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Exam Code: OG0-021 Practice exam 2022 by team
OG0-021 ArchiMate 2

Individuals certified at both levels will have demonstrated their understanding of:
 The basic concepts and key terminology of Enterprise Architecture and the ArchiMate modeling language
 The principles and core concepts underlying the ArchiMate core language and extensions
 The concepts from the ArchiMate layers and extensions
 The ArchiMate relationships
 ArchiMate views and viewpoints
 Adapting the ArchiMate modeling language
 ArchiMate Certified Tools to support modeling and analysis
 The relationship of the ArchiMate modeling language to other languages and frameworks

The Candidate must be able to:
 Describe what an enterprise is
 Explain the purpose of an Enterprise Architecture
 Explain what architecture is in the context of the ArchiMate modeling language
 List the different types of architecture that the ArchiMate modeling language deals with

The Candidate must be able to understand and explain the use of:
 The ArchiMate concepts from the Business Layer
 The ArchiMate concepts from the Application Layer
 The ArchiMate concepts from the Technology Layer
 The ArchiMate concepts from the Motivation extension
 The ArchiMate concepts from the Implementation and Migration extension

The Candidate must be able to understand and explain the use of:
 The relationships between the Application Layer and the Business Layer
 The relationships between the Technology Layer and the Application Layer
 The structural relationships of the ArchiMate modeling language
 The dynamic relationships of the ArchiMate modeling language
 The Grouping, Junction, and Specialization relationships
 The additional relationships in the Motivation extension
 The concept of derived relationships

The ArchiMate Modeling Language and Other Frameworks and Languages
The Candidate must be able to briefly explain:
 How the ArchiMate modeling language (core and extensions) relates to the TOGAF Standard
 How the ArchiMate modeling language can be used in combination with detailed design languages, such as BPMN or UML

You can prepare for the examination by working through this Study Guide section-by-section. A mapping of the sections of this Study Guide to the ArchiMate 2 certification syllabus is given in Appendix E. After completing each section, you should read the referenced sections from the ArchiMate documentation together with any other recommended reading. Then you should complete the Exercises and the Test Yourself Questions. Once you have completed all the sections in this Study Guide, you can then attempt the Test Yourself practice examination papers in Appendix B and Appendix C. This is designed to provide a thorough test of your knowledge. If you have completed all the prescribed preparation and can attain a pass mark for the Test Yourself examination papers, then it is likely you are ready to sit the examination(s).

ArchiMate 2
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Killexams : The-Open-Group ArchiMate study help - BingNews Search results Killexams : The-Open-Group ArchiMate study help - BingNews Killexams : How to Become an Enterprise IT Architect

For those aspiring to become enterprise IT architects, you should know that your road to reaching this goal will be demanding. Here’s some practical advice on how to get started in the field and succeed.

The job of IT architect is a highly visible, high-impact role within most enterprise IT shops. The Topic of how to become an enterprise IT architect came up when we received an email from a reader. She asked about the best way to transition from her current IT support role into a more responsible and rewarding (both career-wise and monetarily) as an IT architect. Before we discuss that inquiry and our response, let’s talk a bit about exactly what an enterprise IT architect does.

Enterprise architect job description

Enterprise IT architects play a vital role as IT visionaries and technology gurus who help to shape and implement mission-critical projects and efforts. They may have specific areas of technical expertise or be more generalized IT experts who provide higher-level technical oversight and guidance for IT projects. Enterprise architects are also typically tasked with simultaneously maintaining a strong knowledgebase of current and legacy IT technologies, as well as emerging technologies and other IT trends.

Enterprise architects are also responsible for identifying applicable technical standards to be followed on projects. In addition to their hard technical skills, enterprise architects can be much more effective when they possess critical soft skills. These include leadership abilities, the ability to communicate clearly with all IT stakeholders, strong design skills in one or more IT silos, IT process knowledge and good interpersonal skills.

According to a recent query on Glassdoor, enterprise architects can expect to earn $110,000 to over $170,000 per year, with an average annual salary of $139,000. Chief enterprise architects, the crème de la crème of the IT architect world, can expect a salary range of $160,000 to $230,000 per year, with an average annual salary over $190,000.

Becoming an enterprise IT architect

IT architects can arrive at their perch among the top IT leaders of an organization via many different avenues and technical backgrounds. IT architects might have history as data scientists, networking or infrastructure experts, or jobs rife with other in-depth IT knowledge. Obviously, a strong background in one or more critical IT service areas is key, as are advanced certifications and/or postgraduate degrees, with a thorough understanding of technology standards and methodologies.

One intrepid enterprise architect candidate

A young and determined IT professional in the early stages of working life wonders how to get from point A to being taken seriously as a candidate for an enterprise IT architect job. There’s a lot of work and study to do, but it can be done. Here we explore some potential steps down that career path.

Here is May’s first inquiry to us:

Dear Ed,

I am not sure if I should contact you directly or go to forums. I don’t know which forums to go to anyway. Basically, I would like to become a system/infrastructure/business architect. I would like to know how and where to start. What jobs should I pursue next, because I have been working for four years already? All of my prior positions have involved various support roles in IT, so I don’t know how to move from here. I desperately need some guidance and help. Please do reply!

Thanks and best regards,

A short reply followed, asking my interlocutor to fill out a brief questionnaire, followed by this well-thought-out and nicely detailed reply. My answer and advice follow below. 

Here is May’s second response with answers to the questionnaire, with the original questions in bold:

Thank you for your prompt reply. As requested, I have filled out the questionnaire and I have also attached my resume for additional information.

My goal: When I am 35 years old, 10 years from now, I would like to be an enterprise architect.

1. What is your educational background? High school diploma? Associate’s degree? Bachelor’s degree? Graduate degree(s)? Please also briefly describe any incomplete progress toward any of these items (for example, “two years of computer science grad courses, 2/3 of MS completed”).

I graduated with a diploma in business information technology (from a technical university in 2009). Currently, I wish to do a degree, probably in business information systems (this is a top-up kind of degree that I can get by completing just three modules).

I feel that I need a degree quick and easy, as in the working environment they just want to know if you have one, and since I don’t, it comes off as a great disadvantage.

2. What is your prior work experience? How many years of work and what kind of work have you done? Any volunteer work? Part-time work in school or elsewhere? (You’d be surprised how much value employers provide to those who show evidence of being able to hold a job, and how much credit they provide to people willing to work as volunteers or part time in order to get experience in their chosen fields.)

I have worked for four years and going. I have mostly done various IT support roles. You may wish to refer to my resume attached for more details. Basically, I just do support.

3. Where do you live? What is the job market like there? How much opportunity for entry-level people? Midcareer people? Senior people? Are you flexible about relocation, or do you have to stay in your general geographic area? (Feel free to answer only those questions that relate to your personal situation; if you’re just starting out, please skip the mid- and senior-career stuff.)

I am a citizen of one Asian-Pacific country, actually, but I am currently located in another country. That’s because the job market at home is tough for entry-level IT personnel: It’s easy to fill support roles, but there’s nothing really solid for people of my age and level of experience. They prefer a degree at least and relevant work experience. I am flexible about relocation if required.

4. Are you interested in working in management, or would you prefer to stay on a technical track? Have you ever done any project management (and again, school, part-time and volunteer experience all help)?

I would love to leave the technical track and get on with management. I have been a leader for almost all projects in school and college. I believe I have what it takes to lead a team; however, such an opportunity did not arrive at work. Thus, from a work perspective, I have not led any teams or projects.

5. What kinds of certifications interest you? Please describe any certification held: Is it current or has it lapsed, and when was it earned? How does this fit your overall technical interests? Is there anything outside of certification that particularly catches your imagination, or that you’d really like to work on or around?

I am currently going to sit for an exam in Open Group ArchiMate 2.0 this week (company’s paying). I am also studying Windows Server 2012 server track MCSE, and I am very much intent on completing an ITIL foundation as well. Not to forget a degree soonest possible. I am interested in getting certs, but I don’t really know which certs to get that can help me become an architect.

6. Do your long-term career goals include staying in your current position (or in the same field as the next position you’re seeking, if applicable)?

My long-term career goal is what brings me here. I do not see myself progressing anywhere if I continue doing support roles; it’s as if I am floating around. Since I am able to fit into any job scope, I am able to do anything, actually. This gets tiring after a while; I really wanna become an architect or something similar at the very least. Thus, looking for an appropriate job is my next step.

7. What kind of job are you doing now? What kind of job would you like to be doing? How important is salary to you? How important is job satisfaction? If you could have any job at all, what would that be?

I am currently in the position of a system administrator for a small government organization. However, I do almost anything my boss asks me to. This includes modeling of business processes, writing and performing user acceptance tests, setting up touch interface devices and programs, or whatever else he asks of me.

I would like to be doing something that requires me to exercise critical thinking and problem-solving. It was something that I realized when I was helping out an enterprise architect to model his business process, which I was involved in a tiny bit. I really enjoyed modeling the business processes using ArchiMate 2.0 and thinking of ways to streamline and make it better.

I think I can translate business requirements into technical terms and technical terms to business requirements. This, I believe, is what I might be actually good at. Salary is surely important, but right now I feel setting myself on the right career track is more important than salary.

I am, however, not good at programming, although I know Java and I am learning PHP as a hobby; I would almost certainly avoid such jobs.

Summary: I do not have any portfolio or a great technical skill. I am much like what you call a “jack of all trades, master of none.” I no longer wish to be like that. I do know that I am good at working near the intersection of business and information technology. I have been doing this for years, since I started working, and have been thinking of which career path I should take. I think this is it. But of course, I could use your help. 🙂

Thank you so much.


Here is my response to May:

Dear May,

Let me commence my reply by echoing back my understanding of your long-term goals, then review some of the details in your questionnaire answers, en route to making some (hopefully) helpful observations and recommendations to help you achieve them. If my replies provoke additional questions, please feel free to respond to me directly so we can work them out. 

On becoming an enterprise architect:

To begin with, I think your goal is eminently sound and completely worth pursuing. But it will be a stretch to get out of IT support and into a more substantial IT role, particularly given the kinds of circumstances you describe in your current position. I would suggest that you try to focus everything in your future work and personal development efforts to work your way into systems deployment and, ultimately, systems design and architecture. I’d suggest taking a survey of IT architect programs and certifications available, and for you to start thinking about how you might begin to pursue one or another of them sometime in the next 3-4 years. The delay between decision and pursuit is necessary for two reasons:

  1. To provide you time to complete additional studies and to work on useful prerequisite credentials to prepare for IT architecture certification.  
  2. To provide you time to pursue additional job openings or opportunities where you can work with IT system design and development so as to position yourself more favorably to play the architect role in an IT or consulting organization.

If you can make some progress on both fronts, and find yourself in a more substantial IT position in the next 3-4 years, I believe you have an excellent chance of meeting your goal to find yourself working as an IT architect by 2025 or thereabouts.

Many online and brick-and-mortar universities offer so-called top-up degrees, which are generally equivalent to the final year of an undergraduate degree program. By earning a top-up degree in a field related to your current undergraduate degree, you will be able to list the additional competencies you earn and learn alongside your existing degree, skills and knowledge.

You should contact program recruiters for the top-up degree offerings in the field that most interests you, describe your current diploma, then ask them, “I would ultimately like to work as an IT architect in a decade or so. Given my diploma in business IT from a technical university, which of your top-up degree plans would you recommend to help me pursue this goal?” They may not only have better, more specific ideas and advice to offer to you, they might also have other programs that would help you converge on your objectives more quickly and directly. In fact, you might also want to consider (and ask them and other institutions of interest to you) if there is a master’s degree program in computer science, informatics or information technology that might not directly feature IT architecture as its focus but that helps you make progress toward a career as an IT architect. Surely, this would be a more direct way for you to start working toward your long-term goals!

Given your interest in business, management and the window into operations that working in support always provides intelligent observers, you should also consider adding a Master’s of Business Administration to your educational objectives, with some focus and emphasis on business processes, along with IT governance, compliance regimes and so forth (with some considerable attention to ITIL and its certifications as part and parcel of this career thread). It’s also very much the case that, given your interests and long-term objectives, pursuit of the Project Management Institute’s Project Management Professional (PMP) certification could work to your considerable career advantage. That’s why it’s heartening to see you already thinking in those directions as I read over your questionnaire reply. My response: Keep thinking along those lines, and work in those directions at every possible opportunity.

In the near term (over the next 12 months), I believe pursuit of an ITIL Foundation certification (and a look at what lies beyond) and aggressive pursuit of the PMP should be your top priorities. At the same time, you can formulate your next steps in higher education and decide whether the top-up degree is beneficial, or if you should pursue a master’s degree instead (with an emphasis on IT architecture, if such a degree plan is available to you). Next, you should pursue the degree of your choosing that best supports your IT architecture goals. Once you finish these things, you’ll want to hit the job market again to see if you can get closer to your home base, or if you’ll need to maintain contract work in the general geographic vicinity, as is the case with your current job.

Hopefully, you’ll be able to market yourself more effectively as an IT generalist, project manager and systems designer in your next avatar. If not, you could do worse than to continue in the systems administration area, particularly if your boss keeps letting you tackle projects where you can hone skills that will groom you for more responsible and capable positions in the future. Be sure to keep good records of your projects, accomplishments and work activities. Try to get your boss (or other senior IT professionals) to write testimonials to your work efforts or letters of recommendation along the way. An excellent and easy way to collect work testimonials and recommendations is to join LinkedIn, keep your professional activities and profile up to date at all times, and get strong recommendations from bosses, colleagues, professors and so forth as you work your way toward your long-term goals.

Over the next year or two, as you progress toward your goals, your options should become much clearer. You should also be able to formulate (and then, afterward, to constantly refine) your plans for personal and professional development toward the IT architect role you wish to fill. Again, I am confident you can reach your goal, particularly because you already seem to understand that a considerable span of time, substantial effort and real expense will be involved to make things work.

I’d like to close this email to you with a wonderful epigram I saw on LinkedIn yesterday that seems incredibly apt for your situation:

If you are not willing to learn,
No one can help you.        
If you are determined to learn,        
No one can stop you.

Ultimately, it is your determination, your effort, and the learning and on-the-job experience you acquire that will help you achieve your goals. I believe you’re already off to an excellent start.

Best wishes,

Editor’s note: Emails have been edited for punctuation and formatting to conform with Business News Daily’s style. The original wording has not been altered.

Tue, 28 Jun 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Open source security needs automation as usage climbs amongst organisations

With more organisations tapping open source codes in their own applications, they will need to be able to work through the complexities of such environments with automation tools so they can quickly respond to new vulnerabilities.

Almost all internally developed software today contained some open source codes, noted Phillip Ivancic, Asia-Pacific head of solutions strategy at Synopsys Software Integrity Group.

According to the security vendor's 2022 Open Source Security and Risk Analysis report, 97% of commercial codebases contained at least some open source codes. Of these, an average 78% of code in the codebases was open source. Released in May, the study analysed 2,409 commercial codebases across 17 industries.

Most organisations would not want to build everything from scratch when they develop their own software, said Liu Yang, co-founder and CEO of Scantist, an application security vendor that in 2016 spun off from a research lab in Singapore's Nanyang Technological University (NTU).

There now were many well-established libraries and codebases in open source software (OSS) that organisations could tap and build upon, Liu said in an interview with ZDNet.

Andrew Martin, Databricks' South Asia head, concurred, adding that open source enabled companies to innovate faster and leveraged codes that already were available, instead of spending resources building proprietary software in-house.

Open source technology also ensure full transparency and visibility into source code, offering data teams a connection to the wider open source community, Martin said. 

However, Liu said, tapping open source meant that any vulnerability in the codes then could be inherited by the host enterprise application. Open source vulnerabilities, hence, always should be addressed first, he said.

Failure to do so could lead to serious security risks for businesses that did not remain informed of such vulnerabilities and update their software accordingly, he cautioned.

The Synopsys study revealed that 81% of software codes contained at least one known open source vulnerability, a 3% drop from the previous year.

While tapping open source did not imply in-house software was any less secure, doing so brought in key considerations that should be addressed and managed, Ivancic told ZDNet. For one, companies should know all OSS components including the real versions that were used in their projects' codebase.

Referred to as the Software Bill of Materials (SBOM), this central repository would ensure companies were able to quickly respond when new vulnerabilities were uncovered, such as last year's high-profile zero-day flaw Log4j. With a SBOM, they would be able to identify applications that were vulnerable and deploy the necessary remediation actions, he said.

They also needed to know the exact OSS codebase used in any given project, so they could determine if the application would be impacted when new high-risk vulnerabilities were discovered.

The Log4j zero-day flaw, in particular, was likely to spawn more vulnerabilities in coming years due to the increasing use of OSS, said Liu.

Furthermore, he noted that the Java library for logging error messages in applications was a fundamental framework used by half of Java applications, which meant that all open source software that used the library potentially had severe vulnerabilities.

Hackers could exploit the Log4j flaw to perform remote attacks and use a company's OSS library to control its systems.

It also was tough dealing with such vulnerabilities due to the layered nature of OSS development, he said.

"If you're using an OSS library for one application, that library likely is using a second library and that, in turn, is using a third library," Liu explained. "If the third library has a critical vulnerability and you're using the first library, there is intrinsic vulnerability in this dependency chain. It can present security risks for you, even if you're not using the third library."

Identifying all passive and indirect interdependencies was far from easy, he noted, adding that it could be difficult for companies to access security experts to carry out such works. He pointed to the need for automated tools to support such security assessments.

Ivancic stressed the need for organisations to understand the operational and licensing risks involved in using open source codes. For instance, he noted that OSS codebases that did not have an active community of contributors could indicate potential risks, since new vulnerabilities might not be uncovered and patched in a timely fashion.

The Synopsys study revealed that 88% of codebases used components that were not the latest version, while 84% had open source codes that were more than four years out-of-date. In addition, 53% of audited codebases had licensing conflicts and 20% contained open source with no license or custom license.

Ivancic noted that open source projects had various licensing provisions that ranged from very permissive to those that might require users to publish derivative works under the same licensing terms. A SBOM then would better able organisations to track the different licensing conditions, he said.

"If organisations aren't proactive about maintaining and reviewing their vulnerability updates, they run the risk of becoming an easy target for attackers," he noted. "Additionally, if they fail to comply with open source licenses, they can put their business at risk of litigation and open themselves to threats to their intellectual property."

Like Liu, Ivancic underscored the importance of building automation into the development pipelines to mitigate risks based on internal security policies.

"OSS is not insecure per se…the challenge is with all the versions and components that may make up a software project," he explained. "It is impossible to keep up without automation and prioritisation." 

He noted that the OSS community was responsive in addressing security issues and deploying fixes, but organisations tapping OSS would have to navigate the complexity of ensuring their software had the correct, up-to-date codebase.

This was further compounded by the fact that most organisations would have to manage many projects concurrently, he said, stressing the importance of establishing a holistic software security strategy.

He further pointed to the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), which offered a software supply chain framework that could aid organisations in planning their OSS security response.

Regulations helpful, but not enough to fix all

Asked if regulations were needed to drive better security practices, Liu said most companies saw cybersecurity as a cost and would not want to address it actively in the absence of any incentive.

Hence, some corresponding governance or regulatory policies would be helpful in improving the overall security of open source software, he said.

He noted that there had been discussions amongst developers about the risks of backdoor exploits and malicious codes, which suggested a need for better governance in terms of security and responsibility. He added that his research team at NTU was looking to propose a set of mechanisms and rules to address OSS security.  

However, he said regulation alone would not resolve everything. Organisations still needed to figure out how to achieve better security in a cost-effective way.

This, Liu said, was where the wider ecosystem could collaborate. He added that Scantist recently ran a bug bounty programme in which participants were encouraged to use software composition analysis to find and fix vulnerabilities.

The aim here was to promote OSS security as well as push greater awareness amongst small and midsize businesses, Liu said. Scantist offers a software composition analysis tool, called Thompson, that is touted to help enterprises manage security and compliance risks of their open source libraries.

When contacted, Singapore's Cyber Security Agency (CSA) said it currently had no plans to impose security regulations related to the use of open source software. Instead, the government agency advocated the adoption of zero trust principles and for all Singapore organisations to build their cyber defences based on this framework.

A CSA spokesperson told ZDNet that OSS security should be assessed as part of a company's efforts to reduce risks from their supply chain partners. To help enterprises do so, CSA introduced several measures including programmes for CII (critical information infrastructure) sectors and smart consumer devices.

For instance, the CII Supply Chain programme was announced last year to outline processes and best practices that could help CII operators and their vendors manage supply chain risks and beef up their supply chain cybersecurity posture.

CSA earlier this year also introduced Cyber Essentials and Cyber Trust certification marks that certified cybersecurity measures organisations adopted for their products and services. The initiative aimed to provide "visible indicators" of businesses that prioritised cybersecurity as well as boost the level of trust and confidence amongst organisations that transacted with certified players, the CSA spokesperson said.

He added that the Cybersecurity Labelling Scheme, which rated smart devices according to their levels of cybersecurity provisions, with Level 3 and 4 the highest two categories. He noted that products certified under the Singapore Common Criteria Scheme would have gone through binary analysis to identify known vulnerabilities in OSS.

According to the Synopsys study, the Internet of Things (IoT) industry was amongst the highest user of open source, with 100% of codebases in the sector containing open source codes. However, 64% of IoT codebases were found to contain vulnerabilities. 

Martin noted that open source was never meant to compete with traditional proprietary code. "Today, many software developers and entities are looking to integrate open source with existing operating systems and applications," he said. "This is different from incompatibilities that can occur due to differences in elements such as data formats. Ultimately, open source integration can happen so long as the development is there."

He added that even the most regulated industries, such as the public sector and financial institutions, were adopting the concept that open source was the best way to foster innovation, recruit, and retain the best talent, and future-proof a technology platform.


Sun, 17 Jul 2022 13:18:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Best Enterprise Architect Certifications

Enterprise IT architect certifications appear most often at the apex of certification programs, where less than 1% of IT professionals ultimately ascend. Even so, many IT architect certifications are available, and you don’t need to invest in one certification sponsor’s vision to reach the top.

Many IT certifications in this area fall outside vendor umbrellas, which means they are vendor-neutral or vendor-agnostic. Nevertheless, the number of vendor-specific IT certifications exceeds vendor-neutral ones by a factor of more than 2 to 1. That’s why we devote the last section of this article to all such credentials, as we encountered them in search of the best enterprise architect certifications.

For IT pros who’ve already invested in vendor-specific certification programs, credentials at the architect level may indeed be worth pursuing. Enterprise architects are among the highest-paid employees and consultants in the tech industry.

What do enterprise architects do?

Enterprise architects are technical experts who are able to analyze and assess organizational needs, make recommendations regarding technology changes, and design and implement those changes across the organization. 

How much does an enterprise architect earn?

The national average salary per SimplyHired is $130,150, in a range from $91,400 to a whopping $185,330. Glassdoor reports $133,433 as the average. Ultimately, the value of any IT certification depends on how long the individual has worked and in what part of the IT patch.

How do I become an enterprise architect?

Becoming an enterprise architect is not easy. While the requirements may vary by employer, most enterprise architects have a bachelor’s degree or higher in a computer-related field along with 5-10 years of professional work experience. Many enterprise architects obtain additional certifications past graduation.

Why should I get certified?

Certifications are a great way to demonstrate to prospective employers that you have the experience and technical skills necessary to do the job and provide you a competitive edge in the hiring process. Certification holders also frequently earn more than their uncertified counterparts, making certifications a valuable career-building tool. 

Which certifications are the best?  

Below, you’ll find our top five certification picks. Before you peruse our best picks, check out the results of our informal job board survey. Data indicates the number of job posts in which our featured certifications were mentioned on a given day. The data should provide you an idea of the relative popularity of each of these certifications.

Job board search results (in alphabetical order, by certification)




LinkedIn Jobs



AWS Certified Solution Architect (Amazon Web Services)






CTA (Salesforce)






ITIL Master (Axelos)






TOGAF 9 (The Open Group)






Zachman Certified – Enterprise Architect (Zachman)






AWS Certified Solution Architect

Making its first appearance on the leaderboard is the Certified Solutions Architect credential from Amazon Web Services (AWS). AWS, an Amazon subsidiary, is the global leader in on-demand cloud computing. AWS offers numerous products and services to support its customers, including the popular Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) and Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2). AWS also offers numerous cloud applications and developer tools, including Amazon Comprehend, Amazon SageMaker Batch Transform and Amazon Lightsail.

AWS offers certifications at the foundation, associate and professional levels across five role-based categories: architect, developer, operations, cloud and specialty certifications. Foundation-level certifications validate a candidate’s understanding of the AWS Cloud and serve as a prerequisite to AWS specialty certifications. Foundation certifications are a recommended starting place for those seeking higher-level credentials.

Associate credentials typically have no prerequisites and focus on technical skills. They are required to obtain professional-level certifications, which are the highest level of technical certification available. Specialty certs, meanwhile, focus on skills in targeted areas.

AWS Certified Solutions Architect – Associate 2019

AWS currently offers the following credentials:

  • Foundation credentials: AWS Certified Cloud Practitioner
  • Associate credentials: AWS Certified Solutions Architect Associate, AWS Certified Developer and AWS Certified SysOps Administrator
  • Professional: AWS Certified Solutions Architect Professional and AWS Certified DevOps Engineer
  • Specialty: AWS Certified Advanced Networking, AWS Certified Big Data and AWS Certified Security

The AWS Certified Solutions Architect credential is available at the associate and professional levels. The associate credential targets candidates with at least one year of experience architecting and implementing solutions based on AWS applications and technologies. AWS updated the associate-level exam in February 2018 to include architecture best practices and new services.

The AWS Certified Solutions Architect – Professional certification targets senior AWS architects who can architect, design, implement and manage complex enterprise-level AWS solutions based on defined organizational requirements. Candidates should have a minimum of two years’ direct experience deploying and designing on the AWS cloud and be able to translate organizational requirements into solutions and recommend best practices. The associate credential is a mandatory prerequisite.

AWS Certified Solution Architect facts and figures

Certification name

Certified Solution Architect – Associate

Certified Solution Architect – Professional

Prerequisites and required courses

Associate: One year of hands-on experience recommended, AWS Certified Cloud Practitioner

Professional: Certified Solution Architect – Associate credential plus a minimum of two years of hands-on experience

Number of exams

Associate: One exam (65 questions, 130 minutes to complete)

Professional: One exam (170 minutes to complete)

Certification fees

Associate: $150 (practice exam $20)

Professional: $300 (practice exam $40)


Self-study materials

AWS makes sample questions, practice exams, exam guides, whitepapers and more available on the certification home page.

CTA: Certified Technical Architect

In 1999, Salesforce revolutionized the world of CRM when it introduced the concept of using the cloud to provide top-notch CRM software. Today, Salesforce has more than 150,000 customers, making it the industry leader for CRM enterprise cloud platforms. Currently, Salesforce offers solutions for various focus areas, including sales, service, marketing, commerce, engagement, community, productivity (Quip), platform and ecosystem, integration, analytics, enablement, internet of things (IoT), artificial intelligence, mobility, and industry (financial and health).

To meet industry needs for qualified and experienced professionals with the skills necessary to support its growing customer base, Salesforce developed and maintains a top-tier certification program. It offers many paths to candidates, including for administration, app building, architecture and marketing.

Salesforce Architect certifications are hierarchical, with most (but not all) lower-level credentials serving as prerequisites for more advanced credentials. At the top of the certification pyramid is the highest credential a Salesforce professional can earn – the Certified Technical Architect (CTA), which is our featured Salesforce certification.

The Salesforce Architect certification pyramid has three levels:

  • Specializations: These form the bottom tier of the pyramid. Salesforce offers eight specializations, four of which support application solutions, while the other four support system solutions. Application specializations include certifications for Data Architecture and Management Designer, Sharing and Visibility Designer, Platform Developer I, and Platform App Builder. System specializations include Development Lifecycle and Deployment Designer, Identity and Access Management Designer, Integration Architecture Designer, and Platform Developer I credentials.
  • Domain Architect: There are two Salesforce Domain Architect credentials: the Certified Application Architect and the Certified System Architect. The Certified Application Architect designation targets professionals with expert-level knowledge in Salesforce product functionality and features, while the Certified System Architect credential focuses on governance, integration and testing. Both credentials require the candidate to first earn their corresponding specialization certifications in addition to meeting other requirements.
  • Technical Architect: The Certified Technical Architect (CTA) is the highest Salesforce credential available. CTAs are experts in all Salesforce domains and possess skills necessary to design, build and implement Salesforce platform solutions. To earn the CTA, candidates must first obtain both the Certified Application Architect and Certified System Architect credentials or pass a single exam. Candidates must meet experience requirements and pass a rigorous board review, which validates their knowledge and skills in Salesforce competency areas, such as communication, development lifecycle and deployment planning, integration, solution architecture, data, security, and systems architecture.

Salesforce requires CTAs to maintain current skills. Credential holders must pass maintenance module exams with each new product release cycle (typically in summer, winter and spring). While challenging to earn, the CTA is important for IT professionals who are serious about a Salesforce technologies career.

CTA facts and figures

Certification name

Certified Technical Architect (CTA)

Prerequisites and required courses

Salesforce Certified Application Architect and Salesforce Certified System Architect credential:

  • Five years of implementation experience (must include development experience across the full software development lifecycle)
  • Three years of experience in an architect role
  • Two years of experience with the Lightning Platform (one year must be in an architect role while implementing Salesforce technologies and applications)
  • Experience as a technical architect on multiple complex deployments OR equivalent knowledge through project participation
  • Additional experience – guiding teams on platform technology; identifying and mitigating technical risks; exposure to project globalization, object-oriented design patterns, platform-specific design patterns and limits; developing code on the platform; building and addressing security complexities, mechanisms, and capabilities on the platform as part of a functional security model; knowledge of data migration, design trade-offs and ETL tools, large data volume considerations, risks and mitigation strategies, general mobile solutions and architecture, on-platform mobile solutions, and considerations as well as project and development lifecycle methodologies

Number of exams

One exam (four hours to complete; candidates must formulate, justify and present recommendations based on a hypothetical scenario to a review board)

Certification fees


Retake fee: $3,000


Self-study materials

Salesforce maintains links on the certification webpage to numerous review materials, including the online documentation, tip sheets, user guides, exam guide and outline, Architect Journey e-books, Trailhead trails, and the Salesforce Certification Guide.

ITIL Master Certificate – IT Service Management

One of our favorite credential sets (and for employers as well, judging by job board numbers) is the ITIL for IT Service Management credentials from Axelos. Axelos is a global provider of standards designed to drive best practices and quality throughout organizations. ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure Library) joined the Axelos family in 2013.

Axelos manages ITIL credentialing requirements and updates, provides accreditation to Examination Institutes (EIs), and licenses organizations seeking to use ITIL. In addition to ITIL certifications, Axelos offers credentials for Prince2 2017 (which includes Foundation, Practitioner and Agile qualifications), Prince2 Agile, Resilia, MSP, MoP, M_o_R, P30, MoV, P3M3 and AgileSHIFT.

ITIL is a set of well-defined and well-respected best practices that specifically target the area of IT service management. There are more than 2 million ITIL-certified practitioners worldwide. ITIL is perhaps the most widely known and globally adopted set of best practices and management tools for IT service management and support.

ITIL Foundation (2011): Complete course and 2 practice exams

Axelos maintains a robust ITIL certification portfolio consisting of five ITIL credentials:

  • ITIL Foundation: An entry-level credential that validates general ITIL knowledge, including terminology, concepts, elements, services lifecycle and ITIL processes
  • ITIL Practitioner: A steppingstone credential for the Intermediate credential that tests a candidate’s ability to use ITIL principles within their business organization
  • ITIL Intermediate: An industry-recognized qualification with a modular structure, each module focusing on a different aspect of IT service management
  • ITIL Expert: An expert-level credential for candidates who possess broad ITIL knowledge that covers the entire ITIL scheme
  • ITIL Master: The highest ITIL credential from Axelos, targeting professionals who recommend and implement ITIL best practices

Axelos introduced ITIL 4 in early 2019. ITIL 3 practitioners should check the Axelos website frequently for updates about the transition to ITIL 4 and availability of the ITIL 4 transition modules.

The ITIL Master is the pinnacle ITIL certification, requiring experience, dedication, and a thorough understanding of ITIL principles, practices, and techniques. To gain the ITIL Master designation, candidates must have at least five years of managerial, advisory or other leadership experience in the field of IT service management. They must also possess the ITIL Expert certification. Once the skill and certification requirements are met, the real certification work begins.

Upon completing the prerequisites, candidates must register with PeopleCert, the sole approved Axelos Examination Institute, and submit an application. Next, candidates prepare and submit a proposal for a business improvement to implement within their organization. The proposal submission is followed by a “work package,” which documents a real-world project that encompasses multiple ITIL areas.

The work package (1) validates how the candidate applied ITIL principles, practices, and techniques to the project; and (2) documents the effectiveness of the solution and the ultimate benefit the business received as a result of the ITIL solution. Finally, candidates must pass an interview with an assessment panel where they defend their solution.

Axelos will soon be sponsoring 50 lucky people in their quest to obtain the ITIL 4 Master certification. You can register your interest in the program here.

ITIL Master facts and figures

Certification name

ITIL Master Certificate – IT Service Management

Prerequisites and required courses

ITIL Expert Certificate: Five years of IT service experience in managerial, leadership or advisory roles

Number of exams

No exam required, but candidates must complete the following steps:

  • Register with PeopleCert.
  • Submit application.
  • Submit proposal.
  • Submit work package.
  • Attend interview.

Certification fees

$4,440 if all ITIL credits obtained through PeopleCert

$5,225 if some ITIL credits were obtained from other institutes


Self-study materials

Axelos provides documentation to guide candidates in the preparation of proposal and work package submissions. Available documents include ITIL Master FAQs, ITIL Master Proposal Requirements and Scope, and ITIL Master Work Package Requirements and Scope.


A leader in enterprise architecture, The Open Group’s standards and certifications are globally recognized. The TOGAF (The Open Group Architecture Framework) standard for enterprise architecture is popular among leading enterprise-level organizations. Currently, TOGAF is the development and architecture framework of choice for more than 80% of global enterprises.

TOGAF’s popularity reflects that the framework standard is specifically geared to all aspects of enterprise-level IT architectures, with an emphasis on building efficiency within an organization. The scope of the standard’s approach covers everything from design and planning stages to implementation, maintenance, and governance.

The Open Group offers several enterprise architect credentials, including TOGAF, Open CA, ArchiMate, IT4IT and the foundational Certified Technical Specialist (Open CTS).

The Open Group reports that there are more than 75,000 TOGAF-certified enterprise architects. At present, there are two TOGAF credentials: the TOGAF 9 Foundation (Level 1) and TOGAF 9 Certified (Level 2). (The TOGAF framework is currently based on version 9.2, although the credential name still reflects version 9.)

The TOGAF 9 Foundation, or Level 1, credential targets architects who demonstrate an understanding of TOGAF principles and standards. A single exam is required to earn the Level 1 designation. The Level 1 exam focuses on TOGAF-related concepts such as TOGAF reference models, terminology, core concepts, standards, ADM, architectural governance and enterprise architecture. The Level 1 credential serves as a steppingstone to the more advanced TOGAF Level 2 certification.

The TOGAF 9 Certified, or Level 2, credential incorporates all requirements for Level 1. Level 2 TOGAF architects possess in-depth knowledge of TOGAF standards and principles and can apply them to organizational goals and enterprise-level infrastructure. To earn this designation, candidates must first earn the Level 1 credential and pass the Level 2 exam. The Level 2 exam covers TOGAF concepts such as ADM phases, governance, content framework, building blocks, stakeholder management, metamodels, TOGAF techniques, reference models and ADM iterations.

Candidates wanting a fast track to Level 2 certification may take a combination exam, which covers requirements for both Level 1 and 2. Training is not mandatory for either credential but is highly recommended. Training classes run 2-5 days, depending on the provider and whether you’re taking the combined or single-level course. The Open Group maintains a list of approved training providers and a schedule of current training opportunities on the certification webpage.

TOGAF 9 facts and figures 

Certification name

TOGAF 9 Foundation (Level 1)
TOGAF 9 Certified (Level 2)

Prerequisites and required courses

TOGAF 9 Foundation (Level 1): None
TOGAF 9 Certified (Level 2): TOGAF 9 Foundation (Level 1) credential

Number of exams

Level 1: One exam (40 questions, 60 minutes, 55% required to pass)

Level 2: One exam (eight questions, 90 minutes)

Level 1 and 2 combined exam (48 questions, 2.5 hours)

Certification fees

$320 each for Level 1 and Level 2 exams

$495 for combined Level 1 and Level 2 exam

Exams are administered by Pearson VUE. Some training providers include the exam with the training course.


Self-study materials

A number of resources are available from The Open Group, including whitepapers, webinars, publications, TOGAF standards, the TOGAF Foundation Study Guide ($29.95 for PDF; includes practice exam), VCE exam (99 cents for PDF) and the TOGAF 9 Certified Study Guide (a combined study guide is available for $59.95). The Open Group also maintains a list of accredited training course providers and a calendar of training events.

Zachman Certified – Enterprise Architect

Founded in 1990, Zachman International promotes education and research for enterprise architecture and the Zachman Framework. Rather than being a traditional process or methodology, the Zachman Framework is more accurately referred to as an “ontology.” Ontologies differ from a traditional methodology or process in that, rather than focusing on the process or implementation, they focus on the properties, types and interrelationships of entities that exist within a particular domain. The Zachman Framework ontology focuses on the structure, or definition, of the object and the enterprise. Developed by John Zachman, this framework sets a standard for enterprise architecture ontology.

Zachman International currently offers four enterprise architect credentials:

  • Enterprise Architect Associate Certification (Level 1): Candidates must attend a four-day modeling workshop and pass a single exam. The workshop covers key concepts relating to enterprise architecture and the Zachman Framework, case studies, engineering vs. primitive models and manufacturing vs. composite models, and hands-on experience building Framework models. The workshop fee ($3,499) includes the exam and certification fees for Level 1 and Level 2.
  • Enterprise Architect Practitioner Certification (Level 2): Architects must submit case studies of primitive and composite models that address specified management issues. Case studies must pass a referee review.
  • Enterprise Architect Professional Certification (Level 3): Candidates must complete a case study demonstrating primitive (architectural) and composite (implementation) models and complete a referee review. Level 3 credential holders may advertise themselves as “Zachman consultants.”
  • Enterprise Architect Educator Certification (Level 4): Designed for educators, this credential prepares candidates to develop and teach the Zachman Framework. To earn this credential, candidates should go through all educational materials related to the Zachman Framework, develop their own curricula and course materials, and present those materials for review and approval. While this is not required, Zachman recommends that Level 4 candidates obtain the Level 3 Professional designation.

Zachman credentials are valid for three years. To maintain these credentials, candidates must earn continuing education credits (referred to as EADUs). The total number of EADUs required varies by certification level.

Zachman Certified – Enterprise Architect facts and figures

Certification name

Enterprise Architect Associate Certification (Level 1)
Enterprise Architect Practitioner Certification (Level 2)
Enterprise Architect Professional Certification (Level 3)
Enterprise Architect Educator Certification (Level 4)

Prerequisites and required courses

Level 1 Associate: Four-day Modeling Workshop ($3,499)
Level 2 Practitioner: None
Level 3 Professional: None
Level 4 Educator: Review all materials related to The Zachman Framework; Level 3 Professional recommended

Number of exams

Level 1 Associate: One exam
Level 2 Practitioner: No exam; case studies and referee review required
Level 3 Professional: No exam; case studies and referee review required
Level 4 Educator: None; must develop and submit curriculum and course materials for review and validation

Certification fees

Level 1 Associate: exam fee included as part of required course
Level 2 Practitioner: None, included as part of Level 1 required course
Level 3 Professional: Not available
Level 4 Educator: Not available


Self-study materials

Live classroom and distance learning opportunities are available. Zachman also offers webcasts, a glossary, the Zachman Framework for Enterprise Architecture and reference articles.

Beyond the top 5: More enterprise architect certifications

The Red Hat Certified Architect (RHCA) is a great credential, especially for professionals working with Red Hat Enterprise Linux.

The Project Management Professional (PMP) certification from PMI continues to appear in many enterprise architect job descriptions. Although the PMP is not an enterprise architect certification per se, many employers look for this particular combination of skills.

Outside of our top five vendor-neutral enterprise architect certifications (which focus on more general, heterogeneous views of IT systems and solutions), there are plenty of architect-level certifications from a broad range of vendors and sponsors, most of which are vendor-specific.

The table below identifies those vendors and sponsors, names their architect-level credentials, and provides links to more information on those offerings. Choosing one or more of these certifications for research and possible pursuit will depend on where you work or where you’d like to work.


Enterprise architect certification

More information


BCS Practitioner Certificate in Enterprise and Solutions Architecture

BCS homepage


Cisco Certified Architect (CCAr)

CCAr homepage

Enterprise Architecture Center of Excellence (EACOE)

EACOE Enterprise Architect
EACOE Senior Enterprise Architect
EACOE Distinguished Enterprise Architect EACOE Enterprise Architect Fellow

EACOE Architect homepage


EMC Cloud Architect Expert (EMCCAe)


FEAC Institute

Certified Enterprise Architect (CEA) Black Belt

Associate Certified Enterprise Architect (ACEA) Green Belt

FEAC CEA homepage

Hitachi Vantara

Hitachi Architect (three tracks: Infrastructure, Data Protection, and Pentaho Solutions)

Hitachi Architect Specialist (two tracks: Infrastructure and Converged)

Training & Certification homepage


Certified IT Architect – Foundation (CITA-F)

Certified IT Architect – Associate (CITA-A)

Certified IT Architect – Specialist (CITA-S)

Certified IT Architect – Professional (CITA-P)

CITA homepage

National Instruments

Certified LabVIEW Architect (CLA)

CLA homepage


Nokia Service Routing Architect (SRA)

SRA homepage


Oracle Certified Master, Java EE Enterprise Architect Certified Master

Java EE homepage

Red Hat

Red Hat Certified Architect (RHCA)

RHCA homepage


SOA (Arcitura)

Certified SOA Architect

SOA Architect homepage


These architect credentials typically represent pinnacle certifications within the programs to which they belong, functioning as high-value capstones to those programs in many cases. The group of individuals who attain such credentials is often quite small but comes with tight sponsor relationships, high levels of sponsor support and information delivery, and stratospheric salaries and professional kudos.

Often, such certifications provide deliberately difficult and challenging targets for a small, highly select group of IT professionals. Earning one or more of these certifications is generally the culmination of a decade or more of professional growth, high levels of effort, and considerable expense. No wonder, then, that architect certifications are highly regarded by IT pros and highly valued by their employers.

Choosing the right IT architect credential

Enterprise architect credentials will often be dictated by choices that your employer (or industry sector, in the case of government or DoD-related work environments) have already made independent of your own efforts. Likewise, most of the vendor-specific architecture credentials make sense based on what’s deployed in your work environment or in a job you’d like to occupy.

Though there are lots of potential choices IT pros could make, the real number they can or should make will be influenced by their circumstances.

Tue, 28 Jun 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Native OpenBIM, and the rise of open source in AEC

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Killexams : Dissecting Microsoft's proposed policy to ban commercial open-source apps

Microsoft caused considerable consternation in the open source community over the past month, after unveiling a shake-up to the way developers will be able to monetize open source software.

There are many examples of open source software sold in Microsoft's app store as full-featured commercial applications, ranging from video editing software such as Shotcut, to FTP clients such as WinSCP. But given how easy it is for anyone to reappropriate and repackage open source software as a new standalone product, it appears that Microsoft is trying to put measures in place to prevent such "copycat" imitations from capitalizing on the hard work of the open source community.

However, at the crux of the issue was the specific wording of Microsoft's new policy, with section 10.8.7 noting that developers must not:

....attempt to profit from open-source or other software that is otherwise generally available for free, nor be priced irrationally high relative to the features and functionality provided by your product.

In its current form, the language is seemingly preventing anyone -- including the project owners and maintainers -- from charging for their work. Moreover, some have argued that it could hold implications for proprietary applications that include open source components with certain licenses, while others have noted that developers may be deterred from making their software available under an open source license.

The policy was due to take effect on July 16 (tomorrow), but influential figures from the open source fraternity have been making their voices heard over the past few weeks, including Hayden Barnes, a senior engineering manager at open source software giant Suse. Barnes noted on Twitter that he was "disappointed" with the proposed policy change, as it could prevent already underfunded open source developers from creating more sustainable projects.

In response, Microsoft executive Giorgio Sardo took to Twitter last week to confirm that the announcement had "been perceived differently than intended," and it would delay enforcement of the new policy and clarify the wording.

As such, Microsoft gave its new policy a stay of execution, with this addendum bolted on to inform developers that nothing will change for now:

The policy change, announced on June 16, 2022, to 10.8.7 (Not attempt to profit from open-source or other software that is otherwise generally available for free, nor be priced irrationally high relative to the features and functionality provided by your product.) will not be going into effect on July 16, 2022. We have determined it could be perceived differently than intended, so we are revising this policy change to provide greater clarity.

With things currently in limbo, it's worth assessing the proposed new policy, including what ramifications it could have on the people behind the open source software, and whether Microsoft should serve as an open source gatekeeper at all.

Monetizing open source

For most people, the main issue with Microsoft's policy change was the language it used. It's reasonable to assume that the intent was probably to protect open source project maintainers and IP-owners, but the wording essentially threw all open source projects under the bus. So we can likely expect (though this is not certain) a revised policy in the future that permits the main "official" version of an open source app to continue monetizing, while others won't be able to charge.

Halla Rempt, the core maintainer behind the popular open source digital paint program Krita, doesn't seem overly concerned with these impending changes for exactly that reason.

"I'm still not 100% on the implications of the change -- it seems to me that they're actually happy with projects putting their own software in the store, but whether they're still okay with us charging for it, I don't know," Rempt told TechCrunch. "For now, we're continuing as is."

Rempt also said that the income they get from Microsoft's app store pays for around half of the app's sponsored developers, meaning that a redrafted Microsoft app store policy that includes provisions that support project maintainers and IP-owners' ability to monetize apps would be a good thing.

While there hasn't been any known third-party Krita apps on Microsoft's app store so far, other open source software maintainers are having to contend with this problem.

Robin Krom is one of the chief developers behind Greenshot, an open source screenshotting app with millions of downloads. While Greenshot is available for Windows as a direct download, it's not yet available via Microsoft's official app store. However, there are at least two so-called "copycat" apps in Microsoft's app store that use the Greenshot name -- and one of those apps charges $3.69 to download.

From Krom's perspective, there are problems with this, aside from the obvious fact that someone is cashing in on their hard work. In the future, Krom may decide to launch an official version of Greenshot in Microsoft's store, but even before all that, brand confusion could still create more work for those behind the official Greenshot project.

"The [third-party] app uses our brand, [so] if there are issues with the app, the customers will come to us," Krom told TechCrunch.

Such a scenario has yet to come to fruition, given that the third-party app in question is still relatively new to Microsoft's store. But there are examples of similar issues emerging elsewhere in the open source world. For example, Elastic's long-standing spat with Amazon over the (formerly) open source Elasticsearch project was partly about how Amazon was using the Elasticsearch brand name in its own hosted version of the product -- Amazon's cloud customers would often address Elastic with issues relating to the product, even though it had little to do with Elastic.

Trademark infringement is what we're talking about here, and although Amazon and Elastic eventually resolved their dispute, it took a long-drawn out legal process to get there. This is something that smaller, independent open source project maintainers don't have the resources to pursue, assuming they own the trademark rights in the first place, which many don't -- including Krom.

This is why Microsoft's impending policy change -- depending on its revised wording, of course -- will be greeted warmly by many in the open source community.

"It feels morally wrong to take a free product from someone and sell it for a price, and have the original 'vendor' solve all the issues," Krom continued. "[And] if due to his [third-party developer] work something doesn't work, it is our reputation that is damaged."

It's worth stressing that Microsoft's planned policy change, according to its current wording, will only impact apps that are actively trying to monetize. So free copycat apps will still be permitted. But if nothing else, banning commercial copycats will serve as a major deterrent to anyone considering doing so.

However, other prominent voices in the open source community are less concerned with the specific wording of Microsoft's policy than they are about the fact that Microsoft is trying to implement any form of controls at all.

FOSS for the win

Bradley M. Kuhn is a free and open source software (FOSS) activist who serves as "hacker-in-residence" at Software Freedom Conservancy, a not-for-profit organization that provides support and legal services for open source software projects. In the aftermath of Microsoft's policy change, Kuhn and his colleague Denver Gingerich penned an in-depth blog post outlining their issues with the new policy (as well as more long-standing gripes with Microsoft's attitude to open source), and the main thrust of their argument was that the very nature of open source software is that it's free of restrictions, with no favoritism over who can and can't monetize it.

"We believe that the rights ensured by FOSS, as is well-enshrined in the licenses themselves, allow everyone to monetize FOSS," Kuhn told TechCrunch. "FOSS licenses have always treated all commercial and non-commercial actively equally. It's free as in freedom, but also it's free as in market."

While there are many different kinds of open source licenses available (whether they are all truly "open source" is a debate for another day), Kuhn is referring specifically to so-called "copyleft" licenses. Such licenses have few restrictions, but they do mandate that any software derived from the original open source project must be released under a similar open source license. This runs in contrast to more "permissive" licenses that don't impose such restrictions (meaning that private companies can easily adopt an open source project as part of a proprietary product).

Put simply, the spirit of open source is all about the freedoms it permits.

"Copyleft licenses require that you provide correct, complete, and corresponding source code to all customers, and have various rules about patents, but there are otherwise generally not intended to be serious restrictions on the ability monetize FOSS," Kuhn said.

A recurring discussion point around Microsoft's proposed policy change is how it may protect trademarks or avert "brand confusion." But Kuhn argues that this is already well-provisioned for in existing laws, and it's not specifically a FOSS problem -- it's a problem relating to software in general.

"Trademark rules control the rights to name and market a product under a particular name," Kuhn said. "Trademark restrictions on using a name are completely compatible with FOSS and have long been encouraged. Now, this is not a FOSS-specific problem, but cloned software by fly-by-night entities and malware on app stores is a broader problem."

While all of this is probably true, independent open source developers generally don't have the resources to pursue what are often faceless entities over trademark violations (assuming that they actually own the trademark at all). And that is precisely why a policy that deters "fly-by-night" developers from capitalizing on the hard work of others will likely be well received whenever it's finally introduced.

Other issues

There are other issues at play though. As Kuhn and Gingerich previously pointed out, any policy that allows just the IP-owners to sell open source applications could provide the green light to more "toxic business models," whereby developers are encouraged to make basic versions of their software available for free, and hide all the good stuff behind a paywall. This is often referred to as an open-core model, something that many people argue undermines the open source movement.

And it would be somewhat remiss not to mention Microsoft's thorny past with open source. To cut a War and Peace-esque story impossibly short, Microsoft once deemed open source software to be an evil entity, but in the intervening years -- particularly since Satya Nadella became CEO in 2014 -- Microsoft has worked hard to align itself with the open source world.

But there are many that remain unconvinced about Microsoft's open source ethos. With its GitHub subsidiary monetizing the hard work of the open source community with Copilot, a proprietary AI-powered pair-programmer trained on open source project data, critics argue that the product doesn't make it clear which codebases it "borrows" from, which is a problem, given that transparency and correct attribution are cornerstones of open source.

Now that Microsoft is seemingly trying to prevent other developers from monetizing open source software in a similar fashion, this opens the door to accusations of double standards. If Microsoft can monetize open source projects, why can't others?

"FOSS was designed specifically to allow both the original developers and downstream redistributors to profit fairly from the act of convenient redistribution (such as on app stores)," Kuhn and Gingerich wrote last week. "No company that supports FOSS and its commercial methodologies would propose to curtail these rights and freedoms. So we're left quite suspect of Microsoft's constant claims that they've changed their tune about FOSS. They still oppose it; they've just gotten more crafty about the methods of doing so."

TechCrunch reached out to Microsoft for comment several times prior to publication, but did not receive a response.

Thu, 14 Jul 2022 21:48:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Open Source Software Market 2022 | Exclusive discount of 30% | Size, Share, Trend : What is the leading application of Industry till 2030?

The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content.

Jul 06, 2022 (Alliance News via COMTEX) -- Key Companies Covered in the Open Source Software Research are Acquia, OpenText, Astaro, Redpill Linpro, IBM, Cleversafe, Continuent, Oracle, Comiit, RethinkDB, Transcend, Canonical, FOSSID, Intel, Compiere, Red Hat, ClearCenter, Alfresco and other key market players.

The Open Source Software market revenue was $$ Million USD in 2016, grew to $$ Million USD in 2022, and will reach $$ Million USD in 2030, with a CAGR of % during 2022-2030.

Market Overview

Open-source software (OSS) is a type of computer software in which source code is released under a license in which the copyright holder grants users the rights to study, change, and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose. Open-source software may be developed in a collaborative public manner. According to scientists who have studied it, open-source software is a prominent example of open collaboration.The term is often written without a hyphen as “open source software”.

Global Open Source Software Market Development Strategy Pre and Post COVID-19, by Corporate Strategy Analysis, Landscape, Type, Application, and Leading 20 Countries covers and analyzes the potential of the global Open Source Software industry, providing statistical information about market dynamics, growth factors, major challenges, PEST analysis and market entry strategy Analysis, opportunities and forecasts. The biggest highlight of the report is to provide companies in the industry with a strategic analysis of the impact of COVID-19. At the same time, this report analyzed the market of leading 20 countries and introduce the market potential of these countries.

Request To obtain sample of This Strategic Report:-

Most important types of Open Source Software products covered in this report are:
Bundled Software
BSD(Berkeley Source Distribution)

Most widely used downstream fields of Open Source Software market covered in this report are:

Top countries data covered in this report:
United States
South Korea
South Africa
Saudi Arabia

SPECIAL OFFER (Avail an Up-to 30% discount on this report:-

Chapter 1 is the basis of the entire report. In this chapter, we define the market concept and market scope of Open Source Software, including product classification, application areas, and the entire report covered area.

Chapter 2 is the core idea of the whole report. In this chapter, we provide a detailed introduction to our research methods and data sources.

Chapter 3 focuses on analyzing the current competitive situation in the Open Source Software market and provides basic information, market data, product introductions, etc. of leading companies in the industry. At the same time, Chapter 3 includes the highlighted analysis–Strategies for Company to Deal with the Impact of COVID-19.

Chapter 4 provides breakdown data of different types of products, as well as market forecasts.

Different application fields have different usage and development prospects of products. Therefore, Chapter 5 provides subdivision data of different application fields and market forecasts.

Chapter 6 includes detailed data of major regions of the world, including detailed data of major regions of the world. North America, Asia Pacific, Europe, South America, Middle East and Africa.

Chapters 7-26 focus on the regional market. We have selected the most representative 20 countries from 197 countries in the world and conducted a detailed analysis and overview of the market development of these countries.

Chapter 27 focuses on market qualitative analysis, providing market driving factor analysis, market development constraints, PEST analysis, industry trends under COVID-19, market entry strategy analysis, etc.

Access full Report Description, TOC, Table of Figure, Chart, etc. @:-

Key Points:
Define, describe and forecast Open Source Software product market by type, application, end user and region.
Provide enterprise external environment analysis and PEST analysis.
Provide strategies for company to deal with the impact of COVID-19.
Provide market dynamic analysis, including market driving factors, market development constraints.
Provide market entry strategy analysis for new players or players who are ready to enter the market, including market segment definition, client analysis, distribution model, product messaging and positioning, and price strategy analysis.
Keep up with international market trends and provide analysis of the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on major regions of the world.
Analyze the market opportunities of stakeholders and provide market leaders with details of the competitive landscape.

Table of Contents:

  • Market Dynamics
  • Associated Industry Assessment
  • Market Competitive Landscape
  • Analysis of Leading Companies
  • Market Analysis and Forecast, By Product Types
  • Market Analysis and Forecast, By Applications
  • Market Analysis and Forecast, By Regions
  • Conclusions and Recommendations
  • Appendix

Aim of the Report

  • This study aims to determine the market size of various segments and countries with forecast values for next ten years.
  • Within the regions and countries studied, the report covers both qualitative and quantitative aspects of the industry.
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Wed, 06 Jul 2022 00:37:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : The Linux Foundation Announces Conference Schedule for Open Source Summit Europe 2022

The premier event in Europe for open source code and community contributors features 200+ sessions across 13 micro-conferences, covering the pivotal subjects and technologies at the core of open source.

SAN FRANCISCO, July 12, 2022 /PRNewswire/ -- The Linux Foundation, the nonprofit organization enabling mass innovation through open source, today announced the full schedule for Open Source Summit Europe, the leading conference for open source developers, technologists, and community leaders. The event is taking place September 13-16 in Dublin, Ireland and virtually. The schedule can be viewed here.

The Linux Foundation logo

OS Summit Europe will feature a robust program of 325+ talks across 13 micro-conferences covering the most essential and cutting edge subjects in open source: Linux Systems, Supply Chain Security, AI + Data, OSPOs, Community Leadership, Embedded IoT, Cloud, Diversity, Containers, Embedded Linux and more.

2022 Conference Session Highlights Include:

Keynote speakers will be announced in the coming weeks.

Registration (in-person) is offered at the early price of $850 through July 17. Registration to attend virtually is $25. Members of The Linux Foundation receive a 20 percent discount off registration and can contact to request a member discount code.

Applications for diversity and need-based scholarships are currently being accepted. For information on eligibility and how to apply, please click here. The Linux Foundation's Travel Fund is also accepting applications, with the goal of enabling open source developers and community members to attend events that they would otherwise be unable to attend due to a lack of funding. To learn more and apply, please click here.

Health and Safety
In-person attendees will be required to be fully vaccinated against the COVID-19 virus and will need to comply with all on-site health measures, in accordance with The Linux Foundation Code of Conduct. To learn more, visit the Health & Safety webpage.

Event Sponsors
Open Source Summit Europe 2022 is made possible thanks to our sponsors, including Diamond Sponsors: AWS, Google and IBM, Platinum Sponsors: Huawei and Intel, and Gold Sponsors: Cloud Native Computing Foundation, Codethink, Docker, Mend, Red Hat, and Styra. For information on becoming an event sponsor, click here or email us.

Members of the press who would like to request a press pass to attend should contact Kristin O'Connell.


Founded in 2000, the Linux Foundation and its projects are supported by more than 2,950 members. The Linux Foundation is the world's leading home for collaboration on open source software, hardware, standards, and data. Linux Foundation projects are critical to the world's infrastructure including Linux, Kubernetes, Node.js, ONAP, Hyperledger, RISC-V, and more. The Linux Foundation's methodology focuses on leveraging best practices and addressing the needs of contributors, users, and solution providers to create sustainable models for open collaboration. For more information, please visit us at

The Linux Foundation Events are where the world's leading technologists meet, collaborate, learn and network in order to advance innovations that support the world's largest shared technologies.

Visit our website and follow us on Twitter, LinkedIn, and Facebook for all the latest event updates and announcements.

The Linux Foundation has registered trademarks and uses trademarks. For a list of trademarks of The Linux Foundation, please see its trademark usage page: Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds.

Media Contact
Kristin O'Connell
The Linux Foundation


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SOURCE The Linux Foundation

Tue, 12 Jul 2022 06:08:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Edgecore Networks Assembles the OpenWiFi Expert Team - Oxherd - to Assist Clients with OpenWiFi Issues

HSINCHU, Taiwan--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Jul 11, 2022--

Edgecore Networks, a leading provider of traditional and open network solutions for enterprises, data centers, and telecommunication service providers, today announced their Telecom Infra Project (TIP) OpenWiFi expert team, Oxherd, a team that consists of experts with different technical backgrounds to help ISPs/MSPs and software companies tackle all kinds of OpenWiFi problems.

As an early adopter and devoted partner of the OpenWiFi ecosystem, Edgecore has already assisted more than 10 ISPs and MSPs in establishing OpenWiFi environments and launching commercial services over the past year. Seeing the great potential of OpenWiFi and with the accumulated experience of helping ISPs/MSPs and software companies with all kinds of OpenWiFi issues, Edgecore realized it was time to form an expert team to contribute their wealth of OpenWiFi knowledge and help accelerate the growth of the OpenWiFi ecosystem.

The Oxherd team consists of elites from Edgecore’s System Architects, R&D, Quality Assurance (QA), and Technical Support. From adopting an OpenWiFi environment to configuring specific access point features, the Oxherd team is here to assist clients at every step and accelerate the process in every phase. With the Oxherd team by their side, ISPs/MSPs can smoothly build up their OpenWiFi environments, while software companies can release all kinds of innovative possibilities through embedded system development support, cloud API integration, and resource for development. With the help of Oxherd, clients can face complex environments and multiple variables with simple methods that speed the process of implementing OpenWiFi; the software development time can be shortened from months to weeks before testing, or even running!

“Edgecore has been devoted to the growth of the OpenWiFi ecosystem, the formation of the Oxherd team is aimed to attract and assist more ISPs/MSPs and software companies to join the ecosystem. With Edgecore’s Oxherd team, they can rest assured of the frictionless adoption of the OpenWiFi infrastructure, and thrive together with the expanding ecosystem,” said Tengtai Hsu, Vice President of Edgecore Networks.

The Oxherd team has officially kicked off. If you want to truly grasp the technical structure of your own Wi-Fi network and develop more innovative applications, please contact the Oxherd team:

Edgecore also provides a well-prepared OpenWiFi Starter Guide, from which you can learn more practical technical knowledge about OpenWiFi:

About Edgecore Networks

Edgecore Networks Corporation is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Accton Technology Corporation, the leading network ODM. Edgecore Networks delivers wired and wireless networking products and solutions through channel partners and system integrators worldwide for the Data Center, Service Provider, Enterprise and SMB customers. Edgecore Networks is the leader in open networking providing a full line of open WiFi access points, packet transponders, virtual PON OLTs, cell site gateways, aggregation routers and 1G, 10G, 25G, 40G, 100G and 400G OCP Accepted TM switches that offer choice of commercial and open-source NOS and SDN software.

The vision of Edgecore Networks is to provide connectivity solutions to allow our customers and partners to accomplish more and the mission is to democratize the provide better access to networking technologies through disaggregation and open-source software.

For more information, visit or contact

About TIP OpenWiFi

OpenWiFi is managed within TIP’s Open Converged Wireless (OCW) project group, which enables industry collaboration to build, test and validate products that deliver the requirements of valuable Service Providers’ use cases. The OpenWiFi community currently includes more than 100 participants, including Services Providers, OEM’s, ODM’s, Software ISV’s, System Integrators, Silicon Vendors & Industry Organizations.

OpenWiFi is a community-developed, disaggregated Wi-Fi software system, offered as free open-source software, that includes both a cloud controller SDK and an Enterprise-grade Access Point (AP) firmware, designed and validated to work seamlessly together. Find out more:

View source version on

CONTACT: Edgecore Networks Media Contacts

North America:

Tony Stramandinoli


Lucille Lu




SOURCE: Edgecore Networks

Copyright Business Wire 2022.

PUB: 07/11/2022 10:00 AM/DISC: 07/11/2022 10:02 AM

Mon, 11 Jul 2022 01:02:00 -0500 en text/html
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