermal vias to transfer heat out of the chip    and thermal aware design that focusing physical design stage such as floorplan and placement   . Thermal management techniques using dynamic frequency scaling (DFS) proposed that dies near heat sink can be assigned using higher frequency (eventually higher temperature) while workload that has strong thermal influence is assigned to the die that has stronger cooling efficiencies  .
Thermal stress is another effect of thermal problem when integrating using TSV. This is due to the different CTE property of Silicon, Cu, Silicon Dioxide and W. The CTE of Cu is larger than W when compare with Silicon which means that Cu TSV has stronger stress impact on Silicon. However, W has lower thermal conductivity than Cu. Thermal stress cause timing variation around ±10% for an individual cell . Thermal induced stress in 3D integration causes crack at the interface of TSV and Silicon substrate and between Cu interconnects and low-k insulator . This effect is strongly influent on device reliability. Cu TSV produces high thermal stress up to 750 MPa.
Additionally, there are many challenges for testing 3D architecture such as test architecture, test access mechanism, test scheduling, test pattern, testing under thermal and power constraint which is important especially for testing at run time. New defects create during 3D integration process introduced new type of defects such as in TSV or bonding structure which require distinctive testing techniques. Testing for 3D architecture is a great challenge because functional units of processors at micro architectural level can be partitioned at more than one layer. Testing is difficult because each layer does not have a complete functional system and thus require new testing strategy. Furthermore, pre-bond and post-bond testing is also vital to ensure only known good die (KGD) is integrated in the 3D architecture and TSV formation as well as bonding structure do not have defects .
V. 3D ARCHITECTURE IMPLEMENTATION
We discuss several 3D chips that have been taped out for different purposes over the last few years. There are other 3D chip have been fabricated without using TSV such as  and it is not discussed here.
In , they designed 64 cores using two tiers Tezzaron technology and Global Foundaries 130 nm standard cells. The Tezzaron technology uses via first method with face to face bonding wafer level stacking. They created custom VLIW in-order processors in five stages pipeline architecture to have efficient power efficient inter core communication by removing large and complex data structure. The project demonstrated large memory bandwidth of 3D stacking architecture which is up to 63 Gb/s. Inter core communication is achieved using 4 buffers architecture in each core to their neighbouring cores. Global barrier was used for synchronization for cores. The design can be run at 277 MHz. The design has been tested with several parallel benchmarks proving the correct functionality. Each processor core has 1.5 KB instruction memory and 4 KB data memory. TSV architecture has 1.2 um diameter, 5 um pitch, 6 um depth, tungsten TSV. Microbumps architecture has 3.4 um diameter and 5 um pitch. TSV is used for chip I/O interface and tier to tier connection is using microbumps. Each tier has 5 mm x 5 mm silicon area. A custom architecture is created modified from JTAG IEEE 1149.1 for off chip interface which are test control state machine, and by using four pair of tdi and tdo for each 4 blocks, 16 cores per block.
In , they successfully demonstrated 3D mesh NoC in 3 x 3 x 3 configuration using via last method from MIT Lincoln Lab 180 nm technology FDSOI process with 1.5 V. The 3D NoC is 2 mm x 2 mm per tier. The MIT Lincoln Lab has 3 metal layers for each tier, with a metal layer between two top tiers and a metal layer on top of the entire stack. Its TSV architecture has 2.5 um x 2.5 um with 3.9 um pitch. The two bottom tiers are bonded face to face and the third tier is connected using face to back. The NoC used XYZ routing algorithm. Each router port has 2 unidirectional links with 16 bit links. There is a functional unit connected to each router designed using linear feedback shift register (LFSR). The design was routed with 145 MHz with the power consumption of 120.5 mW. The goal of the test chip is to validate the high level system simulator for 3D NoC they are working on. The router used adaptive xyz routing algorithm. The node is designed as simple as possible so that large network can be implemented. The router has no memory buffer and therefore each flit takes one cycle to travel across each router.
Another 3D implementation is 3D FFT processor of 1024-point memory on logic for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) using MITLL 180 nm FDSOI technology . The FFT is radix-2 Cooley-Tukey FFT. The chip demonstrated that 3D architecture 53% decrease in average wire length, 24% increase in maximum operating frequency and 25.3% reduce in the total silicon area. The 3D die area is 23.40 mm2, 4.8 mm x 4.8 mm. The design run at 79.4 MHz, 12.6 ns with 409.2 mW power consumption at that speed. They used block level partitioning, where processing elements and memory is placed in the three tiers such that memories is close the processing elements.
In , they implemented two tiers logic of 2.5 mm x 5 mm with a three layer 8-channel 3D DRAM stacked on top using Tezzaron 3D technology with Global Foundaries 130 nm process 1.5 V. The purpose is to demonstrate the feasibility of 3D IC architecture for SoC design. The partitioning scheme is done manually at block level where USB controller, H.264 encoder block with its local memory is placed in top tier and other blocks in bottom logic tier, which AHB system bus connects between both logic tiers. The design run at 60 MHz and the DRAM can run at 133 MHz.
In , they demonstrated the feasibility of 3D NoC in 3D technology in two tiers implemented using die to wafer bonding of IMEC 130 nm process with one poly and two metal layers. The design has 1 mm2 die area with 100 TSVs and 12 IO pads. The Copper TSV diameter is 5 um, 25 um depth and 10 um pitch inserted after FEOL and before BEOL formation. Each tier has a traffic generator, a slave memory, a 3x3 switch and a JTAG controller and with fault tolerant test structures. The traffic generator is programmed using JTAG controller which can send and receives flits from NoC. A slave memory is 64 bit arranged in 8 words wide 8 bit. Vertical links are unidirectional for the router and targeted for static faults like stuck at and stuck open fault. The design can run at 25 MHz at 0.4-1.5 voltage supply synchronously. Each vertical link was implemented using 2 TSVs for fault tolerant mechanism.
In , the design of 32 bit 3D adder (Kogge- Stone) and 32 x 32 3D multiplier (Wallace Tree) have been implemented using MITLL 180 nm 3D FDSOI technology to show the improvement of arithmetic circuits in 3D architecture. The chip area is 1.3 mm x 1.3 mm die area running at 200 MHz based on post place and route timing estimation. The TSV size is 3 um x 3 um diameter and ~7 um depth. The 3D adder showed up to ~34% and ~46% for speed improvement and power reduction while the 3D multiplier showed ~14% and ~7% of speed improvement and power reduction from simulation result as the fabricated chip is only used to prototype the idea and 3D design flow.
In , 3D SRAM is designed using MITLL 180 nm FDSOI process showing 32% improvement of access time measured using delay-locked loop (DLL) owing to the reduced word-line wire in 3D architecture. The TSV size is 2.5 um x 2.5 um. The 3D SRAM has 16 x 16 cell array in each tier with word line split partitioning was used for the implementation. The design is tested at a range of 70 - 130 MHz to calculate the access time. The results of the measurement showed that 40 – 60 ps larger from the simulated result.
In , the LDPC (low density parity check) was implemented using 3 tier MITLL 180 nm process in 6.3 um x 6.4 um die area. The design runs at 128 MHz achieving a throughput of 2 Gb/s with 430 mW power consumption. The 3D implementation shown significant improvement in terms of wire length, clock skew, area and buffer size over its corresponding 2D implementation. Finally the 3D memory on memory architecture implemented in 2.9 mm x 2.0 mm chip using Tezzaron two tier technology with Global Foundaries 130 nm technology demonstrated fast checkpointing and restore applications in 3D architecture . Each sram tier has 1Mbit capacity built in 64 banks, each bank has 256 words and 64 bit wide. The chip can perform checkpointing/restart at 4k/cycles with 1 GHz speed.
The summary of the previous 3D architecture implementation is shown in Table 1 . To further investigate the 3D architecture, we are currently designing 16 processors in 2 tier using Tezzaron 3D technology. Each tier has 8 processors connected using 4x2 mesh NoC. We use open source processor which is readily available and we design a 3D router and network interface. The processor connected to the network interface using simple FIFO based communication for both data and synchronization. The aim is to measure 3D NoC performance in real chip by running several multimedia applications. We want also to study parallel implementation in 3D NoC architecture.
3D integration technology is currently under active research by many organizations and more study and investigation is needed especially in the design trade off between its advantages and drawbacks. This paper summarized in general about 3D integration covering how 3D overcome scaling issues and what are the issues and challenges related to it. We also described several 3D chips implemented using different process with different purposes. The purpose is to give general but detail analysis that includes all aspects of 3D IC design.
Table 1: Summary of 3D architecture
|Work||Architecture / purpose||Technology / number of tier|
|||3D multicore (64 core) / to demonstrate large memory bandwidth||130 nm / 2 tier|
|||3D mesh NoC with traffic gen. / to demonstrate working 3D NoC||180 nm / 3 tier|
|||3D FFT processor / demonstrate 3D benefit of speed improvement and area reduction||180 nm / 3 tier|
|||3D SoC for H.264 / demonstrate 3D SoC architecture||30 nm / 5 tier (2 tier for logic, 3 tier DRAM)|
|||3D mesh NoC (single switch) with traffic gen. / demonstrate feasibility of 3D NoC||130 nm / 2 tier|
|||3D adder and 3D multiplier / demonstrate arithmetic circuit improvement in 3D||180 nm / 3 tier|
|||3D SRAM / demonstrate memory access time improvement in 3D||180 nm / 3 tier|
|||3D LDPC decoder / demonstrate 3D architecture benefits (wirelength, clock skew, area)||180 nm / 3 tier|
|||3D SRAM / demonstrate fast checkpointing and restore application of hard disk drive||130 nm / 2 tier|
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Keywords – 3D IC, 3D NoC, MPSoC, survey
Every Sailor who has made a deploy- deployments are made to high-tempera- To help lessen the load on shipboard ment to the Persian Gulf can agree on ture areas. Sustained operations in sear- cooling systems, NAVSEA's Corrosion one thing: it's blistering hot. At least ing weather increase stress on both Control Division (SEA 03M) is testing a two out of every three Navy ship equipment and crew. new derivative of the anti-stain paints already being tested by the Navy—an anti-stain paint that also absorbs fewer of the sun's rays. This special characteristic is known as Low Solar Absorption (LSA).
This coating incorporates LSA and anti-stain properties into the standard topside paint formulation, and is applied in the same manner as the old paint system. The LSA coating is expected to result in interior temperature reductions of at least 10 degrees Fahrenheit. The LSA coating will also help reduce ambient exterior temperatures by reducing solar absorption.
USS Fletcher (DD 992), undergoing a maintenance availability at the Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard, is the first ship to receive the entire LSA paint package—- stem to stern, freeboard to superstructure, and decks. The package consists of two different LSA coatings: an anti-stain coating for freeboard and superstructure and a non-skid coating for decks. USS Fletcher leaves the shipyard in a late summer/early fall timeframe.
To quantify any temperature reduction achieved as a result of the LSA coating, temperature sensors were placed throughout USS Fletcher before painting began. Initial readings from the sensors were recorded and sent to the Naval Research Lab (NRL). Readings will be taken again after LSA coating application is completed, and will be taken regularly thereafter to provide NRL meaningful data with which to perform an analysis.
The LSA coating also has anti-stain properties. Anti-stain coatings use chelating technology to avoid staining. A chelating additive chemically transforms rust into a transparent film — in effect removing the reddish stain. The LSA coating will lessen the load on shipboard cooling systems while improving working and living conditions aboard ship.
In addition, fewer hours will be required for topside paint preservation, easing the "chipping and painting" burden on the ship's crew. At the same time, the ship's operating systems will be able to function more efficiently, even in high-temperature zones.
Once the temperature reduction data from USS Fletcher is validated, NAVSEA's Corrosion Control Division will begin immediate delivery of the LSA paint package to the rest of the Fleet. LSA technology is part of the Capital Investment for Labor (SEA LABOR) program, which is a series of initiatives to reduce maintenance workload through superior products and technology.
As the Royal Institute of British Architects, we want to make architecture accessible to everyone. Our London headquarters, 66 Portland Place, and our RIBA North building in Liverpool are both open to the public to explore and discover.
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The rise in the adoption of EVs is leading to new test challenges to optimize the designs, reduce costs, and make the vehicles more efficient. The various power converters and traction inverters form the heart of the EV Powertrain subsystem and are one of the critical blocks that need to be tested to achieve the highest efficiency. Wide Bandgap technology like SiC/GaN are positively supporting these efforts, but at the same time have their own test challenges that need to be addressed. Join this session to understand the design and test challenges associated with 800V powertrain architecture for Electric Vehicle.
Denis Solomon | Automotive Market Segment Manager | Tektronix
Denis Solomon is automotive market segment manager at Tektronix. He is responsible for automotive business across Tektronix & Keithley portfolios. Prior to joining Tektronix, Denis has served in engineering, sales, and product management roles at global technology companies across three continents. He holds a bachelor's degree in computer engineering from the University of Rajasthan and an MBA from the University of California.
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Srikrishna.N.H | Principal Engineer | Tektronix
Srikrishna is working with Tektronix as a Principal Engineer. His focus is on Power portfolio solutions and related technologies. He is passionate about understanding and solving customer challenges with a heavy focus on power applications like Power converter designs, Power Integrity, Inverter motor drives and Wide bandgap technologies. He has been associated with T&M industry for 20+ years and has wide expertise in Power domain. He has previously worked on High-speed serial compliance solutions for USB, Serial ATA, SAS, DDR, and MHL technologies. He has been associated with standard bodies like USB-IF, SATA-IO and JEDEC. Srikrishna has got several patents granted for his work. He has a Bachelor’s degree in Telecommunication engineering from Bangalore University and Master’s degree in Telecommunication and SW engineering from Illinois institute of Technology, Chicago.
Yogesh Pai | Senior Product Manager | Tektronix
Yogesh Pai is a Senior Product manager, Power Probes at Tektronix. Yogesh is passionate about understanding and solving customer challenges with a more recent focus on power applications like inverter motor drives and wide bandgap technology. He’s been associated with T&M industry for over 13 years and brings over a decade of experience from his previous role as an automation expert to product planning and management. Previously, he was working on High-speed serial compliance applications like HDMI, USB, Ethernet and MIPI technologies and has represented Tektronix at various standards bodies like HDMI Forum, MIPI Alliance and USB-IF. Yogesh has a Bachelor’s degree in Electronics and Communication Engineering and currently pursuing his MBA from Liverpool Business School.
Hydrodynamic tests come up positive for revolutionary ship design The proceeding article was excerpted from a paper created from test results of the FastShip design. The tests were conducted by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Department of Ocean Engineering, and the paper authored by Paul D. Sclavounos.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology's (MIT) Department of Ocean Engineering recently put the TG 770 FastShip through tests to verify its hydrodynamic performance, and in the words of MIT, "the vessel... is outstanding in all aspects of its hydrodynamic performance." Test results also appeared to point to a promise that the vessel may be able to maintain a speed nearing 40 knots in extreme North Atlantic sea states.
The Test Over the past 10 years — under funding by the U.S. Navy and DNV — a three-dimensional panel method has been developed at MIT for the simulation of the free surface flow past realistic ship forms. A code has been written know as SWAN (ShipWaveANalysis) which is capable of predicting the Kelvin wave pattern and residuary resistance of ships in calm water and the motions and wave-induced loads in a sea state. SWAN was first used to evaluate the calm water performance of the TG 770 FastShip (F/S). Computations were carried out of the residuary resistance of the vessel over the speed range of 30 to 50 knots. The different components of the ship resistance were identified including the fractional resistance which is proportional to the ship wetted surface, and the residuary resistance which was found to consist of a wave, hydrostatic and vortex or induced components. The sensitivity of each resistance component upon the hull shape was identified in a way not possible to discern from a traditional tank test. Comparisons of the residuary resistance computed by SWAN with experiments carried out at SSPA was found to be very encouraging over a broad speed range. Moreover, a qualitative comparison was carried out with the residuary resistance of the well-established and popular semi-displacement British National Physical Laboratory (NPL) hull forms which resemble the F/S. For comparable length-displacement, beam/ draft and transom area ratios, the residuary resistance of the F/S design was found to be 15 percent less than any comparable semi-displacement hull form.
The hull form was then put to the test in a typical North Atlantic sea state, including the heave-pitch motions, wave-induced vertical bending moment and shear force distributions, relative motion and added-wave resistance in head waves.
The added-wave resistance is perhaps the most important seakeeping property from the point of view of speed performance in a high sea state. Computations of the added-resistance were carried out in a North Atlantic irregular sea state with upcrossing period of 10.4 seconds and significant wave height of 20 ft. (6 m) with the F/S advancing at 40 knots. It is worth noting that a significant wave height of 20 ft. does not preclude the occurrence of wave heights several times higher. The resulting increase in resistance was equivalent to 23,000 EHP, or just 5.5 percent of the installed power. The corresponding added-resistance index was found to be 0.15, which is lower than the corresponding index of naval or commercial ship forms, which typically have rough water resistance several times higher the F/S. The only hull form for which a smaller index was found is an America's Cup yacht advancing at a comparable Froude number. 1 The low added resistance of the F/S is perhaps its most remarkable feature, and it is attributed to two aspects of its design. First, its hull form is characterized by a fine bow and a wide shallow transom stern, which are responsible for the low heave and pitch motion amplitudes relative to a conventional cruiser stern ship. The second is the length of the F/S, which on the waterline is about 755 ft. (230 m) and quite larger than the typical wavelength encountered in typical ocean wave spectra.
It is known from oceanography that the typical period of the steepest wave encountered in ocean storms is very unlikely to exceed 10 to 12 seconds. The corresponding wavelength is less than 492 ft. (150 m), which is quite smaller than the F/S waterline length.
Wave-Induced Structural Loads & Relative Motion Computations were carried out of the vertical shear force and bending moment RAO distributions along the F/S length in a head-wave Pierson Moskowitz spectrum at wave upcrossing periods of 0 to 25 seconds. At the critical spectrum of 10.4 seconds period and 20 ft. significant wave height at 40 knots, two nearly equal maxima for the shear force were found to occur, one 10 percent of the F/S length upstream of the stern and the second 65 percent of the length from the transom. In the same spectrum, the vertical bending moment maximum was found to occur 45 percent of the F/S length from the transom.
The relative wave motion and velocity and the ship acceleration were also computed along the length of tbje F/S at 40 knots in the critical Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum. These quantities are needed in order to access the occurrence and severity of slamming and to evaluate the inertia loads on the cargo caused by the ship acceleration. Relative motion and velocity plots showed modest values near the bow and significant reduction of their magnitude near the F/S stern, indicating that slamming and white water are unlikely to occur near the aft end of the ship where the waterjet inlets are placed. Near the fore perpendicular, some slamming may occur, but the severity of the resulting loads is alleviated by the V-shaped bow sections. Comparison of seakeeping quantities were also conducted with independent computations of the same extremes carried out by Professor Tendrup Pedersen of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) using more conventional strip theory. With exception of the relative velocity, which was traced to a difference in the MIT and DTU definitions, all seakeeping quantities were found to be in good agreement despite the disparity of the methods used.
WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. – The U.S. Department of Energy has made a $3 million investment in Purdue University-led research showing promise to significantly reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in large-scale manufacturing industries.
The planned outcome is novel high-temperature heat pump (HTHP) technology capable of achieving temperatures up to 200 degrees Celsius or 392 degrees Fahrenheit that can be integrated into multiple industrial applications to help decarbonize U.S. industry. HTHP systems harvest low-grade heat using a heat-absorbing refrigerant to compress it and deliver high-temperature heat for use in manufacturing chemicals, pharmaceuticals, paper and food, among other products.
Given immense energy use in manufacturing nationwide, the research could change the game for industry both financially and environmentally. According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration, in 2018, production of chemicals, paper and food accounted for 54%, or 10.5 quadrillion, of the 19.44 quadrillion Btu used by all U.S. manufacturers. A Btu, or British thermal unit, is a measure of the heat content of fuels or energy sources. By comparison, in 2021, all U.S. homes used just 5.04 quadrillion Btu, or about 25% of total industrial use. Cutting electricity usage up to 50% in these large-scale energy-consuming industries would greatly reduce costs and environmental impacts. The DOE’s Industrial Efficiency and Decarbonization Office, which established a roadmap to industrial decarbonization, this summer awarded $135 million in funding for 40 projects that will reduce the industrial carbon footprint toward a net-zero emissions economy by 2050.
Davide Ziviani, Purdue assistant professor of mechanical engineering and associate director of the university’s Center for High Performance Buildings, is leading the three-year, multidisciplinary project involving industrial partners who have a major stake in the mission of decarbonizing the U.S. industrial sector: Trane Technologies, the Shrieve Chemical Co., the Convergent Science engineering software company, GTI Energy and Chemours Co., a chemical research firm. Other collaborators include Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the National Institute of Standards and Technology, which will support advanced manufacturing and working fluid characterizations, respectively.
Ziviani and his team plan to develop a new type of compressor for HTHPs – an internally cooled screw compressor – which operates using two intermeshing helical rotors, known as screws, to compress the refrigerant gas for high-temperature heat delivery.
“The compressor is the heart that makes the system work. Our solution is an integration of the compressor within the system and its cooling that improves efficiency but also has reliability for long-term operation,” Ziviani says.
Creating a new compressor sounds deceptively simple, but there are many complexities to overcome. “Industry is so diverse. You need a technology that is cross-sector and scalable,” Ziviani says. “Each industry has unique processes, so standardizing the production is very, very challenging. You want a technical solution that is flexible enough to be applied to different sectors. The DOE also requires environmentally friendly refrigerants to be employed in HTHPs, adding challenges to identify suitable refrigerants for the target applications that meet flammability and toxicity requirements.”
Another major hurdle is cost. Conventional HTHPs are expensive to install, integrate and maintain, and their efficiency varies. Ziviani says his team will carefully track the operating costs and payback period – the time it takes for their newly developed technology to yield energy savings that recoup industries’ investments in it – to demonstrate to industry the economical efficiency of the technology.
To address these diverse challenges, Ziviani formed a team that includes faculty members, industry stakeholders and national laboratories.
Ziviani says the research will be carried out in three phases. The first year’s work is now focused on initial assessments of the compressor’s design, sizing and fluid selection to establish a framework for the following stages. The second year will involve building the compressor, testing it and optimizing it. “By the end of the second year, we will prove the performance metrics of the compressor itself,” Ziviani says.
In year three, the team will integrate the compressor into the system architecture, test the performance and assess the economics and carbon savings, Ziviani says. “We also have plans for workforce development, which is another critical outcome of the project,” he says. “We will work with our partners to transfer this technology through professional training sessions and seminars. This will go beyond pure research into making a broad impact to the U.S. economy.”
Purdue University collaborating researchers include Riley Barta, assistant professor of mechanical engineering; Rebecca Ciez, assistant professor of mechanical engineering and environmental and ecological engineering; and Eckhard Groll, the William E. and Florence E. Perry Head of Mechanical Engineering and Reilly Professor of Mechanical Engineering. They will support aspects of the research in decarbonization, refrigerants and lubricants as well as system architecture. Ziviani is also working with Purdue’s Institute for a Sustainable Future to promote undergraduate research opportunities and relevant diversity, equity and inclusion activities and outreach covering environmental justice and environmental stressors including air quality, energy efficiency and climate change. Brian Fronk, associate professor of mechanical engineering at Pennsylvania State University, is also a key contributor who will tackle high-temperature heat transfer challenges.
Writer/Media contact: Amy Raley, firstname.lastname@example.org
Source: Davide Ziviani, email@example.com