Memorize ECSS Questions and Answers questions before you go for test

Even if you go through all ECSS course books, the situations asked in actual tests are totally different. Our ECSS Latest Topics contains every one of the interesting inquiries and answers that are not found in the course books. Practice with ECSS VCE test system and you will be certain for the genuine ECSS test.

Exam Code: ECSS Practice test 2022 by team
ECSS EC-Council Certified Security Specialist

Exam Title : EC-Council Certified Security Specialist (ECSS)
Exam ID : ECSS
Exam Duration : 120 mins
Questions in test : 50
Passing Score : 70%
Exam Center : Pearson VUE OR ECC test Center
Real Questions : EC-Council ECSS Real Questions
VCE VCE test : EC-Council ECSS Certification VCE Practice Test

Information Security and Networking Fundamentals 9%
- Overview of Information Security Fundamentals
- Understanding Information Security Laws and Regulations
- Overview of Networking Fundamentals
- Overview of OSI and TCP/IP Model
- Understanding Basic Network Security Procedures and Policies
- Overview of Secure Network Protocols

Information Security Threats and Attacks 21%
- Understanding Various Stages of Hacking Cycle
- Understanding Internal Threats (Sniffing, ARP Spoofing, etc.)
- Understanding External Threats (Malware Attacks, Password Cracking, DoS, Session Hijacking, etc.)
- Overview of Different Social Engineering Techniques
- Understanding Various Firewall and IDS Evasion Techniques
- Understanding Various Wireless and VPN Threats
- Understanding Various Web Applications and Network Threats
- Understanding Email Crime

Information Security Controls 23%
- Overview of Identification, Authentication, and Authorization
- Overview of Cryptography and Encryption Algorithms
- Understanding Different Firewall Technologies
- Overview of Intrusion Detection System (IDS)
- Introduction to Data Backup
- Securing Organization Against Various Information Security Attacks

Wireless Network, VPN, and Web Application Security 17%
- Overview of Wireless Networks and Topology
- Understanding Different Types of Wireless Encryption
- Securing Wireless Networks
- Understanding VPN and Protocols Used to Secure VPN
- Introduction to Web Applications and Securing Web Application Against Web Attacks

Ethical Hacking and Pen Testing 1%
- Introduction to Ethical Hacking
- Introduction to Penetration Testing

Incident Response and Computer Forensics Fundamentals 6%
- Overview of Incident Handling and Response Process
- Understand Different Computer Security Incidents and Computer Crimes
- Overview of Computer Forensics Fundamentals
- Understanding Computer Forensics Investigation Methodology

Digital Evidence and File Systems 4%
- Understanding Digital Evidence and Examination Process
- Collecting Digital Evidence from Electronic Devices
- Overview of Different File Systems (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, and CD-ROM / DVD File Systems)

Windows and Network Forensics 10%
- Understanding Network Forensics Analysis Mechanism
- Understanding Windows Forensics (Collecting Volatile and Non-volatile Information)
- Collecting Metadata and Events Data
- Introduction to Steganography
- Understanding Different Types of Steganography based on Cover Medium

Logs and Email Crime Forensics 6%
- Examining Various Security Logs
- Overview of Event Correlation
- Overview of Email Technology
- Investigating Email Crime and Violation

Investigation Report 3%
- Writing Computer Forensics Report
- Understanding Best Practices for Writing Forensics Report

EC-Council Certified Security Specialist
EC-Council EC-Council test format
Killexams : EC-Council EC-Council test format - BingNews Search results Killexams : EC-Council EC-Council test format - BingNews Killexams : NetCom Learning Announces EC-Council Certified Ethical Hacker Version 12

"NetCom Learning launches C|EH v12 training program for organizations looking to train their employees on essential ethical hacking skills"

EC-Council recently announced the launch of the latest version of the world’s no. 1 credential in ethical hacking – C|EH v12. NetCom Learning, a leading IT and business training organization, being an official partner of EC-Council is offering C|EH v12 training program.

C|EH needs no introduction when it comes to ethical hacking. It is well recognized in the cybersecurity industry among the top enterprises. In its 12th version, C|EH not only provides comprehensive training but also in-depth hands-on lab, practice range experience, certification assessments, and global hacking competitions. The C|EH v12 program is curated through a new learning framework: 1. Learn 2. Certify 3. Engage 4. Compete.

The C|EH v12 course and more details about the program can be accessed on NetCom Learning’s website.

The key features of the C|EH v12 training program:

  • Unique learn, certify, engage and compete methodology
  • Structured professional course covering 20 modules
  • Over 220 hands-on labs
  • 500+ unique attack techniques with over 3,500 hacking tools
  • Real-world ethical hacking assignment
  • New challenges every month 

NetCom Learning CEO Russell Sarder commented, "As an Accredited Training Partner of EC-Council, we're thrilled to announce the all-new Certified Ethical Hacker version 12. We emphasize the importance of having skilled cybersecurity professionals in every organization to maintain and enhance its security posture owing to the ever-increasing cyber threats and breaches. Upskilling IT teams regularly helps them tremendously as it bridges the cybersecurity skills gap. We stay true to our commitment to instill lifelong learning, and all our initiatives are carefully planned and executed with this goal in mind.”

About NetCom Learning

NetCom Learning supports the development of innovative learning organizations in the workplace by structuring a more knowledgeable workforce, enabling changes, and stimulating growth. Since 1998 we have been empowering organizations to reach optimal performance results and address challenges by managing all aspects of organizational learning.

NetCom Learning helps build innovative learning organizations in the workplace by structuring a smarter workforce, supporting changes, and driving growth. With more than 23 years of experience, NetCom Learning has been empowering innovative learning organizations to adapt and drive growth in this fast-paced world by closing critical skills gaps and ensuring smooth deployment, implementation, and consumption through authorized training delivered by Certified Trainers.

Like us on Facebook. Follow us on LinkedIn. Tweet us on Twitter.

Media Contact
Company Name: NetCom Learning
Contact Person: Media Relations
Email: Send Email
Phone: (212) 629-7265
Address:252 West 37th Street Suite 1200W
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To view the original version on ABNewswire visit: NetCom Learning Announces EC-Council Certified Ethical Hacker Version 12

© 2022 Benzinga does not provide investment advice. All rights reserved.

Mon, 10 Oct 2022 19:07:00 -0500 text/html
Killexams : CBSE Board Exams 2023: From Datesheet, trial Papers to test Pattern; All You Need To Know

CBSE Board test 2023: The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) will be conducting the Class 10 and 12 Board exams for the 2022-23 academic batch from February 15, 2023. According to several news reports, CBSE officials are expected to release a detailed schedule by December 2022. Once released, students can download their date sheet from the board’s official website — The Board will conduct the Classes 10 and 12 board exams in a single shift this year.Also Read - SSB Constable Recruitment 2022: Register For 399 Posts Under Sports Quota at Class 10th Pass Eligible

After a gap of two years, CBSE will hold the examination in the same pattern as the pre-pandemic years. Due to Covid-19 pandemic, the board exams were cancelled in 2020, and candidates were graded using alternative assessment criteria. The board divided the entire academic year into two terms in 2021. Since the examination will be held in the normal format after two years gap, therefore in this article we have some questions answered for you. Also Read - GATE 2023 Registration Extended Till Oct 07; Check test Date, Documents Required

CBSE trial Papers 2023

The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) has released the trial question papers for the current academic year 2022-23 for students of classes 10 and 12. The CBSE Class 10 and Class 12 test trial papers 2023 were published on September 16. Eligible students can download the trial papers by visiting the official website of the Board at Apart from the trial paper, the marking scheme of the board examination has also been released. With the help of the CBSE Class 10 and Class 12 trial papers 2023, a student will know more about the board test pattern, types of questions, and others. Also Read - NEET UG 2022 State Counselling Schedule Released at Round 1 Registration Begins From Oct 17

HOW TO download CBSE CLASS 10, 12 trial QUESTION PAPERS?

  • Visit the official website of the Central Board of Secondary Education at or
  • On the homepage, go to the “Sample Question Papers” sections.
  • Now click on SQP 2022- 2023.
  • Depending upon your class, click on the desired link. Click either on Class XII or Class X option.
  • The CBSE trial question papers for classes 10 and 12 will be displayed on the screen.
  • Download and take a printout of it for future reference.


CBSE will be conducting the Class 10 and 12 Board exams for the 2022-23 academic batch from February 15, 2023.  According to several media reports, the detailed schedule is expected to be released by the CBSE officials by December 2022.


The Central Board of Secondary Education has released the rationalised syllabus for Class 10 for the academic session 2022-2023. As per the news report, CBSE has reduced the syllabus by removing many important courses from Social Science. More details are available on the official website of the Board.


The Board has decided to return to the pre-pandemic single-exam format, which means that the class 10 and 12 board examinations are not likely to be divided into two parts.


The CBSE Board examination for class 10 and 12 students next year will be based on the pre-pandemic syllabus. In other words, the 30% reduction in syllabus offered to students in response to learning loss caused by the covid-induced disruption has been reversed.

Wed, 05 Oct 2022 04:27:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : European Commission presents report to the European Parliament and Council on the functioning of the EU Securitisation Regulation

Tuesday, October 11, 2022

Executive Summary

  • The Commission has published its review of the EU Securitisation Regulation.

  • The review specified that EU investors should only invest in securitisations which comply with Articles 6 (Risk Retention), 7 (Transparency) and 9 (Credit Granting) of the EU Securitisation Regulation. This effectively means the Commission is of the view that EU investors must verify that a non-EU Securitisation complies with the full transparency and information requirements of Article 7 (see “Jurisdictional Scope: Is this the end of EU-Lite Transactions? – Sell-side Obligations”).

  • The Commission provided certain interpretative clarifications on scope regarding non-EU AIFMs operating within the EU and compliance with the EU Securitisation Regulation (see “Jurisdictional Scope: Is this the end of EU-Lite Transactions? – AIFM Investors”).

  • ESMA has been invited to review and adjust the asset level reporting templates under Article 7 and to consider the creation of a simplified template for the reporting of private securitisations with a focus on information for supervisors (see “Due Diligence and Transparency” and “Private Securitisations”).

  • The Commission determined that no STS equivalence regime will be introduced at this point in time, including in respect of UK STS securitisations (see “STS Equivalence”).

  • The EBA report suggestions to include a sustainable securitisation framework within broader EU Green Bond Standards rather than as a separate framework and to provide for principal adverse sustainability impact disclosures for all securitisations was accepted by the Commission (see “Sustainable Securitisations”).

  • The risk retention requirements remain unchanged, though the Commission may examine the use and efficacy of particular retention methods (see “Risk Retention”).


On 10 October 2022, the European Commission (the “Commission”) published its report (the “Report”)1 to the European Parliament and Council on the functioning of Regulation (EU) 2017/2402 (the “EU Securitisation Regulation”) as required pursuant to Article 46 of the EU Securitisation Regulation. 

The Report comes more than three years after the entry into application of the EU Securitisation Regulation and covers a broad range of issues taking into account issues raised by the European Supervisory Authorities (the “ESAs”)2, an opinion given by the Joint Committee of the ESAs (the “JCO”)3 and a public consultation undertaken by the Commission in preparation for this report (the “Consultation”). Please note that following the UK’s departure from the European Union this report has no effect on the EU Securitisation Regulation as implemented in the UK.4

As a general matter, the Commission stated that it does not see the need for major legislative change at this stage, it has acknowledged there is room for “fine-tuning” in some cases, and has sought to clarify certain aspects of the EU Securitisation Regulation that until now were the subject of some market uncertainty.

The most significant aspect of the Report is the Commission’s interpretation of the jurisdictional scope of the EU Securitisation Regulation, in particular, the Commission directly addressed the applicability of Article 7 of the EU Securitisation Regulation (“Article 7”) and specifically whether EU institutional investors in securitisations issued outside the EU (i.e., where none of the originator, sponsor, original lender or “securitisation special purpose entity” or “SSPE” are established in the European Union (“non-EU Securitisations”)) are required to receive all of the information specified in Article 7 in order to fulfil their due diligence requirements as set out in Article 5(1)(e) of the EU Securitisation Regulation (“Article 5”). As discussed below, this clarification will have a significant impact on non-EU Securitisations which are sold to EU institutional investors.

Jurisdictional Scope: Is this the end of EU-Lite Transactions?

For a number of years, the jurisdictional scope of many of the obligations in the EU Securitisation Regulation have remained unclear. In 2021 the ESAs issued the JCO, considering among other things the jurisdictional scope of the EU Securitisation Regulation, which the Commission has considered in detail.5

Sell-side obligations

There has been some uncertainty in regards to the direct applicability of Articles 6 (Risk Retention), 7 (Transparency) and 9 (Credit Granting) of the EU Securitisation Regulation to non-EU Securitisations. This has resulted in a number of differing interpretations as to whether some or all of these Articles apply to non-EU Securitisations. Many non-EU Securitisations include a covenant to hold risk retention in accordance with Article 6 (Risk Retention) but specifically provide that the securitisation will not comply with the information and reporting requirements of Article 7 (“EU-Lite Securitisations”). The ESAs in the JCO made a number of recommendations to address these issues.

While the Commission did not accept some of the more controversial recommendations of the ESAs, particularly, the recommendation that one of the originator, sponsor, original lender or SSPE (“Sell Side Parties”) must be located in the EU in order for EU competent authorities to enforce the obligations of such parties under the EU Securitisation Regulation, it did clarify the scope of Article 7 and Article 5(1)(e).

Investor Due Diligence Requirements: Can EU Investors invest in EU-Lite Securitisations

The Report’s most impactful statements apply in the context of EU institutional investors investing in non-EU Securitisations.

The Commission specifically referenced the uncertainty around whether EU investors must confirm that the information provided in a non-EU Securitisation complies with the requirements of Article 7 and the related regulatory technical standards regarding Article 7. This would include pre-pricing disclosures, quarterly asset and transaction reporting using the prescribed ESMA templates and event reporting.

While the Commission acknowledged that there have been differing interpretations of Article 5(1)(e), the Commission made it clear that EU investors investing in non-EU Securitisations must ensure that the Sell Side Parties agree to comply with all aspects of the EU Securitisation Regulation prior to investing. The effect of this interpretative guidance is that EU institutional investors may not invest in non-EU Securitisations which do not comply with all the requirements of Article 7.

The Commission stated that the legislative intent was not to create a different scope of information to be provided depending on whether the securitisation is issued by an EU entity or an entity based in a third country, since this fact in itself should not impact the proper performance of diligence by those investors. As such, the Commission’s interpretation is that in order for an EU institutional investor to invest in a non-EU Securitisation, the pre-pricing disclosures and on-going reporting requirements of Article 7 must be complied with in their entirety. This would include reporting of transaction and loan level information using the templates prescribed under the EU Securitisation Regulation and the European Securities and Markets Authority (“ESMA”) reporting templates.

In order for a securitisation to satisfy the requirements of Article 7 a number of requirements need to be complied with at the securitisation level including, broadly, to provide to investors:

  • a transaction summary (certain offering memorandums will largely satisfy this requirement) and the underlying transaction documentation essential for understanding the transaction;

  • quarterly asset level reporting and investor level reporting completed in the relevant specific template format; and

  • reporting without delay on an ad hoc basis, “significant events”.

For further information on the detail of the transparency reporting requirements, please see our Clients & Friends memorandum “EU Securitisation Regulation Disclosure Templates Published in the EU Official Journal” published on 3 September 2020.6

Market participants should note that the Report is the Commission’s interpretation of  the current legal framework. The Commission sets the policy and legislative agenda for the European Union and its statements and guidance hold significant weight in the interpretation of the EU Securitisation Regulation. It is certain that the ESAs and EU competent authorities will follow any guidance or statements issued by the Commission.  As such EU investors need to consider very carefully any interpretation and guidance provided by the Commission.

AIFM Investors

The Commission also sought to clarify the position regarding alternative investment fund managers (“AIFMs”) as EU institutional investors in securitisations, in particular as to whether non-EU AIFMs managing or marketing an alternative investment fund (“AIF”) in the EU and certain smaller “sub-threshold” AIFMs would be covered by the EU Securitisation Regulation as EU institutional investors.

The Commission clarified that the AIFMs marketing and managing funds in the EU will have to comply with the due diligence requirements for securitisation investments and that such interpretation is not in its view extraterritorial given it is the activity, rather than the entity, that is considered relevant. As such, the EU Securitisation Regulation should apply to non-EU AIFM only in respect of funds marketed in the EU or managed in the EU. This is a welcome clarification from the Commission. The Commission is also going to consider amendments to remove any uncertainty in a future proposal to amend the EU Securitisation Regulation.

As regards sub-threshold AIFMs, the Commission determined that the EU Securitisation Regulation (and related regulation) does not distinguish between larger or smaller AIFMs and therefore sub-threshold AIFMs will be considered EU institutional investors for the purpose of the EU Securitisation Regulation.

Due Diligence and Transparency

As discussed above, under Article 7 SSPEs, originators and sponsors are required to make available transaction documentation in respect of the securitisation and to provide ongoing data by means of standardised reporting templates. Under Article 5(1)(e) of the EU Securitisation Regulation EU institutional investors are also required to verify that the SSPE, originator or sponsor has made such information available.

The Commission acknowledged in the Report that certain respondents to the Consultation found these requirements to be disproportionate in scope, too prescriptive, strict and, in particular, that the requirements fail to take into account whether the particular securitisation is public or private. Respondents suggested that private transactions should have reduced requirements, as investors are actively involved in negotiating private transactions and thus are able to determine the scope of the information they require.

The Commission further acknowledged that it may be necessary to re-visit the scope of the information provided to investors, taking into account any information that investors do not deem relevant or necessary. The Commission requested in the Report that ESMA review the asset level reporting templates to address any difficulties in completing fields, inviting ESMA to potentially adjust the templates to remove unnecessary fields and to more closely align the fields with investors’ needs. Furthermore, the Commission has asked ESMA to consider whether the loan-by-loan information is useful and proportionate to investors’ needs for all types of securitisations (potentially being not required for larger portfolios). 

The Commission’s decision to request a review by ESMA of the asset level reporting templates is a welcome one. Cadwalader has worked with the Loan Market Association (“LMA”) and other industry groups in raising concerns over certain aspects of Article 7 and the corresponding reporting templates. We will continue to work with the LMA and other industry groups to raise these issues with ESMA as they begin the review requested by the Commission.

Private Securitisations

The Commission considered whether the number of “private securitisations” (i.e. a securitisation where the notes are not listed on an EU regulated exchange (as distinct from a multilateral trading facility such as the Euronext Dublin Global Exchange Market) and therefore no prospectus is required to be drawn up in compliance with the Prospectus Regulation7) has increased as a result of the exemption of such transactions from reporting to the securitisation repositories. The Commission at this stage has determined that there is currently insufficient data and intends revisit the question in due course.

The Commission also acknowledged that a number of Consultation responses suggested that template reporting under Article 7 of the EU Securitisation Regulation should not be required for private securitisations given the specific nature of the reporting requirements and the ability of investors in such transactions to request information required on a transaction by transaction basis. However the Commission has maintained the view that template reporting provides information that is sufficiently high in quality while being easy to process.

Notwithstanding that view, the Commission has proposed that for private securitisations, regardless of asset class, there should be a single ESMA template that is tailored particularly to supervisors’ need to gain an overview of the market and of the main features of private transactions. For private securitisations, that single ESMA template would take the place of the existing ESMA reporting templates. We hope that as a result, in the future, private transaction reporting under Article 7 will be simpler and more manageable which may help to mitigate the issues discussed above in respect of non-EU Securitisations.

The Commission also stated that the definition of “private securitisations” should not be amended due in no small part to the lack consensus among market participants as to what the definition should be. Instead, the Commission will look to create a separate template for private securitisation reporting as discussed above.

STS Equivalence

The EU Securitisation Regulation sets out the criteria for “simple”, “transparent” and “standardised” securitisations that must be fulfilled in order to satisfy an “STS” classification, resulting in potential lower risk weighting allocated to the particular securitisation investment. STS securitisations must be issued by an EU entity, however in the Consultation market participants requested that this be expanded to include non-EU issuers.

One suggestion made was the creation of an “equivalence” regime, which would allow non-EU Securitisations to qualify as STS to the extent the standards in the non-EU jurisdiction are sufficiently similar to the EU STS regime. The Commission however considered it “premature” to introduce equivalence. It acknowledged that the UK has a STS regime in place (inherited from the EU Securitisation Regulation as implemented in the UK) but references that the updated on-balance-sheet STS securitisation regime in the EU has not been included in the UK regime.

The Commission has said that it will continue to monitor regulatory developments in third country jurisdictions for potential future equivalence opportunities.

Sustainable Securitisations

Many financial products in Europe are subject to extensive regulation regarding environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) factors, while in the securitisation market, currently only STS securitisations are required to make sustainability disclosures (which may include principal adverse sustainability impact disclosure). Although respondents to the Consultation were generally supportive of information disclosure requirements that would allow them to measure certain ESG factors, respondents also acknowledged that the parameters would potentially not be sufficiently clear in all asset classes for this to be effective.

The Commission considered the European Banking Authority (the “EBA”) report on developing a framework for sustainable securitisation published on 2 March 20228 and certain recommendations of that report were accepted by the Commission such that:

  • given the small number of “green” assets, rather than establishing a dedicated framework for green securitisations, the EU Green Bond Standard (published in July 2021 and not yet final) should be adjusted to cater for securitisations; and

  • principal adverse sustainability impact disclosures currently applicable to STS securitisations (being developed by the Joint Committee of the ESAs) should be developed to cater to all securitisations broadly.

The requirement for further ESG related information will be welcomed by investors (especially those with back-to-back disclosure obligations) however the requirements may cause issues where the underlying asset obligors are not themselves in a position to (or in some cases, required to) provide the information required to be disclosed. It is hoped that the concerns of participants in the Consultation are carefully considered by the EBA and the Commission.

Securitisation Special Purpose Entities (SSPEs)

As required under article 46(h) of the EU Securitisation Regulation the Commission had considered whether a system of limited-licenced-banks could better perform the role currently undertaken by SSPEs in securitisation transactions, but determined that the current framework and use of SSPEs is operating in an adequate manner.  

Risk Retention

Under Article 6 of the EU Securitisation Regulation originators, sponsors, original lenders and (in the case of securitisations of non-performing exposures) servicers are required to hold at least 5 per cent. of the net economic interest in the securitisation. EU institutional investors are also required to verify such risk retention pursuant to Article 5(1)(d) of the EU Securitisation Regulation.

While the Commission did acknowledge that there remains some legal uncertainty as a result of the delay in the adoption of the regulatory technical standards relating to risk retention, at this stage the Commission is not proposing any changes to the risk retention requirements under Article 6.9

The Commission did however leave open the possibility of a future examination as to why and in what circumstances one retention method is favoured over another and how effective each retention method is in retaining a proportion of the transaction.

Third Party Verification of STS Criteria

Under the EU Securitisation Regulation certain third party verification service providers are able to assist market participants by assessing the STS status of a particular securitisation. Only two such service providers exist, with one in particular providing the majority of such verifications.

The Commission considered a potential lack of competition due to regulatory barriers, but determined that this was not the case and has therefore decided not to intervene.

Prudential Treatment of Securitisations

The Commission is in the process of preparing a report which will partly consider the securitisation prudential framework as a whole. Of note here is that the Commission is assessing the appropriateness of the calibration of capital requirements for investments in securitisation tranches by insurance and reinsurance firms (currently in many cases a much higher capital requirement level than holding the underlying asset the subject of the securitisation), however there is no timing specified for the completion of such report.

Significant Risk Transfer (“SRT”)

The Commission has acknowledged the EBA recommendations to simplify and harmonise the process by which SRT is achieved under the Capital Requirements Regulation and will be aiming to make this more efficient, transparent and consistent. No timescale is given for any potential report or amendments.


Many of the determinations and outcomes of the Report are largely welcome, in particular the Commission’s invitation for ESMA to consider potential adjustments to the template reporting format under Article 7 with the purpose of focusing more on the information required for supervisory assessment rather than information not necessarily utilised by investors.

It should be noted however that the interpretation by the Commission of the applicability of Article 7 and Article 5(1)(e) of the EU Securitisation Regulation in respect of non-EU Securitisations may create additional hurdles in respect of the sale of non-EU Securitisations into the EU, at least until a more appropriate reporting regime is created for private securitisations.



2   The ESAs are the European Securities and Markets Authority, the European Banking Authority and the European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority.

4    Regulation (EU) 2017/2402 which forms part of UK domestic law by virtue of the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018, as amended by the Securitisation (Amendment) (EU Exit) Regulations 2019 of the United Kingdom.

5   For more information on the contents of the opinion please see our Clients and Friends Memorandum dated 29 March 2021:


7   Directive 2003/71/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 November 2003 on the prospectus to be published when securities are offered to the public or admitted to trading

9  For more information regarding the draft risk retention regulatory technical standards please see our Clients and Friends Memorandum dated 26 April 2022:

David Quirolo, Nick Shiren, Daniel Tobias, and Alexander Collins also contributed to this article.

© Copyright 2022 Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft LLPNational Law Review, Volume XII, Number 284

Mon, 10 Oct 2022 12:01:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Was There a Need for a Second Vatican Council?

There had been talk of an ecumenical council of the Catholic Church well before 1962. Indeed, Pope Pius XII had begun preparing for one after World War II, though he thought the spirit of age was becoming too relativistic to have a proper council free from bias at the time. Why did people feel they needed another council? After all, even at its conclusion, Pope Paul VI was clear there were no new doctrines taught in Vatican II nor new errors answered.

There were several pastoral reasons why people thought a council was important. First, Vatican I had been called to update the Church for a new missionary era and to free the Church from the influence of the state, which dated back to Roman Emperor Constantine in the fourth century. Though the influence of the Christian state had been helpful for centuries, during the Enlightenment, the state began to usurp the freedom of the Church through new errors like Gallicanism, which tried bringing control of the local Church under the state, not Rome.

Vatican I finally proclaimed the freedom of the Church from the state in 1870 with the doctrine of papal infallibility. However, the bishops had wanted to discuss 50 topics, known as schema, but because of the emergency dissolution of the Council due to the political situation of the military occupation of Rome by the emerging Italian state, the Council was left unfinished.

In a nascent form, the much-emphasized concepts of ressourcement (return to the sources) and aggiornamento (updating) were already at work. Though these were later enshrined in the study of the Fathers of the Church and Holy Scripture, one can see concern for these two concepts had already begun in the founding of the Leonine Commission by Pope Leo XIII to make critical editions of the complete works of St. Thomas Aquinas. Vernacular in the Roman liturgy, the laity, the nature of the Church and other courses were also slated for discussion to serve a Church that had added millions of converts from non-European countries since the Council of Trent (1545-1563).

The political situation of two world wars and the fall of dynasties did not allow for a time of economic peace in Europe until the 1960s for the possible continuance of Vatican I. Pope John XXIII therefore called the Council for the renewal of the spiritual life. This was to serve as the basis for the Christian renewal of the supernatural order in the face of a Church that had become excessively bureaucratic. With an emphasis on grace and mercy, the Second Vatican Council was to not change the doctrine of the faith but to make it more accessible to the modern mind.

This renewal of theology would entail revisiting the theological status quo established in the 19th century, which had been founded on a return to the thought of Thomas Aquinas. The trouble was that this return was dominated by theological manuals that often did violence to the texts they were meant to summarize and comment on.

New initiatives on historical criticism were being applied in sacred Scripture, and the new liturgical movements were also seeking some simplification and return to the sources of worship, especially the breviary. The attempt to be free from control of the civil state had a new urgency because of the totalitarian state at that time primarily represented by the Iron Curtain behind whose atheism millions were denied freedom of worship. New questions regarding morality also demanded an authoritative answer.

Vatican II had a long period of preparation, and though it was in some sense a continuation of Vatican I, Pope St. John XXIII formally closed Vatican I just before the beginning of Vatican II so there could be no doubt that the new Council sought a true self-examination on the part of the Church. Ecclesia, quid dicis de te ipsa? (“Church, what do you have to say about yourself?”).

Before John Paul II became pope, he wrote a book, The Sources of Renewal, on the proper understanding of Vatican II. According to him, this question is the key to understanding the Council. Chapter 4 is entitled, “The Consciousness of the Church as the Main Foundation of Conciliar Initiation.”

As a bishop who was present at the Council, imbued with the trust and teaching of Vatican II, he pointed out that the whole conciliar project can only be understood as a great self-examination on the part of the Church. He said, “It is impossible to treat the Church merely as an ‘object’; it had to be a ‘subject’ also. This was certainly the intention behind the Council’s first question: ‘Ecclesia, quid dicis de te ipsa?’”

There have been many books written on the teachings of the Second Vatican Council. The two principal documents are the dogmatic constitutions that form the interpretive bases for all the rest: De Ecclesia (The Church), also known by the first two words, Lumen Gentium (The Light of the Nations) on the Church, and Dei Verbum (The Word of God) on divine Revelation.

Pope St. John Paul II looked on Vatican II as the natural completion of a long theological clarification on the part of the Church that began in the Council of Nicaea with the nature of God the Father and God the Son. For him, this development was clarification of the Trinity, then the sacraments, and finally the Church vis-à-vis the state. Revelation is the important basis for them all and the basic truth which the Council was called to present.

This is evident for these foundational constitutions. Both are emphatic about the supernatural character of the Church, which demands affirmation of revelation with two equal sources: Scripture, which is divine Revelation written, and Tradition, which is divine Revelation preached.

Questions of authority regarding the magisterium or teaching authority of the Church are secondary because the magisterium is not a source of Revelation but the servant of Revelation. It thus serves the truth and is not its origin. All the other documents line up behind this.

Dignitatis Humanae, about the freedom of conscience in relation to religion, is not an affirmation of indifferentism, which teaches that all religions are equally true. It is the recognition that faith cannot be determined by the state and that one must come to the act of faith as a result of a free choice of the will unencumbered by external coercion.

The other documents that implemented the general principles were pastoral in intention. These included the laity (Apostolicam Actuositatem); renewed emphasis on the bishops as successors of the apostles (Christus Dominus); a priestly service and seminary training that emphasized truth and emotional maturity (Prebyteroroum Ordinis and Optatam Totius); return to the spiritual character of religious rules (Perfectae Caritatis) and an ecumenism that sought common ground (Unitatis Reintegratio).

An important practical implementation of the intention of Vatican II was to recover the ancient liturgy of the Church and to open this treasure to those cultures where Latin was perhaps a great challenge. So, in Sacrosanctum Concilium, the Fathers called for a renewal of the Sacred Liturgy, which would emphasize both its supernatural purpose and broad appeal beyond cultures.

Important steps had already been taken before the Council was called in the budding liturgical movement. There was a final addition called Schema XIII, which eventually became Gaudium et Spes, the pastoral constitution on the Church in the modern world.

Though this is often considered the most liberal document of the Council, two things should be noted. Some of the considerations of the modern world that were true in 1965 are not true in 2022 because the religious nature of the culture has changed dramatically. Also, a very central concern that remains true is the defense of the human person as an object of love and sincere gift, especially in relation to marriage. This document is a testimony to the dignity of the person and includes a deep and beautiful explanation of original sin.

Though this Council was indeed an event that the Holy Spirit directed in the life of the Church, the implementation of the documents was a problem even while the Council was going on. Because the spirit of the age was so critical of absolute objective truths in the 1960s, before the documents were finally approved and the bishops could present them, self-proclaimed experts had already muddied the waters with subjectivism, a condition that exists today.

Immediately before the extraordinary synod that produced the Catechism of the Catholic Church and celebrated the 20th anniversary of the closing of the Council in 1986, Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger gave a now-famous interview, which became The Ratzinger Report, in which he expressed the frustration of the whole Church about this Council.

For the first time, an authority openly stated that what was being taught and done in the Church in daily practice did not fulfill the intention of Pope John XXIII in calling the Council: “What is certain is that the Council did not take the turn that John XXIII had expected. [...] It must also be admitted that, in respect to the whole Church, the prayer of Pope John that the Council signify a new leap forward for the Church, to renewed life and unity, has not — at least as yet — been granted.”

It seems that no one is really satisfied with what has been happening in the Church since Vatican II. For some, it went too far. For others, it has not gone far enough.

What is certain, though, is that very few people really have a clue as to the genuine teaching in the documents because very few have actually read and studied them. This has allowed a strange interpretation to develop, especially in universities and seminaries, that evokes a mythical “spirit of the Council” to justify departure from the real text of the Council.

Cardinal Ratzinger defines it thus in The Ratzinger Report:

“Already during its sessions, and then increasingly in the subsequent period, was opposed a self-styled ‘spirit of the Council’, which in reality is a true ‘anti-spirit’ of the Council. According to this pernicious anti-spirit [Konzils-Ungeist in German], everything that is ‘new’ ... is always and in every case better than what has been or what is.”

The famous conciliar theologian Cardinal Henri de Lubac, noted a similar difficulty in the studying of the documents. A peritus (theological expert) at the Council, he called it the “para-council”:

“Just as the Second Vatican Council received from a number of theologians instructions about various points of the task it should assume, under pain of ‘disappointing the world,’ so too the ‘post-conciliar’ Church was immediately and from all sides assailed with summons to get in step, not with what the Council had actually said, but with what it should have said. [...] This is the phenomenon which we should like to designate as the ‘para-Council.’”

This “para-Council” has basically altered what the Fathers at Vatican II specifically taught on many subjects.

As de Lubac has so astutely noted, “What the para-Council and its main activists wanted and demanded was a mutation: a difference not of degree but of nature. For this reason the renewal contemplated by both the Pope and the Fathers has been postponed.”

“Vatican II remains a project bravely begun but as yet partially unfilled. It is to be hoped that, when freed from the relativism of the ’60s, another verse much beloved of Pope St. John XXIII will finally be fully realized: ‘For this is the will of God, your sanctification’” (1 Thessalonians 4:3).

Dominican Father Brian Mullady is a member of the Province of the Most Holy Name of Jesus in Oakland, California. A frequent guest and host on EWTN, he is the author of Light of the Nations, which looks at the relevance of the documents of Vatican II to the Church today.

Tue, 11 Oct 2022 23:04:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : City Council rejects purchasing property on northside for affordable housing

In a close vote on Thursday night, La Crosse City Council decided against the purchase of a commercial property to convert into affordable housing units.

The property is located on the northside of La Crosse on Monitor Street and would have been purchased with funds allocated for housing from the American Rescue Plan Act (ARPA). The plan was to add 30 affordable housing units — meaning residents wouldn’t pay more than 30% of their income for rent.

“I think we have a critical need for all types of housing in the city, affordable housing of any sort,” said council member Jennifer Trost, who voted in favor of the purchase on Thursday night as well as in three other committee meetings.

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Seven members voted against the purchase of the property, and six members voted in favor of the purchase. Those who voted against were Andrea Richmond (District 1), Scott Neumeister (District 2), Larry Sleznikow (District 4), Jenasea Hameister (District 5), Chris Kahlow (District 6), Chris Woodard (District 9) and Mark Neumann (District 13).

“The reason I voted against the purchase of the property was number one, the price tag and number two, I don’t think we should be extinguishing all of our ARPA funds right away,” Woodard said. “We have until 2026 to use them up. Who knows what is going to come down the road for the city of La Crosse?”

Woodard said he would support a developer purchasing the Monitor Street property for apartments, but was not comfortable with the city buying it.

The plan was for the city to purchase the property and prepare the land for a developer. The only cost the city would have incurred for the project was the purchase of the property.

“It’s the government coming in and promoting housing in a way that the free market doesn’t always,” Trost said. “There are all kinds of examples of this kind of process. So I see it as one more in a long line of projects like this.”

Many housing projects the city has undertaken have occurred this way. Current projects that have followed this pattern include the River Point District project and the housing project on Fourth and Jackson Street, in Woodard’s district.

“I think that if we were to bring any other [housing] project on at the same time, we might be shooting ourselves in the foot,” Woodard said.

City staff regularly look for properties in La Crosse that the city could purchase in order to carry out one of the missions of the council to provide more housing.

“If this project didn’t meet [council members] criteria, what sorts of projects would,” Trost said. “I think council members who were uncomfortable with this could help city staff be more directed.”

The purchase price for the property is listed at $2,295,000.

The property at 811 Monitor St. is currently zoned for the Industrial Lighting District. Earlier in the meeting the council voted to rezone the property to the Multiple Dwellings District to be suitable for housing. However, the rezoning was conditional to the purchase of the property.

Fri, 14 Oct 2022 06:08:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Common Council to get input on grant app

The Oneonta Common Council will host two public hearings during its meeting Tuesday, Oct. 4.

The council will hear from residents about the plan to apply for a $12 million grant through the Restore NY Communities Initiative Round 6 Municipal Grant Program for the demolition and reconstruction of the property at 27 Market Street.

The demolition of the building and the new building are estimated to cost $16 million. The grant program requires a local match, which is $4 million, the resolution said.

The second public hearing relates to a change in Common Council meetings, which would allow a member of council to attend the meeting via videoconference “under extraordinary circumstances.” The law is in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, and would allow council members who has a “disability, illness, caregiving responsibilities, or any other significant or unexpected factor or event which precludes the member’s physical attendance at such meeting” to attend via videoconference, the resolution said.

Earlier this year, the state legislature passed an amendment to Section 103 of the Open Meetings Law that permits public bodies to let their representatives attend meetings by videoconferencing if they pass a resolution doing so.

In addition to the two public hearings, the council will discuss a resolution to change the rules pertaining to off-campus housing for fraternities, sororities and other associations. Council members discussed the resolution during its Sept. 20, meeting and decided it needed further discussion during their next meeting.

“The proposed revision to section 300-34 ‘Fraternity, sorority and membership association houses’ is intended to update and clarify the language to ensure the permitting process satisfies the legislative intent,” city Administrator Greg Mattice said in an email to The Daily Star.

Code Enforcement Officer Stephen Yerly said during the Sept. 20, meeting, “We want to allow the council to be representative of communities that are saturated with fraternity and sorority housing as all members represent a different ward.”

The council will also vote on applying for a $300,000 grant from the state Department of Environmental Conservation to install electric vehicle charging stations at the parking garage, the agenda said.

According to the agenda, the council will also discuss the lower Wilber Park basketball court.

Tue, 04 Oct 2022 02:02:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Council deletes proposed pet ordinance from agenda

SIOUX CITY -- The Sioux City Council unanimously voted Monday to delete from its agenda the second studying of an ordinance that would have treated other domestic animals the same as dogs and cats. 

"Public input has been very negative on this," Assistant City Attorney Steven Postolka told the council, before recommending the item be deleted. 

If it had been approved, the ordinance would have expand the definition of "domestic animals" to any species that "normally is bred, raised, and is accustomed to live in or about human habitation." The list of domesticated animals would have included, but not been limited to, dogs, cats, snakes, lizards, rodents, rabbits, ferrets, and birds. 

The city currently allows no more than three dogs or cats, with a limit on no more than two of the same species. For example, residents can own two dogs and one cat or two cats and one dog.

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"We do have tools in terms of if keeping pets is a danger to public health. Obviously, we have our inspections ordinances, red tag ordinances, things of that nature," Postolka told the council. "If we have a situation, as occurred previously, where there's a large number of snakes at a residential complex and they're being bred for profit, zoning laws would come into play there, too."

During its Oct. 3 meeting, the council voted in a split decision on first consideration, in favor of the ordinance. The initial studying of the ordinance passed 3 to 2, with Matthew O'Kane and Alex Watters casting "no" votes. Three readings are required before any ordinance can pass.

The new household limits on pets were proposed after 58 snakes were removed from a townhouse at 4624 Harrison St. on July 11. Animal control officers took them after one of the 50 ball pythons escaped from an enclosure in Parker Moos' home and the owner of the adjoining townhouse found it in her garage and called police. Ball pythons are among the species classified under city code as dangerous animals, and are not permitted within city limits.

On July 26, authorities returned 50 ball pythons to Moos, who found a temporary home for them at a rural residence near Lawton, Iowa. He previously told The Journal he still has three king snakes and about a dozen corn snakes at his townhouse. Such non-venomous snakes are both permitted under city code.

The Council, by voting in favor of its consent agenda, approved a subordination agreement, which will allow a Georgia-based developer to obtain the necessary financing needed to transform the former Sioux City Hotel & Conference Center into an upscale downtown senior living facility.  

Chris Myres, economic development specialist for the city, previously told The Journal that there is an old development agreement on the property and that Heritage Bank won't provide Amera SL of Sioux City financing for the project unless the subordination agreement is approved. 

According to city documents, on Sept. 21, 2015, the city council entered into a development agreement with Star Hospitality, LLC, the former owner of the property. The agreement conveyed the city-owned former escalator atrium space to Star Hospitality and required that they invest $160,000 to Improve the space and maintain it as a functional portion of the hotel. 

"Only very minor renovations were made to the atrium space prior to the hotel property's sale to Amera SL of Sioux City, LLC. Due to lack of maintenance, the atrium space is now in a state of extreme disrepair," the documents stated.

Tue, 11 Oct 2022 05:36:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Lynchburg business owner seeks at-large seat on city council

Larry Taylor has had one message throughout the Lynchburg City Council campaign season: Bring the local government back to the people.

“I want to be [on council] to look the people in the eyes and say, ‘Talk to me, I’m here for you,’” Taylor, a local business owner and career carpenter, said in a exact interview.

This year is the third time Taylor has pursued a seat on council, having run both times prior to represent Ward II. Taylor was defeated by Ceasor Johnson in 2012 and by current Ward II Councilman Sterling Wilder in 2020.

“It’s the love of people, you know. Even in 2012 and 2020, it’s the same story. They say ‘Larry, who is serving us downtown?’ My desire is to serve the people and bring the government back to the people. The Constitution says ‘we the people,’ not ‘they’re the people.’”

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Council is made up of seven members, four of whom represent the city’s four wards and three of whom are chosen at large. This year, the three at-large seats will be on the ballot, with the three highest vote-getters earning four-year terms.

Taylor joins other new candidates Patrick Earl, Marty Misjuns, Stephanie Reed and Walter Virgil Jr., as well as incumbents Treney Tweedy and Beau Wright on the ballot, rounding out all of the candidates for this November’s election.

Taylor, along with Misjuns and Reed, have been endorsed by the Lynchburg Republican City Committee.

A 34-year resident of the city, Taylor operates his own construction company, Larry Taylor Restoration. He said he still can remember coming to the city for the first time looking to build something for himself.

“I was lost. I had lost a job, but I had tools left and a 10-speed bicycle. I would ride to the job sites on my bicycle with my tool belt on,” Taylor said.

Now, Taylor said, he wants to supply back to the city that gave him a place to grow.

Taylor’s main priority is public safety, citing exact criminal activity in Lynchburg as proof that current leadership isn’t working.

“We’ve had quite a few robberies in the last few weeks, stabbings, open-air shooting. Is crime down? It doesn’t sound like crime is down to me,” Taylor said. “We need to be able to prosecute our criminals, not just say, ‘Here’s a slap on the wrist and go home.’ They need to be straightened up or they’re going to jail.”

In exact campaign events, Taylor has said the city needs to make criminals “uncomfortable,” especially in neighborhoods like his own, White Rock Hill, which he has called “crime-ridden.”

In addition to what he has called “proactive policing,” Taylor has advocated better community relations when it comes to public safety, saying “it starts in the home” in regards to building a community that follows the law.

Additionally, Taylor believes the same approach will work with the school system, saying, “Discipline starts at home. We need to teach our parents ... that you do not allow your kids to go to school and disrupt classrooms.

“Our teachers get paid, but I don’t think they get paid enough to be subject to children in that way.”

During town halls and in a exact interview, Taylor said he would completely support elected school boards in Lynchburg.

“Friendship is fine, but friendship is not always right,” Taylor said about the current appointment process for the Lynchburg City School Board. “We’ve got to supply that decision back to the people.”

Taylor also is focused on economic development. His neighborhood is home to KDC/One, which announced in June it will be closing its Lynchburg facility at the end of 2023.

“We’re losing KDC,” Taylor said. “We need to have a plan in place right now that when that place closes, we have another business ready to come into that neighborhood.”

In a prior town hall, Taylor said he would “take the lead” on finding businesses that would be interested in opening up shop in the neighborhood, if he is elected.

The White Rock Hill neighborhood is special to Taylor, beyond the fact that he’s a resident.

Just a couple of years ago, Taylor said, he took a plot of land where a derelict house sat in that neighborhood and went through the demolition process.

On that land now sits a community playground used by many residents in the neighborhood. And soon, Taylor said he has plans to expand the park into an adjacent lot that currently has a derelict house.

That’s the mentality he said he wants to bring to city council.

“I’m a doer,” Taylor said. “... Let’s get this done for the people.”

Fri, 14 Oct 2022 03:09:00 -0500 Bryson Gordon en text/html Killexams : BAMBERG COUNTY COUNCIL: Goodwill Industries wants to partner with county

BAMBERG – Bamberg County Council heard from a Goodwill Industries representative on how the nonprofit could provide job training, employment placement services and other community-based programs in the county.

Monique McDaniels, vice president of community engagement for Goodwill Industries of Upstate/Midlands South Carolina, on Oct. 3 shared ways the organization could service and partner with the county.

“This county is particularly covered. We split some of it, along with our Palmetto Goodwill partner, which is the Charleston-Pee Dee area,” McDaniels said.

“Goodwill Industries takes gently donated items that we’re so gracious that the community provides to us. We resell them in our retail stores and our online platform. We take those funds and we provide job services in the community,” she said.

She continued, “We support veterans, we support seniors, we support young people, those that are re-entering the community from being incarcerated. We spend over 90 cents of every dollar back into the community of putting folks back to work. So we’re just really excited about that.”

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“Goodwill Industries is independently owned by 155 different presidents and CEOs throughout the country. ... We want to service our communities and meet them where they are and their need,” McDaniels said, before explaining the types of services Goodwill could provide locally.

“A lot of our programs stem around: How do we get people trained? How do we get them upskilled? How do we help them become independent where they are? Some of that may be entrepreneurship.

“Some of that may just be getting them new certifications, helping them go back to school. We’ll also help them get tech funding and also provide them with equipment if they just need that,” she said.

She continued, “Anything related to job services — how we get you back to work, how we can supply you wrap around services — we have wonderful grant opportunities that allow us to also provide transportation, technology, Wi-Fi hotspots. So we have a lot of plethora of services that we can provide.”

She informed Councilman Larry Haynes that Goodwill had suspended its pickup services for donated items because of the coronavirus pandemic.

“We have not restarted them. You would have to bring it to us unfortunately, but we appreciate your donation and supporting our mission,” McDaniels said, noting that the closest donation center and retail store is in Orangeburg.

While Councilman Evert Comer Jr. said the county does not currently have any available space in which Goodwill could set up, McDaniels said other services could be offered remotely.

“We don’t have a donation center or a retail store here, but it doesn’t mean that we can’t provide services. ... We can also co-locate somewhere if y’all have space. We’ve done that within schools, in youth centers. ... We run our programs, of course, like anyone else, where they are digital. They can be online, they can be virtual. So we can make it work for anyone that needs them,” she said.

McDaniels continued, “We teach digital skills. We help get apprenticeships for young people. Our seniors, we have trained them in getting back to work. So a lot of space just needs to be administrative, but we’re really more so looking for community partnerships.”

Also during the meeting, County Treasurer Alice Johnson gave the August financial report, stating the county had $605,689.38 in income and expenditures of $740,456.88, leaving a negative balance of $134,767.50.

When the negative bank balance at the end of August ($864,208.28) was added, the county’s regular account stood at a negative $998,975.78

Councilman Dr. Jonathan Goodman II questioned the large deficit and suggested “some type of moratorium on spending.”

While Johnson said it was important for the county to “watch what we spend and when we spend it,” County Controller Gina Smith and Preston noted that Johnson just reports on one of the county’s bank accounts.

Smith said the county is not short on cash because other bank accounts have money in them, including $822,101 in its property-tax-rollback account and $634,996 and $487,260 in its respective fire service and solid waste accounts, as of the end of August.

County Finance Director T.M. Thomas reported the general fund had year-to-date revenues as of the end of August of $983,552, with expenses coming in at $1,341,534, for a negative general fund balance of $357,982.

He said the county departments continue to operate within their budgets and that the deficit will be reduced with the help of forthcoming property taxes.

“Unfortunately on the revenue side, these are slow months for us. ... Hopefully when taxes get out, we can get that number to catch up with the expenditure side,” Thomas said.

Smith also reported that the county had already started its yearend financial statement audit ending June 30, 2022.

“I am preparing the general ledger, or the books for the audit. My goal is to turn the books and the general ledger over to the auditors on Oct. 17. ... The law and the comptroller general of the state is requiring us now to turn the audit in by Dec. 31,” Smith said, or face withholding of funds.

“That will be a very negative consequence. We don’t want that to happen. So that’s what I’m working toward. That’s my main order of business these days,” she said.

In other business

  • Council heard from County Coroner Wallace Hicks Jr., stating that the county had 125 deaths as of Jan. 1. He said the county had also performed 20 autopsies already this year, with 10 performed from July through September.

“So right now we’re probably going to go over on the ($25,000 budget for) autopsies this year. It’s probably going to be a couple thousand over because we still got nine more months to go, and a lot can happen in nine months. We hope not,” Hicks said, noting that his staff includes three deputy coroners and an administrative staff person, who he said also knows the job.

Comer asked, “Other than needing more money, is there anything else you need from us?”

“No, no. Just support me in whatever I need some funding for,” Hicks said, noting that he is thankful for the new transport van, office space and morgue the county has provided.

    Council heard from SouthernCarolina Project Manager Brian Warner, stating the purchase of the county’s Wolfe industrial site is complete at no cost to the county.

“We also are set to start with due diligence on that property, which we’re using grant funding for. This is going to make it a whole lot more marketable,” he said.

Warner also reported that the county’s U.S. Highway 301 sewer expansion is complete.

“The Bamberg Board of Public Works took care of that and ... was able to also help with some of the storm water issue that one existing industry was having,” he said.

He said there have also been two site visits in the last month to the spec building located at the county’s CrossRhodes Industrial Park.

Contact the writer: or 803-533-5534. Follow “Good News with Gleaton” on Twitter at @DionneTandD

Fri, 14 Oct 2022 12:14:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : LA Council faces uncertainty amid furor over racist remarks

LOS ANGELES (AP) — Where does the Los Angeles City Council go from here?

Three of its members – including the former Council president – are facing calls from President Joe Biden to resign after a recording surfaced of them participating in a closed-door meeting in which racist language was used to mock colleagues while they schemed to protect Latino political strength in Council districts.

Three current or former Council members have been indicted or pleaded guilty to corruption charges, and it’s possible resignations in coming days could create new vacancies.

The current mayor, Democrat Eric Garcetti, was named last year to become U.S. ambassador to India but the nomination appears stalled in the Senate because of sexual harassment allegations against one of his former top aides. Elections next month will bring a new mayor and several Council members.

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In the short term, it's a looming question if the Council can assemble the required 10 members — out of 15 total — to conduct business on Wednesday, when coincidentally Biden will be in town.

“I have never seen anything like this,” said Raphael Sonenshein, executive director of the Pat Brown Institute for Public Affairs at California State University, Los Angeles.

“That’s the real challenge now, to kind of get to where they are going to conduct business on a regular basis,” Sonenshein said. “This chaotic situation is going to be very visible ... both here and nationally.”

The Council will attempt to reconvene Wednesday, possibly to censure the three members cited by Biden. A Tuesday meeting was nearly derailed when a raucous crowd of protesters packed the chamber, calling for the resignation of those involved in the meeting — former City Council President Nury Martinez, who is taking a leave of absence, and Councilmen Kevin de Leon and Gil Cedillo, all Democrats.

The Council cannot expel the members — it can only suspend a member when criminal charges are pending. A censure does not result in suspension or removal from office.

The uproar was triggered by a leaked recording of crude, racist comments from a nearly year-old meeting, which also provided an unvarnished look into City Hall’s racial rivalries. Those involved in the meeting were all Latinos.

Martinez said in the recorded conversation that white Councilmember Mike Bonin handled his young Black son as if he were an “accessory” and said of his son “Parece changuito,” or “he’s like a monkey,” the Los Angeles Times reported Sunday. She also referred to Bonin as a “little bitch.”

At another point on the hourlong recording, Martinez, the first Latina appointed president of the City Council, called indigenous immigrants from the Mexican state of Oaxaca “tan feos,” or “so ugly.”

The discussion — which also included a powerful Latino labor leader, who has since resigned — centered on protecting Latino political power during the redrawing of council district boundaries, known as redistricting. The once-a-decade process can pit one group against another to gain political advantage in future elections.

At the ornate Council chamber, an overflow crowd of protesters delayed the start of Tuesday's meeting as they angrily shouted for de Leon and Cedillo to leave the room. Police officers scurried at the edge of the crowd.

De Leon sat impassively at his seat, his eyes cast downward, as protesters called on him by name to exit the chamber. Others on the 15-member Council urged the crowd to settle down and allow the meeting to begin.

Cedillo and de Leon left their seats early, leaving in doubt if they will appear Wednesday.

Martinez stepped down from the leadership job and apologized Monday, saying she was ashamed of her racially offensive language in the year-old recording. However, she did not resign her council seat. She announced Tuesday that “I need to take a leave of absence and take some time to have an honest and heartfelt conversation with my family, my constituents, and community leaders.”

She did not appear at the Tuesday meeting.

In emotional remarks at the meeting, Bonin said he was deeply wounded by the taped discussion. He lamented the harm to his young son and the fact that the city was in international headlines spotlighting the racist language. “I’m sickened by it,” he said, calling again for his colleagues' resignations.

“Los Angeles is going to heal,” he said at one point. “I want to lead with love.”

Black and Latino constituents often build alliances in politics. But tensions and rivalries among groups separated by race, geography, partisanship or religion have a long history in Los Angeles and, indeed, the country. The friction can cross into housing, education and jobs — even prisons — as well as the spoils of political power.

The California Legislative Black Caucus said the recording “reveals an appalling effort to decentralize Black voices during the critical redistricting process.”

In one of the most diverse cities in the nation, a long line of public speakers at the meeting said the disclosure of the secretly taped meeting brought with it echoes of the Jim Crow era, and was a stark example of “anti-Blackness.”

There were calls for investigations, and reforming redistricting policy.

Many of the critics also were Latino, who spoke of being betrayed by their own leaders.

Candido Marez, 70, a retired business owner, said he wasn't surprised by Martinez's language, who is known for being blunt and outspoken.

“Her words blew up this city. It is disgraceful," he said. “She must resign."

The Los Angeles Times reported that the recording was posted on Reddit by a now-suspended user. It is unclear who recorded the audio, who uploaded it to Reddit and whether anyone else was present.

Biden press secretary Karine Jean-Pierre said Tuesday that the president wanted Martinez, de Leon and Cedillo to resign.

“The language that was used and tolerated during that conversation was unacceptable, and it was appalling. They should all step down,” Jean-Pierre said.

Other calls for the councilmembers to resign have come from across the Democratic establishment, including from U.S. Sen. Alex Padilla, Garcetti, mayoral candidates Karen Bass and Rick Caruso and members of Council.

Democratic Gov. Gavin Newsom has stopped short of doing so, denouncing the racist language and saying he was “encouraged that those involved have apologized and begun to take responsibility for their actions.” Democratic state Sen. Steven Bradford, who represents parts of Los Angeles County, said Newsom should call for the resignation of the three councilmembers.

“Every ethnic caucus in the Legislature has called for the resignations, so I would hope that the governor would ... ask for the resignation as well,” Bradford said.

Councilmember Mitch O’Farrell, serving as acting president of the Council, said the city cannot heal if the three remain in office. He called it a “clear abuse of power” that was “profoundly unacceptable” of elected officials.

“Public opinion has rendered a verdict and the verdict is they all must resign,” he said.

Associated Press writers John Antczak and Amancai Biraben in Los Angeles and Sophie Austin in Sacramento contributed to this report.

Copyright 2022 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without permission.

Tue, 11 Oct 2022 16:44:00 -0500 en text/html
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