Transparency is critical to our credibility with the public and our subscribers. Whenever possible, we pursue information on the record. When a newsmaker insists on background or off-the-record ground rules, we must adhere to a strict set of guidelines, enforced by AP news managers.
Under AP's rules, material from anonymous sources may be used only if:
1. The material is information and not opinion or speculation, and is vital to the report.
2. The information is not available except under the conditions of anonymity imposed by the source.
3. The source is reliable, and in a position to have direct knowledge of the information.
Reporters who intend to use material from anonymous sources must get approval from their news manager before sending the story to the desk. The manager is responsible for vetting the material and making sure it meets AP guidelines. The manager must know the identity of the source, and is obligated, like the reporter, to keep the source's identity confidential. Only after they are assured that the source material has been vetted by a manager should editors and producers allow it to be used.
Reporters should proceed with interviews on the assumption they are on the record. If the source wants to set conditions, these should be negotiated at the start of the interview. At the end of the interview, the reporter should try once again to move onto the record some or all of the information that was given on a background basis.
The AP routinely seeks and requires more than one source when sourcing is anonymous. Stories should be held while attempts are made to reach additional sources for confirmation or elaboration. In rare cases, one source will be sufficient – when material comes from an authoritative figure who provides information so detailed that there is no question of its accuracy.
We must explain in the story why the source requested anonymity. And, when it’s relevant, we must describe the source's motive for disclosing the information. If the story hinges on documents, as opposed to interviews, the reporter must describe how the documents were obtained, at least to the extent possible.
The story also must provide attribution that establishes the source's credibility; simply quoting "a source" is not allowed. We should be as descriptive as possible: "according to top White House aides" or "a senior official in the British Foreign Office." The description of a source must never be altered without consulting the reporter.
We must not say that a person declined comment when that person the person is already quoted anonymously. And we should not attribute information to anonymous sources when it is obvious or well known. We should just state the information as fact.
Stories that use anonymous sources must carry a reporter's byline. If a reporter other than the bylined staffer contributes anonymous material to a story, that reporter should be given credit as a contributor to the story.
All complaints and questions about the authenticity or veracity of anonymous material – from inside or outside the AP – must be promptly brought to the news manager's attention.
Not everyone understands “off the record” or “on background” to mean the same things. Before any interview in which any degree of anonymity is expected, there should be a discussion in which the ground rules are set explicitly.
These are the AP’s definitions:
On the record. The information can be used with no caveats, quoting the source by name.
Off the record. The information cannot be used for publication. Background. The information can be published but only under conditions negotiated with the source. Generally, the sources do not want their names published but will agree to a description of their position. AP reporters should object vigorously when a source wants to brief a group of reporters on background and try to persuade the source to put the briefing on the record.
Deep background. The information can be used but without attribution. The source does not want to be identified in any way, even on condition of anonymity.
In general, information obtained under any of these circumstances can be pursued with other sources to be placed on the record.
ANONYMOUS SOURCES IN MATERIAL FROM OTHER NEWS SOURCES
Reports from other news organizations based on anonymous sources require the most careful scrutiny when we consider them for our report.
AP's basic rules for anonymous source material apply to material from other news outlets just as they do in our own reporting: The material must be factual and obtainable no other way. The story must be truly significant and newsworthy. Use of anonymous material must be authorized by a manager. The story we produce must be balanced, and comment must be sought.
Further, before picking up such a story we must make a bona fide effort to get it on the record, or, at a minimum, confirm it through our own reporting. We shouldn't hesitate to hold the story if we have any doubts. If another outlet’s anonymous material is ultimately used, it must be attributed to the originating news organization and note its description of the source.
Anything in the AP news report that could reasonably be disputed should be attributed. We should provide the full name of a source and as much information as needed to identify the source and explain why the person s credible. Where appropriate, include a source's age; title; name of company, organization or government department; and hometown. If we quote someone from a written document – a report, email or news release -- we should say so. Information taken from the internet must be vetted according to our standards of accuracy and attributed to the original source. File, library or archive photos, audio or videos must be identified as such. For lengthy stories, attribution can be contained in an extended editor's note detailing interviews, research and methodology.
The A.D.A.M. website is for children and young people aged 11-16 years who may be affected or are concerned by another person's drinking (this could be a Mum, Dad, a grandparent, brother, sister or friend).
A.D.A.M. has been developed in consultation with young people who have experienced harm as a result of someone else's drinking and offers an opportunity to explore IF and HOW they are being affected. There are over 51,000 children and young people in Scotland living with a parent who has an alcohol problem. Many will suffer in silence and may find it difficult to talk about what is happening at home. A.D.A.M. offers suggestions on how to cope and provides sources of help and support.
You can also access posters, cards and other resources.
Mentor is the leading international federation of not-for-profit organisations working around the world to empower young people and prevent drug abuse. Their website offers parents and caregivers easily accessible information about drug prevention to help them raise empowered, healthy and drug free children.
NHS Grampian have produced this leaflet to provide information for families and significant others.
Use this graphic organizer to help students compare and contrast information from different sources of their choosing while researching a relevant topic. Guiding questions help students closely examine each source for credibility and reliability, and reflection questions on the second page get students to dig deeper into similarities and differences between types of sources. This worksheet provides essential practice evaluating sources for research, an important part of a middle school literacy curriculum.
For additional value, check out the accompanying Evaluating Sources for Research lesson plan.
The study of mollusks has captured the interest of amateur and scientist alike for many centuries. The National Museum of Natural History receives numerous requests from the general public for information on mollusks. We hope that the information contained in our new on-line Selected Sources of Information on Mollusks will be of help to the beginning shell collector as well as the amateur conchologist and malacologist. This bibliography is not comprehensive and is meant to serve only as a guide to selected references.
Selected Sources of Information on Mollusks has undergone a substantial change in format as well as a thorough revision to produce a more streamlined publication. To that end we have eliminated several sections and combined others to avoid redundancy in titles. The section listing shell clubs has been deleted because this information is best obtained by writing to one of the national malacological organizations which we are continuing to list or by checking the Internet.
The publications listed may not be obtained from the Smithsonian Institution. Most of the references cited may be consulted at local libraries, requested through an interlibrary loan or purchased through local bookstores. Some books are out of print and would be available only from a secondhand book dealer.
Caldrey, Jennifer. Shells. Eyewitness Explorer Series. New York: DK Publishing, 1993. 64 pp., many illus.
Dudley, Ruth H. Sea Shells. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1953. 149 pp., 62 drawings.
Evans, Eva Knox. The Adventure Book of Shells. Irvington-on-Hudson, NY: Capitol, 1955. 93 pp., many illus.
Farmer, Wesley M. Sea-Slug Gastropods. Tempe, AZ: Wesley M. Farmer Enterprises, 1980. 177 pp. 157 species drawn by author. Identification and coloring book.
Florian, Douglas. Discovering Seashells. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1986. 32 pp., color drawings.
Hansen, Judith. Seashells in My Pocket: A Child's Guide to Exploring the Atlantic Coast from Maine to North Carolina. Boston: Appalachian Mountain Club Books, 1988. 124 pp., illus.
Hunt, Bernice Kohn. The Beachcomber's Book. New York: Viking Press, 1970. 96 pp., illus.
Hutchinson, William M. A Child's Book of Sea Shells. New York: Maxton, 1954. 30 pp., illus. in color and black-and-white.
Low, Donald. The How and Why Wonder Book of Seashells. Los Angeles: Price, Stern, Sloan, 1987. 48 pp., illus.
Myers, Arthur. Sea Creatures Do Amazing Things. New York: Random House, 1981. 70 pp., illus.
Paige, David. A Day in the Life of a Marine Biologist. Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates, 1981. 32 pp., color photos.
Pallotta, Jerry. The Ocean Alphabet Book. Chicago: Children's Press, 1991. 28 pp., color illus.
Podendorf, Illa. The True Book of Pebbles and Shells. Chicago: Children's Press, 1954. 47 pp., illus.
Sabin, Louis. Wonders of the Sea. Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates, 1982. 32 pp., color illus.
Whybrow, Solene. The Life of Animals with Shells: A Simple Introduction to the Way in Which Animals with Shells Live and Behave. London: Macdonald Educational, 1975. 63 pp., illus.
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Abbott, R. Tucker. Introducing Sea Shells. Princeton, NJ: D. Van Nostrand, 1955. 10 color and black-and-white plates, text figs.
______. Seashells of North America: A Guide to Field Identification. Under the editorship of Herbert S. Zim. New York: Golden Press, 1968.
______. Seashells of the World. Under the editorship of Herbert S. Zim. 2nd ed. New York: Golden Press, 1987. 48 pp., color illus.
______. Shells: Nature in Photography. New York: Portland House, 1989. 210 pp., 196 color illus.
Cameron, Roderick. Shells. New York: Octopus Books, 1972 (c.1961). 128 pp., 95 figs., 32 color plates.
Cate, Jean M., and Selma Raskin. It's Easy to Say Crepidula! (krehPIDuluh): a phonetic guide to pronunciation of the scientific names of sea shells and a glossary of terms frequently used in malacology. Santa Monica, CA: Pretty Penny Press, 1986. 153 pp.
Fair, Ruth H. Shell Collector's Guide. Rutland, VT: Charles E. Tuttle, 1976. 213 pp.
Harasewych, M.G. Shells: Jewels from the Sea. New York: Rizzoli, 1989. 224 pp., 210 color illus.
Jacobson, Morris K., and William K. Emerson. Wonders of the World of Shells: Sea, Land, and Fresh-water. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1971. 80 pp., illus.
Johns, Veronica P. She Sells Seashells. New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1968. 198 pp., illus.
Johnstone, Kathleen Y. Sea Treasure: A Guide to Shell Collecting. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1957. 242 pp., 8 color plates, numerous text figs.
Major, Alan P. Collecting World Sea Shells. Edinburgh: J. Bartholomew, 1974. 187 pp., illus.
Melvin, A. Gordon. Seashell Parade: Fascinating Facts, Pictures and Stories. Rutland, VT: Charles E. Tuttle, 1973. 369 pp., 75 illus.
Murray, Sonia. Seashell Collectors' Handbook and Identifier. New York: Sterling, 1975. 240 pp., color plates.
Oliver, Arthur P.H. The Larousse Guide to Shells of the World. New York: Larousse, 1980. 320 pp., color illus.
Sabelli, Bruno. Simon and Schuster's Guide to Shells. Edited by Harold S. Feinberg. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1980. 512 pp., 1,230 color illus.
Saul, Mary. Shells: An Illustrated Guide to a Timeless and Fascinating World. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1974. 192 pp., illus.
Stix, Hugh, Marguerite Stix, and R. Tucker Abbott. The Shell: Five Hundred Million Years of Inspired Design. New York: Abradale Press/H. N. Abrams, 1988. 200 pp., 203 illus., including 82 plates in color.
Travers, Louise A. The Romance of Shells, in Nature and Art. New York: Barrows, 1962. 136 pp., 8 color plates, text figs.
Violette, Paul E. Shelling in the Sea of Cortez. Tucson: Dale Stuart King, 1964. 95 pp., illus.
Zinn, Donald J. The Beach Strollers Handbook, from Maine to Cape Hatteras. 2nd ed. Chester, CT: Globe Pequot, 1985. 246 pp., illus.
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Prepared by the Department of Systematic Biology, Invertebrate Zoology,
National Museum of Natural History, in cooperation with Public Inquiry Services,
Executive cyber protection tools provide security for those at the top of the organization with special privileges and access to sensitive information. These are some of the options.
With access to sensitive commercial information, executives face professional and personal cybersecurity risks that transcend those of most other employees. Executives can face targeted fraud and financial attacks on them and their families, blackmail attempts, and identity compromise. Attackers can also impersonate executives to enable phishing, deepfakes, and social engineering-led attacks.
Compromised executives' devices can potentially lead to significant damage to their organizations in terms of financial and reputational loss, fines and other penalties, and even change in market value. Given their privileged position, executives require a stronger level of cyber protection.
A recent Ponemon report, sponsored by BlackCloak, revealed that 42% of respondents indicated that key executives and family members have already experienced at least one cyberattack. While it's likely that cybercriminals will target executives and the digital assets they have access to, organizations are not responding with suitable strategies, budgets, and staff, the report found.
Just over half (58%) of respondents reported that the prevention of threats against executives and their digital assets is not covered in their cyber, IT and physical security strategies and budget. The lack of attention is demonstrated with only 38% of respondents reporting a dedicated team to prevent or respond to cyber or privacy attacks against executives and their families.
The best practice to do this well would be to protect the executive as well as their family, inner circle, and associates with a broad range of measures, Agency's Executive Digital Protection report noted. The solutions need to balance breadth, value, privacy, and specialization, it said.
These are some of the solutions available to address this risk. They are designed around the specific cyber risks that executives face across personal and professional realms.
BlackCloak's Concierge Digital Executive Protection service bundles security and privacy tools into a single platform that builds in a security operations center and dedicated privacy experts. This includes mobile device monitoring, protection against identity theft and phishing, data broker removal services, education and training, home network monitoring, threat Intelligence, and managed detection and incident response. The service allows reporting on the personal information cybersecurity of executives without relaying any of their private information to the organization.
Constella Dome Executive Protection offers protection against credential theft, account takeover, social media impersonation, reputation attacks, supply chain attacks and regulated data exposure that can be targeted at executives having a public profile. The service can initiate automated takedown of exposed identities, data or impersonation profiles and revoke compromised credentials. It offers automated, continuous monitoring of executives' digital footprint, real-time alerts of digital risks like exposed credentials, impersonation, personal and family data on the dark web, and potential threats on social media.
Mandiant Executive Cybersecurity Services are designed to help senior leaders understand the organization's cyber threat profile, business risks, and potential breach impacts. It includes executive tabletop exercises that walk leaders through their incident response plans to prepare for a real event. It also offers a senior executive mentorship program, a cybercrime for executives training course, and weekly executive intelligence briefings.
Morrisec Cyber Security Training for Executives is a suite of dedicated training for executives and board members designed to educate them about the types of attacks they may encounter and how to recognize and defend against these attacks. The aim is to help them gain proficiency in cybersecurity, insight into the identity and motivation of threat actors, and awareness of business consequences of an attack, including financial losses, legal penalties, reputational damage, shareholders action and loss of licenses or fines.
OneRep removes unauthorized personal information such as age, family details, and location information from the web. It's suitable for executives and other employees where it's important to protect sensitive information from being widely available. It scans 190-plus websites to find where the individual is exposed and an automated function then erases personal information from these websites and continuously monitors them.
Proofpoint Executive and Location Threat Monitoring solution crawls the web and social media sites for real-time threat monitoring to detect reputational risks, compromises of executives’ accounts, doxing, cyberstalking, protests, and other real-time threats to the organization and its executive. Proofpoint also has its Advanced BEC Defense that uses behavioral AI and threat intelligence to detect and stop business email compromise (BEC) attacks that target and impersonate executives.
Scarlett Executive Cybersecurity Protection Concierge is a dedicated service designed for the leadership level of an organization that includes a range of tools to protect and prevent data theft. This includes assistance for laptop security, continuous monitoring with advanced endpoint security tools and analysis, inbox training and filtering controls against phishing attacks, dedicated suspicious activity monitoring, protection against data loss on executive devices, data exfiltration monitoring, and always-available concierge support in the case of any attacks of breaches.
ZeroFox Executive Protection focuses on preventing the exploitation of executive reputation and influence through social media impersonations, account takeovers and phishing attacks. It also detects and removes exposed personally identifiable information (PII) on data broker sites. ZeroFox Executive Protection uses AI-led tools to analyze social media, data broker sites, and the dark web to protect against disclosures leading to executive impersonations, inadvertent leakage of critical data, or compromise of digital and physical safety.
Consumer protection laws are made to protect consumers from fraudulent business practices, defective products, and dangerous goods and services. They play an important role in a reliable market economy, helping to keep sellers honest, with no threat of unpleasant surprises.
Consumer protection laws in the U.S. comprise various federal and state laws, each of which governs a particular area of the economy. The government oversees consumer protection through the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), while states use a variety of agencies and statutes to enforce consumer protection and sometimes expand on these laws. Not all jurisdictions protect consumers in the same way, with some being more pro-consumer than others.
Whenever you buy merchandise, it comes with a warranty. This is a guarantee that it will serve the purpose it was purchased for—in other words: It will function.
The two basic types of warranty are express and implied. An express warranty is a promise from the seller, either written, oral, or expressed in an ad, promising that the item will perform its function for a specified period. Whether the item purchased is new or used, an express warranty is a guarantee that the item will work. However, not all items come with an express warranty.
The law automatically provides the second type of warranty, the implied warranty. Implied warranties are a part of all retail sales of new and used consumer goods. The retailer of an item implies that the item will work properly and be of average grade and quality, as long as it is used for the purpose it was sold. For example, a refrigerator will keep things cool as long as you are not trying to cool the entire room, and a blender will blend as long as you are not blending rocks.
Whenever you buy something, it's important to get warranty specifics in writing. Find out what the warranty covers. Does it include service fees if the item needs to be repaired? How long is the warranty? According to the FTC, an implied warranty can last as long as four years, but the real time period can vary according to the state.
If a warranty is breached, get the item replaced or repaired by the seller. If that doesn't work, try resolving the dispute through mediation. If that fails, you have the right to sue the manufacturer or seller.
Service contracts cannot be canceled after you've signed them, but according to the FTC, there is a cooling-off period in which, under certain circumstances, you might be able to void a contract. Contact the agency at FTC.gov for information on the right way to approach your particular situation.
To file a complaint about a seller or manufacturer, you can contact the FTC, Consumer Product Safety Commission, or call up your local prosecutor and ask for the consumer fraud division. If you were defrauded by a telephone solicitor or fell into a TV advertiser's trap, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is the place to turn for help.
Under the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act (FACTA), you are entitled to a free copy of your credit report, at your request, once every 12 months. Financial institutions use the information contained in this report to determine the risk in lending to you. Consumers usually find out about this report only after there has been negative information reported (mishandled accounts, erroneous data, and so on). You can get your free credit report at annualcreditreport.com.
One of the most important consumer protections in finance is the Securities Act of 1933, which was enacted during the Great Depression. The act strictly limits the sale of investment contracts (referred to as "securities") and requires issuers to disclose the details of their financing and business plans. The act also established the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), which enforces securities laws and punishes violations.
The Fair Credit Reporting Act was passed in 1970 to regulate the collection of credit information, which is frequently used to determine mortgage and lending rates. The law limits who can access a consumer's credit history, and prohibits lenders from providing outdated or inaccurate information. The law also allows consumers to read their own credit reports, and to contest any inaccurate information.
The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, usually shortened to the "Dodd-Frank Act," was a sweeping reform of U.S. financial regulations in the wake of the 2008 financial crisis.
The act stepped up oversight of banks and financial institutions, particularly those deemed to have been responsible for the Great Recession. It created the Financial Stability Oversight Council, with the ability to break up banks that were "too big to fail" or to increase their reserve requirements. It also established the CFPB, which regulates subprime mortgages and other predatory lending practices.
The Fair Housing Act protects buyers and renters of housing from being discriminated against by sellers, landlords, or financial institutions.
This law limits the actions of third-party debt collectors when attempting to collect debts on behalf of another person or entity. It outlines when and how often a third-party debt collector can contact a debtor, with noncompliance by debt collectors resulting in lawsuits.
Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act, sometimes just referred to as “Section 5,” demands that consumers be treated fairly and not deceived or put at risk by businesses. That includes:
This act ensures that consumers are not deceived and harassed by telemarketers. Thanks to the TCPA, a national do-not-call list was created.
The Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography And Marketing Act of 2003 is a law that governs email communication. It establishes requirements for commercial messages, including not using false or misleading headers and subject lines, identifying messages as ads, and providing a postal address and information on how to opt out of being contacted in the future. Recipients have the right to stop being contacted, and penalties will be dished out to those who violate the act’s rules.
The GBLA, among other things, requires all U.S. financial institutions to reveal in writing how they handle, share, and protect consumers’ information.
This act governs what information websites directed to children under 13 years of age can collect from their visitors.
There are many other acts worth learning about that apply in certain situations, including the Home Owner Protection Act, the Electronic Funds Transfer Act, and the Fair Credit Billing Act.
Scam artists generally take advantage of whatever is happening at a particular point in time. In the wake of the housing bust of 2008, for example, there were a lot of phony foreclosure rescues that caused people to lose the equity in their houses to so-called rescuers.
There also has been an increase in scam attempts through automated phone calls. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the FTC began receiving reports of scammers posing as government officials, using the promise of unemployment benefits to extract Social Security numbers, private bank accounts, or other sensitive information.
Consumer protection laws exist to protect consumers and make us feel more confident about buying things; however, having this protection doesn't mean we shouldn't care about getting scammed. It's better for everyone if a complaint is not necessary.
Tips include using credit cards rather than debit cards for online shopping and closely reviewing every item on your monthly bills. Customers should also use a separate email account for their online shopping. This method helps avoid spam. Also, never respond to emails asking you to "confirm" exact transactions after you shop because they can be phishing scams.
There are many such laws in the U.S. to shield consumers from fraud, faulty products, or data privacy invasion. One example is the Restore Online Shoppers' Confidence Act, or ROSCA, which prohibits the sale of user data by third-party payment processors. It also regulates "negative option" contracts, in which a consumer's inaction is interpreted as an intention to pay for a service. Although ROSCA does not prohibit negative options, it does enact certain requirements to ensure that the buyer has informed consent.
Consumer protection laws safeguard borrowers against discrimination and predatory lending practices. The Fair Housing Act prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, sex, religion, national origin, and several other categories. This prohibition applies at every stage of the mortgage application process.
In addition, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform Act prohibits several aspects of predatory lending, such as undisclosed mortgage terms and steering clients to those mortgage products that carry a higher commission.
The Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act has several provisions to limit abuse of the bankruptcy system, including an income threshold for Chapter 7 bankruptcy for individuals. It also protects IRAs from bankruptcy liquidations, so a person who declares bankruptcy will not have to lose their retirement savings.
The Fair Credit Reporting Act limits the use of consumers' credit history, such as bill payments and borrowing history. Also, the Financial Modernization Act of 1999 (also known as the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act) establishes protections for personal financial information and requires banks to disclose clearly how private information will be used.
The modern economy is dependent on consumer protection laws. These rules help eliminate bad businesses as well as provide consumers peace of mind and encourage them to spend more. Over the past few decades, the number of laws has continued to grow and evolve to reflect new technologies and business practices. And thanks to the Internet and other technologies, consumers are better informed of their rights than ever before.
This Standard applies to everyone who accesses RIT Information Resources, whether affiliated with RIT or not, from on campus or from remote locations, including but not limited to: students, faculty, staff, contractors, consultants, temporary employees, alumni, guests, and volunteers.
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The University of Manchester obtains and uses large amounts of personal information about our students, alumni, staff, contractors, research participants and other individuals that come into contact with us.
This information is defined as personal data in the General Data Protection Regulation and Data Protection Act 2018 and is often also referred to at the University as Personal Information. Any action carried out which relates to personal information is known as processing.
The University is the Data Controller for the personal information it processes and we process this information for a variety of reasons in order to carry out our academic, employer, charitable and other administrative functions. We aim to be as transparent as possible about the ways we use personal information; to only collect and retain the minimum amount of data possible and to keep it securely.
You can find out more information about the way we use personal information and the rights individuals have to control and manage their data from these web pages.