The official answer to that question is simple. UNIX® is any operating system descended from that original Bell Labs software developed by Thompson, Ritchie et al in 1969 and bearing a licence from Bell Labs or its successor organisations in ownership of the UNIX® name. Thus, for example, HP-UX as shipped on Hewlett Packard’s enterprise machinery is one of several commercially available UNIXes, while the Ubuntu Linux distribution on which this is being written is not.
The real answer is considerably less clear, and depends upon how much you view UNIX as an ecosystem and how much instead depends upon heritage or specification compliance, and even the user experience. Names such as GNU, Linux, BSD, and MINIX enter the fray, and you could be forgiven for asking: would the real UNIX please stand up?In the beginning, it was a relatively contiguous story. The Bell Labs team produced UNIX, and it was used internally by them and eventually released as source to interested organisations such as universities who ran it for themselves. A legal ruling from the 1950s precluded AT&T and its subsidiaries such as Bell Labs from selling software, so this was without charge. Those universities would take their UNIX version 4 or 5 tapes and install it on their DEC minicomputer, and in the manner of programmers everywhere would write their own extensions and improvements to fit their needs. The University of California did this to such an extent that by the late 1970s they had released it as their own distribution, the so-called Berkeley Software Distribution, or BSD. It still contained some of the original UNIX code so was still technically a UNIX, but was a significant departure from that codebase.
UNIX had by then become a significant business proposition for AT&T, owners of Bell Labs, and by extension a piece of commercial software that attracted hefty licence fees once Bell Labs was freed from its court-imposed obligations. This in turn led to developers seeking to break away from their monopoly, among them Richard Stallman whose GNU project started in 1983 had the aim of producing an entirely open-source UNIX-compatible operating system. Its name is a recursive acronym, “Gnu’s Not UNIX“, which states categorically its position with respect to the Bell Labs original, but provides many software components which, while they might not be UNIX as such, are certainly a lot like it. By the end of the 1980s it had been joined in the open-source camp by BSD Net/1 and its descendants newly freed from legacy UNIX code.
In the closing years of the 1980s Andrew S. Tanenbaum, an academic at a Dutch university, wrote a book: “Operating Systems: Design and Implementation“. It contained as its teaching example a UNIX-like operating system called MINIX, which was widely adopted in universities and by enthusiasts as an accessible alternative to UNIX that would run on inexpensive desktop microcomputers such as i386 PCs or 68000-based Commodore Amigas and Atari STs. Among those enthusiasts in 1991 was a University of Helsinki student, Linus Torvalds, who having become dissatisfied with MINIX’s kernel set about writing his own. The result which was eventually released as Linux soon outgrew its MINIX roots and was combined with components of the GNU project instead of GNU’s own HURD kernel to produce the GNU/Linux operating system that many of us use today.
So, here we are in 2019, and despite a few lesser known operating systems and some bumps in the road such as Caldera Systems’ attempted legal attack on Linux in 2003, we have three broad groupings in the mainstream UNIX-like arena. There is “real” closed-source UNIX® such as IBM AIX, Solaris, or HP-UX, there is “Has roots in UNIX” such as the BSD family including MacOS, and there is “Definitely not UNIX but really similar to it” such as the GNU/Linux family of distributions. In terms of what they are capable of, there is less distinction between them than vendors would have you believe unless you are fond of splitting operating-system hairs. Indeed even users of the closed-source variants will frequently find themselves running open-source code from GNU and other origins.
At 50 years old then, the broader UNIX-like ecosystem which we’ll take to include the likes of GNU/Linux and BSD is in great shape. At our level it’s not worth worrying too much about which is the “real” UNIX, because all of these projects have benefitted greatly from the five decades of collective development. But it does raise an interesting question: what about the next five decades? Can a solution for timesharing on a 1960s minicomputer continue to adapt for the hardware and demands of mid-21st-century computing? Our guess is that it will, not in that your UNIX clone in twenty years will be identical to the one you have now, but the things that have kept it relevant for 50 years will continue to do so for the forseeable future. We are using UNIX and its clones at 50 because they have proved versatile enough to evolve to fit the needs of each successive generation, and it’s not unreasonable to expect this to continue. We look forward to seeing the directions it takes.
As always, the comments are open.
Google Cloud Platform (GCP) announced the coming availability of its Arm-based instance, the Tau T2A, last week (currently available in preview) to address the ever-expanding needs of customers developing and deploying scale-out, cloud-native workloads. What does this announcement mean for enterprise IT? Does landing this final major cloud player fully validate Arm in the enterprise? And what motivated Google to jump on the Arm bandwagon? We'll address this a little more in the following paragraphs.
What was announced
The T2A virtual machine (VM) is part of the GCP Tau scale-out instance family. Tau is targeted at those cloud-native applications that run containerized or in VMs that don't require extreme compute resources. The Tau family was deployed initially with AMD EPYC (T2D) with fixed configurations to offer this instance type optimized for cost and scale-out performance.
The Tau T2A VM is based on Ampere Computing’s Altra CPU. It’s important to note that Azure announced Ampere and instances are GA at Oracle Cloud Infrastructure, as well as several Chinese clouds (including TikTok parent, ByteDance).
To motivate developers and customers, GCP offers a free 8-core, 32G RAM instance of T2A through general availability.
How Google is positioning T2A
One of the things I find with Arm announcements is that sometimes the "why would I use this?' question isn't fully answered. It's almost as if an assumption is made that enterprise IT professionals would fully understand the price-performance benefits of Arm and workload affinity.
Through the briefings Moor Insights & Strategy Patrick Moorhead and I received, as well as the various public statements from Google, it is refreshing to see the company is helping guide its customers. As mentioned, T2A is a VM targeting those scale-out workloads that don't require maximum compute resources at the individual instance level. Unsurprisingly, one of the supporting blogs from Google discusses optimizations for the Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE), Google's container environment.
A valuable capability of GKE is its multi-architecture support. So, containerized workloads can run in an x86 and Arm environment simultaneously. While this has many practical benefits, it also makes it easier for IT organizations to dip their collective toes in the “Arm” water, so to speak. It is capabilities such as this (not unique to GCP) that allow for organizations to deploy on Arm seamlessly.
It should be noted that T2A also runs the Google Container-optimized OS. So, organizations utilizing the popular Docker containers can expect full support.
Google has also enabled its Batch and Dataflow cloud services to run on T2A. These two services that target batch processing and streaming analytics respectively benefit from the Tau family's scale-out nature and T2A in particular.
While Google provides good guidance for its customers considering exploring or deploying on Arm, the use of T2A can be far broader. Independent of Google, Ampere has developed a robust ecosystem of partners, spanning the operating system to the workload. Functions like serverless caching via Momento, SLURM workload scheduling via SchedMD, and HPC through Rescale – are all optimized workloads for Ampere. And there are many more.
A few more details on T2A
Google is careful in how it positions its VM instances. When the company released its Tau VM family last year, it was very clear in positioning these as cost-effective, scale-out VMs. As one would expect with “cost-effective,” some options customers may prefer are lacking, such as local SSD support and higher bandwidth networking (32G supported in T2A v. 100G in other instances). Further, once a customer is locked into a T2A VM size (vCPU and RAM), they cannot dynamically add more resources.
Given the workloads targeted, the above makes sense, as customers look to distribute applications across many "good enough" performing VMs that don’t require maximum network throughput.
I like that GCP drives all of its specialized value into the Tau family, including T2A. The security measures, optimizations around memory (NUMA), network optimizations, etc.. that GCP has developed are all lit up in T2A. This level of support should assures customers utilizing T2A that these instances enjoy the same level of support as the highest performing compute engines.
Has Arm arrived in the enterprise?
The quick and simple answer is yes, though not for every workload. GCP announcing Arm-based instances rounds out support from all the major CSPs. This widespread support hasn't happened because Arm is cool or trendy. Nor has it happened as an exercise to drive better pricing from the x86 players. Arm is being deployed because CSPs can deliver equal or better performance for specific workloads at a lower cost and power envelope. Period. This is basic economics.
While Arm is not going to replace x86 to run virtualized infrastructure on VMware anytime soon, there are still use cases where Arm is a good fit. In its blog promoting T2A, one of GCP's reference customers is Harvard University. The school runs several compute-intensive workloads on SLURM VirtualFlow, and T2A allows it to run tens of thousands of VMs in parallel, reducing compute time significantly. But here’s the key to what Harvard had to say – the migration to T2A was done with minimal effort. Such is the beauty of cloud-native development. The cost and time savings will be immediately recognized.
I like this Harvard reference because it reminds us that Arm is not just for the digitally born companies that have never had an on-premises datacenter. It's for any company embarking on a digital transformation or modernization project.
Further proof of Arm's move into the datacenter can be seen in HPE's announcement of the upcoming ProLiant RL300 Gen11 server based on Ampere's Altra CPU. This is the first mainstream server that HPE has announced ahead of its Gen11 launch, and I expect the market will see competitors roll out its servers in time.
Is T2A just a competitive response from Google?
I don’t believe that Google is interested in investing in and rolling out an Arm-based instance to be like every other cloud provider. GCP is run by many intelligent people who firmly understand its customers' wants and needs.
As a company, Google has deep roots in silicon design, development, and optimizations. It's no secret that the company works with CPU vendors to deliver Google compute-optimized platforms. I think GCP has done its due diligence in ensuring the Ampere CPU could and would meet its particular and the needs of its customers.
I believe my only question is around the longer-term strategy for Google and Arm. There are two camps in the CSP space: those that design its silicon (i.e., AWS Graviton) and those that deploy Ampere. Given Google's history in silicon development, could we see a custom chip in the future? It is a scenario that is entirely plausible.
Google rounds out support for Arm from the major CSPs with its Tau T2A VM offering, based on Ampere Computing’s Altra CPU. While the company is last to market in this regard, it has done a thorough job of positioning Arm relative to x86 and target workloads.
I believe this is just the beginning for Arm at GCP and suspect the company will eventually roll Arm offerings into other compute engine offerings over time. But I think it will do this in a very measured way, looking for areas where Arm can offer a differentiated experience for customers.
It's a good time to be a proponent of Arm. And a better day to be an investor of Ampere Computing. There is no doubt that Arm is here to stay. Not as a cheap alternative to x86, but as an architecture that can be optimized for many workloads, with the ability to lead in raw performance, price-performance, and performance-per-watt, at a time when each of these measures are so critical.
Note: Moor Insights & Strategy writers and editors may have contributed to this article.
Moor Insights & Strategy, like all research and tech industry analyst firms, provides or has provided paid services to technology companies. These services include research, analysis, advising, consulting, benchmarking, acquisition matchmaking, and speaking sponsorships. The company has had or currently has paid business relationships with 8×8, Accenture, A10 Networks, Advanced Micro Devices, Amazon, Amazon Web Services, Ambient Scientific, Anuta Networks, Applied Brain Research, Applied Micro, Apstra, Arm, Aruba Networks (now HPE), Atom Computing, AT&T, Aura, Automation Anywhere, AWS, A-10 Strategies, Bitfusion, Blaize, Box, Broadcom, C3.AI, Calix, Campfire, Cisco Systems, Clear Software, Cloudera, Clumio, Cognitive Systems, CompuCom, Cradlepoint, CyberArk, Dell, Dell EMC, Dell Technologies, Diablo Technologies, Dialogue Group, Digital Optics, Dreamium Labs, D-Wave, Echelon, Ericsson, Extreme Networks, Five9, Flex, Foundries.io, Foxconn, Frame (now VMware), Fujitsu, Gen Z Consortium, Glue Networks, GlobalFoundries, Revolve (now Google), Google Cloud, Graphcore, Groq, Hiregenics, Hotwire Global, HP Inc., Hewlett Packard Enterprise, Honeywell, Huawei Technologies, IBM, Infinidat, Infosys, Inseego, IonQ, IonVR, Inseego, Infosys, Infiot, Intel, Interdigital, Jabil Circuit, Keysight, Konica Minolta, Lattice Semiconductor, Lenovo, Linux Foundation, Lightbits Labs, LogicMonitor, Luminar, MapBox, Marvell Technology, Mavenir, Marseille Inc, Mayfair Equity, Meraki (Cisco), Merck KGaA, Mesophere, Micron Technology, Microsoft, MiTEL, Mojo Networks, MongoDB, MulteFire Alliance, National Instruments, Neat, NetApp, Nightwatch, NOKIA (Alcatel-Lucent), Nortek, Novumind, NVIDIA, Nutanix, Nuvia (now Qualcomm), onsemi, ONUG, OpenStack Foundation, Oracle, Palo Alto Networks, Panasas, Peraso, Pexip, Pixelworks, Plume Design, PlusAI, Poly (formerly Plantronics), Portworx, Pure Storage, Qualcomm, Quantinuum, Rackspace, Rambus, Rayvolt E-Bikes, Red Hat, Renesas, Residio, Samsung Electronics, Samsung Semi, SAP, SAS, Scale Computing, Schneider Electric, SiFive, Silver Peak (now Aruba-HPE), SkyWorks, SONY Optical Storage, Splunk, Springpath (now Cisco), Spirent, Splunk, Sprint (now T-Mobile), Stratus Technologies, Symantec, Synaptics, Syniverse, Synopsys, Tanium, Telesign,TE Connectivity, TensTorrent, Tobii Technology, Teradata,T-Mobile, Treasure Data, Twitter, Unity Technologies, UiPath, Verizon Communications, VAST Data, Ventana Micro Systems, Vidyo, VMware, Wave Computing, Wellsmith, Xilinx, Zayo, Zebra, Zededa, Zendesk, Zoho, Zoom, and Zscaler. Moor Insights & Strategy founder, CEO, and Chief Analyst Patrick Moorhead is an investor in dMY Technology Group Inc. VI, Dreamium Labs, Groq, Luminar Technologies, MemryX, and Movandi.
Let’s talk about Oracle’s successful and expanding investment in cloud infrastructure. The company just celebrated its 45th anniversary, beat Wall Street’s estimated revenue in its fiscal fourth quarter, and showed its highest organic revenue growth rate in over a decade. The company is clearly doing a lot of things its customers like.
Front-and-center to Oracle’s success is Oracle Cloud Infrastructure (OCI) growth. Over the past year there has been a steady stream of OCI-related announcements. These have included plans to grow from 30 to 44 public cloud regions by the end of 2022 (39 are already in place), smaller Dedicated Region configurations, plans for Sovereign Clouds, new Cloud@Customer offerings, and expansions of OCI’s already impressive portfolio of services. This is perhaps the fastest expansion of cloud services by any service provider, and it helped drive Oracle’s 49% year-over-year IaaS growth and 108% growth in Exadata Cloud@Customer (Q4 FY22 earnings report).
And, if those aren't enough to make you consider OCI for your public cloud, what about the new Oracle Database Service for Microsoft Azure that Larry Ellison and Satya Nadella announced at Microsoft Inspire on July 20th? This new service allows Azure customers to choose where to run Oracle Database for their Azure applications. Azure users can easily set up and use Oracle databases running on optimized OCI infrastructure directly from Azure, without logging into OCI.
The Oracle Database Service for Microsoft Azure is an Oracle-managed service currently available in 11 pairs of OCI and Azure regions worldwide. It uses the existing OCI-Azure Interconnect to offer latency between the two clouds of less than 2 milliseconds over secure, private, high-speed networks. This means that developers and mission-critical applications running on Azure can directly access the performance, availability, and automation advantages of Oracle Autonomous Database Service, Exadata Database Service, and Base Database Service running on OCI.
Oracle’s growth numbers represent a great metric to measure its overall success. However, most IT architects and developers want to understand why Oracle's cloud offerings are better than the likes of Amazon Web Services (AWS) for their Oracle Database workloads.
The answer is simple. While Oracle is undoubtedly a strong competitor when matched head-to-head against nearly every public cloud offering, it offers clear advantages for Oracle Database applications. For example, organizations that use Oracle Database in their on-premises data center can more easily move workloads to OCI because it provides extreme levels of compatibility with on-premises installations and offers organizations the same or greater performance, scale, and availability. You won't find a better example of this than Oracle’s cloud-enabled Exadata X9M platform that’s available natively in OCI or for Azure users through Oracle Database Service for Microsoft Azure.
Last year, Oracle delivered what may be the fastest OLTP database machine with the Exadata X9M. This machine is engineered to do only one thing: run Autonomous Database Service and Exadata Database Service faster and more efficiently than anything else on the market, delivering up to 87% more performance than the previous generation platform.
Wringing every ounce of performance and reliability from a database machine such as Oracle Exadata requires thinking about system architecture from the ground up. It requires a deep knowledge of Oracle Database and the ability to optimize the entire hardware and software stack. This is a job that only Oracle can realistically take on.
Exadata X9M’s employs a flexible blend of scale-up and scale-out capabilities that support virtually any workload by separately scaling database compute and storage capabilities. Of particular note is how the Exadata X9M provides high performance for both transactional and analytics workloads and efficient database consolidation.
Let’s start with analytics. At the highest level, Exadata X9M enables fast analytics through parallelism and smart storage. Complex queries are automatically broken down into components that are distributed across smart Exadata storage servers. The storage servers then run low-level SQL and machine learning operations against their local data, returning only results to the database servers. This allows applications to use 100s of gigabytes to terabytes per second of throughput—something you won’t find on your typical cloud database.
For OLTP, Exadata X9M breaks out some additional secret sauce in the form of scalable database server clusters, persistent memory (PMem) in the smart storage servers, and remote direct memory access over converged Ethernet (RoCE) that links them together. Databases run across hundreds of vCPUs to provide high performance and availability and read data directly from shared PMEM on the storage servers. The end result is that Oracle Database achieves SQL read latencies from shared storage of under 19 microseconds, which is more than ten times faster than traditional flash storage.
However, Exadata X9M in OCI doesn’t forego the use of flash memory, it embraces it. Without applications having to do anything, Exadata storage servers automatically move data between terabytes of PMem, tens or hundreds of terabytes of NVMe 4.0 flash, and terabytes to petabytes of disk storage to provide the best performance for different types of workloads. This results in a level of performance that isn’t possible with a traditional on-premises or cloud architecture built using generic servers and storage.
Bringing X9M to the Cloud
There's no question that cloud resources are integral to nearly every enterprise's IT infrastructure. The cloud offers a flexible and scalable consumption model with economics that can be superior to traditional on-premises deployments. While cloud infrastructure can be easily scaled to meet many growing application needs, this is not necessarily true for databases that support mission-critical applications. It's common for organizations to have to refactor applications and redesign databases when they move to the cloud to provide the same levels of performance and availability they had premises, such as when moving Oracle Database to AWS. However, by deploying Exadata X9M in OCI, Oracle eliminates the expensive and time-consuming need to refactor applications for the cloud.
Oracle Exadata X9M in OCI shines for enterprise applications by delivering an elastic cloud database experience. For example, when running Autonomous Database Service or Exadata Database Service on dedicated X9M infrastructure in OCI, you can use 2 to 32 database servers and 3 to 64 smart storage servers in any combination. This means you can deploy platforms with more database servers for heavy OLTP workloads, more storage servers for data warehouses, or an even mixture of each when consolidating both types of workloads.
You can get the raw numbers for CPUs, storage, and memory for Exadata X9M in OCI from the Oracle website. Still, the critical thing to know is that all configurations deliver the database capabilities that enterprises require. For instance, the “entry” Exadata X9M configuration in OCI supports 19 microsecond SQL Read IO latency, 5.6 M SQL Read IOPS, and 135 GB/second of analytics throughput. Furthermore, with the ability to scale database servers by 16x and storage servers by 21x, we expect that no organizations will run into performance limitations.
Oracle tells us that by putting Exadata X9M into OCI, it now delivers the world's fastest OLTP cloud database performance, and they have the data to back it up. Latency is critical for OLTP workloads, an area where the X9M has no equal. Exadata X9M’s 19 microsecond SQL IO latency is 25x better than when running Oracle Database on AWS Relational Database Service (RDS). The analytics throughput numbers from shared storage are even more impressive, with Oracle claiming that Exadata X9M in OCI delivers up to 384x the analytics throughput of Oracle Database running on AWS RDS.
Oracle has conquered the performance challenges for OLTP and analytics in the cloud and delivers this level of performance with attractive economics. Oracle makes the Exadata X9M for OCI available with a true consumption-based model where you only pay for the size of platform you need and the consumption you use. One key feature of Oracle Autonomous Database running on Exadata X9M is that it can auto-scale consumption by 3x based on the demands of the queries executing at every point in time. This helps you meet peak requirements by scaling up database consumption when needs grow and minimizes costs by scaling it back down later. Oracle cites global customers using these scaling capabilities to economically meet seasonal demands for retail companies and end-of-quarter financial closes for any business.
Running business workloads in the cloud is popular and continues growing at impressive rates because it solves practical problems for IT practitioners and business users. However, generic cloud infrastructure hasn’t delivered the same level of performance and availability for mission-critical OLTP and analytics workloads that many customers achieved with on-premises platforms.
If your enterprise depends on Oracle Database technology—and 97% of the Global Fortune 100 companies use Oracle Database, with 88% relying on Oracle Exadata for business-critical workloads—you need to seriously consider running your cloud database workloads on Exadata X9M in OCI. Oracle's expanding portfolio of OCI services and delivery platforms, coupled with its unique ability to integrate optimized database platforms like Exadata X9M into OCI redefines what it means to run mission-critical databases in the cloud.
The Exadata X9M is built by the same people who build the Oracle Database, best positioning Oracle to optimize the performance, reliability, and automation required to get the most out of Oracle Database in the cloud. Oracle Exadata X9M is a stellar piece of engineering, bringing together compute and storage in an optimized architecture that delivers levels of throughput and reliability that deserve the superlatives I'm throwing around. And, it's not just me saying it; Oracle's momentum in the cloud bears this out as customers continue to make Exadata their preferred option to run Oracle Database.
When combined with the new Oracle Database Service for Microsoft Azure, Exadata X9M in OCI should cause organizations to rethink strategies focused on using generic cloud infrastructure for critical database applications.
Note: Moor Insights & Strategy writers and editors may have contributed to this article.
Moor Insights & Strategy, like all research and tech industry analyst firms, provides or has provided paid services to technology companies. These services include research, analysis, advising, consulting, benchmarking, acquisition matchmaking, and speaking sponsorships. The company has had or currently has paid business relationships with 8×8, Accenture, A10 Networks, Advanced Micro Devices, Amazon, Amazon Web Services, Ambient Scientific, Anuta Networks, Applied Brain Research, Applied Micro, Apstra, Arm, Aruba Networks (now HPE), Atom Computing, AT&T, Aura, Automation Anywhere, AWS, A-10 Strategies, Bitfusion, Blaize, Box, Broadcom, C3.AI, Calix, Campfire, Cisco Systems, Clear Software, Cloudera, Clumio, Cognitive Systems, CompuCom, Cradlepoint, CyberArk, Dell, Dell EMC, Dell Technologies, Diablo Technologies, Dialogue Group, Digital Optics, Dreamium Labs, D-Wave, Echelon, Ericsson, Extreme Networks, Five9, Flex, Foundries.io, Foxconn, Frame (now VMware), Fujitsu, Gen Z Consortium, Glue Networks, GlobalFoundries, Revolve (now Google), Google Cloud, Graphcore, Groq, Hiregenics, Hotwire Global, HP Inc., Hewlett Packard Enterprise, Honeywell, Huawei Technologies, IBM, Infinidat, Infosys, Inseego, IonQ, IonVR, Inseego, Infosys, Infiot, Intel, Interdigital, Jabil Circuit, Keysight, Konica Minolta, Lattice Semiconductor, Lenovo, Linux Foundation, Lightbits Labs, LogicMonitor, Luminar, MapBox, Marvell Technology, Mavenir, Marseille Inc, Mayfair Equity, Meraki (Cisco), Merck KGaA, Mesophere, Micron Technology, Microsoft, MiTEL, Mojo Networks, MongoDB, MulteFire Alliance, National Instruments, Neat, NetApp, Nightwatch, NOKIA (Alcatel-Lucent), Nortek, Novumind, NVIDIA, Nutanix, Nuvia (now Qualcomm), onsemi, ONUG, OpenStack Foundation, Oracle, Palo Alto Networks, Panasas, Peraso, Pexip, Pixelworks, Plume Design, PlusAI, Poly (formerly Plantronics), Portworx, Pure Storage, Qualcomm, Quantinuum, Rackspace, Rambus, Rayvolt E-Bikes, Red Hat, Renesas, Residio, Samsung Electronics, Samsung Semi, SAP, SAS, Scale Computing, Schneider Electric, SiFive, Silver Peak (now Aruba-HPE), SkyWorks, SONY Optical Storage, Splunk, Springpath (now Cisco), Spirent, Splunk, Sprint (now T-Mobile), Stratus Technologies, Symantec, Synaptics, Syniverse, Synopsys,Tanium, Telesign,TE Connectivity, TensTorrent, Tobii Technology, Teradata,T-Mobile, Treasure Data, Twitter, Unity Technologies, UiPath, Verizon Communications, VAST Data, Ventana Micro Systems, Vidyo, VMware, Wave Computing, Wellsmith, Xilinx, Zayo, Zebra, Zededa, Zendesk, Zoho, Zoom, and Zscaler. Moor Insights & Strategy founder, CEO, and Chief Analyst Patrick Moorhead is an investor in dMY Technology Group Inc. VI, Dreamium Labs, Groq, Luminar Technologies, MemryX, and Movandi.
The Best of Breed (BoB) Conference meets the evolving needs of the IT channel’s largest, fastest-growing, and most progressive solution provider organizations and the top technology vendors and distributors. An invitation-only event, the BoB Conference brings together 100+ attendees from CRN’s elite solution provider lists ─ Solution Provider 500, Tech Elite 250 and Fast Growth 150 ─ to connect and engage over the course of 2 days. The in-person event features empowering CEO interviews, SP 500 solution provider spotlights, economic and market trend sessions, executive panel discussions and briefings, and peer-to-peer networking.
Get all of CRN's coverage of the event here and follow along on Twitter at #bob21.
10 Big Cybersecurity Bets For 2022 From Optiv CEO Kevin Lynch
From data governance, anti-ransomware and managed XDR to advisory services, managed implementation and faster delivery, here’s where Optiv CEO Kevin Lynch plans to place his bets in 2022.
HPE CEO Antonio Neri’s 10 Boldest Statements From Best Of Breed 2021
Neri talks about the growing importance of data, integrated platforms, and opportunities for partners in 5G, connectivity, and the HPE GreenLake edge-to-cloud platform.
HPE CEO Neri: Steer Clear Of Public Cloud, Slash Costs By Up To 50 Percent
One solution provider tells CRN that a customer is looking at that level of savings by moving workloads out of the public cloud and into HPE’s GreenLake platform.
HPE CEO Antonio Neri: Dell Apex ‘Is VMware—It’s Not Dell’
Neri says that the early version of the Dell Apex solution doesn’t offer as broad of a set of as-a-service solutions as HPE’s GreenLake offering, and is predominantly built around the VMware control plane.
HPE CEO Antonio Neri To ‘Personally Lead’ Initiative To Boost GreenLake Experience
The CEO of Hewlett Packard Enterprise says he will oversee a 30-person team working to enhance ‘all aspects of the experience’ involved with the GreenLake as-a-service consumption model.
Hybrid Cloud Doesn’t Have To Be Intimidating, Says IBM
‘We can’t do this alone. With the $1 trillion opportunity around hybrid cloud, the only way we are going to succeed is with you,’ IBM’s Deepa Krishnan tells solution providers.
Cisco CEO Chuck Robbins’ 10 Boldest Statements From Best Of Breed 2021
‘Software … allows us to move faster, innovate more quickly and allows the customer to actually get to the outcome faster. And if we get it right, it’s better for both our business models because [it provides] more predictability. But we have to get it right because it’s complicated to figure all that out,’ Cisco CEO Chuck Robbins tells an audience of solution providers.
Ingram Micro’s Kirk Robinson: New Ownership Means New Channel Investment
‘Platinum [Equity] is in the business of making great companies greater, and they’re fully prepared to leverage their resources and experience to help Ingram Micro grow. And now that we’re U.S.-owned again, we have additional opportunities, not the least of which is in the public sector market where Platinum has proven experience,’ says Kirk Robinson, Ingram Micro’s chief country executive for the U.S.
Ingram Micro Acquires CloudLogic In Big Cloud Services Play
‘CloudLogic not only advises on the best, most efficient, and effective way to run your customers’ applications, but they can also run reports on your customers’ technology, software licensing, and cloud spend through what we call IT Portfolio Optimization,’ says Kirk Robinson, Ingram Micro’s chief country executive for the U.S.
Frank Vitagliano: ‘The Smart Money … Has Gravitated To The Distributors’
‘The smart money in the marketplace … has gravitated to the distributors. What they see is not only the value of what we’re doing today, but also the opportunity to enhance that,’ says Frank Vitagliano, CEO of the Global Technology Distribution Council.
Cisco’s Chuck Robbins On What Subscriptions Mean For Partners: ‘It’s Better For Both Our Business Models’
‘One thing I’ve told the team all along is I don’t know what the solution is, but the answer is we have to do it with our partner community, and that’s just the way it is,’ Cisco CEO Chuck Robbins said at The Channel Company’s 2021 Best of Breed Conference.
Cynet: Automate, Consolidate Security Functions With XDR
‘When you’re selling one consolidated XDR platform, it’s a single setup,. Your win rates are higher, and your margins are higher as well,’ says Royi Barnea, Cynet’s head of channel sales in North America.
Customer Engagement Strategies Changing To Meet New Challenges
‘We are in definitely a hybrid place today of kind of a mix of digital and traditional. And that actually isn’t going away. And expectations of customers are absolutely going to continue to remain in that space, and they’re going to want to interact in that fashion,’ says Jade Surrette, chief marketing officer for The Channel Company.
IBM CEO Arvind Krishna’s 10 Boldest Statements From Best Of Breed 2021
IBM CEO Arvind Krishna talked Red Hat integration plans, supply chain issues, partner opportunities, and took aim at VMWare during a Q&A onstage at the Best of Breed Conference 2021.
Arvind Krishna: IBM ‘Dead Serious’ About Partner Push; Upcoming Growth Has ‘Got To Be’ Through Channel
IBM’s CEO tells partners at The Channel Company’s Best of Breed Conference that the IT giant has stepped up to invest in the channel, and offers major opportunities that include hybrid cloud, Red Hat solutions and security. ‘Now, let’s go grow the business together,’ Krishna said.
IBM CEO Arvind Krishna: Chip Shortage ‘More Likely’ Continuing Until 2023 Or 2024
Krishna said he sees any suggestion that a resolution could come by 2022 as ‘optimistic,’ and called upon the U.S. government to do more to support a larger return of semiconductor manufacturing to the country.
‘Geographically Diversify Manufacturing’ To Solve Supply Chain Crisis: Analyst
‘There’s no question we need to geographically diversify manufacturing. We absolutely have put too much dependence on Asia without having a more predictable macroeconomic and geopolitical relationship,’ says Daniel Newman of Futurum Research.
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Jul 07, 2022 (The Expresswire) -- Rising Demand : In 2020, Software-Defined Networking Market is valued approximately at 8670.1 million USD and is anticipated to grow with a healthy growth rate of more than 21.4% CAGR and it is projected to reach 27810 Million USD over the forecast period 2022-2026.
"Software-Defined Networking Market" Research Report 2022 provides key analysis on the market status of the Software-Defined Networking manufacturers with best facts and figures, meaning, definition, SWOT analysis, expert opinions and the latest developments across the globe. The Report also calculate the market size, Software-Defined Networking Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share, cost structure and growth rate. The report considers the revenue generated and technologies by various application segments and Browse Market data Tables and Figures with in-depth TOC on Software-Defined Networking Market.
Software-Defined Networking Market Research Report is spread across 114 Pages and provides exclusive data, information, vital statistics, trends, and competitive landscape details in this niche sector.
What has been the impact of COVID-19 on the global Software-Defined Networking Market In 2022:
Sudden outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic had led to the implementation of stringent lockdown regulations across several nations resulting in disruptions in import and export activities of Software-Defined Networking.
COVID-19 can affect the global economy in three main ways: by directly affecting production and demand, by creating supply chain and market disruption, and by its financial impact on firms and financial markets. Our analysts monitoring the situation across the globe explains that the market will generate remunerative prospects for producers post COVID-19 crisis. The report aims to provide an additional illustration of the latest scenario, economic slowdown, and COVID-19 impact on the overall industry.
Final Report will add the analysis of the impact of COVID-19 on this industry.
Software-Defined Networking Market Development Strategy Pre and Post COVID-19, by Corporate Strategy Analysis, Landscape, Type, Application, and Leading 20 Countries covers and analyzes the potential of the global Software-Defined Networking industry, providing statistical information about market dynamics, growth factors, major challenges, PEST analysis and market entry strategy Analysis, opportunities and forecasts. The biggest highlight of the report is to provide companies in the industry with a strategic analysis of the impact of COVID-19. At the same time, this report analyzed the market of leading 20 countries and introduce the market potential of these countries.
It also provides accurate information and cutting-edge analysis that is necessary to formulate an ideal business plan, and to define the right path for rapid growth for all involved industry players. With this information, stakeholders will be more capable of developing new strategies, which focus on market opportunities that will benefit them, making their business endeavors profitable in the process.
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Who are the key Players in the Software-Defined Networking market?
● Brocade Communications
● Cisco Systems
● Nokia (Alcatel-Lucent)
● Verizon Enterprise
● Juniper Networks
Short Description About Software-Defined Networking Market 2022:
Software-defined networking (SDN) encompasses different types of network technology that are aimed at making the network as flexible and agile as the virtualized server of the modern data center. The primary goal of SDN is to allow engineers and network administrators to respond effectively to changing business requirements. In such a network, the network administrator can control traffic from a centralized control console without having to touch individual switches. Functional separation, automation through programmability, and network virtualization are the key technologies covered under SDN.
Global Software-Defined Networking Market Analysis and Insights:
The research report studies the Software-Defined Networking market using different methodologies and analyzes to provide accurate and in-depth information about the market. For a clearer understanding, it is divided into several parts to cover different aspects of the market. Each area is then elaborated to help the reader comprehend the growth potential of each region and its contribution to the global market. The researchers have used primary and secondary methodologies to collate the information in the report. They have also used the same data to generate the current market scenario. This report is aimed at guiding people towards an apprehensive, better, and clearer knowledge of the market.
The Global Software-Defined Networking market size is projected to reach USD 27810 million by 2026, from USD 8670.1 million in 2020, at a CAGR of 21.4% during 2021-2026.
Scope and Segmentation Analysis of the Software-Defined Networking Market :
The Global Software-Defined Networking market is segmented by company, region (country), by Type, and by Application. Players, stakeholders, and other participants in The Global Software-Defined Networking market will be able to gain the upper hand as they use the report as a powerful resource. The segmental analysis focuses on revenue and forecast by region (country), by Type, and by Application for the period 2015-2026.
Software-Defined Networking Market 2022 is segmented as per type of product and application. Each segment is carefully analyzed for exploring its market potential. All of the segments are studied in detail on the basis of market size, CAGR, market share, consumption, revenue and other vital factors.
Which product segment is expected to garner highest traction within the Software-Defined Networking Market In 2022:
Based on product, the Software-Defined Networking market is segmented intoPhysical Network Infrastructure, Controller Software, SDN Applications and other. The Software-Defined Networking products segment dominated the Software-Defined Networking market in 2022. Rising incidences of diabetes and new product launches expected to drive the segment growth.
Which are the key drivers supporting the growth of the Software-Defined Networking market?
The increasing use of Software-Defined Networking In Telecom and IT, BFSI, Education, Consumer Goods and Retail, Healthcare, Government and Defense and other industries is driving the growth of the Software-Defined Networking market across the globe.
Which region is expected to hold the highest market share in the Software-Defined Networking Market?● North America (United States, Canada and Mexico) ● Europe (Germany, UK, France, Italy, Russia and Turkey etc.) ● Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India, Australia, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, Malaysia and Vietnam) ● South America (Brazil, Argentina, Columbia etc.) ● Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa)
This Software-Defined Networking Market Research/Analysis Report Contains Answers to your following Questions● Which Manufacturing Technology is used for Software-Defined Networking? What Developments Are Going On in That Technology? Which Trends Are Causing These Developments? ● Who Are the Global Key Players in This Software-Defined Networking Market? What are Their Company Profile, Their Product Information, and Contact Information? ● What Was Global Market Status of Software-Defined Networking Market? What Was Capacity, Production Value, Cost and PROFIT of Software-Defined Networking Market? ● What Is Current Market Status of Software-Defined Networking Industry? What’s Market Competition in This Industry, Both Company, and Country Wise? What’s Market Analysis of Software-Defined Networking Market by Taking Applications and Types in Consideration? ● What Are Projections of Global Software-Defined Networking Industry Considering Capacity, Production and Production Value? What Will Be the Estimation of Cost and Profit? What Will Be Market Share, Supply and Consumption? What about Import and Export? ● What Is Software-Defined Networking Market Chain Analysis by Upstream Raw Materials and Downstream Industry? ● What Is Economic Impact On Software-Defined Networking Industry? What are Global Macroeconomic Environment Analysis Results? What Are Global Macroeconomic Environment Development Trends? ● What Are Market Dynamics of Software-Defined Networking Market? What Are Challenges and Opportunities? ● What Should Be Entry Strategies, Countermeasures to Economic Impact, and Marketing Channels for Software-Defined Networking Industry?
Our research analysts will help you to get customized details for your report, which can be modified in terms of a specific region, application or any statistical details. In addition, we are always willing to comply with the study, which triangulated with your own data to make the market research more comprehensive in your perspective.
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Major Points from Table of Contents:
Global Software-Defined Networking Market Research Report 2022-2026, by Manufacturers, Regions, Types and Applications
1 Study Coverage
1.1 Software-Defined Networking Product Introduction
1.2 Market by Type
1.2.1 Global Software-Defined Networking Market Size Growth Rate by Type
1.3 Market by Application
1.3.1 Global Software-Defined Networking Market Size Growth Rate by Application
1.4 Study Objectives
1.5 Years Considered
2 Global Software-Defined Networking Production
2.1 Global Software-Defined Networking Production Capacity (2016-2026)
2.2 Global Software-Defined Networking Production by Region: 2016 VS 2022 VS 2026
2.3 Global Software-Defined Networking Production by Region
2.3.1 Global Software-Defined Networking Historic Production by Region (2016-2022)
2.3.2 Global Software-Defined Networking Forecasted Production by Region (2022-2026)
3 Global Software-Defined Networking Sales in Volume and Value Estimates and Forecasts
3.1 Global Software-Defined Networking Sales Estimates and Forecasts 2016-2026
3.2 Global Software-Defined Networking Revenue Estimates and Forecasts 2016-2026
3.3 Global Software-Defined Networking Revenue by Region: 2016 VS 2022 VS 2026
3.4 Global Top Software-Defined Networking Regions by Sales
3.4.1 Global Top Software-Defined Networking Regions by Sales (2016-2022)
3.4.2 Global Top Software-Defined Networking Regions by Sales (2022-2026)
3.5 Global Top Software-Defined Networking Regions by Revenue
3.5.1 Global Top Software-Defined Networking Regions by Revenue (2016-2022)
3.5.2 Global Top Software-Defined Networking Regions by Revenue (2022-2026)
3.6 North America
3.9 Latin America
3.10 Middle East and Africa
4 Competition by Manufactures
4.1 Global Software-Defined Networking Supply by Manufacturers
4.1.1 Global Top Software-Defined Networking Manufacturers by Production Capacity (2021 VS 2022)
4.1.2 Global Top Software-Defined Networking Manufacturers by Production (2016-2022)
4.2 Global Software-Defined Networking Sales by Manufacturers
4.2.1 Global Top Software-Defined Networking Manufacturers by Sales (2016-2022)
4.2.2 Global Top Software-Defined Networking Manufacturers Market Share by Sales (2016-2022)
4.2.3 Global Top 10 and Top 5 Companies by Software-Defined Networking Sales in 2021
4.3 Global Software-Defined Networking Revenue by Manufacturers
4.3.1 Global Top Software-Defined Networking Manufacturers by Revenue (2016-2022)
4.3.2 Global Top Software-Defined Networking Manufacturers Market Share by Revenue (2016-2022)
4.3.3 Global Top 10 and Top 5 Companies by Software-Defined Networking Revenue in 2021
4.4 Global Software-Defined Networking Sales Price by Manufacturers
4.5 Analysis of Competitive Landscape
4.5.1 Manufacturers Market Concentration Ratio (CR5 and HHI)
4.5.2 Global Software-Defined Networking Market Share by Company Type (Tier 1, Tier 2, and Tier 3)
4.5.3 Global Software-Defined Networking Manufacturers Geographical Distribution
4.6 Mergers and Acquisitions, Expansion Plans
5 Market Size by Type
5.1 Global Software-Defined Networking Sales by Type
5.1.1 Global Software-Defined Networking Historical Sales by Type (2016-2022)
5.1.2 Global Software-Defined Networking Forecasted Sales by Type (2022-2026)
5.1.3 Global Software-Defined Networking Sales Market Share by Type (2016-2026)
5.2 Global Software-Defined Networking Revenue by Type
5.2.1 Global Software-Defined Networking Historical Revenue by Type (2016-2022)
5.2.2 Global Software-Defined Networking Forecasted Revenue by Type (2022-2026)
5.2.3 Global Software-Defined Networking Revenue Market Share by Type (2016-2026)
5.3 Global Software-Defined Networking Price by Type
5.3.1 Global Software-Defined Networking Price by Type (2016-2022)
5.3.2 Global Software-Defined Networking Price Forecast by Type (2022-2026)
6 Market Size by Application
6.1 Global Software-Defined Networking Sales by Application
6.1.1 Global Software-Defined Networking Historical Sales by Application (2016-2022)
6.1.2 Global Software-Defined Networking Forecasted Sales by Application (2022-2026)
6.1.3 Global Software-Defined Networking Sales Market Share by Application (2016-2026)
6.2 Global Software-Defined Networking Revenue by Application
6.2.1 Global Software-Defined Networking Historical Revenue by Application (2016-2022)
6.2.2 Global Software-Defined Networking Forecasted Revenue by Application (2022-2026)
6.2.3 Global Software-Defined Networking Revenue Market Share by Application (2016-2026)
6.3 Global Software-Defined Networking Price by Application
6.3.1 Global Software-Defined Networking Price by Application (2016-2022)
6.3.2 Global Software-Defined Networking Price Forecast by Application (2022-2026)
7 Software-Defined Networking Consumption by Regions
7.1 Global Software-Defined Networking Consumption by Regions
7.1.1 Global Software-Defined Networking Consumption by Regions
7.1.2 Global Software-Defined Networking Consumption Market Share by Regions
7.2 North America
7.2.1 North America Software-Defined Networking Consumption by Application
7.2.2 North America Software-Defined Networking Consumption by Countries
7.2.3 United States
7.3.1 Europe Software-Defined Networking Consumption by Application
7.3.2 Europe Software-Defined Networking Consumption by Countries
7.4 Asia Pacific
7.4.1 Asia Pacific Software-Defined Networking Consumption by Application
7.4.2 Asia Pacific Software-Defined Networking Consumption by Countries
7.4.5 South Korea
7.7 Central and South America
7.7.1 Central and South America Software-Defined Networking Consumption by Application
7.7.2 Central and South America Software-Defined Networking Consumption by Countries
7.7 Middle East and Africa
7.7.1 Middle East and Africa Software-Defined Networking Consumption by Application
7.7.2 Middle East and Africa Software-Defined Networking Consumption by Countries
7.7.4 GCC Countries
7.7.6 South Africa
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12 Corporate Profiles
12.1.1 Company Corporation Information
12.1.2 Company Overview
12.1.3 Company Software-Defined Networking Sales, Price, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2022)
12.1.4 Company Software-Defined Networking Product Description
12.1.5 Company Related Developments
13 Industry Chain and Sales Channels Analysis
13.1 Software-Defined Networking Industry Chain Analysis
13.2 Software-Defined Networking Key Raw Materials
13.2.1 Key Raw Materials
13.2.2 Raw Materials Key Suppliers
13.3 Software-Defined Networking Production Mode and Process
13.4 Software-Defined Networking Sales and Marketing
13.4.1 Software-Defined Networking Sales Channels
13.4.2 Software-Defined Networking Distributors
13.5 Software-Defined Networking Customers
14 Market Drivers, Opportunities, Challenges and Risks Factors Analysis
14.1 Software-Defined Networking Industry Trends
14.2 Software-Defined Networking Market Drivers
14.3 Software-Defined Networking Market Challenges
14.4 Software-Defined Networking Market Restraints
15 Key Finding in The Global Software-Defined Networking Study
16.1 Research Methodology
16.1.1 Methodology/Research Approach
16.1.2 Data Source
16.2 Author Details
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VMware this week announced that its latest VMware Fusion update brings Windows 11 support to both Intel and Apple silicon Macs. Available as a free tech preview, the 2H22 version of Fusion will finally allow Apple silicon Mac users to obtain and use Windows on their machines through virtualization.
Features include Windows 11 support with 2D GFX and networking, VMtools installation for Windows on Apple silicon machines, improved Linux support on Apple silicon machines, and more.
While the new functionality was designed with Windows 11 in mind, VMware says the tools can be used with other VMs too. At the current time, Fusion on Apple silicon devices is "still a work in progress" and there are some limitations to be aware of.
VMware says that it is looking for feedback from users in order to iron out kinks and add new capabilities in preparation for more formal support later this year. While in the testing period, VMware Fusion will be free to use. The VMware Fusion Tech Preview can be downloaded from the VMware website.
If big business mergers were a game of Pac-Man, where every pellet was a small company and each power pellet was a juicy merger, then tech companies would be playing a perfect game. In this admittedly overstretched metaphor, some U.S. regulators are desperately trying to pull the arcade cabinet’s chord, but it’s not going as well as some hoped.
We have billion dollar tech mergers being announced practically every week. On Thursday, Amazon announced it was signing a $3.9 billion merger deal with primary care practice company One Medical. Why does Amazon need medical care in its portfolio? Well the company wants to bridge into the online pharmacy and telehealth business. As if Amazon already didn’t control so many parts of our online experience.
Lina Khan, the Federal Trade Commission chair, has said that the best way to break up today’s big conglomerates is to look to the past, specifically to the early 1910’s and the age of Teddy Roosevelt trust busting. Despite her lofty goals, for much of year or so she’s been in charge of the agency that’s been stymied by partisanship among commissioners, with a 2-2 split along party lines. Republicans in Congress delayed a vote on a fifth commissioner that would supply Democrats the majority until this past May.
Khan is an out-and-out critic of how large big tech has become. Amazon has been a particular boogeyman for Khan’s vision of the FTC. In fact it was her 2017 paper detailing how to best wrangle the tech behemoth that put her in the national spotlight. Without the majority, Amazon was able to gobble up MGM Studios for $8.5 billion. The FTC is moving along with an antitrust probe over that acquisition.
The FTC is building an antitrust case against Meta, though that could still be months down the pipe. Despite original thoughts that Khan would upend the status quo, there haven’t been any major setbacks for tech companies and their multi-billion dollar acquisitions. It’s been a critique of her’s that she’s tried to answer by saying there’s more action coming, just wait and see.
It’s a big problem for Khan, with not just big mergers causing consternation but the smaller acquisitions as well. The FTC’s 2021 review of its own logs revealed a sizable chunk of those acquisitions over $1 million went unreported to the commission. The agency has said it can look at past acquisitions for some of the largest tech companies, but still, big tech is ravenous for any new innovations they think will supply them the edge. From January to September in 2021, The Washington Post reported that there were nearly 3,000 mergers and acquisitions that got little attention from either media or regulators.
Bloomberg reported that Khan’s efficacy in her position may be timed, especially if Republicans take back one or both houses of Congress after the November elections.
At the same time, massive antitrust bills are making their way through congress, and the debate over how “big” big tech can be seems to be coming to a head. The largest tech companies which have been acquiring tech companies both big and small could face a reckoning as bills like the The American Innovation and Choice Online Act could separate their marketing aspect from their tech facets. The bills have their supporters and detractors in Congress and in the media, and could come to a vote this summer.
And the largest tech companies are doing everything they can to stave off regulation and oversight. Apple spent nearly $2.5 million on lobbying to fight the bill. Meta reportedly spent $4 million on grassroots campaigns to get regular people to decry the new bill.
As Kahn and regulators are spoiling for a fight, here are few examples of the deals tech companies are looking to—or already have–inked since the start of this year.
Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (NASDAQ:AMD) Q2 2022 Earnings Conference Call August 2, 2022 5:00 PM ET
Laura Graves - Corporate Vice President, Investor Relations
Lisa Su - Chair and Chief Executive Officer
Devinder Kumar - Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer
Conference Call Participants
Toshiya Hari - Goldman Sachs
Vivek Arya - Bank of America Securities
Stacy Rasgon - Bernstein Research
Ross Seymore - Deutsche Bank
Matt Ramsay - Cowen
Aaron Rakers - Wells Fargo
Joe Moore - Morgan Stanley
Mark Lipacis - Jefferies
Harlan Sur - JPMorgan
Timothy Arcuri - UBS
Hello and welcome to the AMD Second Quarter 2022 Earnings Conference Call. [Operator Instructions] As a reminder, this conference is being recorded.
It’s now my pleasure to turn the call over to Laura Graves, Corporate Vice President, Investor Relations. Please go ahead, Laura.
Thank you, and welcome to AMD’s second quarter 2022 financial results conference call. By now, you should have had the opportunity to review a copy of our earnings press release and accompanying slides. If you have not reviewed these documents, they can be found on the Investor Relations page of amd.com. We will refer primarily to non-GAAP financial measures during this call. The full non-GAAP to GAAP reconciliations are available in today’s press release and slides posted on our website. In addition, today’s financial results reflect our new segment reporting, which aligns with how we now manage our business in strategic end markets.
Participants on today’s conference call are Dr. Lisa Su, our Chair and Chief Executive Officer; and Devinder Kumar, our Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer. This is a live call and will be replayed via webcast on our website.
Before we begin, I would like to note, Dr. Lisa Su will attend the Goldman Sachs Communacopia and Technology Conference on Thursday, September 15; Victor Peng, President of our Adaptive and Embedded Computing Group will attend the Rosenblatt Second Annual Technology Summit, The Age of AI Scaling on Tuesday, August 23; Ruth Cotter, Senior Vice President of Marketing, Human Resources and Investor Relations, will attend the Jefferies Semiconductor IT Hardware and Communications Infrastructure Summit on Tuesday, August 30; and AMD’s third quarter 2022 quiet time is expected to begin at the close of business on Friday, September 16.
Today’s discussion contains forward-looking statements based on our current beliefs, assumptions and expectations speak only as of today and as such, involve risks and uncertainties that could cause genuine results to differ materially from our current expectations. Please refer to the cautionary statement in our press release for more information on factors that could cause results to differ.
With that, I will hand the call over to Lisa Su. Lisa?
Thank you, Laura, and good afternoon to all those listening in today. This was an excellent quarter for our business as we delivered record revenue and profitability based on our strong execution, leadership product portfolio and diversified business model. Each of our segments grew significantly year-over-year, led by higher data center and embedded sales as we continue expanding our presence across a broader set of markets and customers.
Revenue grew 70% year-over-year to a record $6.6 billion. We also expanded gross margin 6 percentage points year-over-year to 54% and set records for operating and net income, both of which more than doubled from the prior year.
Turning to the business results. Starting in the second quarter, we updated our financial segment reporting to align with our four strategic end markets: Data Center, Client, Gaming and Embedded.
Let me start with our Data Center segment. Revenue increased 83% year-over-year and 15% sequentially to $1.5 billion, led by record server processor sales. EPYC processor demand was strong in the quarter, with significant year-over-year growth across both cloud and enterprise customers. In cloud, more than 60 new instances powered by third-gen EPYC processors launched in the quarter from AWS, Baidu, Google, Microsoft Azure and Oracle, including the industry’s first cloud-based software-as-a-service solution for chip design from Microsoft Azure and Synopsys, powered by our Milan-X processors with 3D stacked triplets.
In enterprise, OEM adoption accelerated in the quarter as Dell, HPE, Lenovo, Super Micro, Cisco and others brought tailored solutions to market that deliver leadership performance and TCO across many enterprise workloads. accurate examples include Lenovo’s AMD-powered Think Systems, setting a price performance world record for transaction processing and AMD-based HPE ProLiant servers, delivering record-setting virtualization performance. We made progress further establishing our data center GPU footprint in the quarter, highlighted by the AMD-powered Frontier supercomputer, debuting in the number one spot on both the top 500 list of the world’s fastest supercomputers and the Green500 list of the most energy-efficient supercomputers.
I am extremely proud of our work with HPE and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to build the world’s first exascale supercomputer. Breaking the exa block barrier is a significant computing milestone and the fact that it was made possible by EPYC processors and Instinct accelerators, highlights AMD’s unique ability to push the envelope in computing further and faster than anyone else.
Looking at our broader data center opportunities, we saw strong growth year-over-year for our industry leading FPGA and networking products with cloud and financial customers. We closed our acquisition of Pensando in the quarter, further expanding our data center solutions capabilities with the addition of a world-class team and an industry-leading DPU and software stack that complement our existing products.
With the additions of Xilinx and Pensando, AMD now provides the industry’s broadest set of leadership compute engines and accelerators to enable the best performance, security, flexibility and TCO for leading edge data centers. Looking ahead, customer pull for our next-generation 5-nanometer Genoa server CPU is very strong. We are on track to launch and ramp production of Genoa as the industry’s highest performance general-purpose server CPU later this year, positioning our data center business for continued growth and share gains.
Turning to our Client segment. Revenue grew 25% year-over-year to $2.2 billion based on record mobile processor sales. We believe we gained client processor revenue share for the ninth straight quarter led by strong adoption of our latest generation Ryzen mobile processors. Acer, Asus, Dell, HP, Lenovo and others are on track to significantly expand their portfolio of AMD-based notebooks as they bring almost 300 new designs to market this year, powered by Ryzen processors.
We also saw strong demand in the quarter for our latest generation Ryzen Pro processors that deliver leadership performance and battery life for professional notebooks. Commercial client processor revenue grew significantly year-over-year as HP, Lenovo and others launched more than 50 AMD-based commercial notebooks and Dell announced its first AMD-based precision workstation.
Looking ahead, we are on track to launch our all-new 5-nanometer Ryzen 7000 desktop processors and AM5 platforms later this quarter, with leadership performance in gaming and content creation. Taking a step back, while there has been additional softness in the PC market in accurate months, we believe we are very well positioned to navigate through the current environment based on the strength of our existing product portfolio and upcoming product launches.
Now turning to our Gaming segment. Revenue increased 32% year-over-year to $1.7 billion as semi-custom growth more than offset a decline in gaming graphics sales. Semi-custom SoC sales continue outpacing the prior generation and we remain on track for record semi-custom annual revenue in 2022. Gaming graphics declined in the quarter as macro conditions impacted discretionary spending. New AMD Advantage gaming notebooks that combine Ryzen and Radeon processors to enable outstanding gaming experiences launched recently to strong reviews, highlighted by the Alienware M17 receiving multiple Editors’ Choice awards from leading industry publications.
While we expect the gaming graphics market to be down in the third quarter, we remain focused on executing our GPU roadmap, including launching our high-end RDNA 3 GPUs later this year. Our next-generation RDNA 3 architecture is another major step forward for our graphics roadmap, delivering more than a 50% generational improvement in performance per watt by combining our most advanced gaming architecture with 5-nanometer triplet manufacturing.
Looking at our Embedded segment, revenue grew significantly year-over-year to $1.3 billion, led by robust demand across all markets and nodes for our FPGA and Adaptive Computing products. Xilinx products are deployed in virtually every market, powering mission-critical applications for thousands of customers. We accelerated Xilinx’s product sales in the second quarter with the benefit of the additional manufacturing scale and resources of AMD.
We delivered record core markets revenue led by aerospace and defense, industrial vision and health and test and measurement. Communications growth was led by higher demand in wired from multiple Tier 1 system vendors, while wireless demand was driven by multiple ramping ORAN deployments in North America.
Embedded CPU revenue also grew significantly in the quarter based on higher automotive sales and the ramp of new networking and storage design wins. As we highlighted at our Financial Analyst Day in June, we have identified greater than $10 billion in long-term revenue synergy opportunities as we bring the AMD and Xilinx assets together. Our largest opportunity is in AI and we have already started executing new hardware and software roadmaps to capture the significant opportunity we see to drive pervasive AI across cloud, edge and endpoints.
In summary, our work over the last several years has placed AMD on a significant growth trajectory. AMD has never been stronger and the markets for our products have never been as large or diverse. As a result, we have now delivered eight straight quarters of record revenue as our strong execution and leadership products have driven increased adoption across an expanded set of markets and customers.
Despite the current macroeconomic environment, we see continued growth in the back half of the year, highlighted by our next-generation 5-nanometer product shipments and supported by our diversified business model. We remain laser focused on executing our product and technology roadmaps, further deepening our customer relationships and investing strategically across the company to drive our next phase of growth across the $300 billion high-performance and adaptive computing market.
Now I’d like to turn the call over to Devinder to provide some additional color on our second quarter financial performance. Devinder?
Thank you, Lisa and good afternoon everyone. AMD reported excellent second quarter results. Strong demand for our leadership products drove record quarterly revenue and continued gross margin expansion. The second quarter includes the first full quarter of Xilinx’s financial results and we are pleased to have closed the acquisition of Pensando in the quarter.
Second quarter revenue was $6.6 million, up 70% from a year ago, driven by higher revenue across all segments and the inclusion of Xilinx revenue. Gross margin was 54%, up 640 basis points from a year ago, driven primarily by higher data center and embedded revenue. Operating expenses were $1.6 billion compared to $909 million a year ago as we continue to scale the company. Operating income more than doubled from a year ago to record $2.2 billion, driven by significant revenue growth and higher gross margin. Operating margin was 30%, up from 24% a year ago. Net income was a record $1.7 billion, up $929 million from a year ago. Earnings per share, was $1.05 per share compared to $0.63 per share a year ago.
Now, turning to our reportable segments. As previously communicated, we modified our segment reporting to align with our strategic end markets and the way we now manage the business. The Data Center segment includes server CPUs, data center GPUs, Pensando and Xilinx data center products. The Client segment includes desktop and notebook PC processors and chipsets, while the Gaming segment includes discrete graphic process and semi-custom game console products. The Embedded segment includes both AMD and Xilinx embedded products.
Starting with the Data Center segment. Revenue was $1.5 billion, up 83% year-over-year, driven by strong growth in third-generation EPYC server processor revenue. Data Center operating income was $472 million or 32% of revenue compared to $204 million or 25% a year ago. Higher operating income was driven primarily by stronger revenue partially offset by higher operating expenses. Client segment revenue was $2.2 billion, up 25% year-over-year, driven by a richer mix of Ryzen mobile processor sales. Client operating income was $676 million or 32% of revenue compared to $538 million or 31% a year ago. Operating income improvement was driven primarily by higher revenue partially offset by higher operating expenses.
Gaming segment revenue was $1.7 billion, up 32% year-over-year, driven by higher semi-custom product sales. Gaming operating income was $187 million or 11% of revenue compared to $175 million or 14% a year ago. Higher operating income was driven primarily by higher semi-custom revenue, which was partially offset by higher operating expenses. Operating margin was lower primarily due to lower graphics revenue and higher operating expenses.
Embedded segment revenue was $1.3 billion, up $1.2 billion from a year ago, driven primarily by the inclusion of Xilinx embedded revenue. Embedded operating income was $641 million or 51% of revenue compared to $6 million or 11% a year ago, driven by higher revenue.
Turning to the balance sheet. Cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments was $6 billion at the end of the second quarter. During the quarter, we deployed $920 million to repurchase common stock and have $7.4 billion in remaining authorization. Cash from operations was a record $1 billion. Quarterly free cash flow was $906 million compared to $888 million in the same quarter last year. Inventory was $2.6 billion, up approximately $220 million from the prior quarter in support of second half revenue and the inclusion of Pensando. During the quarter, we established AMD in the investment-grade debt market by issuing debt of $1 billion.
Turning to our financial outlook. Today’s outlook is based on current expectations and contemplates the current macroeconomic environment and customer demand signals. For the third quarter of 2022, we expect revenue to be approximately $6.7 billion, plus or minus $200 million, an increase of approximately 55% year-over-year, primarily led by growth in the Data Center and Embedded segments.
In addition for Q3 2022, we expect non-GAAP gross margin to be approximately 54%, non-GAAP operating expenses to be approximately $1.64 billion or 24.5% of revenue, non-GAAP interest expense, taxes and other to be approximately $270 million based on the 13% effective tax rate and the diluted share count to be approximately 1.63 billion shares. For the full year, we continue to expect revenue of approximately $26.3 billion, plus or minus $300 million, an increase of approximately 60% at the midpoint led by growth in Data Center and Embedded segments. We continue to expect non-GAAP gross margin to be approximately 54%.
In closing, we had an excellent second quarter, with year-over-year revenue growth across all segments, margin expansions and record profitability. Looking ahead, we remain focused on executing our product and financial objectives, while continuing to monitor market signals and work closely with our customers to navigate the dynamic market conditions. We are confident that we are well-positioned for long-term growth driven by our revenue diversification, financial model and earnings power.
Before we transition to the Q&A, we would like to take this opportunity to thank Laura Graves for all her service to AMD and wish her every success on her retirement later this month. Thank you, Laura.
With that, let us begin the Q&A portion of our call.
Thank you, Devinder. Kevin, go ahead and begin the Q&A, please.
Certainly. [Operator Instructions] Our first question is coming from Toshiya Hari from Goldman Sachs. Your line is now live.
Great. Thank you so much for taking the question, and congrats to Laura on your upcoming retirement. I had two questions. The first one, I wanted to better understand what’s contemplated in your guidance, your Q3 guidance, as well as your implied Q4 guidance, both in terms of revenue and gross margins? If you can kind of speak to the pluses and minus on a sequential basis, that would be super helpful. And then I have a follow-up.
Sure. Thanks, Toshiya, for the question. So in terms of the Q3 and the Q4 guidance, so if we would start first with Q3, I think the Q3 guidance implies that, first of all, the revenue growth is led by the Data Center, as well as some increase in our semi-custom or Game Console business, which historically peaks in the third quarter. We have taken a more conservative outlook on the PC business. So a quarter ago, we would have thought that the PC business would be down, let’s call it, high single digits. And our current view of the PC business is that it will be down, let’s call it, mid-teens. And that’s contemplated into our third quarter guidance.
And then as we go into the fourth quarter, what we see is, again, the sequential growth there will be led by the Data Center, as well as our Embedded business, with the same view of the PC business. But what we also have there is a set of new product ramps that we’re very excited about. So we have a number of 5-nanometer products that will be ramping in the fourth quarter, including our client products, as well as our server – our general products, as well as our graphics products. So that’s sort of the view of Q3 and Q4 from a revenue standpoint.
And then from a margin standpoint, again, we’re guiding full year margin at 54%, which is what we – which is the same. And again, it’s a mix of business in each of the businesses that is resulting in that.
Got it. Thank you for the color, particularly around your PC assumptions. My follow-up, I was hoping you can speak to what you’re seeing in your Data Center business. Given the macro backdrop, we get a bunch of questions from investors about the forward and sort of the concerns related to both enterprise and spending in the cloud. What are your customers telling you at this point? What kind of visibility do you have? And at what point do you become more dependent on the overall market? And I asked the question because if we take the most accurate quarter, you’re probably about third of your nearest competitor in terms of revenue scale, you were about 1.7% a year ago. So obviously, you’re significantly larger, curious at 1 point, do you become more correlated with the broader market? Thank you.
Yes. Thanks for the question on the Data Centers. So look, the Data Center business has grown very nicely for us. We’re pleased with the segment growth both on a year-over-year as well as a sequential basis. In terms of what we’re seeing underneath that, in the second quarter, for example, we did see the Cloud business continue to be very strong. So from what we – from our customers, we’re continuing to ramp new cloud instances and workloads with Milan and we see that continuing into the second half of the year.
For the Enterprise business, we actually did make also a good progress on the OEM side there as well. What I would say is the trends there are a bit more mixed and perhaps more correlated to some of the macro backdrop. So we do see a significant pipeline, although some of the deals are taking a little bit longer to close. And I would say that there are some match set of things that the OEMs are working through. But all in all, I think we continue to see significant growth opportunities as we go into the second half of the year and into 2023 just given our strong product positioning. And as I said, in this part of the cycle, we see Milan continuing to ramp into the second half of the year. And then we see Genoa coming in towards the end of the year into 2023.
So I do think, to your overall question, do we become more correlated to the market? I mean, I think we are – we’ve certainly gained a lot of share. So we’re a larger piece of the market, but we are still underrepresented. And the visibility with our customers, especially our large cloud customers’ second half of this year into next year is very good. And we’re planning really for the next four to six quarters, and that gives us good visibility.
Very helpful. Thank you so much.
Thank you. Your next question is coming from Vivek Arya from Bank of America Securities. Your line is now live.
Thanks for taking my question. Lisa, I just wanted to revisit the second half outlook because your large competitor recently presented a very bleak picture of PC and Enterprise and Data Center talking about excess inventory, et cetera, but you are leaving your expectations relatively unchanged. I’m curious, how do you see your inventory levels? And do you think AMD could be impacted by any excess PC or server or graphics inventory from your main competitors? Just is your second half you think adequately de-risked the way you see it today?
Yes, sure, Vivek. So look, if you look at our second half guidance, and maybe let’s talk about the full year guidance, we have – there are some puts and takes in how we’re seeing the business today. So whenever we guide, we recognize that there are multiple dynamics that we’re looking at. In the current guidance for the full year and the second half, what we’re saying is that we continue to see strong demand in the Data Center, in our Embedded business, as well as in the Console business. And we are being more conservative in our PC outlook. Our PC outlook now at mid-teens would kind of put the market at somewhere around, let’s call it, 290 million to 300 million units. So I do think we’ve appropriately de-risked the PC business.
As it relates to inventory as we look at the current situation, given some of the COVID lockdowns and things in the second quarter, I think there was a bit of buildup in PC inventory, and we’ve taken that into account in the second half. We think the AMD portion of that is modest. And as a result, it will rebalance itself in the second half of the year.
So overall, I think we feel very good about the second half. And again, with the portfolio that we have, one of the things that has been important is we were still supply constrained in several of the areas. Certainly, on the Embedded side, we were supply constrained in the second quarter. And even on the Server side, we were tight in the second quarter. We have additional supply that’s coming online, especially as we get towards the end of the year. That will help us really meet more of the demand from customers. So we feel pretty good about all of those puts and takes.
Got it. And for my follow-up, Lisa, one more on the data center side. So cloud spending seems very strong right now. But we see all these media reports about the cloud players wanting to control their spending levels, etcetera. When do you think that shows up in their spending outlook? Or do you think you have enough of a share gain story with Genoa coming out later this year to offset any slowdown from just a broader spending environment perspective? And just how are you feeling about the next-gen kind of Genoa versus Sapphire Rapids competitive outlook?
Yes, Vivek. So I mean, we spend a lot of time with our customers talking about what they’re seeing in their businesses and what they’re seeing in their markets, particularly the large cloud customers. What I would say is every customer is different. So they each have their own dynamics of what they’re trying to optimize. We have seen a bit of a slowdown in China, and you might have expected that. But certainly, with North America cloud, they’ve been very strong this year, and the forecast are robust for next year.
Relative to your overall question, I think we do feel like we’re in a share gain position. I think the product positioning is such that Milan is very, very strong right now. And we think that Genoa as well is very well positioned into next year. So we’ll always spend time with the customer set and see what they’re seeing. But from our current view, I think we have a strong opportunity to continue to grow the Data Center business into 2023. And our view is we have an expanding portfolio as well. In addition to Genoa, we have our Bergamo, which is a cloud optimized capability as well that’s coming online early next year. So there is a lot of new products that are supporting sort of our growth ambitions.
Thank you. Our next question is from Stacy Rasgon from Bernstein Research. Your line is live.
Hi, guys. Thanks for taking my questions. For my first question, your larger competitor now has a very sort of publicly admitted push out on their own server product. Does that make you feel like better for what you see for your Genoa ramp, especially as we get into 2023? Is it stronger than you may have seen it previously? And I guess if that’s the case, it sounds like you were still a little bit supply constrain on server in general in Q2. Do you have the supply as we go into next year to upside on that number if the orders actually do get stronger in the wake of the Sapphire Rapids delay?
Sure, Stacy. Thanks for the question. So we’re very focused on our own product ramp. And certainly, the key for us was to continue to work very closely with our customers to get them to ramp as fast as possible. I think in Genoa looks very good. We’ve gotten very strong feedback from the customer set. The performance looks very good. There’s a lot of interest to ramp quickly on both the cloud, as well as some of the high-end enterprise stuff. So we feel very good about it. And to your question about supply, we have spent basically the last 12 months building our capacity across the world to support the type of growth that we think the product can handle. So there is a large step-up in supply that we expect to see over the next four, five quarters. And I think we’ll continue to work on that.
Got it. Thank you. For my follow-up, I wanted to dig a little bit more into the implied Q4 outlook. Again, I know you answered some questions on some of the drivers into Q4. But if I look at it, it’s taken at the dead midpoint it’s something like a 7% sequential increase from Q3 to Q4 with gross margins going up about 100 bps to 55%. I guess, of that increase, is it fair to say that the bulk of it continues to be Data Center and may be Embedded? The gross margins to me would suggest that, that’s probably the case. But any more further color you could supply us on the magnitude of what’s driving that increase would be helpful. Thanks.
Yes. I think, Stacy, the bulk of the increase is certainly led by the Data Center and the Embedded segments. Actually, our Embedded segment has performed really well. Very pleased with the growth that we’re seeing there. And then in terms of the margin, it very much is a mix within the business as well. So the pluses and minuses are, yes, Data Center and Embedded are up, but the mix of data center is a little bit more to Cloud than Enterprise, and Embedded a bit more from communications than some of the other markets. But Overall, the 7% increase, I think, is very well supported given all of the new product ramps that we have going on in addition to some additional supply that’s coming in as we get into the fourth quarter. And just as a reminder, it’s also a 14-week quarter for us in Q4. And so, all those things supply us sort of the implied guide.
Got it. Forgot about the 14-week. Got it. Thank you so much, that’s helpful.
Thank you. The next question is coming from Ross Seymore from Deutsche Bank. Your line is now live.
Hi, thanks for letting me ask a question and congrats on the solid results, especially in this environment and Laura, congratulations on your retirement. Lisa, I want to dig a little bit into the Gaming business. You obviously have the two parts of that: the client GPUs and the game console side of things. It seems like there are very different dynamics happening there. So when you talked about the – I believe you said the client GPU side would be down year-over-year in the third quarter. Can you just talk a little bit about what’s happening there? Is that just a reflection of the PC market or is there any sort of share gains, product issues going on? And then the semi-custom color, you sounded like it’s going to remain strong for the rest of the year. So is there – is that just the fourth year of the ramp or the third year, I guess, it would be – or is there some sort of seasonal effect we should appreciate as well?
Yes. Sure, Ross. Thanks for the question. So our Gaming business is the two halves of the sort of the discrete graphics or the consumer graphics and then our Game Console business. So I would say that on the semi-custom side, let’s take that first. The Console business has been very strong. So I would say it’s a strong cycle. Overall, we were more supply constrained in sort of last year into the first half of this year. We’ve been able to get additional supply for that. I think there’s continued belief that it’s a strong cycle for the consoles. We expect consoles to peak in the third quarter, and then the normal seasonality would see a decline in the fourth quarter. As it relates to the consumer graphics, I would say that as we entered this year, we were coming off of a very strong 2021 for consumer graphics where gaming demand was very high, we have seen a slowdown here in the second quarter, and we expect that is somewhat due to sort of demand now – sort of the supply now and more supply versus demand, as well as some of the macro issues as it relates to consumer spending. We do expect, as we go into the fourth quarter, though, that we’ll see some sequential increase in that business because we’ll have new products that are launching in that timeframe. So those are the puts and takes. I think overall, as a segment, we continue to believe Gaming is a long-term secular driver. There are some sort of short-term dynamics here in the PC market that we’re dealing with. But I think the fact that the Game Consoles have performed so well is a positive for the segment.
Thanks for all that color. I guess, for my follow-up, switching over to the gross margin side of things. You guys have done an amazing job on that, and Xilinx obviously helps raise the bar as well. As we look forward, I know you have a long-term target of 57%, can you just talk about if supply becomes looser? And I know you have areas that are loosening and areas that are tight simultaneously. But can you talk about the cost inflation you’re feeling? Do you think that will lessen at all next year? And kind of how do we think about the March from the 55 you seem to be exiting this year at to the 57. What’s the sort of timetable and the drivers of that increase?
Well, I think, Ross, what I would say is the business is certainly getting to scale across the board. So the increase in margins as we go forward in the long-term model really is as a result of mix. So what we’ve said is that we believe the Data Center and Embedded businesses can get to over 50% of the company. We’re right now sitting probably in the low 40s, and we expect Data Center, in particular, to grow faster than the rest of the company, and that will drive sort of margin expansion. It is – we’re all working on costs and trying to ensure there are some inflationary kind of costs that are out there. We’re all working on trying to keep those to a minimum. And frankly going back to the work of working on cost reductions as we do in semiconductors over time, but the primary margin expansion for us is in Data Center as well as Embedded growing sort of faster than the other businesses.
Thank you. Our next question is coming from Matt Ramsay from Cowen. Your line is now live.
Thank you very much. Good afternoon and thanks, Laura, for the partnership down the years. Lisa, I wanted to ask a question about the server business. Obviously, the growth is very strong right now. But a lot of that business continues to be driven by the engagements that you’ve had and continue to build out with cloud. As we look forward over the next, I mean you had talked in some of your script about how you guys were preparing for continued growth in the Server business over the next four, six, eight quarters. And the roadmap is going to diversify some next year with Bergamo and Ciena and Genoa X seeming to launch on top of the Genoa platform. And I wonder you supply some color on how the relationships and engagements are going in enterprise and in the telco wireless space as well? I am just trying to get a gauge of how quickly the server business can grow through diversification, not just continued share gains with cloud. Thanks.
Sure, Matt. So definitely, I think our focus – we love the progress that we are making in cloud, and we are going to continue to earn every amount of share that we can there. On the enterprise side, as we have always said, it takes a bit longer because the sales cycles are a bit longer. We have made very nice progress with all of the top OEMs. I think the portfolios are continuing to expand. We are excited about not just the current portfolio, as you said, with Genoa, but as we expand to Genoa X at the very high end of the performance as well as Ciena that is a – that just broadens our portfolio for telco. So, our expectation is that we continue to steadily grow share in the enterprise, as well as we go through 2023 and beyond. And I think there is a broader opportunity to sell the broader AMD portfolio. We have, not just the CPU, but I think the addition of the Xilinx assets and the Pensando assets, as well as our GPU portfolio, I think all lead to the overall growth in the data center business for us.
Thanks for that Lisa. As my follow-up, it’s a question I would normally ask Devinder, but I have gotten a few e-mails on it in the last hour. So, I figure I would go ahead and ask it. The revenue, obviously, including Xilinx, up 70% or so year-on-year, but a few people have pointed out to me that the cash flow or the free cash flow was only up a tiny bit or very, very modestly. And I wonder if you could walk us through that a little bit where the one-time items with inventory steps up with acquisitions, where maybe more investments in supply. I am just wondering what the variables are there on expanding the free cash flow leverage as we go forward. Thank you.
Yes, I can do that. I think one is when the revenue grows a lot, there is investment needed in working capital. So, working capital numbers from an inventory and AR standpoint, they are up significantly year-on-year. We also have, as we said previously, a 3% tax rate going up to about 10%. And the cash taxes get paid. But the timing of the cash taxes sometimes is Q2. And in Q2, we did have some significant cash tax payment from a payment standpoint given the timing of payments of the Federal government. And then you have timing of shipments that does affect the free cash flow. And the last thing I will mention given the discussion, some of the questions that Lisa was asked about, supply for server and supply overall are with the share gain from the growth of the business. We are making investments in capacity from a prepayment standpoint, and those obviously require funding the suppliers, and that also has an impact on the free cash flow because that flows through the free cash flow accretion. So, this is really, if you look at it, inventory and capacity investing for growth and investing for the future.
Investing for growth. Got it. Thanks very much guys. Appreciate it.
Thank you. Next question is coming from Aaron Rakers from Wells Fargo. Your line is now live.
Yes. Thanks for taking the questions. Laura, congratulations. I wish you the best. I guess for my first question, I wanted to maybe try and unpack the data center business a little bit more. I apologize to kind of continue to go there. But as I look at the trends over the last couple of quarters, and especially given the unit decline that we saw at your largest competitor in this last quarter, I am curious if you could help us appreciate the trajectory of what you are seeing from a blended overall pricing perspective within your server CPU business. Just trying to appreciate as we get into Genoa or Bergamo as we move into 2023. How should we think about the ASP trend on a blended basis within the server CPUs?
Okay. So Aaron, I guess what I would say there is, Genoa has much more content than Milan, right. If you think of Milan, it’s Rome and Milan are 64 core processors. And as you get into Genoa and Bergamo, you get to 96 and 128 core. So you would expect on a per unit basis that the ASP would go up. That being the case, I think we would expect that Milan is going to coexist with Genoa and Bergamo for quite some time, just given sort of the different infrastructure and so on and so forth. So hopefully, that gives you a little bit of color.
Yes. And then just as a quick follow-up, I am curious on the data center GPU business. You talked about Frontier, I am curious about where you guys expect that business to kind of shape out for the year? Have you started to see further traction in the ability to sell your CPU plus GPU strategy more broadly? Thank you.
Yes. So, we continue to make good progress in the data center GPU. The key there for us is to work with some of the large hyperscalers who have been very closely partnering with us on our MI200 product. I think from an overall revenue standpoint, it’s not a big contributor this year. But certainly, we would expect it to be a larger contributor in 2023 as some of those sort of initial engagements turn into more production engagements.
Thank you. Our next question is coming from Joe Moore from Morgan Stanley. Your line is now live.
Great. Thank you. I wonder if you could talk a little bit to situation at Xilinx. Is that business still supply constrained? Where are you in terms of relieving those constraints? And obviously, it’s growing nicely. What’s your visibility there kind of into the first part of next year?
Yes. Sure, Joe. So, actually, I would say that the Xilinx business has performed extremely well. The demand across all segments has been strong. And what we were able to do as we brought Xilinx into the portfolio is really make some significant improvements in the supply chain. And so we have seen a nice step up. If you were to look on a pro forma basis the Xilinx portfolio grew about 20% sequentially, which is very nice growth. As we look into the second half of the year, we are still a bit constrained in certain areas, certain parts of the Xilinx portfolio, although we continue to make good progress. And I expect additional supply to come on, especially towards the latter part of the year, into 2023. Our view of the business, again, I think the quality of the design wins, the quality of the overall – when you look – the diverse market is very strong. And so I think as we are able to continue to relieve some of those supply constraints into the second half of the year, I think see a good growth trajectory for the business.
Great. Thank you. And then as a follow-up on – just wondering how you think about competition in microprocessors in the context of – for the last 4 years, either you or Intel has generally been constrained, Intel for a couple of years and you for the last couple of years. As those constraints ease and obviously, Intel utilization probably falls a little bit here. Could you talk about what you anticipate pricing wise? Do you think anything changes, or does this continue to be kind of a value-priced market? Thanks.
Well, I think Joe, it is – I mean we always assume that it’s going to be a very competitive market. I think it depends a little bit on where you are talking about within the market. But on the data center side, what we have found is pricing is not sort of the first factor that customers are paying attention to. It’s really total cost of ownership. So, the performance and the sort of the performance per dollar equation is very important there and sort of the power efficiency. As we go into the PC market, we have deliberately focused our PC market on, let’s call it, the more premium segments. So, gaming as well as high end sort of the ultra-premium, as well as the commercial segments. And again, I think those are much more about the product. There are some parts of the PC market that are very price sensitive, like the low end. And like I said, we have tried to reduce our exposure there going forward. So, I think – I don’t think the dynamics change a lot. I think it’s always a very competitive market and the key thing there is to have a very strong roadmap.
Okay. Thank you.
Your next question is coming from Mark Lipacis from Jefferies. Your line is now live.
Hi. Thanks for taking my question. I wanted to come back to the data center business. If I look at the spreadsheet that Suresh sent around with the restated data center numbers. And it looks like your data center business kind of aligns apples-to-apples to Intel’s pretty closely. It looks like you guys gained 6.6% share from Intel. And if I kind of take a guess about the pro forma contribution of Xilinx, what it would have been in Q1, it’s about 6% share gain. And that would be – I think that would be the highest share gain in that data center business that you guys ever reported even going back to 2005. Admittedly, two-thirds of that is from Intel declining. I guess since that would put you against until, I guess, in the like kind of the mid-20s, and I am curious if you think that math sounds about right to you. And I am hoping that you could because we are grouping more things together, if you could just share with us, was there any outsized contribution from Xilinx or Pensando or something like that and that, that would make that look – that might change the interpretation from what it looks like on the service because that’s a pretty big jump in share? So, that’s the first part of the question. I had a follow-up, too. Thanks.
Sure, Mark. So, this is sort of the reason that we went to the new segments so that there was better visibility. I know you guys have been asking about that for a while. So, I think your math is in the ZIP code from our point of view. And we are pleased that we are gaining share. I think that was our expectation was that as the product portfolio expands, as we increase supply, as we ramp more instances across the customer set that we would see share gains. And we will continue to focus on that going forward. To your question, there was no outsized contribution. The other pieces of it that are in the segment are relatively small, and it was primarily driven by EPYC as you state.
Okay. Great. And then the follow-up, if I may. I just wanted to come back to the visibility on this business. And I am wondering like about the kind of like the variance that you get from your cloud customers. So, I guess the scenario that I am curious about is, I imagine the cloud, a lot of the cloud companies do a lot of planning on their data center since it is central to their business. And they sign a data center lease that’s going to get built in six months. Do they – after they do that, do they come to you guys and say, hey, this is coming online. We need to get these chips from you in six months and how kind of how consistent and how tight is the variance span around the visibility that they supply you guys? And that’s all I had. Thank you.
Yes. Mark, actually it has been very helpful. I mean I think the planning that we are doing jointly with our customers has been very helpful. Much of our conversation right now, frankly, is about 2023, and ensuring that we have enough capacity for some of the build-outs that are out there. So, I would say the visibility is very good. And obviously, things can change, plus or minus here and there. But overall, I think the ZIP codes of how much growth, how much more content the customers need are very active conversations. And frankly, there have been active conversations for the past few months. I think the one positive of sort of the supply chain stuff that we have all gone through is that there is a new recognition of the need for long-term planning so that they can get their match sets and they can get their factory capacity and we can get our factory capacity in line as well. So, overall, very good visibility.
Thank you, Mark. Kevin, we have time for two more questions, please.
Certainly. Our next question is coming from Harlan Sur from JPMorgan. Your line is now live.
Good afternoon and congratulations on the solid results and execution. On the ramp of Genoa back half of this year, kind of early next year, I believe the team has a total of around 20-plus SKUs across their cloud, enterprise and embedded customers. Your cloud customers obviously are anxiously awaiting these platforms. Would you be rolling out your high-volume cloud SKUs first? And what’s the qualification look like on these high-volume SKUs? Just asking because, obviously, your competitor is struggling with SKU releases, and I just want to make sure that the AMD team is executing and releasing its high-volume SKUs to your cloud customers.
Sure, Harlan. So, we certainly go through a full, again, interlock with our customers. Our focus is on the high-volume cloud SKUs, as well as sort of the high-volume enterprise SKUs because there is a fairly sort of lengthy qualification cycle that’s actually in both the cloud and the enterprise. From what we see today, again, there is a strong customer pull on Genoa. And so we are working very closely with our customers, and we expect to ramp production in the fourth quarter and then into the first half of next year. And it will be different by different customers and different platforms and so on and so forth. But what we are seeing is a lot of strong engagement with our customers.
Prefect. Thank you, Lisa.
Thank you. Our final question today is coming from Timothy Arcuri from UBS. Your line is now live.
Thanks a lot. Lisa, I just wanted to sort of double click on you keeping the full year guidance in light of the weaker PC TAM. It seems like maybe if you take the lost units and you multiply by ASP, it seems like it costs you maybe $750 million, but you kept the full year. And data center seem pretty in line. So, is really the offset that you are getting better supply at Xilinx? Is that really the story? And then I have a follow-up. Thanks.
Yes. No, I wouldn’t say that, Tim. What I would say is that, again, whenever we put together full year guidance especially from the beginning of the year, we understand that not everything is going to be exactly so. So, as we look now into the second half of the year, what we are seeing is, again, data center is strong. Again, we expect data center to grow second half to first half nicely. Embedded/Xilinx will also grow to some extent, second half to first half. And the consoles will also grow as well. And so I think as we look at those components offsetting what is perhaps a more conservative PC outlook, we believe that, that offsets nicely. And again, just as a reminder, we do have a number of product ramps in the fourth quarter that are coming out in 5-nanometer, and we think that will drive sort of the sequential growth in the fourth quarter. So, I think those are some of the puts and takes in the full year guide.
Awesome. Thank you. And then I guess last thing, Devinder, can you talk about purchase commitments? There was a question on free cash flow, and I am wondering if maybe there is a pretty big increase in purchase commitments. So, I wonder if you can talk about that. Thanks.
I think in 2021, as I said on the Financial Day, we had about $1 billion committed and paid. And this year, it does step up a little bit, especially given all the supply that we need to get ready for 2023. And that does flow to the free cash flow. In the first half, it wasn’t so significant, but it does step up in the second half. So, it will impact that from that standpoint.
Thank you. We reached end of our question-and-answer session. I would like to turn the floor back over for any further or closing comments.
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Thank you. That does conclude today’s teleconference. You may disconnect your line at this time, and have a wonderful day. We thank you for your participation today.