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OG0-021 ArchiMate 2

Individuals certified at both levels will have demonstrated their understanding of:
 The basic concepts and key terminology of Enterprise Architecture and the ArchiMate modeling language
 The principles and core concepts underlying the ArchiMate core language and extensions
 The concepts from the ArchiMate layers and extensions
 The ArchiMate relationships
 ArchiMate views and viewpoints
 Adapting the ArchiMate modeling language
 ArchiMate Certified Tools to support modeling and analysis
 The relationship of the ArchiMate modeling language to other languages and frameworks

The Candidate must be able to:
 Describe what an enterprise is
 Explain the purpose of an Enterprise Architecture
 Explain what architecture is in the context of the ArchiMate modeling language
 List the different types of architecture that the ArchiMate modeling language deals with

The Candidate must be able to understand and explain the use of:
 The ArchiMate concepts from the Business Layer
 The ArchiMate concepts from the Application Layer
 The ArchiMate concepts from the Technology Layer
 The ArchiMate concepts from the Motivation extension
 The ArchiMate concepts from the Implementation and Migration extension

The Candidate must be able to understand and explain the use of:
 The relationships between the Application Layer and the Business Layer
 The relationships between the Technology Layer and the Application Layer
 The structural relationships of the ArchiMate modeling language
 The dynamic relationships of the ArchiMate modeling language
 The Grouping, Junction, and Specialization relationships
 The additional relationships in the Motivation extension
 The concept of derived relationships

The ArchiMate Modeling Language and Other Frameworks and Languages
The Candidate must be able to briefly explain:
 How the ArchiMate modeling language (core and extensions) relates to the TOGAF Standard
 How the ArchiMate modeling language can be used in combination with detailed design languages, such as BPMN or UML

You can prepare for the examination by working through this Study Guide section-by-section. A mapping of the sections of this Study Guide to the ArchiMate 2 certification syllabus is given in Appendix E. After completing each section, you should read the referenced sections from the ArchiMate documentation together with any other recommended reading. Then you should complete the Exercises and the Test Yourself Questions. Once you have completed all the sections in this Study Guide, you can then attempt the Test Yourself practice examination papers in Appendix B and Appendix C. This is designed to provide a thorough test of your knowledge. If you have completed all the prescribed preparation and can attain a pass mark for the Test Yourself examination papers, then it is likely you are ready to sit the examination(s).

ArchiMate 2
The-Open-Group ArchiMate study help
Killexams : The-Open-Group ArchiMate study help - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/OG0-021 Search results Killexams : The-Open-Group ArchiMate study help - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/OG0-021 https://killexams.com/exam_list/The-Open-Group Killexams : Changing the clocks makes people DRIVE more dangerously because it disrupts our sleep, study finds

Another reason not to change the clocks! Daylight Saving Time makes people DRIVE more dangerously because it disrupts our sleep and circadian rhythms, study finds

  • Researchers have found that changing the clocks negatively affects our driving
  • Study participants took a driving test before and during Daylight Saving Time
  • They took more risks and had reduced reaction times after losing the hour
  • This is likely the result of sleep deprivation and disrupted circadian rhythms

Changing the clocks could have greater consequences than just missing your alarm, as a new study has found it makes us drive more dangerously.

Researchers at the University of Padova in Italy and the University of Surrey have found that Daylight Saving Time (DST) disrupts our sleep-wake cycle. 

They tested the driving ability of 23 Italian male drivers before and after the introduction of springtime DST, and found they took more risks as a result of the change.

Their reaction times and ability to read situations on the road were also compromised after losing the hour.

This is thought to be the result of sleep deprivation and disturbances to their circadian rhythms - the internal process that regulates the sleep-wake cycle and other rhythmic functions. 

Professor Sara Montagnese from the University of Surrey, said: 'The disruption to our sleep and circadian rhythms caused by daylight saving time is known to increase health risks such as heart attacks, but what is not known is the danger it can cause on our roads due to its impact on driver behaviour. 

'Findings from our study will show there is no place for daylight saving time in today's world, as the negatives strongly outweigh the positives.'

Researchers at the University of Padova in Italy and the University of Surrey have found that Daylight Saving Time (DST) disrupts our sleep-wake cycle (stock image)

They tested the driving ability of 23 male drivers before and after the introduction of springtime DST, and found they took more risks as a result of the change. Their reaction times and ability to read situations on the road were also compromised after losing the hour

To get their findings, published in iScience, study participants were asked to drive a 7-mile (11.5 km) route on a driving simulator.

This included both rural and urban roads, and presented the drivers with different scenarios to test if they would take unnecessary risks or exhibit dangerous behaviour.

In one instance, participants found themselves behind a vehicle on a long straight road with a continuous centreline to see if any of them would try to overtake.

The same situation was presented only with a cyclist, and the driver also had to demonstrate they could safely exit a motorway.

The experimental group undertook these tasks before and after the transition to DST, which involved the clocks going back an hour.

A control group off 22 male drivers also took the tests twice, but both these occasions were in the two weeks before DST was introduced. 

Effects of DST on reaction time at an intersection (A); time-to-collision during bicycle overtake (B); standard deviation of steering angle during the freeway exit maneuver (C); mean acceleration during the freeway exit maneuver (D) and maximum deceleration during the freeway exit maneuver (E). Trial 1 occurred before the transition to DST for both groups, while Trial 2 occurred after DST for the Experimental Group only

HOW CAN DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME AFFECT YOUR HEALTH? 

Time changes mess with sleep schedules, according to sleep researcher Dr Phyllis Zee from Northwestern Medicine in Chicago.

Research suggests that chronic sleep deprivation can increase levels of stress hormones that boost heart rate and blood pressure, and of chemicals that trigger inflammation.

Heart attacks are more common in general in the morning, but that incident rates increase slightly on Mondays after clocks are moved forward in the spring, when people typically rise an hour earlier than normal.

Numerous studies have also linked the start of daylight saving time in the spring with a brief spike in car accidents, and with poor performance on tests of alertness, both likely due to sleep loss.

The research includes a German study that found an increase in traffic fatalities in the week after the start of daylight saving time, but no such increase in the autumn.

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Prior to DST, it was found that the experimental and control groups showed similar behaviour, with only 9 per cent opting to overtake the vehicle.

However, after the transition, 39 per cent of the experimental group overtook the leading vehicle, while the control group maintained safer behaviours.

This indicates that those in the experimental group were more likely to engage in risky behaviour, like by overtaking, after changing the clocks.

When encountering a cyclist, most experimental and control participants overtook regardless of whether their time zone had changed.

The disruption to their body clock became apparent through the distance each group left while passing the cyclist. 

While the control group increased the distance, the experimental group shortened it after DST had been introduced, compromising the cyclist's safety.

Additionally, the behaviours of those in the experimental group when exiting a motorway raised safety concerns. 

For example, researchers noted they tended to be more abrupt when changing direction and when decelerating to exit, increasing the likelihood of causing an accident.

Professor Montagnese added: 'It is clear from our findings that the disruption to the circadian rhythms and sleep deprivation caused by daylight saving time led drivers to take more risks and not judge situations properly, making accidents more likely.

'Furthermore, the presence of a control group, whose behaviours remained similar across both assessments, showed that daylight saving time affected those in the experimental group and impacted them for several days after the time change. 

'Such an impact cannot be ignored, and it is important to reconsider our daylight-saving time policy as our safety is at risk.'

Engineers put a pair of googly eyes on a self-driving car to help pedestrians work out if they have been seen and whether it is safe to cross

A comic pair of googly eyes on the front of a self-driving car could reduce traffic accidents, a new study suggests.

Researchers in Japan fitted a golf cart with two large, remote-controlled robotic eyes.

In experiments in virtual reality, they found pedestrians were able to make 'safer or more efficient choices' when the eyes were fitted than when they weren't.

According to the researchers, pedestrians generally like to look at vehicle drivers to know that they've registered their presence.

But in a future where self-driving cars are commonplace, pedestrians won't be able to do this as the driver's seat will be empty.

Therefore, having a set of eyes on a self-driving car can help pedestrians judge if they should not cross the road, and in turn avoid potential traffic accidents.

Read more here 

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Tue, 27 Sep 2022 10:06:00 -0500 text/html https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-11254839/Changing-clocks-makes-people-DRIVE-dangerously-disrupts-sleep-study-finds.html
Killexams : How to change minds? A study makes the case for talking it out

NEW YORK — Co-workers stuck on a Zoom call, deliberating a new strategy for a crucial project. Roommates at the kitchen table, arguing about how to split utility bills fairly. Neighbours at a city meeting, debating how to pay for street repairs.

We’ve all been there — in a group, trying our best to get everyone on the same page. It’s arguably one of the most important and common undertakings in human societies. But reaching agreement can be excruciating.

“Much of our lives seem to be in this sort of Rashomon situation; people see things in different ways and have different accounts of what’s happening,” said Dr Beau Sievers, a social neuroscientist at Dartmouth College.

A few years ago, Dr Sievers devised a study to Improve understanding of how exactly a group of people achieves a consensus and how their individual brains change after such discussions. The results, recently published online but not yet peer-reviewed, showed that a robust conversation that results in consensus synchronises the talkers’ brains — not only when thinking about the subject that was explicitly discussed, but related situations that were not.

The study also revealed at least one factor that makes it harder to reach accord: A group member whose strident opinions drown out everyone else.

“Conversation is our greatest tool to align minds,” said Dr Thalia Wheatley, a social neuroscientist at Dartmouth College who advises Dr Sievers. “We don’t think in a vacuum, but with other people.”

Dr Sievers designed the experiment around watching movies because he wanted to create a realistic situation in which participants could show fast and meaningful changes in their opinions. But he said it was surprisingly difficult to find films with scenes that could be viewed in different ways. “Directors of movies are very good at constraining the kinds of interpretations that you might have,” he said.

Reasoning that smash hits typically did not offer much ambiguity, Sievers focused on films that critics loved but did not bring blockbuster audiences, including “The Master,” “Sexy Beast” and “Birth,” a 2004 drama in which a mysterious young boy shows up at a woman’s engagement party.

None of the study’s volunteers had seen any of the films before. While lying in a brain scanner, they watched scenes from the various movies without sound, including one from “Birth” in which the boy collapses in a hallway after a tense conversation with the elegantly dressed woman and her fiance.

After watching the clips, the volunteers answered survey questions about what they thought had happened in each scene. Then, in groups of three to six people, they sat around a table and discussed their interpretations, with the goal of reaching a consensus explanation.

All of the participants were students in the same master of business administration program, and many of them knew one another to varying degrees, which made for lively conversations reflecting real-world social dynamics, the researchers said.

After their chats, the students went back into the brain scanners and watched the clips again, as well as new scenes with some of the same characters. The additional “Birth” scene, for example, showed the woman tucking the little boy into bed and crying.

The study found that the group members’ brain activity — in regions related to vision, sound, attention, language and memory, among others — became more aligned after their conversation. Intriguingly, their brains were synchronised while they watched the scenes they had discussed, as well as the novel ones.

Groups of volunteers came up with different interpretations of the same movie clip. Some groups, for example, thought the woman was the boy’s mother and had abandoned him, whereas others thought they were unrelated. Despite having watched the same clips, the brain patterns from one group to another were meaningfully different, but within each group, the activity was far more synchronised.

The results have been submitted for publication in a scientific journal and are under review.

The experiment also underscored a dynamic familiar to anyone who has been steamrollered in a work meeting: An individual’s behaviour can drastically influence a group decision. Some of the volunteers tried to persuade their groupmates of a cinematic interpretation with bluster, by barking orders and talking over their peers. But others — particularly those who were central players in the students’ real-life social networks — acted as mediators, practicing the room and trying to find common ground.

The groups with blowhards were less neurally aligned than were those with mediators, the study found. Perhaps more surprising, the mediators drove consensus not by pushing their own interpretations but by encouraging others to take the stage and then adjusting their own beliefs — and brain patterns — to match the group.

“Being willing to change your own mind, then, seems key to getting everyone on the same page,” Dr Wheatley said.

Because the volunteers were eagerly trying to collaborate, the researchers said that the study’s results were most relevant to situations, like workplaces or jury rooms, in which people are working toward a common goal.

But what about more adversarial scenarios, in which people have a vested interest in a particular position? The study’s results might not hold for a person negotiating a raise or politicians arguing over the integrity of our elections. And for some situations, like creative brainstorming, groupthink may not be an ideal outcome.

“The subject of conversation in this study was probably pretty ‘safe,’ in that no personally or societally relevant beliefs were at stake,” said Dr Suzanne Dikker, a cognitive neuroscientist and linguist at New York University, who was not involved in the study.

Future studies could zero in on brain activity during consensus-building conversations, she said. This would require a relatively new technique, known as hyperscanning, which can simultaneously measure multiple people’s brains. Dr Dikker’s work in this arena has shown that personality traits and conversational dynamics like taking turns can affect brain-to-brain synchrony.

Dr Wheatley agreed. The neuroscientist said she has long been frustrated with her field’s focus on the isolated brain.

“Our brains evolved to be social; we need frequent interaction and conversation to stay sane,” she said. “And yet, neuroscience still putters along, mapping out the single brain as if that will achieve a deep understanding of the human mind. This has to, and will, change.”

This article originally appeared in The New York Times.

Sat, 24 Sep 2022 12:52:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.todayonline.com/world/how-change-minds-study-makes-case-talking-it-out-1996861
Killexams : Twitter expands research group to study content moderation

Sept 22 (Reuters) - Twitter Inc (TWTR.N) plans to provide more data to external researchers who study online misinformation and moderation, the social media company said Thursday, part of what it says is an effort to increase transparency on the platform.

The company will also open an application process to allow more people working in academia, civil society and journalism to join the Twitter Moderation Research Consortium, a group that Twitter formed in pilot mode earlier this year and has access to the datasets.

While researchers have studied the flow of harmful content on social platforms for years, they have often done so without direct involvement from social media companies.

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During a briefing with reporters, Twitter said it hopes the data will lead to new types of studies about how efforts to fight online misinformation work.

Twitter has already shared datasets with researchers about coordinated efforts backed by foreign governments to manipulate information on Twitter.

The company said it now plans to share information about other content moderation areas, such as tweets that have been labeled as potentially misleading.

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Reporting by Sheila Dang and Katie Paul; editing by Jonathan Oatis

Our Standards: The Thomson Reuters Trust Principles.

Thu, 22 Sep 2022 02:22:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.reuters.com/technology/twitter-expands-research-group-study-content-moderation-2022-09-22/
Killexams : Liking another group doesn't mean you dislike your own

More than 70 years ago, a pair of psychologists conducted a study in which they asked young Black girls to choose between Black and white dolls. The girls overwhelmingly chose white dolls, ascribing positive attributes to them.

The Black girls' choices and reasoning were interpreted by study authors to indicate "a feeling of inferiority among African-American children and damaged... self-esteem."

The die was cast in psychology discourse: If you like a group to which you don't belong -- an "outgroup" -- it's because you have bad feelings about your own group -- your "ingroup."

A UC Riverside study involving more than 879,000 participants published this week challenges the assumption that liking an outgroup means disliking your ingroup.

"Our findings suggest that outgroup preference does not necessarily reflect negative feelings about the ingroup as much as it reflects positive feelings about the outgroup," said Jimmy Calanchini, an assistant professor of psychology at UC Riverside and lead author of the study.

In the 1940s study, psychologists Kenneth and Mamie Clark used four dolls, identical except for color, and asked young Black girls questions such as which doll they would play with and which is "the nice doll." The girls chose the white dolls, leading the researchers to famously conclude that a Black child by the age of 5 is aware that "to be colored in… American society is a mark of inferior status." The study was subsequently used as supporting evidence in the 1954 landmark desegregation ruling Brown v. Board of Education.

Calanchini's study focused on measures of implicit bias. Whereas explicit bias is bias that is expressed directly -- for example, "I think this group is superior to that group" -- implicit bias is measured indirectly.

Calanchini measured implicit bias with the Implicit Association Test, or IAT, a computerized task in which participants sort words related to ingroups and outgroups, and pleasant and unpleasant concepts. If a participant responds more quickly and accurately to some word pairings than others -- for example, ingroup-good versus ingroup-bad -- it suggests that the faster/more accurate responses are more strongly connected in the participant's mind.

The study was administered through Internet-based sites to 879,000 volunteers, plus undergraduates at the University of California, Davis. The IATs measured implicit bias in the contexts of race -- Black, white, and Asian; sexual preference -- straight vs. gay; and age -- young vs. old.

Among members of minority or relatively lower-status groups -- Asian people, Black people, homosexual people, older people -- who showed implicit bias in favor of a higher-status outgroup, they consistently showed more positive evaluations of the outgroup than they did negative evaluations of their own group. The researchers found the same pattern among members of majority or relatively higher-status groups -- white people, straight people, younger people -- who showed implicit bias in favor of their own ingroup. Their liking of the ingroup showed more positive evaluations of the ingroup than negative evaluations of the outgroup.

"Whenever people like a higher-status group, it's not necessarily at the expense of the lower-status group," Calanchini concluded.

Calanchini surmises one possible reason is favorable representations of high-status groups in culture, like movies and politics.

There was an exception to the finding that one can like an outgroup without feeling negatively toward one's ingroup. White and young people who showed implicit bias in favor of other races or older people were more likely to have negative feelings about their ingroups.

Story Source:

Materials provided by University of California - Riverside. Original written by J.D. Warren. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Sat, 01 Oct 2022 11:58:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2022/09/220929204104.htm
Killexams : Women May Lose More Abdominal Fat if They Work Out in the Morning vs. Evening, Study Finds

Working out in the morning instead of the night can help women lose more fat around their waist as well as Improve their blood pressure, according to a new study published in May in Frontiers in Physiology.

Researchers tested for health, strength and fitness in men and women, splitting them into two groups. One group exercised four times a week in the morning, between 6 a.m. and 8 a.m, and the other group worked out between 6:30 p.m. and 8:30 p.m. There were 65 participants, and half were women.

According to the Washington Post, the research was designed to reflect real-world demographics, said Paul Arciero, the director of the Human Nutrition, Performance & Metabolism Laboratory at Skidmore College, in Saratoga Springs, N.Y., and the study's lead author.

The workouts were the same at both times of day and consisted of either lifting weights, interval training for 35 minutes, yoga or Pilates, or running or other aerobic exercise. The study lasted 12 weeks, and all volunteers came back in generally better shape regardless of when they worked out.

But there was a noticeable difference in women: Those who worked out in the morning saw their total body fat drop an average of 3 percent more than the evening exercisers. They also shed an average of 7 percent more abdominal fat, and their blood pressure lowered significantly more.

The women who worked out at night saw an increase in upper-body strength, nearly 7 percent more than the morning group.

"Based on our findings, women interested in reducing belly fat and blood pressure, while at the same time increasing leg muscle power should consider exercising in the morning. However, women interested in gaining upper body muscle strength, power and endurance, as well as improving overall mood state and food intake, evening exercise is the preferred choice," Arciero shared in a release. "Conversely, evening exercise is ideal for men interested in improving heart and metabolic health, as well as emotional wellbeing."

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As for men, working out in the evening was more effective at lowering their cholesterol levels. The evening group also burned 28 percent more fat overall than when they started the study. Still, strength and fitness remained relatively constant in both men's groups, no matter the time of day they exercised.

John Hawley, the head of the Exercise and Nutrition Research Program at the Australian Catholic University, told the Post that the study did not account for menstrual cycles or track if the people considered themselves morning or night people. Midday exercise was also not included.

Still, Arciero is planning follow-up studies to understand more, and to see if hormones or other genetic effects played a part in the findings.

Thu, 22 Sep 2022 23:03:00 -0500 en text/html https://people.com/health/women-lose-more-fat-if-they-work-out-in-the-morning-study/
Killexams : New study adds to evidence that bans of menthol cigarettes help smokers to quit

A new study concludes that the 2020 European ban on menthol cigarettes made it more likely that menthol smokers would quit smoking, supporting previous Canadian research on the positive public health impact of banning menthol cigarettes.  

Christina Kyriakos from Imperial College London led the study in collaboration with researchers from Maastricht University and the Trimbos Institute in the Netherlands and the International Tobacco Policy Evaluation Project (ITC Project) at the University of Waterloo in Canada.

“This Dutch study is our second major national study to provide evidence of the powerful impact of banning menthol cigarettes on quitting, which supports proposed menthol bans in the U.S. and other countries,” said Geoffrey T. Fong, professor of psychology and public health sciences at Waterloo, and the principal investigator of the ITC Project.

The research team surveyed a national sample of adult smokers of menthol and non-menthol cigarettes in the Netherlands before and after the EU menthol ban. Of the menthol smokers surveyed before and after the ban, 26.1 per cent had quit smoking. This quit rate was higher than the control group of non-menthol smokers, of whom only 14.1 per cent had quit.

In fact, the increased quit rate of 12 per cent of menthol smokers after the European ban is greater than the increased quit rate of 7.3 per cent found in an ITC study of the menthol ban that was in effect across Canada in 2018.

For decades, tobacco companies have added menthol to cigarettes because it creates a cooling sensation that reduces the harshness of smoke. It makes it easier to start smoking, causing non-smoking youth to be more likely to progress to regular smoking and become addicted to nicotine.

For more than a decade, the World Health Organization and many other public health authorities have called on governments to ban menthol in cigarettes to reduce smoking, which kills 7.1 million smokers and 1.2 million non-smokers from second-hand smoke per year worldwide. The global tobacco control treaty, the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, calls upon countries to prohibit or restrict menthol and other additives that make smoking easier.

To date, 35 countries have banned menthol cigarettes. On April 28, 2022, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced a proposed rule to ban menthol in cigarettes and cigars. An ITC study published that day on the impact of the Canadian ban projected that a ban on menthol cigarettes in the U.S. would lead more than 1.3 million smokers to quit.

The Dutch study also found that one-third of menthol smokers reported continuing to smoke menthol cigarettes even after the ban. The tobacco industry markets a wide range of accessories to enable people to add menthol flavouring to tobacco products themselves.

“These tobacco industry actions undermine the effectiveness of the menthol ban. By tightening the regulations to include these menthol add-ons, the impact of the menthol ban on quitting could be even greater,” said Marc Willemsen, co-author of the Dutch study and professor in tobacco control research at Maastricht University and scientific director of tobacco control at the Trimbos Institute.

The study, Impact of the European Union’s menthol cigarette ban on smoking cessation outcomes: Longitudinal findings from the 2020–2021 ITC Netherlands Surveys, appears in the journal Tobacco Control.


Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of news releases posted to EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of any information through the EurekAlert system.

Tue, 27 Sep 2022 00:14:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.eurekalert.org/news-releases/966029
Killexams : Purple Line study: Without help, light-rail line will bring gentrification

Comment

Government officials and community groups should protect affordable housing and small businesses to prevent gentrification around Purple Line stations under construction in Maryland, according to a two-year analysis released Wednesday.

The 16-mile light-rail line that will connect Montgomery and Prince George’s counties — the first direct suburb-to-suburb rail line in the Washington region — is designed to help revitalize older, inner-ring suburbs while providing faster, more reliable mass transit. Some local officials and community leaders have long panic that, without attention, rising land values and rents around the 21 stations will price out business and residents, particularly in lower-income communities in Prince George’s international corridor.

Communities most at risk include Long Branch, Langley Park and Riverdale Park, study leaders said.

The study came from the public-private Purple Line Corridor Coalition, a group composed of government officials, community activists, nonprofits, companies and academics. The group organized in 2013 to try to prevent the kind of displacement that has traditionally followed many Metro stations and new transit lines across the country.

“The true test of our work on the Purple Line … is that all of the communities are able to thrive through the construction and afterwards, that we leave no one behind,” said Del. Jheanelle K. Wilkins (D-Montgomery) at an event celebrating the report’s release in downtown Silver Spring.

Among the recommendations: Make the Purple Line stations safer to reach on bicycle and foot, particularly for lower-income transit riders who don’t own vehicles. It suggested providing more funding to preserve affordable housing and making it easier to build homes for lower- and middle-income residents. The report also recommended helping small businesses to survive construction, while working with residents and communities of color to preserve local cultures.

“We have seen that time and time again, light-rail service has not been kind to local, low-income communities, particularly communities of color,” said Prince George’s council member Deni Taveras (D-District 2).

The findings come as major work on the Purple Line resumes this fall under a new construction contractor. Most construction stopped in fall 2020 after the original contractor quit amid a years-long dispute with the Maryland Transit Administration over delay-related costs.

The line, which was originally scheduled to begin carrying passengers in March, is now scheduled to open in fall 2026, more than four years late and $1.46 billion over budget.

While most construction sites lay dormant for the past two years, coalition members said they continued to research and discuss ways to promote equitable development along the Purple Line corridor using a $2 million grant from the Federal Transit Administration. The work was based on technical analysis from the University of Maryland’s National Center For Smart Growth.

Gerrit Knaap, the coalition’s founder and the smart growth center’s director, said property values and rents already are rising in the corridor.

“The threat of gentrification and displacement is substantial,” Knaap said, “and it’s already happening.”

In addition to acting quickly to assist small businesses and preserve and create more affordable housing, he said, local officials need to Improve sidewalks, add more buffers between pedestrians and traffic, and expand bicycle networks near stations.

“This is a tremendous transit opportunity and investment, but it’s being put in a place that was not meant for that,” Knaap said. “We need to emphasize people over cars.”

Gustavo Torres, executive director of the immigrant advocacy group CASA, said thousands of residents in the corridor are excited about one day riding the Purple Line 15 minutes from Langley Park to jobs in Bethesda — a trip that now takes two hours via bus.

Even so, he said, many are panic they won’t be able to afford to continue living near the stations as economic development follows construction. Some landlords are ending leases knowing they can charge more with the Purple Line on the way, he said.

“Our job,” Torres said, “is to make sure the people fighting for the Purple Line are going to benefit from the Purple Line.”

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Thu, 29 Sep 2022 01:17:00 -0500 Katherine Shaver en text/html https://www.washingtonpost.com/transportation/2022/09/28/purple-line-maryland-gentrification-study/
Killexams : Brandon Hall Group to Launch Study on Developing Inclusive Leaders

Boca Raton, FL, Sept. 28, 2022 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Brandon Hall Group, the leading independent HCM research and analyst firm, is launching a study on Oct. 4 to understand the specific strategies and initiatives organizations are taking to Improve inclusive leadership.

"The great majority of organizations say they support inclusion and diversity in the workplace. Setting the tone for inclusiveness and belonging for all employees starts at the top, so we want to understand the concerted efforts employers are making to Improve inclusive leadership," said Rachel Cooke, Chief Operating Officer and Principal HCM Analyst.  

Brandon Hall Group's research initiative, How Do You Develop Inclusive Leaders?, seeks to answer:

  • How do employers prioritize inclusive leadership?
  • How do organizations support efforts toward more inclusion?
  • How are organization embedding inclusion in other business goals?
  • What are employers doing to overcome barriers to an inclusive culture?

To participate in this study, go to https://www.research.net/r/9DD8YVF. Participants will receive summary results of the research six to eight weeks after the survey launch and will get immediate get access to the Brandon Hall Group research summary, How to Build a Culture that Embraces and Fosters Inclusion.

"Embracing diversity and fostering inclusion is a massive change initiative. For it to have impact, there must be strong and consistent buy-in and focus from top leaders to the front lines. It's critical to drive active involvement across the enterprise," said Brandon Hall Group CEO Mike Cooke.

This quantitative research will be complemented with qualitative interviews. The data and insights will fuel the development of research reports and tools — such as self-assessment tools, models and frameworks — to help organizations Improve inclusive leadership.

About Brandon Hall Group:

Brandon Hall Group is the only professional development company that offers data, research, insights and certification to Learning and Talent executives and organizations. The best minds in Human Capital Management (HCM) choose Brandon Hall Group to help them create future-proof employee development plans for the new era. 

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© 2022 Benzinga.com. Benzinga does not provide investment advice. All rights reserved.

Wed, 28 Sep 2022 07:12:00 -0500 text/html https://www.benzinga.com/pressreleases/22/09/g29062573/brandon-hall-group-to-launch-study-on-developing-inclusive-leaders
Killexams : Structure of family groups gives animals incentive to help or harm their social group: Study According to new research, the structure of family groups provides animals with an incentive to help or harm their social group as they age.

A team of scientists from 17 institutions in six countries, led by the University of Exeter, examined how "relatedness" (strength of genetic links to members of a social group) changes over a lifetime in seven mammal species.

This varies from species to species, depending on whether male or female offspring (or both) leave the group into which they are born.For example, male and female killer whales both stay in the same group as their mother, so females have a growing number of close relatives (their children and grandchildren) around them as they age.Other animals, such as female spotted hyenas, usually live among fewer close relatives as time passes.Given that all animals have evolved to ensure their genes - and those of close relatives - survive, these long-term changes in relatedness to the family group provide animals different incentives to engage in "helping and harming behaviour across the lifespan"."We wanted to know how an individual's relatedness to their group changes as they age, and what consequences this might have for behaviour," said lead author Dr Sam Ellis, from Exeter's Centre for Research in Animal Behaviour.

"We made a model predict these changes and then tested it using data on banded mongooses, chimpanzees, badgers, killer whales, spotted hyenas, rhesus macaques and yellow baboons. Our model fitted the real data. This is exciting because it allows us to predict how and why social behaviours can change with age."

The "ultimate payoff" of behaviours for animals depends on how each behaviour affects an individual and her relatives. When living in a group of close genetic relatives, it might be in an animal's interest to behave in a way that helps the whole group.However, when living among less related or unrelated individuals, the best strategy could be selfish or even harmful behaviour.

"Our findings suggest that incentives to help or harm the group change with age, depending on the social structure of each species," Dr Ellis said.

Professor Darren Croft said: "Across a wide range of species, we see age-related changes in helping and harming behaviour which can also differ between males and females.

"Our new work shows that understanding how relatedness to the family group changes with age is key in understanding how the incentives to help or harm the group changes across the lifespan, which can potentially explain these differences across species and between the sexes."This research opens the door for future studies by providing testable predictions for how patterns of helping and harming will change across the lifespan and we eagerly anticipate new work testing these predictions."

Among the species included in the study, male spotted hyenas, rhesus macaques and yellow baboons usually leave their birth group once they reach maturity.

In chimpanzees, female offspring leave the group, while for killer whales and mongooses both sexes usually stay in the group into which they were born. (ANI)

Fri, 30 Sep 2022 22:36:00 -0500 text/html https://news.webindia123.com/news/articles/Science/20221001/3988897.html
Killexams : Twitter expands research group to study content moderation

By Sheila Dang and Katie Paul

(Reuters) - Twitter Inc plans to provide more data to external researchers who study online misinformation and moderation, the social media company said Thursday, part of what it says is an effort to increase transparency on the platform.

The company will also open an application process to allow more people working in academia, civil society and journalism to join the Twitter Moderation Research Consortium, a group that Twitter formed in pilot mode earlier this year and has access to the datasets.

While researchers have studied the flow of harmful content on social platforms for years, they have often done so without direct involvement from social media companies.

During a briefing with reporters, Twitter said it hopes the data will lead to new types of studies about how efforts to fight online misinformation work.

Twitter has already shared datasets with researchers about coordinated efforts backed by foreign governments to manipulate information on Twitter.

The company said it now plans to share information about other content moderation areas, such as tweets that have been labeled as potentially misleading.

(Reporting by Sheila Dang and Katie Paul; editing by Jonathan Oatis)

Thu, 22 Sep 2022 02:06:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://news.yahoo.com/twitter-expands-research-group-study-140527464.html
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